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The Shell Bitumen Handbook

Fifth Edition

The authors

The authors Dr John Read John began his career working for a consultant testing house before

Dr John Read

John began his career working for a consultant testing house before moving on to Lafarge Aggregates. After a period of time running asphalt plants on mobile contracts he began studying for his PhD at the University of Nottingham and after graduating he was appointed as a full time academic member of staff. In 1997 John became the Technical Manager for Croda Bitumen where he was responsible for managing both the QC and R&D laboratories and in 1998 John became the Tech- nical Development Engineer for Shell Bitumen where he was responsible for the development and commercialisation of new innovative products. He was also involved in the day-to-day support of customers. John is currently the Cluster Technology Manager for Shell Bitumen with responsibil- ity for supplying technical services within the UK and Ireland. John sits on many asphalt and bitumen related committees and has published over 50 technical papers, publications and articles.

over 50 technical papers, publications and articles. Mr David Whiteoak David has worked in the road

Mr David Whiteoak

David has worked in the road construction industry for over 30 years. He began his career with Lothian Regional Council working in a wide variety of areas, from traffic management to site supervision. In 1977 he left Lothian Region to study Civil Engineering at Heriot-Watt University graduating with a BSc Honours Degree in 1980. He joined Shell in 1980 working in the Bitumen Group at Thornton Research Centre where he investigated various aspects of the performance of bitumen and asphalt, carrying out technical service activity for customers and the develop- ment of new products including Cariphalte DM. In 1986 he joined the technical department of Shell Bitumen UK and it was during this time that David wrote the 4th edition of the Shell Bitumen Handbook. Following the publication of the handbook in 1990 David had a three-year assignment in the Elastomers group of Shell International Chemical Company before returning to Shell Bitumen as the Technical Manager in 1994. David is currently the New Technology Manager for Shell Bitumen responsible for a number of activities including the execution of technical service and R & D activity carried out at the Pavement Research Building. This is a purpose-built laboratory established in conjunction with the University of Nottingham and opened September 2001.

The Shell Bitumen Handbook Fifth Edition

The Shell Bitumen Handbook

Fifth Edition

The Shell Bitumen Handbook Fifth Edition

Published for Shell Bitumen by

Published for Shell Bitumen by Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD www.thomastelford.com Distributors

Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD www.thomastelford.com

Distributors for Thomas Telford books are USA: ASCE Press, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191-4400 Japan: Maruzen Co. Ltd, Book Department, 3–10 Nihonbashi 2-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103 Australia: DA Books and Journals, 648 Whitehorse Road, Mitcham 3132, Victoria

This title has been previously published as Mexphalte Handbook, First Edition, 1949 Mexphalte Handbook, Second Edition, Jarman A.W. (ed), Shell-Mex and B.P. Ltd, London, 1955 Mexphalte Handbook, Third Edition, 1963 The Shell Bitumen Handbook, Fourth Edition, Whiteoak, D., Shell Bitumen UK, Chertsey, 1990

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 0 7277 3220 X

# Shell UK Oil Products Limited, 2003

All rights, including translation, reserved. Except as permitted by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishing Director, Thomas Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD.

This book is published on the understanding that the authors are solely responsible for the state- ments made and opinions expressed in it and that its publication does not necessarily imply that such statements and/or opinions are or reflect the views or opinions of the publishers. While every effort has been made to ensure that the statements made and the opinions expressed in this publication provide a safe and accurate guide, no liability or responsibility can be accepted in this respect by the authors or publishers.

Typeset by Academic þ Technical Typesetting Printed and bound in Great Britain by The University Press, Cambridge

Foreword

In editing the text of this book, I have had considerable assistance from many people. They are listed in the acknowledgements. However, a number of people warrant special mention. David Rockliff of Rock40C and Ian Walsh of Babtie were pestered by me on a number of occasions and always responded with expertise, courtesy and efficiency and I am very grateful to these two giants of the industry. However, there are two other gentleman without whom this enterprise would never have been completed. The first is Dr John Read who never failed to help me through either his own encyclopaedic knowledge or his vast network of contacts on the many occasions when I needed answers or text or whatever. The other is the main reason why this book came into being, Dave Whiteoak. Dave is known in our industry as the font of knowledge on all subjects associated with bitumen. In addition, all who have met him consider him to be the nicest guy you could wish to meet. He produced the 1990 edition and without him this new book and the opportunity which it affords all of us to enhance our knowledge of asphalt technology would simply not exist. Whilst editing this text, I was constantly reminded of the enormous contribution which has been made by Shell Bitumen to asphalt tech- nology. Indeed, this book demonstrates that continued commitment. This new edition reflects many of the very significant advances which have taken place in the period since the last edition was published. I am confident that you will feel that this is a worthy addition to your asphalt book shelf.

Dr Robert N Hunter Technical Editor November 2003

The Shell Bitumen Handbook

Acknowledgements

John and David would personally like to acknowledge all of the help given to them in writing this book by their colleagues in the Shell European Bitumen Technical Team:

Mr Theo Terlouw Dr Martin Vodenhof Mr Pierre-Jean Cerino

Mr Eivind Olav Andersen Mr Koen Steernberg Mr Mike Southern

The authors and editor also wish to gratefully acknowledge the contributions made by the following people:

˚

Mr Fredrik A kesson Mr John Atkins Mr John Baxter of the Road Surface Dressing Association Mr Andy Broomfield

Dynapac International High Comp Centre, Sweden Mr Jack Edgar of Hunter & Edgar Mr Terry Fabb Mr Jeff Farrington Mr Derek Fordyce Dr Mike Gibb Mr Ray Guthrie Dr Tony Harrison of the Refined Bitumen Association Mr Bryan Hayton Ms Delia Harverson Mr Alistair Jack Mr Colin Loveday of Tarmac Mr John Moore of Gencor International Ltd Dr Cliff Nicholls of TRL Ltd

Dr Mike Nunn Mr Tony Pakenham Mr Mike Phillips Mr John Richardson of Colas Limited Mr David Rockliff of Rock40C Mr Robert Thomas of the Institution of Civil Engineers Library Dr Todd Schole Mr Martin Schouten Mr Andrew Scorer of Miles Macadam Ltd Mr Andy Self Mr Dave Strickland Mr Nick Toy Mr Colin Underwood Mr Willem Vonk Mr Ian Walsh of Babtie Mr Maurice White of the Quarry Products Association Professor Alan Woodside Dr David Woodward

Contents

Chapter 1

Introduction

1

1.1 Preamble

1

1.2 The earliest uses of bituminous binders

1

1.3 The growth of bitumen consumption in Europe

2

1.4 Sources of binder

3

Chapter 2

Manufacture, storage, handling and environmental aspects of bitumens

11

2.1 The manufacture of bitumen

11

2.2 Delivery, storage and handling temperatures of bitumens

16

2.3 Health, safety and environmental aspects of bitumens

20

Chapter 3

Constitution, structure and rheology of bitumens

29

3.1 Bitumen constitution

29

3.2 Bitumen structure

35

3.3 The relationship between constitution and rheology

37

3.4 The relationship between broad chemical composition and physical properties

38

Chapter 4

Specifications and quality of bitumens

43

4.1 Penetration grade bitumens

43

4.2 Oxidised bitumens

45

4.3 Hard bitumens

46

4.4 Cutback bitumens

46

4.5 Bitumen quality

47

4.6 The CEN bitumen specifications

54

4.7 The SHRP/SUPERPAVE bitumen specification

54

The Shell Bitumen Handbook

Chapter 5

Polymer modified and special bitumens

61

5.1 The role of bitumen modifiers in asphalt

62

5.2 The modification of bitumen

64

5.3 Multigrade bitumens

81

5.4 Pigmentable binders

84

5.5 Fuel-resisting binders

86

5.6 Thermosetting binders

87

5.7 Cost–performance relationships for modified binders

89

Chapter 6

Bitumen emulsions

91

6.1 Emulsifiers

92

6.2 The manufacture of bitumen emulsions

96

6.3 Properties of bitumen emulsions

97

6.4 Classification and specification of bitumen emulsions

106

6.5 Modification of bitumen emulsion properties

107

6.6 Uses of bitumen emulsions

111

6.7 Bibliography

117

Chapter 7

Mechanical testing and properties of bitumens

119

7.1 Standard specification tests for bitumens

119

7.2 The Fraass breaking point test

124

7.3 Viscosity

125

7.4 The bitumen test data chart

129

7.5 Temperature susceptibility – penetration index (PI)

136

7.6 Engineering properties of bitumen

137

7.7 Other bitumen tests

152

Chapter 8

Durability of bitumens

157

8.1 Bitumen hardening

157

8.2 Hardening of bitumen during storage, mixing and in service

159

8.3 Bitumen ageing tests

168

Chapter 9

Adhesion of bitumens

171

9.1 The principal factors affecting bitumen/aggregate adhesion

171

9.2 The main disbonding mechanisms

174

9.3 Methods of measuring and assessing adhesion

177

9.4 Improving bitumen/aggregate adhesion

185

Chapter 10

Influence of bitumen properties on the performance of asphalts

189

10.1 The influence of bitumen properties during construction

191

10.2 The influence of bitumen properties on the performance of asphalts in service

195

Chapter 11

Aggregates in asphalts

219

11.1 Origins and types of rock

219

11.2 Aggregate extraction

222

11.3 The European aggregate Standard

222

Chapter 12

Types and applications of different asphalts

231

12.1 Coated macadams

234

12.2 Hot rolled asphalt

238

12.3 Thin surfacings

239

12.4 Choice of asphalts on major carriageways

242

Chapter 13

Specification, composition and design of asphalts 245

13.1 Recipe specifications for bases and binder courses

246

13.2 Recipe specifications for surface courses

250

13.3 Design of bases and binder courses

255

13.4 Design of surface courses

259

13.5 Guidance on the selection of mixtures

265

Chapter 14

Asphalt production plants

267

14.1 Types of mixing plant

268

14.2 The addition of recycled asphalt pavement

275

14.3 Additive systems

276

14.4 Production control testing of asphalts

276

Chapter 15

Transport, laying and compaction of asphalts

279

15.1 Transportation

279

15.2 Use of tack coats

279

15.3 Pavers

280

15.4 Additional screed systems

285

15.5 Paving operations

286

15.6 Compaction

292

15.7 Specification and field control

302

Chapter 16

Testing of asphalts

305

16.1

Fundamental tests

307

The Shell Bitumen Handbook

 

16.2 Simulative tests

322

16.3 Empirical tests

329

16.4 Determination of recovered bitumen properties

332

Chapter 17

Properties of asphalts

337

17.1 Stiffness of asphalts

337

17.2 Permanent deformation of asphalts

340

17.3 Fatigue characteristics of asphalts

344

Chapter 18

Design of flexible pavements

351

18.1 The importance of stiffness

353

18.2 The structural elements of a flexible pavement

353

18.3 Factors involved in pavement design

356

18.4 Empirical and semi-empirical pavement design

358

18.5 Analytical pavement design using the Shell Pavement Design Method

366

Chapter 19

Surface dressing and other specialist treatments

371

19.1 Surface dressing

371

19.2 Slurry surfacings/microsurfacings

403

19.3 High-friction surfaces

406

19.4 Foamed bitumen

407

19.5 Application of a coloured surface treatment

411

19.6 Recycling asphalts

413

19.7 Grouted macadams

415

Chapter 20

Other important uses of bitumens and asphalts

419

20.1 Airfield pavements

419

20.2 Railway applications

424

20.3 Bridges

426

20.4 Recreational areas

427

20.5 Motor racing tracks

428

20.6 Vehicle testing circuits

428

20.7 Hydraulic applications

429

20.8 Coloured surfacings

430

20.9 Kerbs

432

Appendix 1 Physical constants of bitumens

433

A1.1 Specific gravity

433

A1.2 Coefficient of cubical expansion

433

A1.3 Electrical properties

433

A1.4 Thermal properties

436

Appendix 2

Conversion factors for viscosities

437

Appendix 3

Blending charts and formulae

438

Appendix 4 Calculation of bitumen film thickness in an asphalt

442

Index

445

The Shell Bitumen Handbook

The Shell Bitumen Handbook Shell Bitumen’s polymer modified plant at Stanlow, Cheshire, UK xii

Shell Bitumen’s polymer modified plant at Stanlow, Cheshire, UK