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UNION SQUARE

THROUGH THE REDEVELOPMENT OF CHURCH STREET SOUTH

REKNITTING NEW HAVENS URBAN FABRIC

JONATHAN HOPKINS

Cover Illustrations Credits: Jonathan Hopkins. View down Columbus Avenue from South Orange Street Autodesk Form Z 7 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Cass Gilbert. Sketch for an Avenue 120 feet wide through a part of Water Street to the proposed Public Square Report of the New Haven CIvic Improvement Commission (The Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Company; 1910) p. 57 Don Metz. Church Street South Housing Site Plan New Architecture in New Haven (The MIT Press; 1973) p. 23 Jonathan Hopkins. Union Square Roof Plan in Contect Autocad 2012 (Autodesk Corporation, 2012)

Acknowledgements
I would like to thank my Graduate Thesis Research Seminar professor, Edgar Adams, for guiding me during the planning process for this project. His instruction over the years has been invaluable in developing my understanding of architecture. I would like to thank my Graduate Thesis Design Studio professor, Julian Bonder, for helping me to develop my project during the design process and for challenging me to delve deeper into the issues I was aiming to address. I would like to thank the various scholars whose work I have relied heavily upon for research and, in some cases, substantially reproduced in this document, including Douglas Rae, Elizabeth Mills Brown, Erik Vogt, Michael Sletcher, Vincent Scully, and others. I would like to thank my parents for supporting me throughout my studies and providing me the opportunity to attend undergraduate and graduate school at Roger Williams University. I would like to thank Anstress Farwell, Henry Dynia, Kathy Fay, and Mark Abraham for helping me develop outside of school. I would also like to thank that staff at the New Haven Independent, especially Paul Bass, for providing me (perhaps unintentionally) with a forum in which to develop and test ideas.

Union Square

Reknitting New Havens Urban Fabric Through the Redevelopment of Church Street South
Masters of Architecture Thesis School of Art, Architecture, and Historic Preservation Roger Williams University

Edgar G. Adams, Jr.

Professor of Architecture Arch 641 Graduate Thesis Research Seminar


Fall 2011

Julian Bonder

Associate Professor of Architecture Arch 613 Graduate Thesis Design Studio


Spring 2012

Jonathan Hopkins | Graduate Student

Contents

Acknowledgements 04 Title Page 05 Dedication 06

Section 1 08
Introduction

Section 2 14
This is dedicated to the person who put me on the back of her bicycle and brought me to the library because that is what made this book possible.

Site Research

Section 3 62
Conceptual Framework

Section 4 92
Union Square

Notes 154
Endnotes

Illustration Credits 180 Figures Appendix 194


Schematic Design

Introduction
Architectural Manifesto

1. Personal Standpoint
The Urban Fabric

10

2. Project Statement
Union Square

12

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Fig. 1.0 Birds-eye Aerial of New Haven, 2010

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1. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n

Personal Standpoint

From the Perspective of a New Haven Child


I am from New Haven, Connecticut (Fig. 1.0). I was born at the Hospital of Saint Raphael in 1988 and I grew up 10 blocks to the north in the Beaver Hills neighborhood. Some of my earliest memories are of traveling downtown on the back of my moms bicycle to visit the New Haven Free Public Library; a trip that would sometimes end - if I was lucky - with getting a hotdog from a vendor near the New Haven Green. The trip would take us through the Edgewood, Dwight and Dixwell neighborhoods, through the central Yale campus and the civic center of the city where the sights and sounds of the city became apparent to me (Fig. 1.1). These trips allowed me to experience the cosmopolitan style [that is] rare in a town [the] size of New Haven - from the towers and spires of downtowns skyline to the storefronts and front porches of its neighborhoods.1 Not only did I experience the grand entry vestibule of the Public Library with its two curving marble staircases and the hustle and bustle of people catching buses, running to class and shopping but also people relaxing on their stoops, grabbing groceries at the convenience store and conversing on street corners, which I witnessed from the child seat of my moms bicycle. Unlike a trip by car where I would leave my house and arrive at the destination having only experienced the view of the sky from below the window sill of the car - the open air of the bicycle trip allowed me to become a part of the urban fabric of the city. This was largely enabled by the highly connective grid of streets that extends from downtown to the northwestern neighborhoods of the city. Northwestern growth from the original Nine Square grid plan of New Haven began in the antebellum period as members of the laboring class were able to find affordable and accessible housing in a series of streets between the colonial highways of Dixwell Avenue and Goffee Street.2 Later expanded during New Havens industrial rise, the Dixwell neighborhood has traditionally been a working class area separated from Downtown by the Grove Street Cemetery.3 Westward growth from central New Haven began at the tail end of the towns maritime era, but eventually crystallized as the West Village in the antebellum period.4 A satellite village to the old town center, the West Village sported a mix of industries including carriage making, which supported a range of shops, civic institutions, and a social pyramid of laborers, artisans, business owners and investors.5 The village grew incrementally along highways as a grid of cross streets slightly off axis from the Nine Square grid beginning west of Park Street.6 Fig. 1.2 Beaver Hills Neighborhood in Context, 1915 The next major expansion westward came with the subdivision of the Old Alms House property in the post-Civil War Reconstruction era, which resulted in an explosion of residential development known as the Edgewood neighborhood.7 Horse-drawn streetcars enabled upwardly mobile residents to commute from residential areas to work in centralized and increasingly congested workplaces.8 Restrictive covenants attached to the sale of properties and the orthogonal street grid design resulted in a uniform urban fabric of large owner-occupied single and two-family houses of Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles on deep, rectangular lots.9 The neighborhood has remained largely intact with the exception of the occasional corner store and the conversion of houses into multi-family apartment buildings.10 The Beaver Hills neighborhood was another subdivision that began developing at the peak of New Havens industrial age as a streetcar suburb but was eventually built out as an early automobile suburb.11 The first lots of the subdivision along Winthrop, Norton and Ellsworth Streets line short, square blocks that expanded the citys urban fabric by extending to both the Edgewood and Dixwell neighborhoods through a tightly knit grid of streets and parks (Fig. 1.2).12 Restrictive covenants and a planned grid again resulted in a largely uniform fabric of singlefamily houses with the occasional two-family house and multi-family apartment building.13 However, later development in the neighborhood occurred along elongated blocks and while still orthogonal, they were now oriented towards arterial roads with land-use becoming much more homogenous.14 While construction of a High School on the site of a former park and through street during Urban Renewal has since substantially severed Beaver Hills connection with Dixwell, the neighborhood remains an effective extension of the citys urban fabric easily enabling people like my mother to introduce me to the city at a young age with bicycle rides to Downtown through a series of diverse neighborhoods (Fig. 1.2).15 I believe that the access to a highly connective urban fabric of streets and continuous building frontages and the use of this network by my mother to expose me to the city from the open air backseat of a bicycle has benefitted my life enormously and contributed integrally to my understanding of the city that I feel privileged to call home.

The Urban Fabric:

Fig. 1.1 The New Haven Green during the summer concert series

Fig. 1.3 Philip Johnsons Kline Biology Tower on Yale Universitys Science Hill Campus as seen from the backyard of the authors childhood home in New Haven, CT

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1. 2 I n t r o d u c t i o n
Project Statement
Reknitting New Havens Urban Fabric Through the Redevelopment of Church Street South A network of tightly knit streets lined by a substantially continuous building fabric and parks like the one that connected my neighborhood to others and downtown does not exist throughout New Haven. Children in areas, which were previously integrated into the urban fabric of the city, like The Hill or Jocelyn Square, are now separated from the downtown by large highway infrastructure built during New Havens Redevelopment era (Fig. 1.4). This infrastructure serves as both a physical and a psychological barrier to city residents trying to access the wealth of goods and services that are located in New Havens center.16 For children, especially, this isolation often results in a lack of exposure to different people, diverse surroundings, and mind-expanding experiences.17 While I was able to experience the work of world-class architects like Philip Johnson from both my backyard and the site itself due to a highly navigable street network (Fig. 1.3), children in The Hill are effectively only able to view buildings like Roche-Dinkeloos Knights of Columbus Tower because the gap in the urban fabric is so severe that it becomes impractical to cross it with anything other than a crash-rated vehicle.18 In antebellum New Haven, the area to the southwest of the West Creek was developing as a satellite village of mostly working class residents and small shops.19 Originally the site of tanneries and shoe-making shops, the bed of the West Creek was filled and developed in the post-Reconstruction period as industrial growth expanded the citys footprint.20 Commercial, residential and industrial land uses quickly mixed in this area, forming a continuous urban fabric between the Downtown and The Hill across the former creek.21 By the turn of the 20th Century, the Oak Street neighborhood was largely recognized as a slum - one of several in the city. As a result, the design expertise of Cass Gilbert was retained in order to create a City Beautiful document for New Haven.22 Gilberts primary focus in the Report of the New Haven Civic Improvement Commission was in redeveloping central New Haven and the area to the southwest of downtown as an Upper Class residential, commercial and civic district connecting the New Haven Green with a new train station.23 The recommendations made in the document, however, went mostly unrealized.24 Oak Street and The Hill continued to densify and accommodate ever increasing numbers of newly arriving immigrant laborers throughout the early 20th Century.25 By the end of World War Two, the southwestern area of the city had solidified its status as one of New Havens three major slums - a designation associated with cramped living conditions, unsanitary streets, inadequate utility service and grueling factory work.26 By the 1950s, federally funded Urban Redevelopment provided an opportunity for cities to address issues in places like Oak Street.27 In The Hill, however, Urban Redevelopment instead - using the former bed of the West Creek - separated the neighborhood from central New Haven through the construction of a suppressed highway (Fig. 1.5).28 Furthermore, the working class area that developed on the southwestern bank of the West Creek was entirely demolished, creating a clean slate for new development.29 Church Street was extended southward from the New Haven Green to one of Cass Gilberts only realized projects - the New Haven Railroad Station (now Union Station).30 In the mid-1960s Charles Moore, chairman at Yale at the time, was brought on to design a residential community between Church Street South and the train station.31 Moores design attempts to create a connection between the station and New Haven Green through a pedestrian circulation spine leading from the entrance of Union Station to the Church Street bridge over the Oak Street Connector.32 Unfortunately, the roadways surrounding the housing development have proven too difficult a barrier to overcome and socio-economic conditions have attracted illegal activity to the complex and divestment has ensued.33 Opportunities for future development, however, are abundant in the area, which is close to Yale-Haven Hospital, the Central Business District and major regional transportation facilities.34 Since Urban Renewal, the trend in development oriented around this market demand has resulted in the continued destruction of areas of The Hill and the erosion of the citys urban fabric. Fortunately, New Haven has an incredible tradition of urban design that goes back to its colonial founding as, arguably, the first planned town in the western hemisphere.35 Reviving the strong urban planning tradition of New Haven would result in future growth that contributes to the citys urban fabric and more equitably balances the needs of city residents with the desires of single-occupancy vehicle commuters.36 The Union Square proposal attempts to connect Union Station with the New Haven Green through the redevelopment of Church Street South; a task that neither Cass Gilbert nor Charles Moore - two of Americas greatest 20th Century architects - were able to accomplish.37 A modest proposal, in other words. What gives the project hope this time around is the combination of the desire of the private market, public sector and area residents to redevelop the area, in addition to the existence of funding mechanisms that will allow for an appropriate and fully realized redevelopment to be achieved. Gilbert had the support of business leaders, but did not have the public, political, nor the legal support needed to achieve his goals in 1910; and while Moore had the public and political support, he was unable to include an adequate commercial program into his project due to HUD limitations in the 1960s. Fortunately, public, political, legal and expanded HUD financing capabilities exist in unison today, which provides an adequate framework for achieving the goals of effectively connecting Union Station with the New Haven Green.38 Fig. 1.6 Synthesis of the New Haven Civic Improvement Plan of 1910 and the Pope Plan of 1919

Union Square:

Fig. 1.4 Oak Street Neighborhood Before & After Redevelopment

Fig. 1.5 The Oak Street Connector from the Air Rights Garage

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Site Resear c h
Church Street South

1. Location
Geography

16

2. Formation & Development


Geology & Topography

20

3. Site Considerations
Existing Conditions

38

Fig. 2.0 Period Newspaper Article

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2.1 Site Research


Geographic Location Northeastern US Super Region (Fig. 2.1) States/Districts: New England (Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut), New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Washington D.C. Population: 62,590,449 Racial/Ethnic Groups: White 72.4%, Hispanic 16.3%, Black 12.6%, Asian 12.6% Per Capita Income: $48,386 State of Connecticut (Fig. 2.2) Counties: Fairfield, New Haven, Middlesex, New London, Windham, Tolland, Hartford, Litchfield Population: 3,574,097 Racial/Ethnic Groups: White 82.3%, Black 11.1%, Hispanic 13.8%, Asian 4.0% Per Capita Income: $56,621 New Haven County (Fig. 2.3) Cities/Towns: Milford, Orange, West Haven, New Haven, East Haven, Branford, Guilford, Madison, North Branford, North Haven, Hamden, Woodbridge, Ansonia, Derby, Seymour, Bethany, Beacon Falls, Oxford, Southbury, Middlebury, Waterbury, Naugatuck, Prospect, Wolcott, Chesire, Wallingford, Meriden Population: 862,4771 Racial/Ethnic Groups: White 79.9%, Black 13.7%, Hispanic 15.4%, Asian 3.7% Per Capita Income: $31,7202 City of New Haven (Fig. 2.4) Population: 129,779 Area: 20.1 sq mi Coordinates: 411836N 725525W New Haven is located on the eastern seaboard of the United States in the New England portion of the Northeastern Super Region. The city is within the New York Metropolitan Region in addition to being the county seat and economic center of South Central Connecticut. New Haven is 35 miles south of Hartford, 70 miles northeast of New York City, and 120 miles southwest of Boston.3 2 | 16
Fig. 2.1 Northeastern US Super Region

Fig. 2.2 State of Connecticut

Fig. 2.3 New Haven County

Fig. 2.4 City of New Haven

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City of New Haven (Fig. 2.5) Neighborhoods: Downtown, Wooster Square, Mill River, Fair Haven, Fair Haven Heights, Quinnipiac Meadows, Annex, East Shore, East Rock, The Hill, West River, Dwight, Dixwell, Newhallville, Beaver Hills, Edgewood, West Rock, Amity, Westville Government: Mayor, 30 Ward/Member Board of Aldermen Settled: 1638 Incorporated: 1784

The Hill Neighborhood (Fig. 2.6) Census Tracts: 1402, 1403, 1404,1405, 1406 Population: 16,016 Population Density: 11,033.6 pop. per sq. mile Racial/Ethnic Groups: Hispanic: 50.8%, Black: 36.5%, White: 9.4% Per Capita Income: $16,393

Fig. 2.5 New Haven neighborhoods

Census Tract 1402: Church Street South/Long Wharf (Figs. 2.7, 8 & 9) Population: 1,518 Population Density: 1,955.7 pop. per sq. mile Racial/Ethnic Groups: Hispanic 56%, Black 26%, White 17% Vacant Housing Units: 69 out of 752 Total, a +155.6% Change Since 20004

Fig. 2.7 Church Street South Area

The Hill is a dense urban neighborhood located southwest of Downtown New Haven. The principle thoroughfares through the neighborhood are Davenport, Congress and Columbus Avenues running east-west, Legion Avenue/South Frontage Road and Grasso Boulevard running along the northern edge, and Howard and Kimberly Avenues running north-south. The Hill is separated from the Downtown, Dwight and West River neighborhoods by the Route 34 Oak Street Connector Highway Stub. The neighborhood is also now separated from the shoreline by an industrial park built on infill. The West River flows along the western edge of the Hill.

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Fig. 2.6 The Hill

Fig. 2.8 Church Street South Site

Fig. 2.9 Church Street South Area March 2012 Aerial View

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2.2 Site Research


Formation & Development Trapped between Two Rocks: New Havens Geologic Formation Prehistory Most of the land contained within what is today the City of New Haven stands just above sea level on a coastal plain, deposited as glacial fill and as the alluvia of three rivers known today as the Quinnipiac, the Mill, and the West, [which are] short-haul rivers covering a combined total of roughly two hundred square miles in drainage basins.5 The City is built on the central lowlands of the Hartford basin in the Newark (Rift Valley) Terrane (Figs. 2.10, 11 & 12). Extending out of the harbor is a great plain bounded by rivers and rock ridges.6 The topography to an early visitor would have been as follows:
To the north a ring of hills enclosed a low, broad plain, bordered on the south by the inland sea of Long Island Sound and run through with the snaking Quinnipiac River. Overlooking it all was the red mountain of East Rock, rising up and facing out on the great harbor.7 Fig. 2.11 Map of physiographic provinces and geologic terranes in Connecticut

The Quinnipiacks: New Havens Pre-colonial Inhabitation Prior to 1638


A millennia prior to the arrival by boat of European explorers to the Americas, explorers walked across the Bering Straight from eastern Siberia to Alaska and Canada, and then migrated eastward and southward.8 Later, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Quinnipiack Indians, tributaries to the powerful Mohawk and Pequot tribes to the north and east, lived along the natural harbor of present-day New Haven, where a large river and smaller estuaries flowed into the Sound (Fig. 2.13).9 At the confluence of the Mill and Quinnipiac Rivers, there was a broad fertile plain. As these rivers reached their outlets in the New Haven harbor, they formed broad yet shallow basins of fresh and salt water in brackish pools and muddy salt flats. These pools and flats provided a perfect breeding ground for many shellfish, especially oysters (Fig. 2.14).10 The first to come in pursuit of the mollusks were the native peoples. The Quinnipiac (sic.) Indians inhabited the river valley. In the spring and summer months, they set up camps on the high ground along the eastern shore and feasted on the oysters in the river basins below. In their former encampments can still be found huge piles of oyster shells remaining from their early excursions. Other Indians came from more distance inland settlements to gather the delicate oyster.11 A semi-sedentary people speaking the Quiripi dialect of the Algonquian Language, and whose name probably meant long water or river place, the Quinnipiacks were neighbors of the Mohegans and Pequots. They hunted wild animals like deer and fowl, harvested shell and scale fish, and collected roots, nuts, and fruits. They farmed the land too, supplementing their diet with corn, beans, and squash.12 European epidemics reduced their numbers, so when the English came to the region in 1638, they numbered about 150 persons, of whom 46 were fighting men (Fig. 2.15). The Quinnipiack soon exchanged their lands for a few articles and promises of protection from the Puritans against the marauding Indian tribes, namely the Mohawks. They lived on the eastern side of the harbor, on a 30-acre reservation, on what became the first Indian reservation in British North America. Their numbers were small, and by the end of the colonial period the remaining Quinnipiack, numbering a few men and women, moved northward to Farmington where they joined the Tunxis tribe.13 The Purtian settlers of New Haven were [...] perhaps not less worthy of praise than the quakers of Philadelphia for the peace and quietness which invariably existed between them and the aborigines. Relations between the two parties were generally good throughout the colonial period, but the Quinnipiack were also a friendly people whose numbers were small and who posed no real threat to the Puritan establishment.14 While the puritan settlers of New Haven may have had relatively good relations with the lands native inhabitants, this was not the case with English settlers from other colonies. During the Pequot War in 1637, a colonial militia pursued Pequot tribesmen from Mystic, Connecticut all the way to the plain of the Quinnipack, where they were massacred.15 Fig. 2.14 Oyster Shell

Fig. 2.13 Tribal territories of Southern New England tribes around 1600

Fig. 2.10 Block diagram of New Haven area showing the geologic structural relationships

Fig. 2.12 Map of modern rivers and Pleistocene outwash valley trains in New Haven

Fig. 2.15 Depiction of Quinnipiac Indians observing the arrival of settlers to New Haven

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The Nine-Square Plan: New Haven Colony Founding 1638-1665 New Haven was founded, like many New England plantations, both as a Puritan community and a mercantile enterprise. But under the leadership of two forceful men, Theophilus Eaton and the Reverend John Davenport, it carried both ideas to their extreme development: in New Haven Puritanism can be seen at its most pure, and a mercantile adventure at its most adventurous.16 Davenport and Eaton made it clear that they desired a site by the water; as a company largely composed of merchants, they required access to the shipping trade. Quinnipiack offered them unoccupied territory possessing both fertile lands and a harbor and river suitable for commerce.17 For the Puritan steeped in biblical history and driven to re-create its model, [the destruction of the Pequot enemy and the consequent discovery, by divine providence, of a fruitful land] conformed with a readily discernible pattern.18 Perceiving the events of 1637 as a divine pattern fit into the Puritans overarching self-conception. Their Grand errand was a reenactment of biblical history, an Exodus to the New World: persecuted in their homeland and exiled into the wilderness, they would be guided by the provincial hand of God toward redemption in the Promised Land. He has ordained them as latter-day incarnations of the Israelite nation, they believed, chosen as a people to restore the true Christian church. (Fig. 2.16)19 The perfect pattern for the community of Gods chosen resides in the type of the Temple.20 According to Puritan scholar John Littlefoote, who analyzed biblical descriptions determined that the quadrature formed [by] the basic geometric order of concentric squares [was] the eternal figure of the type.21 Although the Congregational polity formed the basis for every Puritan township, only in New Haven was it to be rendered as a figural type.22 As Eaton viewed the plain of the Quinnipiack, he was met with a sight that, to the discerning Puritan eye, clearly recalled a setting of biblical significant: the recurring sacred landscape where God had instituted the Temple type.23 The figure of the rock presiding over the low plain called forth the type of Gods holy mount, as it was to appear repeatedly in the Old and New Testaments. It was on the Horeb plain that Jehovah, speaking from the fiery mount of Sinai, had entered into the covenant with the Israelites and decreed the pattern of their encampment[.] This type repeated again with the Israelites final settlement in Canaan by divine ordinance they set out their four-square cities on the Jericho plain, overlooked by Mount Zion and divided by the River Jordan. So too did the sacred landscape accompany the visions of Ezekial and John[.] It seems certain that New Havens founders recognized the striking resemblance between their chosen place of settlement and this recurring scriptural landscape. (Figs. 2.17 & 19)24 They laid out a compact square, half a mile long on its side, close by the harbor and nestled between two bending creeks.25 Four intersecting streets divided the squares expanse, and four bounded its perimeter. These formed nine perfect, equal blocks, each measuring [858 feet] on a side. The settlers left open the inner central square as common and undivided land, the communal sanctuary of the congregation.26 New Havens Green [was designed] to accommodate all 144,000 souls scheduled to be raptured up per prophesies in the Book of Revelation [...] if they stood precisely shoulder to shoulder [which is] why [the] Elm Citys Green is the biggest in New England.27 Thus the nine-square plan formed the double quadrature of the Temple type, with its central sanctuary and surrounding congregation.28 Located in the center of the common and measuring fifty-feet square, [the meetinghouse - built in 1639] recreated the construction of the Israelite tabernacle in its placement, materials, and even size. Its single door faced east and so shared with the Temple of Ezekial the glory of the Lord [which] came into the house by the way of the gate, whose prospect is toward the East. (Fig. 2.18)29 Compact within the half-mile limits of its nine-square plan, the congregation of New Haven rendered visible their covenant with God and with each other, planted as a garden enclosed before the fiery rock in the wilderness.30

Abandon Shippe & A New Hope: Initial Failure & the Arrival of Yale 1665-1750 Founded as the capital of an independent colony, the town began with dreams of empire and of a fortune to be made in the beaver-skin trade. [...] Surrounding the square of the town, a starburst of radial roads ran out across the plain, straight as arrows. One went up to the mill, two went to the bridges over the West and Mill Rivers. But chiefly the radial roads gave access to outlots, dividing the plain into long radial wedges which in turn were subdivided into private fields. [...] Fields were laid in strips across the radial wedges. [...] Originally the town stood by the harbor. It was placed as close to the water as firm ground would allow and wedged into the angle of two creeks, giving maximum exposure of streets to waterways. Docks were built in the creeks. The little channel of the creeks crossed the mud flats to join the main channel far out in the harbor, and out there ships were unloaded by lighter. The creeks were Main Street. The best merchants houses were built along them, and all the daily life of the town plied up and down them in canoes and shallops. At their confluence, at the end of the 17th century, the first harborside wharf was built [...]31 In 1647, having secured a measure of stability for their own, the Colony Court broached for the first time the idea of forming a college[.] Nothing came of this initial desire, however, and eight years passed before the Court considered it again. This time Theophilus Easton, the governor, raised the prospect, prompted by changes at Harvard College in Massachesetts Bay. [I]n 1654, Harvard underwent a change in leadership that, in the eyes of New Haven, signaled a threat to the teaching of the pure faith. So they resurrected their plan for a college of their own [...] but, as with the first attempt, they failed to build upon this initial impetus. In 1660, Davenport raised the issue again [even choosing] a site [...] on the north side of the Green facing directly onto the center meetinghouse - but, once again, the colony did not follow through. In all of these attempts, New Haven seemed to lack the necessary money and resources to match its will and desire. It was a shortcoming caused, at least in part, by economic struggles it endured during its brief existence as an independent colony. Despite the settlers initial wealth, repeated setbacks in their efforts to establish a mercantile trade drained money and distracted from the collegiate campaign.32 By 1660 [...] the merchant adventurers died or left, and their poorer followers remained to face a future of farming and isolation.33 An early indicator of the hard times that would afflict the town for much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was the failure of the Great Shippe. In an attempt to open direct trade with England, New Haven residents filled a Great Shippe with local produce in January 1646. The ship then set sail for England, but it was never heard from again (Fig. 2.20).34 In 1662, the Connecticut Colony, centered in Hartford, obtained a charter from England that included the territory belonging to the New Haven Colony, effectively annexing it to Connecticut. [...] New Haven found it increasingly difficult to support itself as an independent community. In 1665, it submitted to the rule of Connecticut and abandoned its cherished autonomy. Davenport, newly subject to Hartfords less orthodox religious ways and no longer free to pursue his own vision, chose to return to [...] Boston.35 Not until 1701 did [New Haven] regain its status and become, with Hartford, joint capital of the colony.36 Davenports dream for a New Haven college, broken in the demise of his colony, was to be redeemed by his grandson-in-law, James Pierpont. In 1648, Pierpont made his home beside the Green, on the lot Davenport had chosen for the school in 1660 [...]37 Trailing Williams and Mary by eight years, Yale [College, founded in 1701] was the third college in America. In 1717, after a furious fight with Hartford, New Haven succeeded in being chosen as its seat.38 [T]he [s]chool took its place beside the sanctuary of the Green, facing east to the meetinghouse of the congregation (Fig. 2.21).39

Fig. 2.16 Map of the Connecticut Colony

Fig. 2.19 New Haven Colony around 1640

Fig. 2.17 Map of New Haven in 1640

Fig. 2.20 View of the Great Shippe, 1646

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Fig. 2.18 Map of New Haven in 1641

Fig. 2.21 Yale College House, 1717

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A Renewed Port & The Farmington Canal: New Havens Maritime Era 1750-1835 Connecticut was the edge of the wilderness, far from the urban culture of both New York and Boston. Life was poor, provincial, and raw [and] aside from the first buildings of the merchant adventurers [...] New Haven built almost nothing of note in the Colonial period. All that remains today are Yales Connecticut Hall and four or five houses (Fig. 2.25, 34 & 4.152).40 As New England entered its great maritime era, New Haven shared in the increase in trade (Fig. 2.22). [...] Chartered as a city in 1784, New Haven was made joint capital with Hartford of the State of Connecticut, and with an explosion of energy it rushed into the new century. With the best harbor in western New England, it was soon a major port (Fig. 2.23). At the same time, tanning and shoemaking flourished, and small shops making carriages and hardware began to appear. This period is the formative moment in New Havens physical history, a time of enormous florescence and urban creation[.] In this complex background four figures stand out: James Hillhouse, U.S. senator, capitalist, [...] and a man passionately driven by a vision of New Haven as a rich and beautiful city; Ezra Stiles, president of Yale from 1778 to 1795; Timothy Dwight, his successor from 1795 to 1817; and Eli Whitney, [...] who opened a gun factory in New Haven in 1798 and there introduced a system of production which was to make industrial history. Under the leadership of these men and their circle, New Haven became the foremost city in Connecticut and Yale became the largest college in America[.]41 The Federal period is the decisive moment in the Greens history. In one of the most important urbanist programs in America at the time, the field was graded, fenced, cleared of old buildings and roads, and transformed into a public square and civic center. The graveyard was moved away, and elm trees were planted all around the edge. The climactic event was the building of three churches as a monumental composition down the center (Figs. 2.24 & 26).42 [G]oing from nine to twenty-nine squares between 1784 and 1802 as each original square was bisected by a new end-of-the-century street43 signified, to at least one scholar, the failure of the original town plan [which] left New Havens infrastructure inflexible in a time of changing economic and social circumstances during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.44 In urbanism, as the thriving city expanded, the impetus and discipline of the Federal period were carried over into the projects of many private developers, producing such varied works as Jocelyn, Spireworth, York and Wooster Squares[.]45 Prosperity was interrupted by the Embargo and the War of 1812, which nearly ruined the port. Recovery dragged until 1825 when [...] the city set out to build a canal, designed to bypass Hartford and reach to the far edge of Massachusetts and ultimately Canada. This heroic undertaking proved to be more than a small city could handle: the Farmington Canal, though functional for a while, was never a financial success and in 1846 it was abandoned. But the exciting decade that saw its inception set off such an expansion of the city and gave it such a special glow that it may fairly be set apart as New Havens Canal Age.46

Manufacturing Town: Antebellum New Haven 1835-1861 The failure of the Farmington Canal virtually ended New Havens maritime career, but by this time carriage shops and other small factories were growing fast, and the shift from a mercantile to a manufacturing economy took place smoothly. In a climate that stimulated invention and experiment, New Haven suddenly stepped onto the frontier of the new age, becoming one of the foremost manufacturing towns of New England, making carriages, guns, rubber boots, clocks, and hardware. The leading figure now is James Brewster, whose carriage company opened far-flung markets for a line of fleet and elegant sulkies, phaetons, barouches, and rockaways. It was also Brewster who built the first railroad to New Haven (1833-39) and did much to develop the citys manufacturing potential. By 1860 New Haven was carriagemaker to the world.47 The introduction of the railroad, which resulted in approximately 100 independent railroads in southern New England between 1826 and the 1880s, brought an end to the New Haven canal craze during the 1820s and 1830s[.] With the harnessing of steam power, together with Eli Whitneys innovations in manufacturing, the city moved toward the industrial age[.] 48 In the hinterland two new towns crystallized - Fair Haven on the Quinnipiac River and Westville on the West River. The city itself burst its bounds on all sides, forming a loose circle of satellite centers on its edges.49 These were the New Township to the east, the Old Third Ward to the southwest, the West Village to the west and the Orange Street area to the north. All were much alike in makeup: self-contained village structures, each with its own rich and its own poor, its own broad base of small tradesmen and artisans, its own manufactories, and in time its own churches[.] On the fringes of this new growth ring, from the 1820s on, we hear of a number of darkietowns (sic.) and, as the first Irish arrived to dig the canal, shantytowns: New Guinea and Slineyville in the New Township, Poverty Square on Whalley Avenue, Sodom Hill across the West Creek.50 By the mid-19th century the City of new Haven had assumed a modern shape (Fig. 2.29). Its population had increased eightfold, doubling between 1830 and 1860. It was no longer ethnically and religiously homogenous because great waves of immigration to America has brought many newcomers to New Haven as Connecticuts chief receiving port. [...] Even the appearance of the town had changed. Busy streets and sidewalks intersected a thoroughly tamed and tended Green and radiated toward an increasingly complex and rapidly moving system of transportation (Fig. 2.30).51 Completed in the 1830s, Yales Brick Row marked the beginning of a distinct era in Yales history: a closeknit community was formed, compact and whole, separate from the city beyond yet undeniably part of it (Fig. 2.27). The stark brick halls stood aloof in simple dignity and gathered strength in their numbers. Yet their fundamentally urban order, making a space before them which was joined with the great Green beyond, engaged them fully with the city, sharing the responsibility of forming a public realm[.] Student life flowed out, town life ebbed in, and the crosscurrents swirled around the college yard and Fence.52 While New Haven was in the midst of shedding its country image in favor of a full fledged manufacturing town ripe with smokestacks and railroad tracks and images of a pastoral landscape would become increasingly rare as the city developed in the build up to the Civil War, the elm trees now had reached maturity and become the glory of the town, making New Haven famed as the City of Elms. Dickens, visiting in 1842, was charmed. The effect is very like that of an old cathedral yard in England, he wrote of the Green, seeming to bring about a kind of compromise between town and county. He pronounced it novel and pleasant.53 And for a time, New Haven contained both the intensity of urbanism as well as the remoteness of the countryside within walking distance of one another (Fig. 2.28).

Fig. 2.27 College and Chapel Street, 1840

Fig. 2.26 Center Church, 1812-15

Fig. 2.28 West Rock, New Haven, 1849

Fig. 2.25 Yales Brick Row

Fig. 2.22 Map of New Haven, 1775

Fig. 2.23 New Haven Skyline in 1786

Fig. 2.24 Map of New Haven, 1812

Fig. 2.29 Map of New Haven, 1852

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From Civil War to City of Immigrants: New Havens Industrial Rise 1861-1907 On April 15, 1861, three days after the South attacked Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 Connecticut volunteers to serve for a term of three months. Governor Williams Buckingham answered the call by forming two Connecticut reigments, the second one being based in New Haven[.] After the Battle of Bull Run, it was clear that the war would last more than three months and Connecticut restructured its infantry, creating nine regiments. [Nearly five years later] when General Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant met at Appomattox Courthouse to end hostilities on April 9, 1865, New Haven had contributed approximately $30 million and 3,000 men to the war effort, of whom 420 were now among the dead. The State Hospital, established in 1826-1827, erected a new building for the wounded[.]54 The Civil War was a disaster for New Haven for its largest market had been the South. It was nearly 1880 before the city recovered and, when it did, it has lost ground that could never be regained. Although prosperity would revive [...] Detroit, not New Haven, would become the inheritor of the carriage industry. In 1873, in a bitter episode, New Haven lost its position as co-capital of the state, and Hartford pulled ahead as the first city of Connecticut. [...] However, while the city coasted, Yale in the late 60s embarked on a mammoth building campaign which would transform the northwest side of town.55 The Old Campus Quadrangle that replaced the Old Brick Row deliberately and emphatically [...] turned away from the city, fortifying Yales edge and recentering its life inward.56 Yale College which in 1887 legally became Yale University, and by the end of the century numbered a faculty-student community of nearly 3000 and was on its way to becoming one of the citys biggest businesses.57 While Yale expanded its campus, the park program (including Edgewood Avenue), which was concentrated mainly between 1885 and 1895, [was] the only significant [public] urbanist enterprise in New Haven in the second half of the 19th century.58 The transition from antebellum manufacturing to the new giant scale of post-Civil War industry, with its sprawling plants, railroad tracks, smokestacks, and ever-mounting demand for cheap foreign labor, was made gradually from the 70s on, and by the 90s New Haven had confidently joined the march of American imperialism and wealth (Figs. 2.32 & 33).59

Fig. 2.30 Downtown Chapel Street, c. 1910

Fig. 2.31 Contemporary view of a residential street built around the turn of the 20th Century

Fig. 2.32 View of Winchester Repeating Arms Company Factory, 1876

Fig. 2.33 Aerial View of New Haven, 1879

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Attempts at Reform: The City Beautiful in New Haven 1907-1918 Although the horse car had come in the 60s, its real impact was not apparent until the industrial boom of the 90s. Acres of new streets were built in the next two decades, [nearly filling the boundaries of the city]. These developments differed from the earlier village complexes, reflecting a different society. The city but now was being physically changed by the new industrial scale and its blighting impact on the urban environment[.] A major regrouping of functions and people took place, in which the old self-contained pedestrian village clusters began to be replaced by separate zoning of working and dormitory areas, connected by public transportation; and which the class or ethnic enclave began to replace the old social mix. New wealth produced an upward social rush, immigrants of the second generation from the new Township and Oak Street leapfrogged over the earlier growth ring to new rows of solid two-family houses in streetcar suburbs sprouting up on former rural estates (Fig. 2.31). [...] The town of the canal days was left to become the home of each new wave of incoming foreigners, and by 1900 three slums were well defined[.] Beyond, the outmost band is still the territory of the middle classes. This pattern reverses the earlier one, in which the rich held the center and the poor were on the fringe.60 By 1900 industrialization had begun to take its toll of the city: buildings were dirty, slums were spreading, streets were hung with wires and choked with trolleys and traffic. Worst of all, the elms had begun to die.61 In June 1907, Yale instructor George Dudley Seymour wrote an open letter of roughly 11,000 words to urge the adoption of a city plan for New Haven. [...] The letter is an impressive document, detailing dozens of proposals,62 including the grouping of public buildings, a new railway station, and a stately new approach to green from station through temple street.63 New Havens mayor, John Dudley, called for an open meeting of citizens on June 19 to discuss Seymours proposition, and they resolved to form a Civic Improvement Committee to commission a master plan. [...] The committees first tasks were to take up a private subscription to underwrite the cost of the plan and to hire the experts who would produce it. Seymour lobbied successfully for Cass Gilbert (1859-1934), who was retained shortly thereafter as the architect of the new public library as well. To compliment Gilberts skills, the committee also hired the landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr.[.]64 Influenced enormously by Seymours suggestions, the Report of the New Haven Civic Improvement Commission recommended several large scale urban design projects for the citys center.65

Fig. 2.34 18th C. Houses on Elm Street

Principle among these was the creation of a large, formal boulevard linking the New Haven Green to a new railroad station being proposed for a site on fill land to the southwest of the original nine squares in an area densely developing as a commercial warehouse, wholesale and industrial district (Fig. 2.38).66 The 120-foot-wide boulevard would have emerged from a widened Temple Street terminating at the Gilbert-designed 1908 New Haven Free Public Library and a newly cleared swath of the lower Oak Street neighborhood.67 Lining this grand promenade would have been upper class shopping destinations, cafes and hotels (Fig. 2.39).68 The language of the proposed architecture was definitively Georgian and Federal in style and Beaux-Arts in scale.69 Though only fully realized in the new library, which masterfully relates to its context (Figs. 2.34 & 35), this language was proposed for a new government center extending nearly the entire frontages of Elm and Church Streets (Figs. 2.36 & 37). The factors that inhibited the implementation of City Beautiful Plans include public opposition or disinterest, and a lack of government willingness and ability to support and enact the plans. Between the Civil War and the New Deal, the administration in Washington was Republican 75 percent of the time, with comparably lopsided statistics for control of the Congress and of the state governments outside the South. The Republican party [at this time] was the party of [] government-sponsored economic growth.70 In New Haven the same year that the Gilbert and Olmsted report was published, republican Mayor Frank Rice assumed office. Rices mayoralty was based on the promise that his city hall would be a business-oriented regime, with modest goals and an organizational focus that nobody could mistake for populism.71 Public opposition of City Beautiful plans, which called for highly ornamented and monumental government buildings, was rooted in public skepticism of government. This skepticism was based on the competing interests of a working class general public and increasingly wealthy private business.72 While the City Beautiful Movement was interested in addressing government corruption through reform efforts,73 the lavish Beaux Arts designs of many government buildings did not necessarily communicate those efforts to the public. In addition to lacking public confidence74 and financial support from City Hall,75 the City Beautiful Movements plans often called for large public improvement projects that were out of reach for many municipal governments coffers. These projects included reworking the railroad infrastructure, giving city government control of the harbor [] limiting building heights [] widening major street rights-of-way [and] eliminating rear tenement housing76 all requests that required government acquisition or regulation of private property,77 power which didnt exist and wasnt desired for municipal governments in the early 20th century.78

Fig. 2.35 New Haven Free Public Library

Fig. 2.36 Preliminary sketch for New Court

Fig. 2.37 Sketch of Cass Gilberts Proposed Government Center for Church Street

Fig. 2.38 Cass Gilberts Design for New Havens Center & the Railroad Station Approach

Fig. 2.39 Sketches of Boulevard Approach

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Bursting Bounds: New Havens Industrial Peak 1918-1941 Lasting a decade, the citys first attempts to reform the built environment on a large scale resulted in a neoFederal library, two neo-Classical courthouses and post office fronting onto the Green - joining Henry Austins 1861 High Victorian Gothic city hall - and forming the semblance of a government civic center.79 The railroad station approach also appeared by 1917 after Frederick L. Ford modified Gilberts proposed plan to minimize land acquisition.80 Only partially implemented, the Orange Street extension cleared just enough land for the public right-of-way and no new developable lots were created - maintaining the area as a wholesale district (Fig. 2.42). The final display of laziness in the citys early city planning history was the construction of Gilberts mercilessly stripped down New Haven Railroad Station of 1918.81 Changed enormously since its neo-Georgian beginnings in 1907, the final design ended up a Second Renaissance Revival box clad with late-colonial architecture motifs (Figs. 2.114 & 123).82 Though well executed by Gilbert despite a slashed budget, the Station exemplifies the citys early 20th century approach to planning for the future, which was to extoll the minimum amount of effort required to achieve a fraction of the desired goal. [I]n 1917, New Haven was still a target of capitalist development. The city economy has been running at full tilt in response to World War I spending, and its workforce was stretched to capacity. [...] These were great times, especially for major firms in advantageous urban locations, such as central New Haven. [...] The major New Haven manufacturers - Winchester (Fig. 2.41), Sargent, Candee Rubber, the railroad - were at or near peaks of production and profit. So, too, were many of the roughly 750 lesser firms located in the city. [...] Precisely because of their productivity, these humming engines of capitalism were a grave threat to the city in the decades [leading up to World War Two]. The city was to a great extent built around its major firms, and it was adapted to their permanent presence - financially, socially, and governmentally.83 Meanwhile, below the surface all the now-familiar problems of the American industrial city were accumulating, and the Depression opened Pandoras box (Fig. 2.43).[...] Depression and war brought a [building] lull of about 25 years. The interval, at Yale, belongs to James Gamble Rogers who in the mid-1920s had begun to line the city streets with a superbly integrated fabric of buildings and spaces (Fig. 2.40) [.]84

Urban Redevelopment & Renewal: Planning in Post-War New Haven 1941-1966 In the first half of the twentieth century New Haven was beset with problems common to many cities during the period. The population increased by 25,000 in the years between 1900 and 1910[.] The strain on municipal services and facilities was extreme. Families doubled up, and open space vanished. Nineteenth-century buildings became obsolete, and the old streets were unable to handle the new demands of the automobile. The central business district became decayed and choked, and retail business declined critically. In the period between 1920 and 1930, New Havens suburbs increased over 60 percent in population. The suburban exodus removed middle- and high-income families from the citys tax jurisdiction[.] It weakened the citys tax base further by pulling business of all kinds out of the city. Unemployment of the unskilled increased. [...] Space in obsolete manufacturing plants was rented to marginal industries, and the [...] residential areas became [blighted] (Figs. 2.44 & 45).85 In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt created the Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) as part of the New Deal for the purpose of stabilizing the housing market after the 1929 stock market crash by surveying the nations housing stock for mortgage-financing security. In HOLCs evaluation of residential security, the United States of America [advised] lenders against investing in traditional city neighborhoods and [...] even in newer neighborhoods if they were infiltrated by the wrong people. [As a result, 94.7 percent of the people living in evaluated areas were being signaled that they lived in dubious or substandard neighborhoods, and their bankers were getting the same signal. This doubtless made it more difficult, and more expensive, to borrow money for repairs or renovations[.] These families [...] were confronted increasingly with the choice of staying in their homes [...] or moving on to the suburbs. HOLCs certification of neighborhood inferiority doubtless encouraged hundreds of families to move on, and in so doing it further depressed markets in the negatively evaluated portions of the city.86 In 1941 funds were allocated for the hiring of the first City Plan Commission staff[.] Planning consultant, Maurice E. H. Rotival [...] prepared plans for New Haven in the 1940s which indicated drastic changes [to the city.] In 1949 urban redevelopment with federal aid was originated under Title I of the U.S. Housing Act[.] The Redevelopment Agency was established in that year and planner Maurice Rotival was retained in 1951 to assist in the selection of [nine] redevelopment areas, including the Oak Street and Church Street projects, which entailed widespread acquisition of property, demolition and redevelopment throughout the 1950s and 60s (Figs. 2.46, 47, 48 & 49).87

Fig. 2.41 Winchester Avenue during WW1

Figs. 2.44 & 45 The Hill & Oak Street, 1950-56

Fig. 2.42 New Haven Aerial, 1934

Fig. 2.46 New Haven Aerial, 1965

Fig. 2.40 Yale University-owned buildings, 1921

Fig. 2.43 New Haven Birds Eye View, pre-1939

Fig. 2.47 The Oak Street Project, 1958

Fig. 2.48 The Oak Street Connector, 1960

Fig. 2.49 The New Haven Skyline, 1966

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Resistance & the End of an Era: Community Activism & Dick Lees Departure 1966-1970 Elected as mayor of New Haven in 1953, Richard C. Lee was able to coalesce the support of the citizenry, partner with business leadership, and secure a flood of federal funding for his massive redevelopment program (Figs. 2.53 & 54).88 After witnessing the ruthless destruction of the Oak Street neighborhood (Figs. 2.50 & 51) and the land acquisition tactics exhibited in the Church Street project, however, a substantial opposition movement formed (Figs. 2.55 & 56).89 The first notable impact of this movement was in the Wooster Square project planning process. By the mid-20th century, Wooster Square, largely an Italian-American community, was well represented in the city government and business community, which aided in residents efforts to direct the Connecticut Turnpike (Interstate 91) away from its proposed placement in the middle of the beloved 19th century Wooster Square Park.90 Professionally, the New Haven Preservation Trust was founded, in 1961, to become an advocate for historic rehabilitation and preservation projects in the city as an alternative to demolition.91 Modern zoning also came about in the 1960s to protect residential property from undesirable development. Most importantly, however, was the formation of local community groups that successfully thwarted the implementation of many planned urban renewal programs in the late 1960s and 70s.92 The legacy of these professional and community efforts in the mid-20th century as a result of the urban redevelopment, renewal and Model Cities programs must be understood within their larger economic, cultural, social, and political contexts. The federal intervention into cities following WWII was the result of decades of unplanned industrial development that congested and eroded the city. Furthermore, returning G.I.s were in need of homes, jobs and environments that were conducive to psychological rejuvenation. The wartime economic boom needed a peace time market demand-based replacement in order to avoid slipping back into another depression. Therefore, the argument for a national reconstruction effort was strong at this time and it received support from many sources. The realization of these efforts in the form of G.I. Bills, Housing Acts and Highway programs, however, was difficult for many communities to accept and support once their implementation had begun. Families saw their homes and neighborhoods removed, which for many translated into the loss of priceless memories and social connections that were difficult or recover and recreate (Fig. 2.52).93 The practice of subsidizing new government-contracted suburban homes with federally-secured mortgages and car loans, while simultaneously redlining urban housing was extremely damaging to cities like New Haven. The Housing Act of 1949 also precluded the use of federal funds for rehabilitation work, which resulted in the demolition of many buildings that may have been in bad physical condition, but were not necessary beyond saving had money for rehabilitation been provided initially at the same scale as it was for clearance.

Fig. 2.56 Black Panthers Food Program, 1970

Figs. 2.50 & 51 Dwight Aerial Photograph in 1965, and Dwight Renewal & Redevelopment Plan

Fig. 2.52 The Hill in 1970

Figs. 2.53 & 54 Mayor Richard C. Lee

Fig. 2.55 Black Panther Trial Protects, 1970

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The Post-Industrial City: New Havens Struggle to Define Itself 1970-Present By 1950 New Havens population base had grown to about 164,000, from about 108,000 in 1900. A decade later it was about 152,000, [...] a serious population decline [which had begun as early as the 1930s] that would affect the citys economic growth until the present day. Among the main contributors to this downward spiral was the exodus of younger families, particularly from the middle- and upper-middle income groups to the suburbs[.] The middle-class exodus to the suburbs was an American phenomenon occurring across the United States, but unlike other cities in New England and the Midwest, New Haven had a series of incorporated towns along its borders, which refused to be absorbed into the urban center. [...] Consolidation or annexation proved to be futile as a large segment of New Havens population fled to these neighborhoods and communities.94 By the 1970s, the Urban Renewal program had all but come to an end - having lost momentum after Dick Lees decision not to run for re-election in 1969. The citys tax base continued to erode despite the massive projects of the previous generation as businesses and residents closed or left. In response, Frank Logue, brother to Ed Logue, Dick Lees right hand man at the Redevelopment Agency, successfully lobbied the State of Connecticut legislature to pass the Payment in Lieu of Taxes (PILOT) program, which reimbursed towns and cities with large, tax-exempt regional institutions like hospitals and universities, for a portion of the equivalent tax revenue. While admirable for its purpose, the PILOT program essentially serves as a band-aid for the much larger, and more politically challenging issue, of regionalization. The war plants of the forties, which had actively recruited African Americans from the South, either went out of business after the war or, with perfect cynicism, emigrated south themselves to find cheaper labor still.95 Indicative of the era, the Winchester Repeating Arms factory was abandoned by its parent company, Olin Corporation.96 The citys 9,300 factory wage-earners of 1972 would dwindle to 5,700 in 1987, 3,500 in 1992, 2.804 in 1997, and an estimated 2,500 today. The tidal wave had swept away the principle basis of the New Haven economy - 90 percent of the factory jobs in 1954 would be gone by 1997[.] The impact was, of course, magnified and deepened by the communitys longstanding dependence on manufacturing jobs and the cash they pumped into the local economy.97 The timing of black migration to new Haven was an economic horror: if the goal was to capture highChiefAdministrativeOfficers AnnualReport:PoliceDept
Crimetrends
AUDITEDPARTICRIMES
4000

Fig. 2.57 Temple Plaza in 1998

Fig. 2.58 Temple Plaza Today


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wage manufacturing jobs in and near the central-city neighborhoods - jobs that could be performed without advanced education - the timing couldnt have been worse. Just as blacks began arriving in numbers - from about 1950 forward - those factory wage dollars were disappearing from central city New Haven[.]98 Black Americans, in particular, have been trapped by a disastrous historical lag in their access to education[.] On the average [...] three generations of continuous access are necessary if a family is to gain the type of education that will allow its members to function successfully in the postindustrial economy. But few black families had achieved that continuity before deindustrialization began to shatter the hopes of working-class people.99 By the late 1980s, the organized sale of powder cocaine had by violence-prone neighborhood-based drug gangs had become the salient problem for the city.100 By 1990, New Haven had one of the highest violent crime rates in the country with over 2,000 incidents of aggravated assault, and 1,700 robberies.101 Between 1989 and 1991, there were 1,063 shootings in New Haven, which averages out to more than one per day, with an additional 99 homicides in that same period.102 However, by the early-to-mid 1990s, following joint federal, state and local police raids on gang leadership, crime began a steady drop that has continued to the present (Figs. 2.59 & 62).103 Middle class flight from the city, the loss of tax revenues and an inefficient local bureaucracy all led to a serious blight problem. Indeed, New Havens number of vacant buildings increased from 508 in 1992 to 786 in 1995, according to the fire department. Some vacant buildings were used for activities like drug use and dealing; others could best be described as fire hazards or structurally unsafe. [...] The Livable City Initiative, launched July 1, 1996, seeks to turn a negative - population loss - into a positive: more spacious, safer and attractive neighborhoods. [...] In the first six months of the initiative, some 70 blighted structures were torn down [...]104 his initiative, however, has created many vacant lots and gaps in the urban fabric. Neighborhood Housing Services of New Haven, founded in 1979, has been a critically active agent of rehabilitation in the citys most distressed neighborhood - acquiring abandoned properties, renovating them, finding homeowners and advising them in matters of mortgages and house maintenance (Figs. 2.60 & 61).105 Downtown has also made a resurgence from a nearly abandoned no-mans land to a regional center of culture, dining and entertainment (Figs. 2.57 & 58).106 Even the Winchester Factory has been partially renovated for the offices of the New Haven start-up company, Higher One (Figs. 2.65 & 66).107 Yale has also been expanding steadily since the mid-20th century, becoming the citys largest employer and tax payer (Figs. 2.40 & 63).108 Structural problems, however, persist in the city - from Yales relationship to the city, to stubbornly high unemployment and the effects of a commuter culture on the citys street network and tax base (Fig. 2.62).109

Fig. 2.66 Winchester Factory (Before)

Fig. 2.65 Higher One Office Entrance (After)

16

ViolentCrimes:Homicide,Rape,Robbery,Agg.Assault

14
3000

Total Homicides

12

10

2000

8
1000

6
0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2008 23 55 906 1,228

2
1990 1991 34 118 1,355 2,018 1992 30 131 1,227 1,845 1993 22 130 1,238 1,154 1994 32 102 1,150 1,364 1995 20 98 953 1,157 1996 21 120 1,207 1,269 Murder Rape Robbery 31 168 1,784 2,008

Murder
1997 21 93 1,094 1,136

Rape
1998 15 66 825 1,194

Robbery
2000 18 63 659 973

Agg. Assault
2001 16 62 769 1,075 2002 9 79 680 977 2003 8 72 782 947 2004 15 70 806 1,138 2005 16 87 972 1,106 2006 24 86 945 1,112 2007 13 74 970 1,257 2009 12 58 906 1,207 2010 24 68 786 1,107 2011 34 52 765 891

1999 12 56 831 1,018

Year

Agg. Assault

2011

Fig. 2.59 New Haven Homicides, 1935-1985

Figs. 2.60 & 61 48 Frank Street, Before & After (2006)

Fig. 2.62 New Haven Violent Crimes, 1990-2011

Fig. 2.63 Yale University Campus, 2000

Fig. 2.64 Public Union Employee Residency

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Salt Marshes 1638-1665 The area that became Church Street South was, in the early 17th century, a series of salt marshes on the southwestern bank of a small creek.110 In fact, a significant portion of todays buildings would have been standing in water in 1640 as the shoreline has been modified substantially since the New Haven Colonys founding. Initially, the Nine-Square plan was contained by the creeks, but aboriginal paths soon became colonial roads - crossing the creeks and serving destinations beyond.111 While topographical features indicate the landscape that once existed here, this site has changed more radically over the course of the last 350 years than perhaps any other location in the city.

Pasture plots 1665-1750 Surrounding the square of the town, a starburst of radial roads ran out across the plain, straight as arrows. [...] Chiefly the radial roads gave access to outlots, dividing the plain into long radial wedges which in turn were subdivided into private fields. [...] Fields were laid out in strips across the radial wedges. [...] The creeks were Main Street. The best merchants houses were built along them, and all the daily life of the town plied up and down them in canoes and shallops.112 By the late-17th century, the southwestern bank of the West Creek had been divided into pasture plots and was considered a suburb of the town, located outside the Nine Squares, but now accessible by a bridged creek.

Sodom Hill & Oyster Point 1750-1835 The West Creek from the earliest colonial times had been a place of tanneries[.] Perhaps because of the tanneries and marshes, this early became a poor quarter[.] Around 1800 the section south of the West Creek was called Sodom Hill and described as a place of poverty and crime. [...] This is a tract of high ground rising steeply from the creek bed [...] though more prosperous growth surrounded it, the top crust remained thin. [...] In 1825 the Irish came - first to dig the canal, then to build the railroad[.]113 Oyster Point was a plot whose first tentative layout goes back to 1800. Initially failing, by the 1830s the area became Mt. Pleasant - a poor community [...] described as a plague spot.114

The Old Third Ward 1835-1861 The Third Ward originally covered the whole southwest quarter of the city[.] It grew up as a more or less cohesive community with its own industry and social pyramid, but its development was slow[.] Close to the docks and the railroad, [the hill] became the melting pot. [In] the 40s came the Germans - Lutherans, Catholics, and Jews. Until the Civil War this immigrant community was centered mainly in the neighborhood of the Hill. [...] Tanneries and shoemaking continued to function in the area through the 19th century.115 Meanwhile, Mt. Pleasant became Spireworth Square - a scaled miniature Nine Squares subdivision that by the 1850s had also failed with only three houses built.116

An Emerging Slum 1861-1907 After the Civil War [...] solid middle-class houses began to spread over the [Hills] surrounding area until the end of the century when a vast new wave of immigration came [-] producing the tenements that [was once] its special architectural feature.117 [...] After the West Creek was filled in the 1870s the neighborhood spread down over the flats along Oak Street [becoming] mainly the home of Central European Jews, while Italians took the place of departing Irish and Germans on the Hill.118 At the same time, Spireworth Square became named after the Trowbridge family, who built a church and encouraged development.119 Plans for a new railroad station began to change the shoreline.120

The Plan of 1910 1907-1918 A major focus of George Dudley Seymours, Cass Gilberts, and Frederick Law Olmsteds efforts, as part of their 1910 report for New Havens civic improvement, were geared towards reforming the development pattern of the Oak Street neighborhood and the commercial district that emerged after the Civil War. The proposal included a new railroad station, a government civic center surrounding the Green, and a new boulevard - lined by shops, cafes, hotels and civic spaces - connecting the station to the Green. Although the railroad station was eventually realized, only portions of the Greens government center and the station approach were built during New Havens early city planning phase.

A Slum Solidifying 1918-1941 Fueled by government contracts to manufacturing plants for weaponry, the citys population grew substantially in the early 20th Century. The Hill, remaining largely in tact despite the recommendations of the 1910 Plan, continued to develop as a dense working-class immigrant neighborhood. While the Depression hit New Haven less severely than other cities due to the construction of Yale Universitys residential college system and WWII again provided the citys manufactories with ample contracts that supplied steady wages to workers, which in turn supported a dense network of goods providers, this industrial peak exacerbated problems that had been brewing since at least 1900.

Church Street Project 1941-1966 By the 1940s [the] old center had fallen into decay.121 In response, New Havens second attempt at city planning kicked off in 1941 when Maurice Rotival was hired as a consultant to propose solutions for the citys traffic congestion problem. With the passage of the Housing Act of 1949, planning in New Haven was given a funding source, which by 1954, provided a steady stream of cash to the citys newly created Redevelopment Agency. When the state cut through [downtown] in the 1950s with the Oak Street Connector, the Redevelopment Agency joined in, and Church Street South became one of its most sweeping programs of demolition and reconstruction.122

Charles Moore Housing 1966-1970 Responding to early plans for Church Street South, New Haven intellectuals, led by Vincent Scully, were calling for a renewed respect for street and neighbors,123 Moores housing attempts to rethink current planning stereotypes with their strong suburban bias and to provide a civilized urban environment, preserving some of the traditional qualities of the urban context - permanence, dignity, festivity, interaction, variety. Georgian terraces face the outer world with impeccable urbanity, while along the spine of the pedestrian street an inner would unfolds of inventive and exciting effects[.] The buildings are simple, the spaces between them exploited for maximum effect.124

The Jungle 1970-2012 Never completed, the project ran out of money during construction and while Moores design for Church Street South Housing represents a remarkable improvement over prior generations designs for public housing, his contextual design nevertheless was not enough to overcome the economic realities of Post-War cities, and the social ramifications of spatially concentrating low-income families.125 By 1984, the Jungle Boys gang, operating out of Church Street South Housing, was one of the five major drug gangs in the city. While the gangs leadership was largely incarcerated thanks to a 1992 drug raid, violence and the illegal drug trade persist in the complex.126

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Fig. 2.67 1640

Fig. 2.68 1650

Fig. 2.69 1812

Fig. 2.70 1846

Fig. 2.71 1877

Fig. 2.72 1910

Fig. 2.73 1934

Fig. 2.74 1965

Fig. 2.75 1966

Fig. 2.76 1991

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2.3 Site Research


Site Considerations New Haven is located in the Northeastern United States Super Region that stretches from the Washington, D.C. to the Boston Metropolitan Areas and other major cities along the Atlantic Coast, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City (Fig. 2.77). Containing over 60 million people, and the worlds center for finance in New York City, the Northeastern Super Region is a vital economic engine for the United States and the World. New Haven is also located within the New York Metropolitan Region, at its eastern edge and is connected to the city directly through Metro-North train service originating out of Union Station. New York and the Mid-Atlantic states are also accessible by Amtrak train service and Interstate 95, as well as the Merritt Parkway (Fig. 2.78). Once a major port, the city still has an active harbor for importing and storing oil along the banks of Fair Haven East. Increasingly, however, trucking has been the preferred mode of import and export since the mid-20th century. Aided by the Urban Renewal projects of the 1950s and 60s that created the highways and modern truck loading facilities on Long Wharf, heavy cargo rail service has declined. New Haven is also the economic center of the South Central Region of Connecticut. A center for manufacturing since the early 19th-century, the citys industrial economy today has retracted significantly since the 1950s. Todays economy is largely based around services, education and medical research. For a city heavily invested in a low-skill workforce, New Haven has made very little progress on transitioning its residents into skilled employment positions, resulting in high unemployment, particularly for minority youths, high incarcerations rates, high recidivism rates and high school drop-out rates. Tapping into the remarkable economic engine of the Super Region for its residents is the key challenge for the city in the 21st century. 2 | 38

Fig. 2.78 New York Metropolitan Region

New Haven, supported by the investments of Yale Universitys commercial and biomedical developments, has seen strong economic growth compared to other Connecticut cities over the last five years (Fig. 2.80). Accompanying this economic growth has been a substantial population growth, according to the 2010 US Federal Census. Expanding to a population of nearly 130,000, the city grew more than any other in the state. However, poverty in central city neighborhoods continues to burden the citys resources, services and revenue generating ability. Surrounded by wealthy suburbs, New Haven has the infrastructure that contributes to affordability like sidewalks, transit service and mixed-use density, that either does not exist in nearby towns or is insufficient to equitably serve the regions low-income population (Figs. 2.79 & 81).127

often vary more within towns than between them, them this report also provides data for groups of neighborhoods within New Haven.

Another challenge for the city will be to convince the region that with a regional economy comes a regional responsibility to equitably provide for the entire needs of the entire regions population. Unemployment as Strengthening the Economy a result of a lack of transportation access to qualified jobs, isnt a New Haven problem, its a regional problem While the Region has lost jobs in recent years, the health care, that must be addressed through comprehensive planeducation, and high-value services sectors are growing or stable, ning.

Demographics: Population in Poverty

particularly i l l within i hi D Downtown N New H Haven.

Low-income neighborhoods within the City of New Haven bear most of f the h Regions R i share h of f child hild poverty. I In these h areas, more than half the population has an income of less than 185% of the Federal Poverty Level, one measure of self-sufficiency. Fig. 2.79 Greater New Haven Income

Fig. 2.77 Population Density in the Northeastern United States Megalopolis

Fig. 2.80 Connecticut Cities Economic Comparison

New Haven EDC data on city centers


30

Fig. 2.81 Greater New Haven Poverty

15

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The medical district, including Yale-New Haven Hospital (Fig. 2.89), which acquired the Hospital of St. Raphael in 2012128, the Yale School of Nursing (Fig. 2.88), Yale Medical School, and various private laboratory facilities, has grown from a simple building on Cedar Street into a complex organism spreading over several city blocks in what was once known as The Hill (Figs. 2.82, 83 & 84).129 New Havens economy in recent years has relied ever more heavily on biomedical research and health services jobs, which support a massive workforce and attract innovative minds to the city (Fig. 2.86). The challenge here is how to allow for future growth without destroying the 19th-century neighborhoods that grew up around the Hill (Figs. 2.85 & 87). Fig. 2.83 State Hospital Site, 1911 The history of the General Hospital Society of Connecticut, which has evolved to become Yale-New Haven Hospital, was closely intertwined with that of Yale College from the time the society was founded in 1826. [...] After receiving funds from the state in 1828, the directors hired Ithiel Town to design the first hospital and administrative building, completed in 1832.130 In 1871 the General Hospital Society officially began to plan new buildings. [Faced] with such pressing necessity as well as with the fledging medical schools need for a better-equipped hospital in which to teach, and given the active support of rich and influential New Haven citizens [...] money was pieced together to execute [...] designs for new wards. [...] In 1873 the directors authorized construction that by 1876 had cost over $92,000.131 While two small isolation pavilions and a morgue were built in 1877, a nurses dormitory in 1881, and a superintendents house in 1886, there were no further major additions to the main hospital building until 1888, when Mrs. Henry Farnam gave the Farnam Operating Amphitheatre[.] Now the hospitals plan took the appearance of a pinwheel[.]132 In 1913 the slow process began of enclosing this nineteenth-century hospital complex with a peripheral quadrangle of new buildings lined up along Cedar Street and Davenport, Howard, and Congress Avenues. [...] Rather than clearing out the center of a new quadrangle, as Yale had done on the Old Campus, the hospital hung on to some of its old buildings, renovating and enlarging them, or it replaced old buildings with new and larger ones built over the old footprints. Consequently, the interior of the medical quadrangle has come down to the twenty-first century not as a grassy campus but as a crowded, confusing jumble of survivors, useless remnants, remodelings, and replacements of a confusing sequence of structures.133 [The Medical Campus] is physically cut off from the rest of the university, now especially by the Oak Street Connector. In part for that reason, but even more because of the enormous explosion of its function in recent years, it has built up a dense and complicated community of its own, a true warren into which new facilities have been forcibly inserted almost every year. [...] The demands of medical equipment and services and the restrictions of the space [has] acted to dominate [the new medical buildings] forms. But as their numbers grew and they were more and more crowded together, something rather challenging and vital come into being. A sense of urgency and concentrated power began to be felt. Elevated walkways proliferated, fulfilling the old urbanistic fantasies of earlier days. Nothing ever seemed finished. The whole was a megastructure and a town.134 Fig. 2.82 Medical District

Fig. 2.87 Yale Medical Campus Aerial, 2010

Fig. 2.88 Yale School of Nursing at the former Lee High School

Fig. 2.84 Yale Medical Campus, 2012

Fig. 2.85 Yale Medical Campus Buildings

Fig. 2.86 New Haven Medical Economy in Context

Fig. 2.89 Yale-New Haven Hospital

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The area in which [Trowbridge Square] lies had an unsavory reputation in the early decades of the 19th century.135 By 1812, development was contemplated. [...] James Hillhouse owned a great deal of land in the Oyster Point Quarter which he was attempting to develop [and] Hillhouse was concerned with ensuring an orderly growth of the expanding city and perpetuating the grid of the nine squares beyond its original limits (Fig. 2.91). [...] The project, however, was premature.136 [In 1830 Simeon Jocelyn and Isaac Thompson] purchased slightly more than 15 acres of developed land in the district; laid out [...] streets; and sub-divided the majority of land along these new streets into small building lots. The layout of this subdivision, which the men christened the Village of Spireworth, was designed as a miniature version of New Havens original nine-square settlement plat (Fig. 2.92).137 Virtually all of those living in the area were employed as common laborers performing menial tasks. By this time that areas population was predominantly black (58%), but blacks and whites were thoroughly integrated in terms of resiFig. 2.90 Trowbridge Square dential location within the district. Despite the activities of Jocelyn and his brother Nathaniel [...], by 1851 less than 50 houses had been built within in the expanded village area. [...] By the early 1850s other speculators and developers had acquired most of the still-substantial portions of undeveloped land at Spireworth/Mount Pleasant (Fig. 2.95). [...] The continuing growth and development of the district as a workingclass residential locus from the 1860s through the end of the 19th century was associated with the concurrent development and expansion of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad. [...] By the mid-1870s, Trowbridge Square and its environs developed into one of the citys principal lower-income Irish working-class neighborhoods. [...] As members of the areas upwardly mobile Irish-American population began to move out [...] they were increasingly replaced by Italian immigrant families. [B]y the onset of World War II, the districts population was dominated by Italian-American workers and their families. [Following World War II], the district began to experience an influx of black and Hispanic families. The district derives the distinctive architectural character primarily from its retention of well-preserved streetscapes comprised of extremely small and modestly scaled, Victorian residences built [...] for members of the citys working-class population (Fig. 2.96).138 Although the neighborhood experienced had times as the citys economy deindustialized, bottoming out in the early 1990s, investments by the city and residents in the park and housing have begun to turn things around for the community (Figs. 2.93 & 94).

87 Carlisle Street

88 Carlisle Street

89 Carlisle Street

93 Carlisle Street

94 Carlisle Street

95 Carlisle Street

96 Carlisle Street

97 Carlisle Street

98 Carlisle Street

101 Carlisle Street

Fig. 2.91 Oyster Point subdivision, 1812

104 Carlisle Street

125 Portsea Street

127 Portsea Street

128 Portsea Street

131 Portsea Street

132 Portsea Street Fig. 2.92 Trowbridge Square, 1911

134 Portsea Street

136 Portsea Street

140 Portsea Street

141 Portsea Street

142 Portsea Street

145 Portsea Street

146 Portsea Street

150 Columbus Avenue

158 Columbus Avenue

Figs. 2.94 & 95 Gang Graffiti on Salem Street & South Congregational Church on Columbus Avenue

Fig. 2.93 Trowbridge Square Park, 2010

Fig. 2.96 Examples of Trowbridge Squares Late-19th Century Vernacular Buildings

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Fig. 2.97 Crown Street, Ninth Square, c. 1910

Fig. 2.98 Orange Street, Ninth Square

Fig. 2.100 Ninth Square District Location

The Ninth Square [...] District is located in the middle of New Havens downtown business district and [contains] 78 [historic] structures, primarily well-preserved 19th and early 20th century commercial buildings. [...] Part of the oldest section of the city, the district adjoins the southeast edge of New Havens historic green and encompasses almost all of one of the original nine squares set out at the time of New Havens founding. Most of the structures in the district are three- to five-stories high, and there is little or no setback from the sidewalk. Brick is the predominant building material, though some facades are finished with brownstone, pressed-metal and cast-stone. [...] Architectural detail is confined to the stylish facades; rear elevations are utilitarian, with loading docks and freight doors.139 During Urban Renewal, the Ninth Square, or Central Business District, as it was referred to, was purged of almost all of its 19th century buildings.140 Fig. 2.101 Ninth Square Significant demolition resulted for the construction of the New Haven Coliseum, the Knights of Columbus Headquarters and the portion of the never-completed ring road on State Street. Some important landmark buildings primarily located along Chapel, Crown and Orange Streets, however, were sparred the wrecking ball, only to be left to fall into a state of disrepair for several decades. Fortunately, the District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places after its nomination in 1984, which has since led to the communitys rejuvenation through several historic preservation projects.141 In the early 1990s, Newman Architects, a local New Haven firm, was hired to construct a large mixed-use, mixed-income apartment complex in the district and plan for the rehabilitation of several historic structures (Figs. 2.98 & 100).142 Since the 1990s, Ninth Square has grown into one of the citys most vibrant areas for nightlife and the arts (Fig. 2.99) - sporting several restaurants, bars, shops, apartments, and business firms, including the office of Gray-Organschi Architecture, which is located in a former commercial block next door to their adaptively re-used Firehouse 12 bar, recording studio/performance space, and loft apartment project.143 Most recently, two abandoned commercial buildings on Crown Street have been privately renovated into residential apartment units (Figs. 2.102, 103 & 104), continuing the process of restoring some of the vibrancy that once defined this central core of New Havens nineteenth century downtown (Fig. 2.97).144

Fig. 2.102 26-44 Crown Street, 2010

Fig. 2.103 Detail of 44 Crown St., 2010 and 2011

Fig. 2.99 Orange & Crown Streets, Ninth Square

Fig. 2.104 26 Crown Street, after rehabilitation

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Fig. 2.106 Church Street South Fig. 2.107 Public Services

Church Street South (Figs. 2.105 & 106) was created under the Church Street Project - one of the citys first Redevelopment Areas identified for clearance. Resurrecting plans from the 1910 Report, mid-century planners extended Church Street to the train station through the lower Oak Street neighborhood and the adjacent commercial wholesale district. Rather than designing a multi-modal boulevard as Gilbert had, however, city planners designed a multi-lane vehicular highway - one of many created out of new construction or widening of existing streets during urban renewal.145 Early planning for the area, according to the 1955 Redevelopment Plan, called for new commercial spaces organized as boxes in surface parking lots for Church Street South.146 By the early 1960s, however, plans for housing, services and a school were in the works with Ludwig Mies van der Vohe as the architect. Due to public push-back and a desire for a more contextual approach to design in the mid-1960s, Mies resigned from the project, at which point Charles Moores office took over as head architect - taking the project for low-to-moderate income family and elderly housing in a new direction.147 Church Street South has also emerged today as a public services center, containing the headquarters of the New Haven Police Department and the Board of Education Offices (Fig. 2.107).

Located across Union Avenue from the New Haven Railroad Station was the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Headquarters in an L-shaped building conforming to an irregular lot whose shaped resulted from the intersection of two grids with a major diagonal thoroughfare (FIg. 2.110). Referred to as the Old Yellow Building[,] the four-story brick and stone office building [had] Romanesque arched windows and doorways (Fig. 2.109).148 The offices stood in the heart of New Havens commercial wholesale and warehouse district, which by the 19th century, had grown out of the towns original waterfront commercial area. By the mid-20th century, however, this center had fallen into decline as buildings became obsolete, traffic chocked the district and investment began looking elsewhere.149 The NY, NH & H Railroad, however, decided to remain invested in the area, which was near the station and the railroad repair yards. Consequently, in 1946 the company built a new office high-rise next to the existing L-shaped building.150 Upon completion, the 9-story, 140-foor-tall early modernist building stood in stark contrast to the surrounding fabric of 2-4 story late-19th century commercial buildings (Fig. 2.111).151 Demolished as part of the Church Street Redevelopment Project area, the Old Yellow Building was replaced by the new headquarters of the NHPD in the early 1970s (Fig. 2.108). The police building, although some have found it menacing with its narrow window slits, is a restorer of architectural order, giving itself affirmatively to the odd shape of the lot and defining the streets around it, which is difficult considering that the streets in this part of town were oriented toward the creeks [and] when the creeks disappeared, what was left was a curious lozenge pattern which has long made a coherent street architecture difficult (Fig. 2.113).152 Recently, a parking garage was added to the lot at the intersection of Meadow Street and Columbus and Union Avenues (Fig. 2.112) - replacing 5 Columbus Avenue, which was a single story building housing a restaurant, once described as a dramatic but formal design which effectively advertises its function amid a confusing street pattern.153

Fig. 2.108 NHPD building construction, 1973

Fig. 2.111 Gateway Center (54 Meadow St.)

Fig. 2.109 NY, NH & H Railroad Co. 1971

Fig. 2.112 Contemporary View of Meadow St.

Fig. 2.105 Church Street South in Context, c. 1972

Fig. 2.110 NY, NH & H Railroad Co. 1955

Fig. 2.113 NHPD Services building, 2008

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Fig. 2.114 Preliminary Proposal for Railroad Station Approach

The GIlbert-Olmsted plan sought to refit New Haven with symbols of the American 20th century. Central to the plan was the creation of a formal railroad entrance - a new station with a grand plaza and an avenue lined with trees leading to the Green (Figs. 2.114, 15 & 116). The station was realized but nothing else was, and in the end Union Station was left a forlorn palace in a decaying part of town. The design [...] shows Gilberts effort to create a specifically New Haven idiom, mixing Colonial motifs with the new grandeur of the Beaux-Arts movement.154 Although the budget was severely cut and several delays held the project back, Gilberts 1917 design nevertheless is a superb study Fig. 2.117 Union Station in proportion and responding to context. Referring to New Havens colonial foundations, Gilbert uses an English Flemish brick bond with glazed headers cladding, which was popular in late-Georgian architecture. The main lobby rises 3 stories out of a low-entry sequence, revealing the grand scale of the buildings public space contained under an ornamented tin ceiling. By the 1970s, New Havens Urban Renewal Program was well underway, in fact, it was nearing its end and Union Station (as it was now known after the demise of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Company) had been barbarously treated after the city spent a fortune and then some on redesigning the city to accommodate automobile traffic at the expense of other modes of transportation, like rail.155 The building was closed in 1972, with remaining passenger railroad service using a tunnel entrance to the exterior tracks. However, the station building was put on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975, which along with the Northeast Corridor Improvement Project of 1979, saved the building from demolition and provided an opportunity to reuse it as a transportation center.156 [In the early 1980s, Newman Architects] collaborated with Skidmore, Owings & Merrill in the complete exterior and interior restoration of Union Station (Fig. 2.122), rebuilding the dark tunnel passageways leading to the train platforms (Figs. 2.120 & 121), and constructing a connected commuter parking garage (Fig. 2.124). [They] built a canopy for the main entrance (Fig. 2.123), and installed elevators and escalators (Fig. 2.125). Water damaged ceilings, exterior masonry and windows, interior limestone walls, chandeliers, clocks, ticket windows and shop fronts were cleaned and restored. [They] installed new wooden benches replicating the originals, and removed offices on the balconies, allowing natural light to flood through the arched windows (Figs. 2.118 & 119).157 Opening in 1985, the station has become a major regional transportation hub with passenger rail and bus service accessible by highway and local buses.

Figs. 2.118 & 119 Union Station Lobby Before (1973) and After (1990s)

Figs. 2.123 & 124 Union Avenue Approach to Union Train Station

Figs. 2.120 & 121 Union Station Passageway Before and After

Fig. 2.115 Preliminary Proposal for Railroad Station Approach

Fig. 2.116 Recommended Railroad Station Approach

Fig. 2.122 Union Station Restoration Drawings

Fig. 2.125 Main Circulation Space to Passageway

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Fig. 2.126 Church Street South Housing

Fig. 2.127 Church Street South Housing Site Plan

To qualify for federal redevelopment funds at the time to the proposed CBD renewal, plans had to include a substantial percentage of housing; the Church Street South parcel containing approximately 1000 dwellings, of which 30 percent were judged to be substandard, was annexed to the center city renewal project. First plans in 1957 for this newly acquired land showed two housing towers and an extension of Church Street to the station. Light industry - called commercial park - was planned for the majority of the site as the city felt the land too valuable to be used for public housing. Fortunately, negotiations with developers failed to produce any results, so thoughts turned to housing for the rest of the site. In 1965 Mies van der Rohe was commissioned to design 800 units of mixed-income housing and an elementary school (Fig. 2.128). It seems that Mies and the developer could not come to terms over low-cost building, and the Corbusian site plan did not fit the renewal agencys concept of mixed income, intense site development with commercial facilities and structure parking. This disparity soon brought Mies short acquaintance with the city to an end. Mayor Lee then named Charles Moore, newly appointed dean of the School of Art and Architecture at Yale, as architect for the project. At that time, the scheme included 300 low-rise units for low-moderate housing financed at below market interest rates under Section 221 with the remaining 100 units reserved for middle-income families and financed at regular market interest. (These 100 units represented the idea of mixed income, but were subsequently converted to low-moderate when it became apparent that token amenities - colored bathroom fixtures, and larger refrigerators - would not induce middle-income families to pay $100 more a month for essentially the same housing.)158 Moores first plans for the site accommodated the necessary parking for the 400 units in three large lots and showed a vehicular street connecting the station with a point close to the Knights of Columbus tower, even though the Church Street South Extension to the station had already been built. The vehicular street in Moores conception was to be folksy and intimate, but the city engineer flatly stated that all city streets were 36 ft wide. [...] Moores proposed vehicular street was converted to a pedestrian spine. [...] What resulted after 32 site plans was [...] a cohesive, intense site plan with the pedestrian spine and commercial facilities as the central organizing element (Fig. 2.129). [...] The housing is organized off this central axis[.] Each group of housing connects to something beyond. Some open directly off the spine through archways and lead to other housing groups (Fig. 2.131); some end in public open spaces with community rooms and laundry facilities; others lead through narrow walkways to play areas (Fig. 2.130).159 The blocks are repetitious to fit a rigid budget, but the site is planned to create a variety of squares, walls and streets which might conspire to give memorable location, at least to each of the almost identical dwellings, while honoring the bounding streets and (where there were any) the neighbors (Fig. 2.127).160 Moores housing is a vast improvement over Mies acontextual towers, but Moores design has been unable to overcome urban planning, programming, social, and environmental issues that dominate the complex today.

Fig. 2.128 Ludwig Mies van der Vohe model of Church Street South Housing, 1965 Fig. 2.129 Charles Moore Model

Fig. 2.130 Pedestrian Street in Church Street South Housing

Fig. 2.131 View of Tower One from Central Plaza

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Centrally located in the city, this area was historically the road from Boston to New York along Davenport Avenue and Water Street. By the 1930s, this area was extremely congested with automobile traffic, which contributed further to Oak Street growing into a slum by the 1950s. With the construction of Interstates 91 & 95, however, the route to New York was taken off of local roads and put onto the limited access freeways, which would have made Oak Street much more livable had it continued to exist. Unfortunately, the city decided to maintain the area as a major traffic route with the construction of the Oak Street Connector and Church Street Extension (Fig. 2.132). As a result, Church Street South Housing is now isolated from both the Trowbridge Square neighborhood by the Church Street South Extension and from downtown by the Oak Street Connector (Fig. 2.135), and with rail yards and industrial facilities on the sites third side (Fig. 2.134), the housing complex finds itself in the middle of one of the highest air polluted areas of the city (Figs. 2.133 & 136). Due to traffic engineering, Church Street South Housing also finds itself in a very dangerous location for traffic accidents with Union Avenue and Frontage Roads being primary sources of them in New Haven (Fig. 2.138). Furthermore, accessing destinations beyond Church Street South is very difficult for pedestrians due to the enormous crossing distances on streets like the Church Street South Extension (Fig. 2.137).
Fig. 2.133 Location of roads and stationary sources of pollutants

While traffic calming and road dieting measures may help some issues, the coming of a diesel-powered high speed rail service puts any meaningful air pollution mitigation at least another generation away. One begins to question the practicality - and morality - of continuing to locate and locating in the first place, family housing in this location of the city. The projects isolation from the rest of the city contributes significantly to the problems that have arisen in the complex since early in its inception. Far from being the model of housing that Mayor Lee and Charles Moore originally envisioned, Church Street South Housing has emerged as one of New Havens most problematic urban spaces. According to David Littlejohn,
Mayor Lee professed himself disappointed. He had hoped Moore would give New Haven a prize-winning architectural statement, and instead got what he though looked like concrete-block barracks.161

Fig. 2.136 Maps of modeled (a) annual average concentrations, (b) median, and (c) 95th-percentile exposures for benzene. (d) Six-month average concentrations, (e) median, and (f) and 95th-percentile exposures for PM2.5

Located between Union Station, downtown and the burgeoning medical district, Church Street South has enormous potential to become one of New Havens premiere urban spaces, more closely associated with the urban design successes of Trowbridge Square, the Green, and the Edgewood neighborhood, than with the redevelopment plans of the urban renewal era.

Fig. 2.132 Church Street South Housing in Context

Fig. 2.134 Local impact from stationary Fig. 2.135 Near-road impact from mobile

Fig. 2.137 Church Street South Divided Highway

Fig. 2.138 Motor Vehicle Accidents at Intersections in 2008

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A dwelling should be the center of the universe for people who share it, Charles Moore has said. To puzzle out a shape for the center of the universe with one interested family is a complex task. But to place dozens, or even hundreds,of these centers together for inhabitation by people whose identities are generally not even know to the designer approaches the hopeless.162 Caminas suavecito por ahi; salimos de La Jungla [...] No te me pongas a gufiao ni alterao o sentiras el animal por presentao.

- Resident of Church Street South Housing163

You walk around comfortably out there; we come from The Jungle [...] Do not mess with me nor disturb me or you will feel the presence of the animal. Fig. 2.139 Alley way in Church Street South
Church Street South

New Haven, CT

8.3 Acre Site

Existing Program
Tower One Tower East Robert T. Wolfe Building Church Street South Housing Retail, Office and Community Space Recreation Space

Stories

units

Notes

While the design of Church Street South Housing represents a remarkable improvement on previous generations designs for low-income housing, the programming of the project is very similar (Fig. 2.144).164 Rather than being a publicly managed complex, Church Street South is privately owned and managed - the current manager being Northland Development Co. out of Massachusetts - although it receives aid from the Department of Housing and Urban Development for maintenance and rent vouchers through the Section 8 program. This small distinction, however, has not produced better results for tenants and members in the surrounding community as the housing complex has essentially become a de facto public housing project.165 As a result, by the late 1980s, Church Street South Housing developed problems identical to those plaguing conventional housing projects designed in the 40s and 50s. In some instances, design elements of Church Street South, such as narrow walkways have actually aided in the complexs issues (Figs. 2.139, 142 & 143).166 Census tract 1402, which is predominantly populated by Church Street South residents, contains an estimated 525 children [who] live in poverty, or 97% of the total population of children.167 Deficient commercial space combined with the projects insular design and federal red tape when it came to financing commercial space during planning, has left the main plaza a virtual no-mans land (Figs. 2.140 & 146).168 Central greens visually blocked from the street and only accessible by foot have also produced a difficult place to police, even though the NHPD headquarters is only a block away (Figs. 2.141 & 145). As a result of these compounded issues, there have been three homicides and numerous shootings in Church Street South over the last 30 months - reminiscent of the days when the Jungle Boys drug gang controlled the housing complex (Fig. 2.147).169

20 12 8 3 to 4 2

217 119 93 301

Rent-subsidized elderly housing design by Charles Moore in 1971 Completed in 1982. Rent Subsidized elderly housing Studio, 1 & 2 bdrm. HANH managed public housing for elderly. CM 301 - 2, 3, 4 & 5 bdrm rent-subsidized family housing units. CM Convenience store, laundromat, management offices. CM. Greens, Playgrounds, Basketball Court

Fig. 2.140 Central Plaza of Church Street South

Total Housing

Fig. 2.144 Existing Program at Church Street South Housing

730

Fig. 2.141 Interior Courtyard of Church Street South

Fig. 2.142 Alley way in Church Street South

Fig. 2.143 Stairwell to Unit

Figs. 2.145 & 146 Police presence at CSSH and Barren Central Plaza

Fig. 2.147 Homicide Scene at CSSH in May 2010

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New Haven in located in the Cold Northern Climate of the United States, where average winter temperatures are just above freezing, while summer temperatures average above 90 degrees Fahrenheit and are worsened by high humidity (Fig. 2.149). The average year experiences 40 inches of rainfall and 30 inches of snowfall in the New Haven area (Figs. 2.150 & 154). Another place where Moores design falls short is the roofs, which are flat roof construction - a curious choice in a New England climate. In summer months, the high-angled sun bakes the roofs of the Church Street South Housing units, while in the winter snow and ice pile up. The wide range of freeze and thaw cycles that the climatic region experiences is disastrous for flat roofs. Compounding the issue has been the lack of maintenance to the complexs mechanical and drainage systems. The mechanical system for Church Street South Housing consists of six central oil fired boilers with fin tube baseboard units individually controlled.170 The system allows for tenants to control heating for their individual units, but the system has become outdated and is in need of replacement. In the winter of 2011, several residents were forced to leave their apartments due to a faulty furnace, which leaked carbon monoxide into the units (Fig. 2.152).171 The drainage system has failed in numerous places throughout the complex where severe ice build-up has compromised exterior drain pipes (Fig. 2.148). Without an escape route for the water, it often ends up in the apartments, where it causes damage to finishes and furnishings - allowing mold growth, and destroying precious possessions of tenants (Fig. 2.153). Additionally, the electrical systems are placed poorly on the buildings. They are exposed, low to the ground and obstructive to windows. The electrical systems pose a danger to children with their accessibility and an inconvenience to tenants due to their placement (Fig. 2.151).
Fig. 2.149 Climate Regions of the United States

Fig. 2.148 Drainage system failure

Fig. 2.154 Church Street South Housing in Winter

Fig. 2.150 Annual Temperature, Precipitation and Snowfall in New Haven area

Fig. 2.151 Electrical and monitoring systems

Fig. 2.152 Furnace repair in Apartment Unit

Fig. 2.153 Flooding in apartment due

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[Charles Moores] office was called on to design 400 three and four story low income apartment buildings (of which 301 were constructed), public elderly housing in an eight story building (the Robert T. Wolfe apartments) and elderly housing under another federal program, sponsored by the Jewish Community Council (Tower One).172 The architects pressed for public elderly housing on a triangular corner of the Church Street South site for a variety of reasons: the site across the street from the railroad station provided a view of interesting activity, and had excellent access, so it seemed a superior site for elderly occupancy; and, from the designers point of view, it allowed (because fewer elderly people require cars) for a density of inhabitation on this point of land which would, given low rise apartments and adequate parking, have been altogether inadequate to claim it for human occupancy. The doubleloaded corridor scheme responds to the inevitable low budget for public housing (Fig. 2.156). An important issue was how to keep windows for identical apartments from declaring the building dreary and monotonous. The response, admittedly and proudly cosmetic (like the painted porches at Church Street South), was to affix as many bay windows as the budget would allow, and to use a change from smooth to rougher block to recall the scale was well as the materials of the three and four story buildings adjacent. The four story wing of this block reaches out toward these neighbors (Fig. 2.157).173 The most active and concerned client in the Church Street South area was (and is) the Jewish Community Councils Housing Committee, which was organized to try to provide places for congregate dining and communal spaces. The site for the building is just across an expressway from downtown New Haven, and Roche and Dinkeloos Knights of Columbus tower. [The] program called for [the] tower to be the same number of stories, and almost the same size in plan as the Knights of Columbus, on just one fourth the budget, so [Moores firm] sought a cordial relationship based not on competition, but on modest reflection of the macho structure nearby (Figs. 2.158 & 159). Thanks in part to the relaxed and cheerful atmosphere, and mostly to thoughtful management, waiting lists are long, and donations have been enthusiastic, so the public spaces, originally too small, have been extended into new dining spaces and a conservatory (2.160)[.]174 Completed in 1982, Tower East has joined the skyline with Tower One. With 12-stories and 119 rent-subsidized elderly apartments, Tower East is the younger sibling to the 20-story 219 unit building. In 2011, 14 apartment units in Tower One and Tower East were renovated from elderly units to assisted living units.175 A newer addition to the Church Street South site is the St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church, which sits at One Tower Lane, adjacent to Tower One and Tower East (Fig. 2.155).

Fig. 2.155 St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church

Fig. 2.160 Tower One Ground & First floor plans

Fig. 2.156 Robert T. Wolfe Lower & Upper floor plans

Fig. 2.157 Robert T. Wolfe Union Avenue Facade

Fig. 2.158 Tower East (left) and Tower One (right)

Fig. 2.159 Tower East (left) and Tower One (right)

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All the buildings east of the pedestrian spine and south of Water Street would have been sitting in water prior to the 1870s when this area of the city began to get filled in for railroad tracks and development (Fig. 2.161). Clues to the historic shoreline remain in the steep topographic change from the corner of South Orange Street and Columbus Avenues to Church Street South and Columbus Avenue - that hill is the old shoreline (Fig. 2.162). The Oak Street Connector was laid on the bed of the West Creek, which was originally covered up in the 1870s with the growth of the Oak Street neighborhood over the flats - joining with the urban fabric of the city. The effect of the submerged highway is to separate the Hill from the Downtown and West Village in a similar way that the creek once did. Consequently, much of Church Street South is actually in a flood plain and basement level spaces in buildings such as the parking garages and the Gateway Center (former NY, NH & H Railroad Company Headquarters) regularly flood during torrential rainstorms (Fig. 2.164).176 The West Creek once emptied out directly into the New Haven Harbor, now water from the Oak Street Connector has a half mile trip to the harbor due to the Long Wharf Redevelopment Area project completed during urban renewal.177 Census Tract 1402 consists mainly of Church Street South and contains a population of over 1,500 people in over 750 households. The neighborhood is characterized as low-income, with a racially mixed population, though predominantly Latino (Fig. 2.163).

Created from new parcels of land during urban renewal, Chuch Street South Housing has no underlying zoning and is designated as Planned Development District 15 in the City of New Haven Municipal Zoning Map. The city now has well over 100 Planned Developments - making Church Street South one of the citys earliest. Planned Developments are designated to projects of high architectural merit that creatively and effectively meet functional and formal requirements of the site while not necessarily conforming strictly to zoning regulations - essentially PD status provides variances to worthy (or politically convenient) projects (Fig. 2.165).

Fig. 2.164 New Haven Zoning Map

Fig. 2.161 New Haven Topographical Map

Fig. 2.162 Church Street South Topography

Fig. 2.163 Church Street South Demographic Data

Fig. 2.165 Planned Development Regulations, New Haven Municipal Zoning Ordinance

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Conceptual Framework

Constructing the Foundations of Design

1. Theoretical Basis
Design Considerations

64

2. Program Definition
Building Typology

74

3. Design Inspiration
Precedents

84

Fig. 1.0 1963 View of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Station in New Haven, CT from the station approach, South Orange Street

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3.1 Conceptual Framework


Theoretical Basis for Design

Downtown Crossing Downtown Crossing/Route 34 East is the City of New Havens plan to transform Route 34 East, from Union Avenue to Park Street in downtown, from highway stub to slower speed, city streets. These city streets will bridge the gap between New Havens Downtown (its business, government, arts and entertainment, and education centers) and its Medical District and Hill neighborhoods. The Hill and the Medical District, in particular, were separated from the heart of the Downtown when the highway was constructed in the 1950s. Today, Route 34 East of the Air Rights Garage is a physical and psychological barrier between the medical district and the larger Downtown area. Access to Union Station will also be improved; it is a major stop for both Amtrak and Metro-North rail service.1 Amistad Park Amistad Park and surrounding blocks now occupies the area once known as The Hill, which grew in this area beginning in the early 19th century as a working class area of laborers mostly working in tanneries. Since the early 2000s, with the completion of the Park by the city in coordination with the construction of Newmans Amistad Clinical Research Facility in 2002 (Fig. 3.3), the area has begun to emerge as a biomedical research and medical-related campus.
Fig. 3.3 Amistad Research Facility

Fig. 3.2 100 College Street

Coliseum Site Originally the Tenth Square of the New Haven Colony, this area once exsited as the mercantile center of the city between the two creeks, which opened into the Harbor and received ships along the Long Wharf. With the rise of the railroad in the 19th century, the harbor quickly receded behind tracks and service facilities and this area became a commercial warehouse and wholesale district. By the 1950s, the area was distressed and decaying. After the construction of the Interstate Highways and the Oak Street Connector, this site became home to the New Haven Coliseum, an iconic Brutalist building of the urban renewal era (Fig. 3.4). Demolished in 2007, the site is now a surface parking lot awaiting development. Union Station Transit Oriented Development New Havens Union Station is the principal hub in Connecticut for passenger rail services. It is a multimodal transportation center providing connections to bus, shuttle, taxi, and rental car as well as commuter parking facilities. It is the regional center of rail operations and maintenance for the Metro North New Haven Line and Amtrak, and provides a significant opportunity for Transit Oriented Development (TOD). TODs, by definition, involve the development of residential, commercial and employment centers within walking distance of public transportation facilities including rail and rapid transit.2
Fig. 3.1 City Plan Department Projection of Future Growth in New Haven Fig. 3.5 Future high-speed rail service

Fig. 3.4 New Haven Coliseum

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Fig. 3.6 Downtown Crossing Master Plan

The Downtown Crossing/Route 34 East project will reclaim 10 acres of land, currently occupied by expressway stubs and ramps, and make it available for development, including residential, retail, and health care and research facilities. The new city streets will be designed at a scale suitable and safe for all forms of transportation: pedestrians, bikes, public transit, and vehicles (Fig. 3.6). A primary goal of the Downtown Crossing/Route 34 East project is to develop a livable, walkable community while providing local and regional connectivity. With housing and shopping linked to nearby transit and more comfortable streets for pedestrians and bicycles, this project will encourage increased physical activity and reduce air and noise pollution associated with automobile travel, supporting the Citys sustainable growth objectives. The project will also provide both the transportation infrastructure and the developable land needed to keep New Havens economy expanding. Development of the first parcel (Parcel D or 100 College Street) will provide approximately 960 jobs upon completion (Fig. 3.9). This land is ideally suited for transit-oriented development - a dense mix of commercial, retail, and housing located within an easy walk of transit.3 Alexion Pharmaceuticals Inc. has announced it will move its headquarters to New Haven with up to $51 million in state aid. Governor Malloy announced the move on Tuesday as part of his First Five economic development initiative (Fig. 3.8).4 With work set to begin reconnecting College Street, the city just picked up another $2.2 million to do the same down the block. The $2.2 million will go toward designing the next phases of Downtown Crossing, the step-by-step filling in of the Route 34 Connector Highway to Nowhere and reconnecting downtown with streets at the gateway to the Hill neighborhood. The first phase of Downtown Crossing has already been designed and approved: The filling in of the Route 34 Connectors last exit and the construction of an 11-story medical-oriented office building atop it (Fig. 3.10). Physical work on that phase is set to begin in February. The new $2.2 million should cover the architectural work needed to design how to reconfigure Temple Street as well as Orange Street as they, too, connect with the streets on the other side of Route 34, according to city development chief Kelly Murphy.5

Upon further examination of the citys stated goals for the project, questions arise about the practicality of creating a multi-modal environment without significantly reorienting the street pattern from automobile dominated to balanced for all street users. The Downtown Crossing project as it now stands does not remove the sunken highway spur. It rebuilds it and widens it (Fig. 3.7). Though it is only Phase One of a multi-phase project, it so mimics the aws of the original highway spur that without improvement it is likely to remain as much an obstacle to reconnecting the City as the existing highway to nowhere. The questions that must be answered now are: how did the project move so far from the original vision (Fig. 3.15); and, perhaps more important, how can the present project be recongured into the framework of the original vision,especially given the Fall 2012 deadlines built into the TIGER II funding. Fortunately the answer to the second question may be contained in the answer to the rst. When the Carter Winstanley development became the centerpiece of the TIGER II grant application the Citys focus shifted from one of just reconnecting Downtown Crossing, to a focus of reconnecting Downtown Crossing in conjunction with capturing the projected revenue, public and private, from the Winstanley biotech development. That in and of itself was not a bad thing. But as has been discussed in previous sections, despite the fact that there were many public meetings, there was not a robust public process that would have maintained a healthy balance between private and public needs. Winstanleys concerns were addressed. Public concerns were allowed to be aired in meetings, but (with the exception of some tinkering around the edges) they were not addressed, and are not reected in either the nal plans, or in a process that would have kept the Winstanley development embedded in the larger vision6 As early as 1972, the Oak Street Connector was seen as a real disaster, which severed [...] the center of the city.7 Luckily the Highway was never completed beyond York Street, but the citys current plan calls for maintaining the highways car carrying capacity on the Frontage Roads while cosmetically applying cycling infrastructure and crosswalks to intersections that are being widened. Rather than producing the type of urban infrastructure and buildings that make downtown New Haven walkable and pleasant, 100 College Street and the streets that serve it are instead typologically the same as the urban renewal buildings that surround it (Fig. 3.14).8 In effect, the city is putting the desires of single-occupancy suburban commuters above the basic, minimum needs of local residents - continuing the thinking of the 1950s (Figs. 3.11, 12 & 13).

Fig. 3.15 Proposed highway redesign from community workshop

Fig. 3.14 Linear relationship between accidents and roadway width

Fig. 3.7 Schematic Design for Roadway Reconfiguration

Fig. 3.8 Rendered intersection of MLK Blvd & College St.

Fig. 3.9 100 College St. Render

Fig. 3.10 100 College St. Longitudinal Section

Fig. 3.11 Off-street Parking, 1951

Fig. 3.12 Off-street Parking, 2008

Fig. 3.13 Population & Parking Comparison

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Amistad Park is an emerging medical district in the city, directly south of the Yale School of Medicine Campus and Yale-New Haven Hospital. Surrounding the Park numerous medical-related facilities and opportunities for development, including Newman Architects Amistad Clinical Research Facility, built in 2002 and containing a 1000 car parking garage (Fig. 3.17).9 Concrete galore was what the students at Roche Dinkeloos Lee High School got on its opening in 1964 - concrete, little daylight, and winds across the fields of fire cleared by urban renewal and highway construction (Fig. 3.20). Adolescence is hard enough without having to spend some years of it in a lost piece of the Maginot Line, and the city eventually divested itself of the building named after its urbanrenewal mayor and sold it to Yale. It is now the nations most defensible School of Nursing (Fig. 3.19).10 In 2001, Venturi, Scott Browns Anlyan Center for Medical Research and Education was ready for construction. It has turned out to be a four-square and upstanding, clear-cut in mass, smooth in surface, and burgeoning in volume, crowned with its high, shiny air vents like the stacks of one of the great old ocean liners. It recalls some of Venturi, Scott Browns fine buildings for science at Princeton, but it is much bigger - 450,000 square feet - and even more powerfully monumental than they are. It is truly generic architecture, a strongly detailed, big-windowed shell able to contain many different uses. Its bulk and its surface have power, its interior is free; and it does indeed rise in the center of that whole daunting city of pain like a great ship, the culminating mass, the dominating symbol of its awful physical command (center-right in Fig. 3.16).11 The feeling is that [...] the medical area creates its own laws, which are, however, intricately involved with Natures implacable requirements. Some of our most conspicuous architects have done buildings for it in recent years: Cesar Pelli,the Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine, a powerful definition of Congress Avenue; Frank Gehry, the Yale Psychiatric Institute across the street, a rather diffident little building for that architect. There wasnt enough money to let me twist it, Gehry says.12 Amidst all the new construction, however, are clues to the areas history. Richard Williamss 1903-designed St. Anthonys Roman Catholic Church still presides [on The Hill], like the church of the Italian village that it was lovingly designed to recall.13 Three public school buildings still stand near the intersection of Prince and Gold Streets. The two on Gold Street are still owned by the city, while the old Prince Street School has since been converted into medical offices (Fig. 3.18). Small, irregular vacant lots around Amistad Park, now owned by biomedical developers, also reference the neighborhood that once existed and also serve to provide opportunity for further development in the district.14 The Lulac Head Start building would benefit from a more urban building, perhaps similar to one at the corner of Davenport Ave. and Asylum St. Amistad Park could also use a mixed-use character like that of the Green.15

Fig. 3.20 Richard C. Lee High School Plan, 1967

Fig. 3.21 New Haven Coliseum & KoC Tower

Fig. 3.19 Yale Nursing School, former High School

Fig. 3.22 New Haven Coliseum Demolition, 2007

In 2008, the City of New Haven chose Northland Development Co., manager of Church Street South Housing, with a design from the architectural office of Robert A.M. Stern, as the preferred developer for the Coliseum Site (Figs. 3.21 & 22). Calling their proposal Tenth Square, Northland begins with a reference to Downtown New Havens extensive history: According to The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut, the activity of colonial-era New Haven focused on the tenth square - a group of streets plotted to the southeast between the harbor and the original Market Place (i.e., the New Haven Green). This square held the active mercantile quarter. The Long Wharf (Pier), which stretched to the harbor from the tenth square, housed an extensive shipping industry which controlled New Havens economy in the early Federal period. Northlands concept for the Coliseum Site is a synergistic mix of uses, based upon new urbanism principles, designed to reduce [the] impact on the environment, city services and roads while maximizing taxes and jobs. The development will be situated in a manner that respects the historic significance of the adjacent Ninth Square district yet integrates innovative methods of sustainable design [...] a variety of public and open spaces, from wide, active sidewalks to commercial gathering places, will contribute to the developments distinctive character, providing a valuable amenity for the surrounding community. To Northland, the project is an opportunity to resurrect, from a failed urban renewal attempt, the rich culture and diversity that once thrived in this former mixed use neighborhood (Fig. 3.24). [T]he RFQ also suggests a certain permeability to pedestrians, such as a major Theater Alley, and a pedestrian connection alley from the center of the block through towards the train station (Fig. 3.25). Northland describes this as a network of streetscapes by which pedestrians can easily circulate around a site is one of the fundamental aspects of good urban design in that it promotes the health and wellbeing of the local community, economy and environment. This project is designed with the pedestrian in mind [...] the pedestrian network will be extended to adjacent street corners, providing safe and convenient circulation throughout the area for all pedestrians. The Northland RFQ also mentions that the streets of New Haven have become more bicycle friendly with the aim of encouraging residents and students to use bikes for their short range trips. This aids in taking cars off the local roads, making them safer for all users while also promoting healthier active lifestyles and a cleaner, greener environment. Plentiful bicycle racks are identified as a critical need.16 In 2010, however, Northland backed out of the project and the Long Wharf Theatre signed a long-term lease to remain in its current location.17 As a result, a new preferred developer has been chosen, but the Stern design, with its architectural language reminiscent of commercial warehouses, is a good place to start from for any future development on the Coliseum Site ( Fig. 3.23).18

Fig. 3.16 Aerial view of Amistad Park

Fig. 3.17 Amistad Clinical Research Facility

Fig. 3.18 Former Prince Street School

Fig. 3.23 Robert AM Stern Tenth Square Proposal

Fig. 3.24 Tenth Square Floor Plans

Fig. 3.25 Tenth Square Theatre Entry

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The New Haven market is experiencing some of the highest levels of development in the Citys history, with billions of dollars in public and private investments scheduled to come online within the next five years (Fig. 3.26). This unprecedented era of development can create an optimal time to leverage this activity with meaningful transit-oriented development of statewide significance (Fig. 3.27). [...] Parking demand at Union Station today exceeds available supply. The existing garage and surface lot often fill to capacity and drivers park at offsite locations and shuttle back to the station. With continued ridership growth, the City will have insufficient supply to meet future demand without new garage construction.

The Conceptual Design envisioned and described [...] will accommodate current and proposed ridership demand, will re-energize Union Station through new retail opportunities, will create private development opportunities and will enhance the area around Union Station. The full build-out program (Figs. 3.28, 29 & 30) consists of the following components: New South Garage. A new 667 space garage will be constructed on the south side of Union Station with a bridge from the second level of the garage to deliver riders into the station at the second level. Once inside the station, patrons will descend on new escalators onto the main concourse level. New North Garage. A new 530 space garage will be constructed just north of the existing garage and will be connected to that garage. The new garage will be set back from Union Avenue by about 50 feet to leave area for the development of a liner building. New Retail in Existing Garage. The first bay of the garage along Union Avenue will be eliminated (loss of 40 spaces) and 14,000 square feet of new retail will be built. The liner building concept is based on similar, successful projects in this and similar markets. New Liner Building on North Garage. A new 51,000 square feet building lining the garage with retail on the ground floor on Union Avenue and five levels of office above. New Development Parcel. A new 15-story residential tower will be constructed over five levels of parking. A new 45,000 square feet building just north of the tower with retail on the ground floor on Union Avenue and five levels of office above.19

Fig. 3.28 Existing Union Station Site

Fig. 3.26 Union Station TOD: Site Context

Fig. 3.27 Potential Future Development Sites near Union Station

Bringing the city closer to reaching its goals,20 is the fact that Metro North, which operates out of Union Station, became the busiest rail line in the country in 2012 - surpassing the Long Island Railroad21 - in addition to the proposed High-Speed Rail Service between Springfield and New Haven.22 The current city plans, however, would benefit from less parking, more local and regional transit, and building massing that is oriented vertically, rather than horizontally, which tends to compete with Union Station.

Fig. 3.29 Transit Oriented Development Proposal

Fig. 3.30 New program for Union Station by floor level

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Fig. 3.31 Northland Development Site Plan

In February 2011, the Housing Authority of New Haven and the city took a first step to transforming [...] the Church Street South housing complex [...] into a mixed-income community. Now all its going to take is community involvement and approval, at least five more years, and about $520 million. [...] Northland has recently run afoul of city inspectors who discovered deadly levels of carbon monoxide in apartments, the result of furnaces that were in dangerous disrepair. Tenants had to be evacuated out of fears for their lives, and the feds ordered emergency repairs. City inspectors discovered that despite receiving millions in Section 8 public-housing voucher reimbursements, Northland allowed the complex to remain in dangerous disrepair and was slow to respond to demands to bring apartments up to code. [...] The Church Street South master plan will become a PDD, or planned development district project, to be submitted to the Board of Aldermen for approval. It is being made possible by a $950,000 challenge grant that HANH received from the feds.23 According to Jissette Chona, a tenant organizer at Church Street South [...] No one should be living in these apartments any longer. [...] At a meeting with local politicians[,] Mayor John DeStefano and top city officials distributed new architectural drawings (Figs. 3.31, 32, 33 & 34) that he said aim to start a discussion about what the city wants to see at that site. The drawings [...] represent an early concept plan. [...] Chona said she wants to see the development reborn, and she believes it will be. Her neighbors are still living with leaking roofs, mice, mold and drafty windows, she said. The apartments havent been significantly improved since they were built in 1969, she said. The conditions of the apartments are really bad, she said. No one wants to live like this. [...] Northland Senior Vice President Peter Standish affirmed his companys commitment to redeveloping the jungle. The fact that the citys apartment vacancy is currently the lowest in the country - the greater New Haven metro market has a 2.1 percent vacancy rate, according to a recent study - suggests that the area is severely undersupplied, Standish wrote. The Church Street South property offers an ideal opportunity for a mixed income, mix-used, transit oriented development. Standish said the company is in the financial position to handle the development and is proceeding with plans to do so. We are currently in the master-planning phase for the project, Standish said. The master-planning is being funded by a $1 million grant from the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Northland applied for the grant along with the city and the Housing Authority of New Haven; the goal was to come up with a plan to reconfigure the two developments across the street from Union Station: Church Street South and the Robert T. Wolfe housing complex. The grant application offers a preliminary vision of the project as a mixed-use development with 600-800 residential units and 200,000 to 400,000 square feet of office and retail space. About 20 to 30 percent of the residential units would be set aside as affordable housing for households with less than 60 percent of area median income.

As redevelopment plans await, Northland is collecting about $220,000 per month from the federal government for the 301 subsidized units, depending on how many are filled, according to HUD spokeswoman Rhonda Siciliano. Church Street South operates as a project-based Section 8 site. DeStefano briefed neighborhood aldermen Wednesday on what he called an early concept of what Church Street South could become. The drawings he circulated showed a six-story high apartment complex looming over the historic train station. They showed Columbus Avenue, which is currently closed to traffic for one block, reopened as a city street. They showed a pedestrian plaza across from the train station and a small park on South Orange. Aldermanic President Jorge Perez was one of four Hill aldermen briefed on the proposal. We didnt like it, he reported. [...] The plans are horrible, added Alderwoman Dolores Coln, whose ward includes Church Street South. Meanwhile, DeStefano acknowledged that conditions at the complex need to improve. I dont think anyone thinks it should linger as it is, he said. Something has got to happen. The easiest solution, he said, would be to spend $5 million to $6 million on a short-term fix. DeStefano said he is not advocating that path, because the building would only hold together another five years. A five-year fix is not a sustainable development. Alderwoman Coln said that might be necessary if the company waits much longer while residents grapple with dilapidated homes. Last years snows hit the complex hard, she said. It became common for residents even on the first floors to have leaks in their ceilings. If they dont plan to redevelop right now, they need to spend some serious money to make some real improvements on the property, Coln said. If youre not going to tear them down, fix them.24 Northland has essentially been allowing the complex to deteriorate in order to necessitate its demolition and redevelopment. Unfortunately, the proposed plans do not represent an improvement over Moores design. Moore was able to take a low budget and a last minute materials change and still create an impressively contextual project25 - most notably with the window proportions, type (2-over-2 double-hung), and sill condition; and the masonry quoining achieved with concrete block (Fig. 3.37) - that references Georgian architecture (Fig. 3.36). Both St. Basils design for a new church building (Fig. 3.35) and Northlands proposal could use a more contextual response. Moores housing should be renovated with new infill development instead of a proposal with the architectural character, site planning and massing characteristics that Northland is beginning to suggest. Or, alternatively, a new approach for redeveloping Church Street South is required.

Fig. 3.32 View to Union Station

Fig. 3.33 View of South Orange Street

Fig. 3.34 View of Union Avenue view

Fig. 3.35 St. Basil Church Render

Fig. 3.36 New Haven Free Public Library

Fig. 3.37 Photo detail of scored block, rustication & cornice

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3.2 Conceptual Framework


Programmatic Definition
Union Square Program
New Haven, CT 21 Acre Site

Fig. 3.43 Diagram of the potential Preservation Approach to Church Street South Housing Renovate existing structures Insert new construction Maintain in the long-term

Preservation Approach
units 217 119 93 429 total area (sf) Notes Rent-subsidized elderly housing Rent-Subsidized Elderly Housing HANH managed public housing for elderly

Existing Program
Tower One Tower East Robert T. Wolfe Building Subtotal Existing Program

Renovate existing structures Insert new construction Long-term maintenance plan Single-Family Townhouse

New Residential Program


One, Three & Four Bedroom Townhouses 3-4 Bedroom House w/ 1-bdrm Rental Multifamily Apartment Buildings Subtotal New Program Housing
39 54 544 Single-family, Owner-occupied attached dwellings to be developed individually 2-family, owner-occupied detached dwellings to be developed individually 5-story apartment buildings organized around courtyard with a mix of flats and duplexes

Fig. 3.39 Residential program

Party wall, double exposure Single-family unit Private rear & front yards Dedicated rear parking Two-Family Row House

637

Double exposure

Singlefamily unit

Private rear & front yards

Dedicated rear parking

New Commercial Program


Commercial Retail Commercial Office Medical Office Bio-medical Research Laboratory Live-work Subtotal Commercial Program 64500 66000 88500 130612.5 24000 373612.5 High end and neighborhood-oriented retail space for lease Leasable space for mid-size and large commercial enterprises Leasable space for health services offices Leasable space for private companies Gallery, studio, workshop, small office, incubator business start-ups

Detached Three-sided exposure Basement rental unit Owner-occupied unit On- & off-street parking
Fig. 3.40 Commercial program

Three-sided exposure Double-loaded corridor

Basement rental unit

Owneroccupied unit

On- & off-street parking

New Parking
Underground Off-Street On-Street Subtotal Parking Program 864 93 286 1243

Apartment Block Double-loaded corridor Apartment flat unit Apartment duplex unit Multi-story building Central courtyard block Underground parking Mixed-use block

Apartment flat unit

New Community Program


Courtyards Lafayette-Portsea Plaza Union Square St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church Union Avenue Promenade 5 Restricted Access Courtyards Public Plaza Public Green New Construction for Relocated Church Pedestrian Right-of-Way Across from Union Station Public Green

Fig. 3.41 Parking facilities

Apartment duplex unit

Multi-story building

Central courtyard block

Fig. 3.38 Union Square Proposed Program

Small Green

Fig. 3.42 Community program

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Underground parking garage Mixed-use block Fig. 3.44 Diagram of the process for developing programmatically appropriate building typologies

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Two-family house typology in The Hill


Purpose-built two-family houses first emerge in the Antebellum era and were vertically-divided. Horizontally divided two-family houses developed in the 1880s - rising to prominence by the 1900s. Showy Classical-Renaissance, Stick and Shingle styles are found in Edgewood, lower Howard Avenue & Orange-Whitney.26

Church typology in Downtown & The Hill


Early churches in the Colony doubled as meetinghouses and reflected modest means. By the early 19th c., the Congregational churches adopted a Federal style. In the mid-19th c., the Gothic emerged as church groups diversified. Few modern church buildings exist in the city (though there are a couple modern synagogues) preferring, instead, revival styles.29

Row house typology in The Hill


Row houses came to New Haven in the 1860s with many examples dating from the 1870s. The middle-and-upper class variety are prominent in West Village, Wooster Square and Orange Street, while working-and-middle class examples can be found in Dixwell and The Hill. Most row houses in New Haven are attached and vertically-divided, although the Trowbridge Square neighborhood boasts a large number of detached, horizontally-divided row houses, and there are examples, particularly on Henry Street, of attached and horizontally-divided rowhouses.34

Fig. 3.45 2-family house map

Fig. 3.49 Church typology map

137 Portsea Street


c. 1880 A vertically-divided, two-family vernacular house, reminiscent of the 1835-1845 Greek revival, vertically-divided tradition found in West Village in the Antebellum era, although it is a later vernacular version from The Hill. Fig. 3.46 137 Portsea Street

First Congregational (Center) Church


1812-1815 Designed by Asher Benjamin and built by Ithiel Town, Center Church was sited prominently on the Green during the Federal eras redesign of the citys civic center.30 Fig. 3.54 Row house typology in The Hill

79-83 Spring Street


c. 1875 Raised on a basement, this two-story Italianate, stucco-covered masonry group with gable roof and bracketed cornice is the oldest row in the city.35 Fig. 3.55 79-83 Spring Street

518-526 Howard Avenue


c. 1892 The Robert Dubois building is a threestory Queen Anne/Colonial Revival style brick residential row with a shed roof. The property is owned by a single owner with no individual lots.38

Trinity Lutheran Church


1870 Designed by David R. Brown, this church reflects the popular High Victorian Gothic style.31

125 Portsea Street


c. 1880 Part of the Andrew C. Smith development, this house has an Italianate style with a gable roof and paired round-arch front gable windows. An examples of horizontally-divided two-family house that was beginning to emerge in New Haven in the 1880s.27

Figs. 3.50 & 51 Center Church & St. Anthonys Church

Fig. 3.58 518-526 Howard Avenue

529-537 Howard Avenue


c. 1880; porches c. 1910 This three-story Italianate brick mixeduse commercial and residential row on individual, separately-owned lots sports modillioned cornices. 537 was recently rehabilitated by Neighborhood Housing Services of New Haven.36

267-281 Portsea Street


c. 1886 This row is consists of three separate buildings on individual lots and independently owned. The group was rehabilitated in 1970 as part of the Urban Renewal program.39 Fig. 3.59 267-281 Portsea Street

St, Anthonys Roman Catholic Church


1903 Designed by Richard Williams, this church is like the church of the Italian village that it was lovingly designed to recall, and it Fig. 3.52 Trinity Lutheran Church reflects the revival style that is still popular today (although often not as well-executed).32

Fig. 3.47 125 Cedar Street

644 Howard Avenue


c. 1910 A two and a half story Queen Anne/ Colonial Revival style frame house with cross gable, modillioned cornices and a two-story front porch. This is a reserved variation of the showy two-family houses that were developing elsewhere in the city.28

Fig. 3.56 529-537 Howard Avenue

126 Cedar Street


1882 This Italianate, detatched frame row house with gable roof was part of the Andrew C. Smith development of houses in Trowbridge Square. Previously a horizontally-divided two-family house, it now houses one family.37

145 Dewitt Street


1978 This is a modern example of a singleowner row house development by the Hill Central Community Cooperative. The design reflects more suburban sensibilities than 267-281 Portsea Street, across the street.40

St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church


1993
33

Fig. 3.48 644 Howard Avenue

Currently trying to fund a new building that will reflect a Mediterranean-Greek style (Fig. 3.35), the current building is in the Greek-revival mode.

Fig. 3.53 St. Basil Greek Church

Fig. 3.57 126 Cedar Street

Fig. 3.60 145 Dewitt Street

3 | 76

3 | 77

Apartment building typology in Downtown & The Hill


In the latter part of the 19th century [the] multiple-occupancy structure (expanded both vertically and horizontally from the older urban module) [became] the norm for the 20th-century hotel and apartment house, which developed as land prices rose in the center of town. However, as late as 1919 there were barely a dozen apartment houses in town, but the 20s saw an outburst of them. Tudor was a popular style, partly no doubt because of its informality but also because turrets and bays provided a useful kit for articulating the difficult expanse of the newly enlarged facades. At the same time low,U-shaped courtyard apartment buildings began to develop in older middle-and-upper class suburbs where land was cheaper. New Haven also contains several modern apartment buildings, which often take the courtyard typology to an absurd extreme.41

Mixed-use commercial typology in Downtown & The Hill


Prior to the 1830s when New Haven received its first commercial block buildings, shops had been little different from houses. By the 1830s, however, three important commercial block buildings were constructed - establishing a new standard of functionalism and sophistication with a long uniform facade, uniform fenestration, an even roof line, a height of four stories, and above all a large expanse of glass on the street between supporting stone piers. Throughout the 19th century and early 20th century, the scale and intensity of commercial buildings grew as New Havens downtown developed. By the 1950s, the downtowns surrounding neighborhoods also supported a large number of small commercial buildings - either fashioned out of the first floors of houses or built as new buildings, they were especially prominent in immigrant neighborhoods. Modern commercial buildings have taken the skyscraper form - sometimes with a podium as well.48

Fig. 3.61 Apartment building typology map

284 Orange Street


c. 1875 Thought to be New Havens first apartment house, the Kensington Flat is located where there was once-stylish Victorian neighborhood in downtown.42

58 Liberty Street
c. 1910 This four-story Colonial Revival style apartment building has a flat roof and commercial character, located in the middle of the Trowbridge Square neighborhood.45

Exchange Building
1832 One of New Havens three important commercial blocks of the 1830s, the Exchange Building was the public symbol of the citys business life, occupying the important site at the corner of Church and Chapel.49

Taft Apartments
1911

Fig. 3.68 Mixed-use commercial typology map

Fig. 3.62 284 Orange Street

142-144 Portsea Street


c. 1885 This vertically-divided, Queen Anne style multi-family house has a hip roof and two projecting front gable pavilions. This house is a mirrored variation of the two-family house.43

115 Portsea Street


c. 1940 This flat-roofed apartment building is a peculiar entry into the Trowbridge Square neighborhood - compare it with Fig. 3.63, which blends into the surrounding context.46

Fig. 3.65 58 Liberty Street

Fig. 3.69 Exchange Building

52-54 Liberty Street


c. 1885 This three and a half-story Queen Annestyle frame dwelling with gable roof and bargeboarded gable rakes has a first-story that has been converted for commercial use. This is a typology that became popular in immigrant neighborhoods beginning in the early 20th c.50

On the corner of College Street, the Taft Hotel. Symbol of the social renascence of New Haven in the era of the City Beautiful, the Tafts great arched windows and well-bred Adamesque detail once touched New Haven with a glow of Ritz-Carlton elegance. Now an apartment building, the main lobby contains a restaurant.52

360 State Street


2010 This recent entry into New Havens skyline is a skyscraper placed on a podium of parking. While the ground floor contains a grocery store, much more is left to be desired with how the building deals with the streetscape of the city, particularly on the State Street side. Furthermore, the building privatizes green space on the roof of the parking garage and internalizes amenities.53

Fig. 3.72 Taft Apartments

Fig. 3.63 142-144 Portsea Street

627-629 Howard Avenue


c. 1910 This shed roof, three-story Colonial Revival-style multi-family house has modillioned cornices.44 It appropriately fronts Howard Avenue.

19-31 Liberty Street


1962 Designed by Carl Koch of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Liberty Square Homes is an example of the modern apartment complex in a residential neighborhood. The buildings have been significantly altered since their construction.47

Fig. 3.66 115 Portsea Street

Fig. 3.70 52-54 Liberty Street

167 Cedar Street


c. 1906 This brick commercial building is located on the border of the Trowbridge Square park and is indicative of the growth of the neighborhood as an Italian neighborhood around the turn of the 20th century.51

Fig. 3.64 627-629 Howard Avenue

Fig. 3.67 Liberty Square Homes

Fig. 3.71 167 Cedar Street

Fig. 3.73 360 State Street

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3 | 79

Fig. 3.74 New Haven Municipal Zoning Ordinance - Single and Two-family house regulations

Townhouses, row houses, and two-family houses fall into the Low-Middle Density District in the City of New Haven Municipal Zoning Ordinance (Fig. 3.74), while multi-family apartment buildings are designated under the General High Density Zone (Figs. 3.75 & 76). Planned Developments generally adhere to these regulations - only diverging from them in response to unique site conditions or a design innovation that accommodates the purpose of a given regulation even though it may not technically meet the requirements. For instance, an open space that does not meet the 250 square foot minimum per dwelling unit, as required by the ordinance in these zones, but is designed to be used functionally by more people can be a justification for the smaller space. Shared parking spaces, cycling infrastructure, and pedestrian amenities can also reduce the need for a minimum of one or two car parking space for each dwelling, as another example.

Fig. 3.77 New Haven Zoning Map

Fig. 3.78 Foundation regulations for waterproofing

Waterproofing, dampproofing, drainage and the design of underground infrastructure and foundations in the flood plain is extremely important (Figs. 3.77 & 78). Multi-level underground spaces for parking or mechanical become impossible is this location of the city because of the high water table - as the designers of the New Haven Coliseum discovered when they were designing the parking garage.54 In the water plain, underground levels cannot be inhabitable spaces, due to the inevitable flooding that will occur in this area. As the slope of the site rises, this issue becomes less critical, but on the landfill, proper design for a high water table is necessary. Structured parking is nearly a requirement for a multi-family apartment complex on an urban site, and since underground levels cannot be inhabitable and parking garages are unattractive, they are perfectly placed underneath the buildings (Fig. 3.79). Parking in this type of structure can also be shared as residents have direct access from corridors to vertical circulation accessing the underground parking, and office workers and retail patrons can use the facilities during the day - created a shared space that is not sitting empty for large portions of each day (Fig. 3.80).

Fig. 3.75 Building Occupancy designation for multi-family housing

Fig. 3.79 Building type designation - structured mixed-use parking

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Fig. 3.76 New Haven Municipal Zoning Ordinance - Multi-family housing regulations

Fig. 3.80 New Haven Municipal Zoning Ordinance - Parking

3 | 81

The maximum travel distance for egress in a multi-family apartment building is 250 feet with a sprinkler system. The path of travel includes the distance from the center of the inhabitable space to the corridor to the enclosed egress stores (Fig. 3.81). Doors access the corridor and a fire-rated door protects the fire stair (Fig. 3.82). In spaces accessible to the public, one door to the corridor or direct access is required for egress - the publics path of travel cannot exit through another inhabitable space (Fig. 3.83). Large buildings are typically structured with a frame system - either steel or concrete. Then an enclosure system of insulation, interior finishes and exterior cladding is applied. For exterior wood veneer construction, the system cannot exceed four stories in height, according to the International Building Code (Fig. 3.84).55 Wood is recommended to be 8 inches off the ground, preferably higher due to its high rate of water absorption. Brick veneer with a concrete cavity wall requires fasteners to hold the brick in place, and weep-holes for ventilation and drainage (Figs. 3.85 & 86). Brick can be used in foundations and above.

Fig. 3.86 Brick masonry wall construction

Fig. 3.81 Building egress access

Fig. 3.82 Building egress stairs

Fig. 3.83 Building egress by occupancy use

Fig. 3.84 Exterior cladding systems - wood veneer & brick masonry

Fig. 3.85 Brick masonry cavity wall construction

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3 | 83

3.3 Conceptual Framework


In s p i rat i o n f o r De s ig n This international building project is organized around a central paved courtyard and contains a mix of multi-family residential apartment units as well as commercial space on part of the ground floor. Clad in brick, the complex leaves this exposed in some areas, or covered by an exterior balcony, which doubles as a sun-shading device. Vertical circulation is located contained with a bay on the exterior wall of the each building, providing access to two apartments on each floor.

Fig. 3.87 Ground floor plan and second floor plan of an urban apartment block

Fig. 3.90 View of the interior courtyard

Fig. 3.88 Section through central courtyard

Fig. 3.89 Section through central courtyard

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Whitney-Grove Square Newman Architects; New Haven, CT 37 Townhouse Units, 140,00 sf Office and Retail, 625 structured parking spaces Although its uses are diverse, Whitney-Grove is carefully integrated into the neighborhood by its curbs, sidewalks, street furniture, fences and hedges, stoops, and portals. At one end of the site, facing toward New Havens office precinct, it is an eight story office building with retail space at street level. The scale gradually steps down in height, complementing the size and orientation of adjacent buildings, and creates a strong identity through its massing, materials, and detailing. Thirty seven townhouses, with a landscaped interior courtyard behind (Fig. 3.92), continue the layering and like-uses from public to private spaces: front doors face front doors, back doors face back doors, and backyards face backyards. Streets are the most important spaces in cities. When special attention is given to the layering of scales and placing of like-uses on both sides of the street, it makes for a healthy street. These ideas influenced our design of Whitney-Grove.56 The townhouses relate to existing ones on Temple Street (Fig. 3.94), the retail maintains Whitney Avenues activity (Fig. 3.91), and interiors reflect the Georgian spaces of Yales Silliman College (Figs. 3.93, 95 & 96).

Fig. 3.96 Whitney Grove townhouse interior

Fig. 3.99 Audubon Street facade

Fig. 3.91 Whitney Grove Complex

Fig. 3.95 Silliman College library

Fig. 3.97 Audubon Court gateway

Fig. 3.98 Silliman College Quadrangle

Fig. 3.100 Audubon Court interior courtyard

Audubon Court Newman Architects; New Haven, CT 70 apartments and retail spaces totalling 90,000 sf, 30,000 sf parking structure for 360 cars Audubon Court encloses a group of townhouse condominiums and apartments above ground floor commercial space (Fig. 3.97). The court has a central green, one of the two interior courtyards in the Arts Center District master plan that replicates Yale Universitys nearby quadrangles, providing both community and security for urban living (Figs. 3.98 & 100). All townhouse front doors face the green, a quiet, open space that serves as an outdoor living room, while street level storefronts accommodate retail shops open to the public (Fig. 3.99). Through its gabled brick facades, it continues the vernacular urban residential character of the existing neighborhood. A 70-car garage located at grade level provides parking for residents, and an adjacent five-story parking garage serves the whole Arts Center area.57 Unlike Whitney Grove Square across the street, Audubon Court misplaces retail along Audubon Street instead of maintaining the vitality of Whitney Avenue. However, the raised central courtyard is reminiscent of the Silliman College Quadrangle with traditional interior spaces look into it from townhouses (Fig. 3.101).

Fig. 3.92 Whitney Grove Interior Court

Fig. 3.93 Whitney Grove townhouse

Fig. 3.94 Whitney Grove Temple Street facade

Fig. 3.101 Audubon Court townhouse interior

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Residences at Ninth Square Newman Architects; New Haven, CT; 1993 A National Historic District, the Ninth Square, once a thriving commercial neighborhood in the downtown of New Haven, had succumbed to urban blight. A plan for renewal was developed that identified housing as the key to restoring life to the district. In collaboration with Smith Edwards Architects, [Newman Architects] rehabilitated virtually all of the historic four-to-six story buildings within the three-block district, and sited new mixed-use buildings on vacant lots between them, integrating retail and residential ground floor spaces with apartments above (Fig. 3.104). More than half of the apartments were reserved for low- to moderate-income tenants, and one large courtyard was turned into a residential community open space (Fig. 3.103). Sited at an irregular intersection of two main streets, the highest new apartment building has a 12-story tower and protruding wings, making it a prominent landmark (Fig. 3.102). We restored the streets with new paving, curbs, sidewalks, and lighting, and integrated two new parking garages into the fabric of the district.58 The 12-story tower, the Residences at Ninth Square, terminates the vista of Orange Street, which extends north nearly 2 miles to East Rock Park, with a tower - a piece of civic art from an otherwise purely economized design.59 The project contains 188 apartments (Fig. 3.105) and 70,000 sf of retail.60

Fig. 3.102 Residences at Ninth Square view from Orange and Crown Streets

Fig. 3.103 View of the Interior Courtyard of Residences on Orange Street

Fig. 3.104 View of Orange Street towards the Residences at Ninth Square

Fig. 3.105 Apartment Unit Floor Plans for Residences at Ninth Square

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Wilkes Passage Loft Ruhl Walker Architects; Boston, Ma; 2004 The main organizing principle for this loft is the insertion of a diagonal partition that divides a public lower level from a slightly raised private level (Fig. 3.108). This creates a series of larger and smaller spaces to accommodate the program as efficiently as possible, while still maintaining an overall sense of light and openness. Entry to the loft is through a compact vestibule that gives immediate access to laundry, storage and the kitchen. A wall of windows ahead then reorients the space laterally where the diagonal wall visually elongates and enlarges the main space (Fig. 3.107). The loft additionally addresses a program of universal design. Specific accommodations for the owners mobility limitations are incorporated honestly, without unnecessary concealment and also without becoming unattractive afterthoughts or distractions. The major diagonal wall is paneled with carefully delineated sanded homasote, providing visual and tactile interest, and acoustic dampening in the absence of carpeting and heavy rugs. The kitchen area has two levels of counters, and is designed with a number of both standard and innovative accessibility solutions to suit the needs of one or several cooks. [...] Doorways are generally avoided altogether [...]. The end result is a loft that is simultaneously uplifting and tranquil as a place for both work and entertainment, and which reflects the full range of a sophisticated, urbane owners interests and needs (Fig. 3.106).61

Tent City Apartments 130 Dartmouth Street, Boston, MA Enjoy the best of Bostons two most desirable neighborhoods - the Back Bay and the South End. Tent City Apartments is located in the Back Bays Gateway-to-theSouth-End, and living here youll enjoy the best of both. Walk to boutiques on Newbury St., hip restaurants on Tremont St., and convenient shopping at Copley Place Mall. Commuting is a breeze with easy access to Back Bay Station and the Mass Pike (I-90). Tent City is a mixed income, family development of 269 units, offering 1, 2, 3 and 4 bedroom apartments (Fig. 3.111). Rent levels vary depending upon the household income.62 The complex is designed with the Boston architectural language of red brick, bay windows, townhouses, hipped roofs and dormers. Lintels, sills, stone coursing, copper and slate roofs, and a massing that steps with the site adds to this definitively Boston-based development (Fig. 3.109). Apartment units take on a traditional form that can be found in older apartment buildings in the city, and this new development creates interior courtyard spaces to the organize the complex and provide recreational space for children (Fig. 3.110). Fig. 3.110 Tent City Interior Courtyard

Fig. 3.109 Tent City in Context

Two-bedroom Unit Floor Plan A

Fig. 3.106 Wilkes Passage Apartment Block

Studio Unit Floor Plan

Two-bedroom Unit Floor Plan B

One-bedroom Unit Floor Plan A

Three-bedroom Unit Floor Plan A

Fig. 3.107 One-bedroom Apartment Loft Unit Living Room VIew

Fig. 3.108 One-bedroom Apartment Loft Unit Floor Plan

One-bedroom Unit Floor Plan B

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Fig. 3.111 Tent City Apartment Unit Floor Plans

Three-bedroom Unit Floor Plan B

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4
But, you know, nostalgic is a very strange word a lot of civilizations have been built on nostalgia. You might say that the Greek civilization was built on a sense that once everything was greater and more beautiful and wonderful before the terrible age of the heroes came[.]

Union Square
Design Strategy

1. Master Plan
Site Strategy

92

Its not false to say that once the world - before the automobile - was, in many ways, a quieter, gentler, better place to live; safer for everybody - for kids and for animals. The streets were friendly - they werent terrors. We had front porches to look out on the street. We had sidewalks. We sat on the front porch. We looked at the neighbors across the street. We walked up and down the sidewalk; it was possible to cross the street without getting killed. All that made sense and its possible to design that.

2. Spatial Responses
Architectural Strategy

102

3. Technical Solutions
Building Strategy

126

- Vincent Scully1

4 | 92

Fig. 4.0 Aerial View of Downtown New Haven, The Hill and the Oak Street Connector

4 | 93

4.1 Union Square


Master Plan Strategy With the advent of Mayor Lee and Edward Logue, attention focused on the revitalization of the central business district, which led to the first real disaster to affect the Church Street South site- construction of the Oak Street Connector in 1956. Although the road may have made access to the CBD easier and at the same time cleared some substandard building, its right-of-way severed this site from the center of the city.2 The Oak Street Connector has effectively separated Church Street South Housing from New Havens downtown, while the Church Street South Extension has effectively separated it from the Trowbridge Square neighborhood and the growing medical district (Fig. 4.1). Union Avenue, once a route for trolley cars, has itself also become an imposing piece of infrastructure to cross on foot - further alienating Church Street South Housing from its neighbors (Fig. 4.4). Church Street South consists almost entirely of citywide throughfares that give access to highways, and the few local streets that do exist are either lined by parking infrastructure or are cul de sacs. In effect, the area is not only difficult to access, but also traverse from within (Fig. 4.2). This infrastructure - geared towards moving as many cars as possible, as fast as possible - is a major source of air, noise and visual pollution. Idling traffic during rush hour, a nearly constant stream of automobiles and heavy rail infrastructure all help to pour carcinogens into the atmosphere directly around the homes of families with young children. These facilities also produce an enormous about of noise throughout the day, making even the simplest conversation nearly impossible within earshot of them. Finally, if enormous street widths and traffic werent bad enough, structured parking garages, surface parking lots, and vacant lots make for a brutal aesthetic environment that is unpleasant to walk through. Minimal tree coverage along sidewalks contributes to this issue as well, particularly along Church Street South (Fig. 4.3). 4 | 94 1. Downtown New Haven a. Ninth Square 2. Amistad Park a. Yale-New Haven Hospital b. Yale School of Medicine c. Yale School of Nursing 3. Trowbridge Square 4. The Hill 5. Church Street South 3
Fig. 4.1 Adjacencies 2a 2b

1a

2
2c

Limited Access Highway Major Thoroughfare Local Street

Fig. 4.2 Existing circulation

Noise & Traffic Danger Surface Parking Garage Parking Vacant Lots

Fig. 4.3 Barriers

Fig. 4.4 Diagram of the perception of Church Street South and vicinity

4 || 95 95 4

If Church Street South Housing is not renovated and added to with infill development, a new approach for designing the project is required for its redevelopment then what is currently being pursued by Northland Development Co. The low-rise three to four-story family development will be demolished and replaced (Fig. 4.6), including the commercial and community spaces houses inside the buildings along the pedestrian spine of the complex. Unlike Tower One and Tower East, which both went under a renovation recently, the Robert T. Wolfe elderly public housing tower is in a state of disrepair. The current building is proposed to be demolished and rebuilt on a lot at the corner of South Orange Street and South Frontage Road. This project can take cues from the Residences at Ninth Square for how to terminate a vista, and the redevelopment of the William T. Rowe building for a financing precedent.3 In addition to the Wolfe building replacement, the St. Basil Church would benefit from a better placement in Church Street South where it can be visible to nearby neighbors in Trowbridge Square, rather than located at the end of a cul de sac in the center of the superblock. What is left is essentially a rectangular site and a triangular site separated by Columbus Avenue. Union Avenue is located in the middle of the long side of the triangular block - facing the Yale Nursing School.

Fig. 4.6 Proposed Demolition

Fig. 4.9 Ninth Square

First proposed by Charles Moore in the late-1960s after the construction of the Oak Street Connector, a bridge over Orange Street would connect the train station to the Ninth Square and downtown more effectively than Church Street South does. This connection can serve as the chassis for an extension of the commercial downtown over to Church Street South. A bridge here would also allow direct access to the station from Water Street and the highways (Fig. 4.9). Reopening Columbus Avenue as Northland has proposed to do is also a good idea to improve connectivity between the Hill neighborhood and the Medical District. Originally proposed as part of a new ring road, Columbus Avenue was never reopened due to community opposition.4 However, a modest city through-street would increase access to the station from the west. A reconstruction and extension of Lafayette Street will contribute as well. (Fig. 4.10) Reopening Carlisle and Portsea Streets will also improve access to Church Street South from Howard Avenue. This connection is also important because it gives access to Trowbridge Square Park in an area further from major roadways and rail infrastructure and surrounded by local streets (Fig. 4.11). These new lines of connection are the proposed location of new streets that will help make Church Street South more accessible and traversable (Fig. 4.12)

Fig. 4.7 Proposed Replacement

Fig. 4.10 Medical District

Fig. 4.5 Existing Conditions Site Plan

Fig. 4.8 Proposed Site Condition

Fig. 4.11 Trowbridge Square

Fig. 4.12 New & existing connections to Union Station and vicinity

4 | 96

4 | 97

Fig. 4.13a Amistad Passageway

Fig. 4.13b Union Square Park

Rather than with a street, Amistad Street is extended through to South Lafayette Street by way of a paved passageway that terminates at a green space, then proceeds with a continuation of Amistad Street, finally ending at South Orange Street. This connection is important for linking to Amistad Park (Fig. 4.13a). A new paved promenade along Union Ave will lead to a reopened Carlisle Street through a greenway. The Union Ave promenade also serves to create a plaza for Union Station - where a surface parking lot now exists. This plaza also extends up Portsea Street to create another paved area at the terminus of South Lafayette Street. The St. Basil church yard, which doubles as a public playground, is also located here (Fig. 4.13c). The promenade also continues northeast, leading to Union Square Park - named for the Station and Avenue, as well as the unifying function it serves (Fig. 4.13).
Fig. 4.13 Master Block Plan including plazas & greens. Scale: 1 = 400-0

With the removal of the Robert T. Wolfe building, that parcel can be used for the creation of Union Square Park at the intersection of Union and Columbus Avenues and South Orange Street. This park will be the centering feature of the development, like the Green, Trowbridge Square, and Amistad Park are elsewhere in the city (Fig. 4.13b).

Fig. 4.15 Aerial View of Union Square

Fig. 4.13c St. Basil Church Yard, Portsea-Lafayette Plaza, and Union Avenue Promenade & Greenway

4 | 98

Fig. 4.14 Master Roof Plan

4 | 99

The placement of the program on the site was dependent on several factors (Fig. 4.19 & 20). First, the sources of air pollution and noise near the highway, thoroughfares and rail yards, led to the placement of multi-family housing on the northwest edge of the site and center of the superblock, where the impact of these noxious uses and functions can be best mitigated for residents (Figs. 4.16).5
Fig. 4.16 Mobile & stationary sources of air polluntion

Single family Townhouse Two-family detatched house Multi-family apartment Live-work loft Neighborhood-oriented retail High-end retail Commercial Office Medical Office Biomedical Research Community Green space Parking

Commercial office, medical, research and retail program was located based on three main characteristics of the site. One, the main thoroughfares through the site, while sources for pollution, also bring large numbers of people to the area, which can potentially support the commercial functions of the program. Therefore, ground level retail is located along South Orange Street and Union Avenue where it is highly visible (Fig. 4.21). Two, large employment facilities, educational institutions, and transportation centers nearby create enormous demand for commercial space. Additional commercial office and medical development can add to the synergy of the area, while retail and food service space can service these populations. South Lafayette Street connects to Yale-New Haven Hospital, Yale Medical School and Gateway Community College; and West Water Street to Yale Nursing School (Fig. 4.22). In addition to up-scale retail along South Orange and Union Avenue, neighborhood-oriented retail space has been reserved for Columbus Avenue, which connects to the Hill; Lafayette-Portsea Plaza, which faces Union Station; and next to Tower One, where residents can easily access goods and services. Tower One residents also are provided with a safe route down to the medical office building along the Carlisle Greenway (Fig. 4.23).8
Fig. 4.21 Thoroughfares

Second, access to family-oriented infrastructure like parks, playgrounds and other residential areas led to the placement of the row houses and townhouses closest to Trowbridge Square Park and Amistad Park. Amistad Park contains several public school buildings, a church and a daycare facility, while Trowbridge Square has a firehouse, community center, churches, a school, and a large residential population (Fig. 4.17)6
Fig. 4.17 Family-oriented infrastructure

Fig. 4.22 Business-oriented adjacencies

Third, the creation of calm and narrow local streets in the interior of the site provided another location for multifamily apartment buildings with first floor units that enter directly from the street to be placed. This calm streets make for a safe place for pedestrians to access shops and the train station. South Lafayette Street also creates a circulation path for senior citizens in Tower One and Tower East to use when accessing services (Fig. 4.18).
Fig. 4.18 Calm, local streets

4 | 100

Fig. 4.19 Programmatic Ground Floor Plan

Fig. 4.20 Programmatic Typical Floor Plan

Fig. 4.23 Community-oriented adjacencies

4 | 101

4.2 Union Square


Spatial Responses The single-family, attached townhouses are located at the northwest corner of the Church Street South site. There are 39 individual lots to be sold individually to developers or families for the erection of a townhouse with party walls. Parking is provided in a private lot at the center of the block, which is also supplemented with on-street parking spaces. Private parking facilities are accessed across from an existing service road that serves Tower One and Tower East (Fig. 4.24). Amistad Passageway traverses the site, leading to a crosswalk and pedestrian signal at Amistad Street, giving access to Amistad Park for residences of Union Square. Each townhouse lot also has a front garden and stoop that transitions from the private space of the house to the public space of the street. Rear yards contain a shed and private space for recreation, relaxation, and gardening (Fig. 4.25). This family-oriented block is located directly across the street from the Tower One elderly housing building, which provides a compatible and mutually beneficial neighborhood for each development. The rows along Church Street South and the row between Church Street South and Amistad Street on South Lafayette Street are clad in brick, while wall surfaces along Amistad Passageway, West Water Street and South Lafayette Street south of Amistad Street are clad in wood. This scheme ties into the larger master plan, which creates a brick exterior shell defining the two super blocks (Fig. 4.8) with wood cladding used to delineate where new streets have been pushed through the site (Fig. 4.26). The character of this block is meant to reflect the individual choices of each developer or family that builds a townhouse, while also tieing into the overall scheme through materiality and the attached, party-wall typology of the townhouse (Fig. 4.27).10 4 | 102
Fig. 4.27 Townhouse Elevations (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0) Fig. 4.24 Single-family Townhouses

Fig. 4.25 Block A Basement, First Floor Plans

Fig. 4.26 Block A Second Floor Plan (Scale: 1/64 = 1-0)

Third Floor & Roof Plans (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

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Fig. 4.28 Section of Townhouse A (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

Each townhouse can be individually customized based on the desires of the client. These floor plans reflect three options that would be useful for a wide array of potential residents (Fig. 4.29). Option A is a four-bedroom townhouse, including a guest suite in the basement level. The first floor contains a living room oriented towards the street with a central stair running perpendicular and separating the living space form the kitchen. The double-height dining room opens up to the kitchen and looks out at the backyard. The main bedroom is located on the second floor, while childrens room are on the third along with a playroom (Fig. 4.28). Option B is a one-bedroom loft apartment with an artist studio. The basement is left open for storage and a secondary studio space. The first floor contains a central kitchen the opens up to a front dining area that faces the street. The triple-height living space is separated from the kitchen by a perpendicular stair and this room looks out into the backyard. The main studio space is on the second floor, with a master suite on the third floor (Fig. 4.30). A third option is four-bedroom townhouse with an office attached to the third floor master suite. The basement is left open for storage, while the main floor has an enclosed kitchen and open dining and living space looking out into the backyard. Three childrens bedrooms are on the second floor and the master suite is above. The floor plans are accommodated for in a 3 ft by 3 ft structural grid - allowing for the easy transition between spaces as ownership changes - making these units extremely adaptable.

Fig. 4.30 Section of Townhouse B (Scale: 3/32 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.29 Basement, First,

Second & Third Floor Plans (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

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Fig. 4.31 Two-family Houses

Detached two-family row houses are located on Block E. Like the townhouses, these 26 houselots will be developed individually. Rather than single family houses, however, this group is designated for two-family owner occupied houses containing a rental unit (Fig. 4.31). The row houses are placed as close to Trowbridge Square Park as possible and a pedestrian crosswalk and light is proposed for the intersection of a newly opened Portsea Street and Church Street South. This will give children and families access to the playground, splash pad and other amenitied located in Trowbridge Square. The houselots of this block are small, so access to nearby parks is vital to these houses (Fig. 4.33). Parking is handled in a private interior surface lot at the center of the block reserved for property owners, which is supplemented by on-street parking to be used by tenants. Side yards mean windows on three sides of these buildings, bringing light into interior rooms. The row fronting South Lafayette Street is cocked back in order to allow views from the apartment units of Tower One to the medical offices entrance in Lafayette-Portsea Plaza. This is an important visual connection for the elderly residents of Tower One and the services they will be using nearby (Fig. 4.32). Houses facing Church Street South and Columbus Avenue will be clad in brick, while South Lafayette and Portsea Street facades will be of wood. The architectural character of these houses will be determined by the individual developer, but the late-19th century row houses of Trowbridge Square (Fig. 2.96) and newer projects in the Hill like the 2008 Yale Building Project should serve as appropriate examples for how to develop this block (Figs. 4.34 & 35).9
Fig. 4.34 20-22 Truman Street in The Hill, 2006

Fig. 4.32 Block E Basement & First Floor Plans (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.33 Block E Second Floor Plan (Scale: 1/64 = 1-0)

Block E Third Floor & Roof Plans (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.35 20-22 Truman Street in The Hill, 2008

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The mulit-family residential apartment buildings with ground level duplex units that have stoops, front gardens and direct access to the street are concentrated in the northwest portion of the site and along South Lafayette Street. In combination with the single-family townhouses block and the two-family row houses block, the multi-family apartment buildings create a residential core and western edge for Union Square. The western edge relates in scale and use to the abutting Trowbridge Square neighborhood and the residential core aids in making South Lafayette a pleasant, safe and calm local street that also serves to access amenities on Colmbus Avenue and Union Avenue, including shops, medical offices and the train station. These residential buildings are clad in both brick and wood, depending where they are located. However, since most of the residential apartment buildings are located on new local roads that are being pushed through the site, they are clad in wood to differentiate from the solid, brick enclosure of the two superblocks (Figs. 4.36 & 39). Structured parking is provided underground with a 5-1/2 story apartment block placed above it (Figs. 4.37 & 38).
Fig. 4.36 Residential Apartment Buildings Fig. 4.38 Typical Apartment Building Bay Elevation & Section (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0) Fig. 4.39 View of Apartment Building on W. Water St.

Fig. 4.37 Block C Underground, First, Second, Third,

Fourth, Fifth, Sixth Floor & Roof Plans (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

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The multi-family residential apartment buildings have a wide range of unit types for a variety of tenants to choose from.10 1-bedroom, 2-bedroom plus an office, 3-bedroom,and 4-bedroom plus an office Duplex units are accessibly from a street or courtyard entrance in addition to corridor access through the apartment blocks main circulation system. Street access and front gardens activate the sidewalk, engage pedestrians walking by and relate to neighboring houses. Each duplex unit has one double-height wall of windows and three party walls (Fig. 4.40). The units are kept relatively shallow so that no point in the unit is far from the natural light source. Units are organized with a central stair, a double-height living room open to the kitchen and dining area. Some units have an office and bedrooms on this main floor in addition to bathrooms and storage space (Fig. 4.41). The second floor contains a master suite loft in each unit overlooking the living space, while some units also contain bedrooms on the second floor (Fig. 4.42).

Fig. 4.41 First Floor Plan of 4-Bedroom + Office,

1-Bedroom, 3-Bedroom & 2-Bedroom + Office Residential Apartment Building Duplex Units (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.40 Typical Section through Street Level Duplexes (Scale: 1/16 - 1-0)

Fig. 4.42 Second Floor Plan of 4-Bedroom + Office,

1-Bedroom, 3-Bedroom & 2-Bedroom + Office Residential Apartment Building Duplex Units (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

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On upper floors there are Studio, 1-bedroom plus an office, and 2-bedroom apartment flats, which increase the density of the development in order to incorporate the program in response to market demand in the area. These units are accessed from the main circulation of the block through corridors (Fig. 4.44). These units are organized around an open living, dining and kitchen space with bedrooms and offices on accessed off a hallway that contains storage areas and bathrooms. The master suite in these apartments contains a walk-in closet and a private bathroom. Like all of the apartment blocks, a 2.5 ft by 2.5 ft structural grid organizes the spaces in the apartments and controls placement of walls and services (fig. 4.43).

Fig. 4.45 View of Central Courtyard of a Residential Apartment Block

Each apartment block is organized around a central courtyard that contains trees, green space, walkways and recreational facilities for children. Duplex units has access directly to the courtyard from their units, which are aimed at young families with small children. Front gardens for these units also help to activate the courtyard space. Corridors also give access to main entry points of the buildings, which also give access to the courtyards at each corner of the block (Fig. 4.45). Apartment flats on the interior of the corridor on upper stories overlook the central courtyard - allowing for casual surveillance. Entry into the courtyards is controlled by the main access points of the apartment complex, thus addressing the issue of outsiders coming in to sell drugs and commit other illegal activity that currently plagues the existing Church Street South Housing complex with its open courtyards.
Fig. 4.43 Floor Plans of 1-Bedroom, Studio, 1-Bedroom + Office & 2-Bedroom Flats on floors 2-4 of the Apartment Buildings (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0) Fig. 4.44 Section through Apartment Flats (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

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The top floor of the multi-family apartment buildings contain more duplex units (Fig. 4.48). Rather than providing access directly to the street, however, these units have floor to ceiling windows (Fig. 4.46). This serves the dual function of providing more light to the unit, which is under a pitched roof, and keeping the wood cladding from exceeding four stories in height, in accordance with the International Building Code. To supplement the natural light from the large windows are skylights running along the ridge of the roof - this provides more light to the bedrooms in the loft space of the units, which are organized similarly to the ground level duplexes except that there are no childrens bedrooms on the second floor of any units (Fig. 4.46).
Fig. 4.48 Fifth Floor Plan of 1-Bedroom Flat, & 1-Bedroom, 3-Bedroom + Office & 2-Bedroom + Office Residential Apartment Building Duplex Units (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.46 View down South Lafayette Street

Fig. 4.47 Section through Attic Duplexes (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.49 Sixth Floor Plan of 1-Bedroom,

3-Bedroom + Office & 2-Bedroom + Office Residential Apartment Building Duplex Units (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

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The mixed-use Live-work and Apartment buildings are organized around Columbus Avenue and Lafayette-Portsea Plaza where the ground level commercial space can provide goods, services or culture for residents, visitors and neighbors of Union Square along this important circulation path and gathering space. Columbus Avenue should be reopened as a major connection between Union Station and the Hill area of New Haven (Fig. 4.50). This major connection also will bring demand for commercial space, but rather than being oriented around up-scale boutiques, these spaces can be owned by residents and oriented towards neighborhood needs and interests. Like the apartment buildings, these mixed-use units are also organized around the central courtyards and upper stories containing apartment units are connected to the circulation corridors of the apartment blocks (Fig. 4.51). The live-work model simplifies the rental, lease or mortgage process for the tenant or owner by combining the commercial and residential facilities into a single monthly payment.

The buildings along Columbus Avenue rotate to form a diamond-shaped space at the intersection of South Lafayette Street and Columbus Avenue. This creates a larger public realm at this intersection and begins to signal to people that this is a place for gathering, conversing, and driving slowly (Fig. 4.53). Shade trees help to define the street, shade the sidewalk and buffer pedestrians from the Columbus Avenue thoroughfare. On-street parking also aid in this while providing shoppers and other short-term visitors with a place to park their car. The live-work model is a style of housing and commerce that is growing in popularity across the country and it makes sense to use it in this large mixed-use development where start-ups can be incubated (Fig. 4.52).11

Fig. 4.50 Mixed-use Live-work Lofts & Apartment Buildings

Fig. 4.53 Mixed-use Live-work Lofts & Apartment Buildings along Columbus Avenue

Fig. 4.51 Block F Underground, Ground & First, Second, Third-Fourth,

Fifth, Sixth Floor & Roof Plans (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.52 Axonometric

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The live-work lofts would be rented by an individual as one space. The ground floor contains a large open the is accessed directly from the street through a large glass commercial storefront. In the main front room is a reception and exhibition area. This space can be used for a reception desk, a gallery, or a storefront. In the core is a small conference area and services like storage and a bathroom. This area can be used for a small law firm, or a meeting room for various kinds of small businesses. The rear room is a double-height space that exits directly onto the central courtyard. This space is perfect for storage, a studio, or an office. The ground floor level of the live-work unit is designed to accommodate an artists studio, gallery space, exhibition hall, small retail shop, a small business, a law firm and any number of other small establishments aimed at providing the neighborhood with goods, services or culture that is oriented towards them (Fig. 4.53). The upper level of the live-work unit is organized as an apartment loft. With natural light entering from both sides, it is a light-filled space. The unit is entered from the rear double-height space, which allows the resident to access the apartment without going through the front of the shop. The stair to the loft unit brings the tenant to the main hall which opens to a coat closet followed by an open kitchen, dining and living space overlooking the street. The master suite is separated from this main living area by a shelving wall for storage. This bedroom overlooks the rear room and looks out onto the courtyard through a large glass window (Fig. 4.54). The upper floors of these buildings contain apartment flats and duplexes accessible through the main circulation of the apartment complexes (Fig. 4.56). The buildings are again five and a half stories in height and are clad primarily in brick since they face Columbus Avenue, but the live-work building facing Lafayette-Portsea Plaza is clad in wood (Fig. 4.57). The ground floor commercial space is shaded by a metal canopy. Planter boxes also line the sidewalk in front of the commercial space where flowers and other small plantings can enliven the pedestrian experience while also providing a transition space between the public sidewalk and the ground level of the live-work units (Fig. 4.55). Parking is placed below the building and is a shared facility open to the public during the day to help accommodate visitors.
Fig. 4.54 Section of Live-work Loft (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.55 View down Columbus Avenue from South Orange Street

Fig. 4.53 Ground & First Floor Plans of Live-work Loft (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

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Figs. 4.56 & 57 Typical Live-work & Apartment Building Bay Elevation & Section (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0) & Portsea-Lafayette Plaza View of Facade

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The mixed-use retail and apartment buildings are located along South Orange Street, South Lafayette Street and the corner of Church Street South and Columbus Avenue (Fig. 4.58). The ground floor retail space is organized as a large open room with street access and courtyard access. These retail spaces should be oriented towards upscale shopping along South Orange Street to supplement the citys existing boutique options on Broadway and Chapel Street (Fig. 4.60). Neighborhood-oriented retail should be located on Columbus and South Lafayette Street where residents of Tower One and the Hill are most likely to traverse the site. Apartment units are located above the shops and are connected to the live-work and multi-family apartment buildings through shared corridors. These buildings are also organized around the central courtyard space and are five and a half stories in height (Fig. 4.61). Parking is provided in underground shared spaces as well as supplemented with on-street parking for the retail shops and other short-term parking needs (Fig. 4.59).12

Fig. 4.58 Mixed-Use Ground Floor Retail & Apartment Buildings

Fig. 4.60 View down South Orange Street towards Union Station

Fig. 4.61 Typical Retail & Apartment Building Bay Elevation

Fig. 4.59 Block B Underground, Ground & First, Second, Third-Fourth,

Fifth, Sixth Floor & Roof Plans (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

& Section (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0)

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Fig. 4.62 Mixed-Use Retail & Commercial & Medical Office, & Biomed Buildings

The mixed-use retail and commercial office buildings are located along Columbus and Union Avenues and Church Street South (Fig. 4.62). These buildings benefit from direct access to Union Station across the street, and the steady stream of traffic along surrounding major thoroughfares (Fig. 4.65). The retail space should be oriented towards upscale shopping for visitors. Retail space should also be reserved for food services to accommodate office workers eating lunch, and services like news magazine stands for morning commuters. In addition to the mixed-use retail and office buildings, this area contains a nine-story biomedical research laboratory designed as a large subdividable building for one or several private firms (Figs. 4.63 & 64). This is aimed at capturing the demand for research being generated by Yale-New Haven Hospital, Yale Medical School, and the Yale School of Nursing located around Amistad Park across the street and to the north of Union Square. It is recommended that St. Basils Greek Orthodox Church, which is proposed to be located on this block, be designed in a neo-classical style in order to fit in with Union Square. This style avoids the Anglican connotations of the Federal style, while relating to the Green.13

Fig. 4.65 Typical Retail & Office Building Bay Elevation & Section through Union Avenue (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.63 Turks head Building in Providence scale comparison

Fig. 4.64 Block G Underground, Ground,

First-Third, Fourth & Roof Plans (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

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The commercial office building and medical office building are nearly mirror images of one another. Both have ground level retail, large public atria connected visually with waiting rooms and conference areas on upper floors, and both are organized around a central service corridor with flanking offices (Fig. 4.67). Parking is provided underground in shared structured parking garages, where visitors, patients, clients, office workers and commuters can share the facilities (Fig. 4.68).

Fig. 4.69 View of Union Station from Portsea-Lafayette Plaza looking between Mixed-Use Retail & Office Buildings

Fig. 4.67 Section through Office Building Atrium (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0) Fig. 4.66 Office Building on Portsea-Lafayette Plaza

The medical office building faces Union Station and Lafayette-Portsea Plaza, relating to both (Fig. 4.66). The architectural character of the office buildings is derived from the the office space of Union Station (Fig. 4.69), while the large glass entry atrium for the medical building aligns with the apartment units in Tower One. This makes the path to the medical offices visible, clearly delineated and accessible to the elderly residents of Tower One.14 4 | 124
Fig. 4. 68 Section through Ground Floor Commercial Retail Space (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

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4.3 Union Square


Te c h n i c a l S o l u t i o n s
25 x 50

Doubleloaded Corridor

5-story Apartment Building

Duplex Housing Unit

6-story Apartment Building

Pitched Roof

Union Station Section

25 x 25

20 x 35

5-story Buildings on 4 Courtyard Blocks

88,500 sq ft of Retail on the Ground Floor of 10 Buildings

Duplex Units Accessible from the street or the courtyard

637 Residential Units in 14 Multi-family Apartment Buidlings


Typical Office Section 4-story Office Building Ground Floor Retail Space 5-story Office Building Barrel Vault Roof Union Station Elevation

Fig. 4.70 Programmatically determining the height of the mixed-use retail & multi-family residential apartment buildings The massing of the buildings is derived from the number of apartment units that can be supported under todays market conditions in New Haven, which is around 600 units (Fig. 4.71). Apartment flats of between 625 sq ft and 1250 sq ft were assembled along a corridor and stacked in groups of 40 units in 5 levels - making 14 groups. 7 of these groupings will contain retail space on the ground floor, with an addition 3 with the office buildings. 7 apartment buildings will contain duplex units on the ground floor, instead of retail space (Fig. 4.70). In order to maintain the uniform height of Union Station, these 6 story buildings are made into 5-1/2 story, pitched roof structures with additional duplex units added under the 34 degree slope roof, which is the ideal slope for Georgian roof construction (Figs. 4.72 & 73). The office buildings are then domed in order to create meeting rooms and maintain the Union Station roof line.

Fig. 4.72 Spatially determining the form of the multi-family residential apartment buildings and the commercial retail & office buildings

Fig. 4.71 New Residential and Commercial Program for Union Square

Fig. 4.73. Section through Block F Courtyard, Union Avenue & Union Station (Scale: 1/64 = 1-0)

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The main circulation for Union Squares commercial and residential block buildings is located in one of four vertical circulation towers located at each interior corner of each block (Fig. 4.77). These towers are accessible from the street and the courtyard down to the underground parking facilities as well. The path of travel takes residents of the upper story flats and dupexes from their individual apartment units out to the main corridor and down the hallway to their nearest safe vertical circulation core (Figs. 4.74 & 76). The cores allow exit to the street, courtyard and the underground level. Each core contains an elevator and an enclosed egress stair (Fig. 4.75). Residents of the ground level duplex units may either egress directly to the street or courtyard, or if required, they may use the main circulation corridors for egress to these locations. The maximum allowable path of travel for egress under the International Building Code is 250 feet with a sprinkler system. The actual maximum travel distance from an apartment is 225 feet from the middle unit on the top floor.

Fig. 4.74 Sequence of Egress Diagram

Fig. 4.75 Diagram of the Components of an Enclosed Egress Stair Maximum allowable travel distance: 250 feet Actual maximum travel distance: 225 feet

Underground Level Plan of Egress

Ground/First Floor Plan of Egress

Second-Fourth Floor Plan of Egress

Fifth Floor Plan of Egress Fig. 4.77 Vertical Circulation and Egress Fig. 4.78 Example Calculation for Egress Corridor, Stair, and Door Widths

Fig. 4.76 Typical Egress Path of Travel for Block D (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

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Townhouses and Row Houses Structural System The structural system for the single-family attached townhouse units is a concrete load bearing wall system with floors supported by beams running perpendicular to the supporting walls. Between each party wall is a cavity for sound insulation and fire prevention (Fig. 4.79). This system also allows for independently structured houses that can be developed separately at different times based on the purchase time of the owner/developer. This system ensures the individuality of each apartment (Fig. 4.80). The detached two-family row houses have a similar structural system although without the party walls. The units are laid out on a three foot by three foot structural grid with dimensions of eighteen feet by thirty-three feet (Fig. 4.82). This system determines the rough placement of walls, stairs and services like plumbing, heating, cooling and ventilation. The roof is a low slope pitched roof that drains to an exterior gutter system, which deposits rainwater to the front and rear gardens. The front garden is enclosed by a four foot concrete wall, broken only for a pathway from the sidewalk to the main front entry stoop (Fig. 4.83). The rear yard is enclosed by a wooden six-eight foot high fence. The rear yards also include small storage shacks for the houses (Fig. 4.81).

Fig. 4.80 Independent structural system for townhouses

Fig. 4.79 Concrete masonry load-bearing wall and reinforced floor beam

Fig. 4.81 Structural row housing floor plans (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.82 Townhouses typical structural floor plan (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.83 Section through townhouse A (Scale: 3/32 = 1-0)

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Fig. 4.86 Structural Axonometric (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.84 Structural Floor Plans of a Live-work unit loft, and a 2 & 1-1/2 bay mixed-use apartment building unit (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

The commercial and residential apartment blocks are structured with a concrete frame organized with a 20 foot by 25 foot bay system (Fig. 4.87). A structural grid of 2.5 feet by 2.5 feet organizes the interior spaces of the buildings and determines the location of columns, walls, window openings, and services like plumbing, heating, cooling and ventilation (Fig. 4.84). The buildings are organized with a 3 bay system, which accommodates 3 parking spaces in the 25 foot dimension and two parking strips and two travel lanes in the 3-20 foot bays running the other direction on the underground level (fig. 4.85). The 3 bay system also accommodates two apartment units of 1-bay by 1-2 bays organized around a central circulation corridor. On the exterior walls, precast concrete panels provide a structural surface upon which a cladding can be applied (Fig. 4.86). The concrete frame itself, however can also be inset with an enclosure system. Beams provide rigidity to the structural system and support the floor system (fig. 4.88).
Fig. 4.85 Structural Section (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0) and Plan (Scale: 1/128 - 1-0) of a mixed-use apartment building

Fig. 4.87 Concrete Frame Construction

Fig. 4.88 Exploded Structural Axonometric (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0)

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Supply

Return

Once the structure of the building is constructed, the mechanical systems can be installed. In the underground level, in addition to parking, ramp access from the street and vertical circulation cores, there are Air Handling Units, which supply the interior spaces of the commercial and residential apartment blocks with heating, cooling and ventilation (Fig. 4.89). In warmer months, the air handling units pump cool air into the occupiable spaces of the complex and ventilate through return ducts (Fig. 4.93). In colder months, the system bring hot air into the rooms and ventilates through the same return ducts. This is achieved through a blow-air duct system that allows for the supply ducts to service both hot and cold air according to the season. Ventilation ducts provide the same service year round, which is to continuously circulate the air (Figs. 4.91 & 92). Supply air is brought in through the floor, which return ducts ventilate from the ceiling; this process allows for displacement ventilation, which uses less energy (Fig. 4.90).15

Fig. 4.93 Supply mechanical unit plan (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.89 Underground mechanical plan (Scale: 1/400 = 1-0)

Supply Ducts & Branches

Return Ducts & Branches

Fig. 4.90 Supply & return mechanical section through mixed-use building (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

Hot Air

Cool Air

Venting

Venting

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Fig. 4.91 Heating, ventilation & air conditioning mechanical section (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.92 Supply & return mechanical axonometric (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0)

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In addition to the HVAC system, Union Squares buildings access water service from the citys infrastructure and tie into the existing sewer system (Fig. 4.95). Water service comes in from the street, up through a service cavity in the wall and supplies the building with water for sinks, showers, and the sprinkler system (Fig. 4.94). Waste water from the toilets is brought down through the cavity wall to the citys sewer system (Fig. 4.96). The active mechanical and plumbing systems for Union Square include Air Handling Units, Ceiling Mounted Ventilation Fans and Wet wall plumbing (Figs. 4.97, 98 & 99). The Commercial HVAC systems used to heat, cool and ventilate the complex use a blown-air duct network to supply and service inhabitable spaces of each building. These services are brought up vertically through the building with branches spreading horizontally on top of and below each floors to supply each room with these services (Fig. 4.100).

Fig. 4.95 Water service plumbing axonometric (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.100 Structural, Mechanical & Enclosure Systems Assemblies Sectional Axonometric of Live-work Building Bay (Scale: 1/8 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.97 Commercial HVAC System

Supply

Waste Fig. 4.98 Ceiling Mounted Ventilation Fan

Fig. 4.94 Water service plumbing section (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.96 Water service plumbing unit plan (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.99 Plumbing Wall Construction

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Fig. 4.101 Passive Design Strategies Overview on Mixed-Use Block F

The passive winter heating strategy for the complex is achieved through the large glass public atria that are contained in the office buildings and in one residential apartment block (Fig. 4.102). These large glass openings allow direct sunlight into these public gathering spaces, which heat the surface of the glass, then, through conductive heating, supply heat to the interior spaces (Fig. 4.103). This occurs through the floors as well, although to a lesser degree. The low angle of the winter sun in New Haven (26 degrees) allows the light to avoid the louvers and hit the glass curtain wall directly (Fig. 4.104). Furthermore, deciduous trees planted along Union Avenue allow light to penetrate their branches in winter months, thereby allowing more light into the ground floor of the retail space. The leafless trees also contribute towards making the streets more walkable in colder months, helping to keep the area active and populated during the day.
Winter Sun Angle: 26 Degrees

Fig. 4.102 Public Atria for Natural Winter Heating (Scale: 1/128 = 1-0)

In addition to active mechanical and plumbing systems, Union Squares mixed-use commercial and residential buildings also use many passive design strategies to cut down on energy consumption and increase individual climate control for each room. These strategies include conductive heating for winter heating, sunshading for summer cooling, operable windows for natural ventilation, stormwater collection for greywater reuse and skylights for daylighting (Fig. 4.101). These strategies aim to reduce the demand on power generators, the citys utilities, while maintaining or increasing the comfort level of residents, workers and visitors.

Fig. 4.103 Conductive Heating Public Atrium Plan (Scale: 1/64 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.104 Public Atrium Section in Winter (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

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Fig. 4.105 Public Atrium Section in Summer (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0) Summer Sun Angle: 72 Degrees

Fig. 4.107 Sun shading devices for Summer Cooling Plan (Scale: 1/400 = 1-0)

The passive strategy for summer cooling is to shade interior spaces of the complex through various exterior shading devices (Fig. 4.107). The high angle of the sun in New Haven in the summer (72 degrees) prevents direct sunlight from entering the public atria due to the presence of louvers (Fig. 4.105). Additionally, metal canopies over the retail spaces and the deciduous trees shade the sidewalk and outdoor seating areas, making the pedestrian and outdoor dining experience more pleasant, which essentially extends the square footage of the retail spaces without having to pay for summer cooling (Fig. 4.106). Natural ventilation is achieved through operable, double hung windows in each apartment unit, in addition to skylights for the upper story duplexes, double-height spaces for the ground level duplexes, and cross ventilation in the live-work apartment lofts (Fig. 4.109). Cool wind-blown air is able to enter the units through open lower level windows, travel through the space and naturally ventilate through open upper story windows. Underground ventilation for the parking area is achieved under the raised duplex units (Fig. 4.108).

Fig. 4.109 Cross-ventilation of Live-work Unit in Plan (Scale: 1/16 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.106 Mixed-use Building Section in Summer (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0) Summer Sun Angle: 72 Degrees

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Fig. 4.108 Section through South Lafayette Street of Natural Ventilation Design Strategy (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

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While waste water from toilets is sent to the city sewer system, greywater from showers, sinks, and rainstorms is collected through an exterior gutter and interior piping system then sent to the underground level to a greywater reuse system (Figs. 4.110, 113 & 114). This water is then reused for irrigating plantings and supplying toilet water (Fig. 4.111). Stormwater is also collected on the metal canopies of the retail spaces (Fig. 4.112). Trees planted throughout the development help to absorb rainwater run-off and prevent it from entering the citys sewers.16
Fig. 4.110 Underground water recovery & reuse plan (Scale: 1/400 = 1-0)

Natural daylight for Union Square is achieved through the large window openings of the residential apartment unit flats, the double-height space of the ground level duplexes, the floor to ceiling glass fenestration of the upper story duplexes, the glass curtain wall of the public office atria, and the large glass storefronts of the retail spaces. Skylights on all the roofs of Union Square also bring daylight into the upper story duplex units master suites as well as the top floor of the office buildings (Fig. 4.115). Daylight is also able to penetrate the raised basement level of the underground parking facilities to help avoid the feeling of a catacomb Fig. 4.116). Natural daylighting is important for lowering energy bills by reducing the need for electrical lighting in the apartment units, retail spaces and offices during the day. Daylighting is also important for the psychological and physiological health of people, which is vital to the redevelopment of Church Street South Housing as a morally and ethically-based design project.17 This passive design strategies work in combination with the active HVAC and plumbing systems to provide a livable, comfortable environment that is sustainable and does not unnecessarily waste energy. The strategies aim to provide residents and visitors with the standard of comfort expected in a modern development, while allowing for individual control that doesnt put undue pressure on the city services like stormwater drainage, electrical service, and water consumption.
Fig. 4.115 Daylighting Roof Plan (Scale: 1/400 = 1-0) Winter Sun Angle: 26 Degrees

Fig. 4.113 Greywater Reuse System

Recover Reuse

Waste

Fig. 4.111 Live-work building water recovery section (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.114 Greywater and Rainwater Recovery Unit

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Fig. 4.112 Live-work building water recovery elevation (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.116 Residential Bay & Office Atrium Winter Daylighting Section (Scale: 3/128 = 1-0)

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Fig. 4.133 Structural, Mechanical & Enclosure Systems Assemblies Sectional Axonometric of Live-work Building Bay (Scale: 1/6 = 1-0) Figs. 4.130, 131 & 132 Interior Raised Wood Flooring & Suspended Sheetrock Ceiling System

Figs. 4.117, 118, 119, 120 & 121 Exterior Metal Roofing & Insulated Interior Finish Ceiling System

Once the structural system in constructed and the mechanical systems installed, the enclosure system for Union Square can be assembled. The enclosure systems include insulation, interior finishes, and exterior cladding. Included in the enclosure system is also the roof construction. (Fig. 4.133) Roof Construction The roofing system of Union Square is a metal roof, supported by a metal deck, held up by a concrete structural truss and beam system located at 25 feet on center. Insulation provides heat retention during the winter and it is enclosed with a drywall ceiling. (Figs. 4.117-121) Exterior Wall System The exterior wall systems are a combination of a brick and stone masonry cavity wall and a metal stud inset system. The metal stud wall is also used for interior walls inset between the concrete columns of the frame structure. (Fig. 4.122-129 Floor System The floor system is a concrete deck, supported by beams supporting a raised floor system and a suspended ceiling system. (Figs. 4.130-132)

Figs. 4.122, 123, 124 & 125 Exterior Stone & Brick Masonry Cavity Wall Construction & Insulated Interior Finish System

Figs. 4.126, 127, 128 & 129 Exterior Wood Cladding & Insulated Interior Finish Metal Stud Framing Wall System

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The brick and stone masonry cavity wall enclosure system is located around the periphery of the Union Square development. This system clads the walls of buildings lining the two superblocks of the site bounded by Union, Columbus and South Church, and Columbus, South Orange, South Church, Amistad and South Lafayette. This system expresses permanence, solidity and sustainability.

Fig. 4.137 Masonry Cavity Wall Construction in Plan (Scale: 1/8 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.138 Masonry Cavity Wall Construction Section (Scale: 1/4 = 1-0)

Limestone mixed with concrete aggregate was another material used by Gilbert in the Union Station foundation and cornice. Cladding the ground level storefronts and commercial spaces of Union Square will be limestone blocks above which will be the brick cladding (Fig. 4.141). Window sills surrounded by brick are set with brick headers, while the lintels are a vertical brick running across the entire length of the facade - relating to Gilberts train station design. Lintels surrounded by limestone will be a single limestone and concrete aggregate panel, while the sills are concrete. The stone or brick cladding is fastened to the precast concrete panels, which are fastened to the concrete frame structure (Fig. 4.140). Weep holes allow for ventilation and drainage in the cavity wall. Rigid insulation is applied to the interior wall of the precast concrete panel upon which Gypsum wall board is attached and painted (Fig. 4.137). This enclosure wall system is 17 inches thick, which provides some thermal mass to the exterior walls - providing further support to passive design strategies (Fig. 4.138).18

Fig. 4.134 Union Avenue Facade of Union Station

The brick is laid is an English Flemish Bond with glazed header pattern, which was popular in Georgian architecture (Fig. 4.135). Cass GIlberts Union Station uses this brick pattern (Fig. 4.134). Additionally, Union Square buildings used brick quoining at corners and at 50 foot intervals on the facade (Fig. 4.139). Quoining was also popular in Georgian architecture - an abstracted modern version of quoining was used by Charles Moore in his Church Street South Housing, though it was realized in concrete masonry block units, rather than brick or stone.
Figs. 4.139, 140 & 141 Brick Quoining, Masonry Cavity Wall Assemblies, Exterior Limestone Cladding

Fig. 4.136 Mixed-use Retail & Commercial Office Facade (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.135 English Flemish Bond with Glazed Headers

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Fig. 4.142 Metal Stud Wall Framing Section (Scale: 1/4 = 1-0)

Fig. 4.143 Metal Stud Wall Framing Plan (Scale: 1/8 = 1-0)

In addition to brick and stone cavity wall construction, interior and some exterior walls use an inset metal stud framing system of enclosure (Fig. 4.144). The exterior metal stud framing walls are clad in horizontal wood siding and are located on the facades of buildings facing newly created streets that run through the interior of the Union Square site, including West Water Street, South Lafayette Street, and Portsea Street (Fig. 4.145). The metal stud framing system in inset in between the beams and columns of the concrete frame (Fig.4.142). Batt insulation is inserted into the wall cavities. A vapor barrier is attached to the inside wall of the metal stud frame and gypsum wall board is then fastened to the metal studs and painted. Building paper is attached on the exterior wall and then the wood cladding is fastened to the metal stud frame (Fig. 4.143).

The columns and beams are actually exposed to the exterior facade of the building. This reveals the structural system to the public (Fig. 4.148). This allows for the inset metal stud wall framing system, but it also related to the vernacular building tradition in nearby Trowbridge Square (Fig. 4.147). Pure vernacular building reveals its structure and assemblies, whereas classical architecture often hides these features under cladding.19 The wood siding also relates to the traditional wood siding of many Colonial and Federal style houses, as well as Trowbridge Squares 19th century houses (Fig. 4.146).
`

Figs. 4.145 & 146 Horizontal Wood Cladding & Traditional Clapboard Siding

Fig. 4.144 Metal Stud Wall Framing System Components

Metal stud framing walls are also used for interior, non-structural walls. Wall board is attached on both sides, and insulation only exists for party, wet and service walls.

Fig. 4.147 146 Portsea Street

Fig. 4.148 Multi-family Residences Facade (Scale: 3/64 = 1-0)

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Fig. 4.149 Metal Roofing & Interior Finish Ceiling Section (Scale: 1/4 = 1-0)

The roof enclosure system is important because it is the first line of defense against direct summer lighting, and stormwater and it is the place where heat escapes during the winter. An air-tight and secure roof structure is an important part of any building. The roof of Union Squares commercial and residential apartment buildings is supported by a concrete truss attached to the concrete frame of the building. Diagonal bracing members tie into the ridge beam of the structure as well as the columns. Located at 25 feet on center, the trusses align with the columns of the concrete frame. Atop the concrete truss and beams is a metal deck that supports the batten seam metal roofing system as well as suspends the gypsum drywall ceiling. Rigid foam insulation is used to insulate the roof to prevent winter heat loss, summer solar heat gain and soundproofing for rainstorms (Fig. 4.149). The batten seam metal roofing system sheds rain away from the building through an exterior gutter system that carries water from the roof to the greywater reuse system in the underground level of the complexes where it is treated and reused for toilets and irrigating plantings around the blocks.

The skylights along the roof ridge of the each building aid in natural ventilation, natural daylighting of interior rooms, and stormwater drainage. Controlled by a mechanized switch in each upper story duplex unit, the skylights contain a small ventilation opening that can control natural ventilation for each individual resident (Fig. 4.150). Mechanical ventilation ducts are located in the suspended ceiling and service the duplex units. Supply ducts for heating and cooling are located in the floor on both levels of the duplex apartments, while one ventilation ducts serves the living spaces and one services the kitchen in these units. The black batten seam metal roof absorbs light and heat in the winter aiding in snow melting, while roof insulation resists solar heat gain from entering inhabitable spaces in the summer months (Fig. 4.151). The roof is angled at a 39 degree slope, which related to late-Georgian architectural styles of roof construction (Fig. 4.152). This angle also maintains the roof line height with Union Station and allows for the creation of duplex units on the upper stories of each building.19 A beam at the junction between the concrete truss and the exterior column supports the large floor-to-ceiling glass windows in the duplexes.
Fig. 4.150 Skylight Components Axonometric Diagram

Fig. 4.151 Batten Seam Metal Roofing System

Fig. 4.152 Nicholas Callahan House, 175 Elm Street (c. 1762-1776)

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Fig. 4.154 Wide Plank Wood Flooring

The flooring system for interior floors of the apartment buildings is a concrete deck supported by the concrete beams of the frame structure to which a raised floor is installed and a suspended ceiling is attached. The raised floor contains supply ducts for the HVAC system and service pipes for the plumbing (Fig. 4.155). The floor is finished with a wide plank wood flooring system (Fig. 4.154).

Fig. 4.155 Raised Floor Assemblies Diagram

Fig. 4.156 Metal Stud Wall Framing

Fig. 4.157 Suspended Ceiling Assemblies Diagram

The ceiling frame is suspended from the concrete deck above. This system conceals the ventilation ducts for the HVAC system (Fig. 4.157). The ceiling is finished with a painted sheetrock, which is attached to the suspended ceiling frame with drywall screws (Fig. 4.158). The flooring system is three feet thick to enclose the structural, mechanical and plumbing systems (Fig. 4.156).

Fig. 4.158 Sheetrock Finish Wall & Ceiling System

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Fig. 4.153 View from the corner of South Orange Street & West Water Street of Mixed-Use Retail & Multi-family Residential Building Facade

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Notes

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Section 1: Introduction Notes


1.1 Elizabeth Mills Brown. Preface New Haven: A Guide to Architecture and Urban Design (Yale University Press, 1976) p. vii 1.2 [...] the old established antebellum neighborhood at its apex in the angle between Dixwell Avenue and Goffee Street [...] Brown. New Haven p. 168 1.3 Winchesters soon absorbed much of this and converted the early manufacturing plant of the plain to the new industrial scale of the American imperialist age. A world of workers homes began to spread across the triangle [...] Ibid. 1.4 Closed off from downtown by the unbroken side of Park Street, it was rural until the 1830s when it was opened up in a rush, and the speculative developments of the Canal Age have left their mark to this day is rows of modest lots and neat Greek Revival houses, advertised as desirable for merchants and mechanics. Brown. New Haven p. 70 1.5 Like the other village clusters of the young city, this was a mixed neighborhood of dwellings and small industries - carriage factories for the most part. Ibid. 1.6 It was not until the Derby Turnpike was chartered in 1798 and a bridge built across the river that West Chapel Street sprang to life, becoming one of the towns main streets [...] Brown. New Haven p. 64 1.7 The continued presence of the Alms House in the neighborhood inhibited sales of the building lots, but after 1889 the area experienced a virtual explosion in lot sales and house construction. Kate Ohno and John Herzan. National Register of Historic Places Edgewood Park Historic District (National Park Service, 1986) p. 22 1.8 The city by now was being physically changed by the new industrial scale and its blighting impact on the urban environment [...] A major regrouping of functions and people took place, in which the old self-contained pedestrian village clusters began to be replaced by separate zoning of working and dormitory areas connected by public transportation [...] Brown. New Haven pp. 15-16 1.9 The citys intention that the subdivision be developed as a residential district featuring substantial, well-designed houses is reflected by the fact that the vast majority of the deeds granted to individuals for property in the subdivision after 1889 carried [a] restrictive covenant [...] Ohno et al. Edgewood Park Historic District p. 23 1.10 Today, virtually all of the houses built during this period still stand. Most retain all of their original exterior features. Ibid. 1.11 [...] a planned residential subdivision built in New Haven between 1908 and the end of the 1930s. Valerie Jaffee. Private Law or Social Norms? The Use of Restrictive Covenants in Beaver Hills The Yale Law Journal Vol. 116, No. 6 (April, 2007) p. 1302 1.12 The greater breadth and grassy central esplanade of Norton Parkway combine to give this street a graceful, park-like atmosphere. J. Paul Loether and John Herzan. National Register of Historic Places Beaver Hills Historic District (National Park Service, 1986) p. 2 1.13 The Company promised to to take the uncertainty out of home ownership, with such features as a general plan of development, a uniform building line, and prohibitions on eccentricities and undesirable cheapness of design. Jaffee. The Yale Law Journal p. 1310 1.14 Architecture in this period seems to become increasingly a matter of models, and in some of the later blocks north and west you get the feelings that you are riffling through the pages of a magazine. Brown. New Haven p. 54 1.15 [...] street network characteristics do in fact play a role in road safety outcomes. Although the underlying factors contributing to this role are not yet known, our analysis showed safety outcomes to be associated with street network density and to a lesser extent, street connectivity. More specifically, our results indicate that the highest risk of fatal or severe crashes occurs with very low street network density and safety outcomes

1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25

improve as the intersection density increases. The worst combination of factors seems to be found in street networks that combine high network density with low connectivity or vice versa. Wesley E. Marshall and Norman W. Garrick. Street Network Types and Road Safety: A Study of 24 California Cities Urban Design International (University of Connecticut, Center for Transportation and Urban Planning; 2008) p. 2 See Wesley E. Marshall and Norman W. Garrick. The Effect of Street Network Design on Walking and Biking (Transportation Research Board; 2009) Noise, defined as unwanted or excessive sound, is an undesirable by-product of our modern way of life. It can be annoying, can interfere with sleep, work, or recreation, and in extremes may cause physical and psychological damage. While noise emanates from many different sources, transportation noise is perhaps the most pervasive and difficult source to avoid in society today. Highway traffic noise is a major contributor to overall transportation noise. U.S. Department of Transportation. Highway Traffic Noise in the United States: Problem and Response (Federal Highway Administration; April, 2006) p. 1 A growing body of social science research indicates that living in a distressed, high-poverty neighborhood undermines the long-term life chances of families and childrencutting off access to mainstream social and economic opportunities. For example, children who grow up in distressed neighborhoods and attend high-poverty, poor-performing schools are less likely to succeed academically, complete high school, or attend college. Young people who are surrounded by drug dealing and crimeand whose peers encourage these activitiesare more likely to become caught up in dangerous or criminal activities. And adults who live in neighborhoods that are isolated from job opportunities (by distance or due to poor public transportation) are less likely to work steadily. Margery Austin Turner and Lynette A. Rawlings. Background and Introduction Overcoming Concentrated Poverty and Isolation (The Urban Institute, July 2005) p. 5 pedestrians and bicyclists face challenges at grade-separated highway interchanges. Sidewalks, bike lanes, and shoulders frequently end where secondary roads cross over or under highways. The angle and design speed of on and offramps lead drivers to focus primarily on other motor vehicle traffic, giving insufficient attention to non-motorized users. Roadway markings, warning signs and design cues that indicate where bicyclists and pedestrians should travel, and where motorists should yield, are frequently absent. New Jersey Bicycle and Pedestrian Resource Center. Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Needs at Grade-Separated Interchanges (New Jersey Department of Transportation; August, 2008) p. 2 The Third Ward [...] grew up as a more or less cohesive community with its own industry and social pyramid [...] Brown. New Haven p. 86 In the early 19th century, the area around West Creek began to develop because of its proximity to the harbor and because of the small leather and tanning shops that were built there. City Plan Department. Central New Haven: Church Street South and Oak Street Connector New Haven Historic Resources Inventory (City of New Haven) p. 2 After the West Creek was filled in the 1870s the neighborhood spread down over the flats along Oak Street. Brown. New Haven p. 89 In 1907, he helped to initiate in New Haven what would become known nationally as the City Beautiful movement, and his efforts led to the commission of Cass Gilbert, a well-known New York-based architect, and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., a nationally recognized city planner, to devise a comprehensive report on how best to improve New Havens physical environment and infrastructure. Mark Fenster. A Remedy on Paper: The Role of Law in the Failure of City Planning in New Haven, 1907-1913 The Yale Law Journal Vol. 107, No. 4 (Jan. 1998) p. 1093 They advocate a central boulevard linking the rail station to the Green [...] Dougas W. Rae. Fabric of Enterprise City: Urbanism and Its End (Yale University Press, 2003) p. 83 Doug Rae is currently Ely Professor of Management and Political Science at Yale University. The mayor did his best to ignore the document. Rae. City p. 205 Oak Street became mainly the home of Central European Jews, while Italians took the place of departing Irish and Germans on the hill [...] Brown. New Haven p. 89

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1.26 By 1900, the neighborhood was one of the densest urban sectors in New Haven and known for its high crime rate, substandard housing, and traffic-congested streets. The decay and blight of the area began to spill into the adjacent areas, especially downtown. City Plan Department. New Haven Historic Resources p. 2 1.27 In 1949 urban redevelopment with federal aid was originated under Title 1 of the U.S. Housing Act, and in 1950 a New Haven city planner, Norris Andrews, became Director of the City Plan Department. The Redevelopment Agency was established in that year, and planner Maurice Rotival was retained in 1951 to assist in the selection of redevelopment areas. Nine redevelopment areas were identified [...] Marry Hommann. Planning for Wooster Square Wooster Square Design: A Report on the Background, Experience, and Design Procedures in Redevelopment and Rehabilitation in an Urban Renewal Project (The New Haven Redevelopment Agency, 1965) p. 19 1.28 The West Creek ran under the present road [...] In 1959 its social ills were ended (or at least moved) by burying it under the new highway. Brown. New Haven p. 25 1.29 The Connector is the front door to the city, and a massive effort has gone into demolition and redevelopment along it [...] The Connector now covers Oak Street, and redevelopment is obliterating the rest. Brown. New Haven pp. 26, 89 1.30 When the state cut through it in the 1950s with the Oak Street Connector, the Redevelopment Agency joined in, and Church Street South became one of its most sweeping programs of demolition and reconstruction. Brown. New Haven p. 95 1.31 [...] he took over as chairman at Yale in 1965. The mayor of New Haven (Richard lee) asked him to take on a long-vacant redevelopment-cleared tract between the train station and the city center, isolated from downtown by part of a busy ring road. David Littlejohn. Public Housing Architect: The Life and Work of Charles W. Moore (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1984) p. 243 1.32 The site plan [...] shows how it is organized to produce a pedestrian approach to the railroad station [...] and the edge of downtown [...] Gerald Allen. Church Street South Charles Moore: Monographs on Contemporary Architecture (Whitney Library of Design, 1980) p. 61 1.33 Areas of the complex are notorious for illegal drug activity. Staff. Yes, I Have A Little Bit Of Weed On Me New Haven Independent (November 23, 2012) 1.34 Northland Investment Corporation of Boston [...] plans to tear down the complex and turn it into a mixed-income development on much-coveted real estate. Melissa Bailey. New Church St. South Goes Nowhere Fast New Haven Independent (January 18, 2012) 1.35 Also worthy of recognition is New Havens brilliant urbanist tradition. It is here that the genius of the city lies. The town plan of 1637-38, the monumental redesign of the central city in the Federal period, and the Redevelopment program of modern times are all landmarks in American urbanist history. Brown. New Haven p. vii 1.36 This urbanist tradition, today largely forgotten, needs rediscovery [...] It is this quality of urban scene rather than the landmark that needs to be highlighted in our cities today when the engines of demolition are barging through old neighborhoods, and when preservationists, alert but harried, are darting about trying to save one fragment here, another fragment there, out of once well-knit complexes. As we are beginning to learn, one fragment saved with loud hurrahs often turns out to be disappointing when we see it by itself or when it is moved to another site, and we learn too late that what we liked about it was not what is was but what it did: the role it played in the larger scheme where movement; rhythm, repetition and contrast, exit and approach were related to one another in a purposeful way. Brown. New Haven pp. vii-viii 1.37 [...] Cass Gilbert will once again enjoy the esteem that was his one hundred years ago when he was a leader in American architecture. Gilberts was an immense talent. An inventor but not an innovator; he worked within the parameters of established architectural modalities, mastering grammar and syntax, as well as vocabularies of details, as few have ever done. Girlberts work is second to none in its command of composition and vividness of detail. Sharon Irish. Editors Forward Cass Gilbert, Architect: Modern Traditionalist (The Monacelli Press, 1999) p. 7 1.38 On September 13th, 2012, in HUD Mortgagee Letter: 2012-18, FHA revised rules that limited the cap of commercial space in mixed-use condo buildings from 25% to an updated 35% commercial use, with possible waivers for developments with up to 50% commercial space. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Mortgagee Letter: 2012-18 http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/documents/huddoc?id=12-18ml.pdf

Section 2: Site Research Notes


2.1 United States Federal Census 2010. Redistricting Data http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/ accessed 10/17/12 (U.S. Census Bureau) 2.2 U.S. Department of Commerce. New Haven, Connecticut http://quickfacts.census.gov/ accessed 10/17/12 (U.S. Census Bureau) 2.3 Google Earth. Ruler Tool Google Earth (Google) 2.4 The New York Times. Mapping the 2010 U.S. Census http://projects.nytimes.com/census/2010/map accessed 10/17/12 (Google Map data, 2012) 2.5 Douglas W. Rae. Industrial Convergence on a New England Town City: Urbanism and Its End (Yale University Press, 2003) p. 44 2.6 Brown. New Haven p. 11 2.7 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven p. 48 2.8 Michael Sletcher. New Haven: From Puritanism to the Age of Terrorism (Arcadia Publishing, 2004) p. 11 2.9 Ibid. 2.10 City Plan Department. Eastern New Haven: Fair Haven New Haven Historic Resources Inventory (City of New Haven) p. 22 2.11 Ibid. 2.12 Sletcher. New Haven p. 11 2.13 Ibid. 2.14 Sletcher. New Haven p. 12 2.15 Since the fall of 1636, the Puritans had been engaged in the so-called Pequot War, their first major skirmish with the Inian tribes of New England. instigated by the murder of an Englishman by Narragansett tribesmen, the conflict was less a war than a punitive campaign waged by the colonists against the largely innocent Pequot and Narragansett tribes that ranged along the Connecticut and Rhode Island shores. A series of raids by colonial militia throughout the winter and sprint culminated in a decisive and infamous attack in late May 1637. Soldiers surrounded a Pequot fort at Mystic in Connecticut and massacred hundreds of men, women, and children as they slept in their tents. Through June and the first half of July, the militia pursued the remaining tribesmen west along the Connecticut shore and finally caught up with them on the plain of Quinnipiack. There, on July 13, the soldiers, guided by a Divine Providence, came upon them...hard by a most hideous swamp, Winthrop recounted. Into this swamp they were gotten. Vogt. New Haven p. 42 2.16 Brown. New Haven p. 1 2.17 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven p. 43 2.18 Ibid. 2.19 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven pp. 43-44 2.20 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven p. 45 2.21 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven pp. 45-46 2.22 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven p. 47 2.23 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven p. 48 2.24 Ibid. 2.25 Ibid. 2.26 Ibid. 2.27 Allan Appel. At Rapture Runway, Pair Passed Over New Haven Independent (May 21, 2011) 2.28 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven p. 49 2.29 Ibid. 2.30 Ibid. 2.31 Brown. New Haven pp. 1, 11-12 2.32 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven pp. 50-51 2.33 Brown. New Haven p. 1

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2.34 Thomas J. Farnam. New Haven, 1638-1690 New Haven: An Illustrated History (Windsor Publications, 1981) p. 9 2.35 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven p. 51 2.36 Brown. New Haven p. 1 2.37 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven p. 51 2.38 Brown. New Haven p. 1 2.39 Vogt, et al. Yale in New Haven p. 51 2.40 Brown. New Haven pp. 1, 4 2.41 Brown. New Haven pp. 1-2 2.42 Brown. New Haven p. 102 2.43 Rae. City p. 37 2.44 Maureen E. Boyle. The Failure of Americas First City Plan: Why New Haven, the Colonies First Planned City, would Have Been Better Left Unplanned Student Prize Papers Paper 57 (2010) p. 4 2.45 Brown. New Haven p. 5 2.46 Brown. New Haven p. 2 2.47 Ibid. 2.48 Sletcher. New Haven p. 46 2.49 Brown. New Haven p. 14 2.50 Brown. New Haven p. 15 2.51 Farnam. New Haven p. 42 2.52 Vogt. Yale in New Haven pp. 84-85 2.53 Brown. New Haven p. 6 2.54 Sletcher. New Haven pp. 63, 101 2.55 Brown. New Haven p. 3 2.56 Vogt. Yale in New Haven p. 97 2.57 Brown. New Haven p. 3 2.58 Brown. New Haven pp. 7-8 2.59 Brown. New Haven p. 3 2.60 Brown. New Haven pp. 15-16 2.61 Brown. New Haven p. 9 2.62 Rae. City p. 80 2.63 George Dudley Seymour. An Open Letter New Haven Register (June 2, 1907) George Dudley Seymour Papers Yale Manuscripts & Archives at Sterling Memorial Library Image Numbers 5518 & 5520 2.64 Vogt. New Haven pp. 235-236 2.65 Cass Gilbert and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Specific Recommendations and Suggestions: The Heart of the City Report of the New Haven Civic Improvement Commission (The Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Company; 1910) pp. 47-57 2.66 The wholesale markets which occupied the site in 1910 remained there through the early 1950s. SLR. Low-moderate baroque Progressive Architecture (A Reinhold Publication; May 1972) p. 76 2.67 Vogt. Yale in New Haven p. 240 2.68 [...] Frederick Law Olmsted and Cass Gilbert once envisioned a tree-lined boulevard with shops, cafes and hotels connecting the station with the Green. SLR. Progressive Architecture p. 75 2.69 As part of the New Haven plan, Gilbert alone was engaged in late 1907 to design a new public library on the property of the Bristol House, mentioned earlier. This site was located along Qulaity Row, a series of distinguished houses that had been built in the early to mid-nineteenth century but by 1900 had begun to show signs of decline. Funded by a generous gift from a New Haven widow, Mary E. Ives, the library was the first structure to be built as part of the new civic center on the north edge of the green. Most important in terms of the dynamic between Gilbert and

2.70 2.71 2.72 2.73 2.74 2.75 2.76 2.77 2.78 2.79 2.80 2.81

Seymour, who in this case was an interested inside advisor (and not a direct client), was that the style of the structure was to be neo-Fereral or neo-Georgian. It was, Gilbert and Seymour agreed, to be designed in harmony with the United (North) Church, which was designed by Hoadley approximately ten years after he completed the Bristol House. Gilbert regarded this church as one of the finest exmaples of colonial architecture, one worthy of preservation and documentation with historic record drawings. Barbara S. Christen and Steven Flanders, eds. Ideals in Planning Cass Gilbert, Life and Work: Architect of the Public Domain (W. W. Norton & Company; 2001) p. 182 Geoffrey Blodgett. The Politics of Public Architecture Cass Gilbert: Life and Work, Architecture of the Public Domain (W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2001) p. 63 Geoffrey Blodgett is a former Robert S. Danforth Professor of History at Oberlin College whose dissertation focused on political reform efforts of the late 19thCentury. Rae. City p. 184 Doug Rae explains that the democratization of city politics had taken a decisive turn in 1845, near the beginning of serious capitalist development, when the property requirement for voting was repealed. Two distinct versions of urban community were thereby set in perpetual competition with one another. One,the older and less democratic, defined the political community by material stakeholding by property-ownership, by business investment by the commitment of fixed economic assets to the place and to its tax rolls. The other defined the community by reference to residence the commitment of ones person,and her family, to the city constituted the defining act of membership. These two conceptions have been in tension since long before 1845, but it was not until then that their rivalry became a palpable fact of routine politics. On the first idea, the citys interest and that of its property holders are more or less the same; on the second, the citys interest and those of all its residents are more or less the same. Rae. City pp. 185-186 [The City Practical Movement] thus fell within the more general arguments of the Progressive movement, ascendant during this era, which sought to reform city governments of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries through greater municipal self-control. Fenster. A Remedy on Paper p. 1104 Vogt. Yale in New Haven p. 237 The committee solicited a contribution of $5,000 from the city, which denied the request. Vogt. Yale in New Haven p. 379 Rae. City p. 206 [...] before the promulgation of New Havens first zoning ordinance in 1926 [...] Jaffee. Private Law or Social Norms? p. 1305 Scholars trying to account for the failure of city planning in New Haven during the period prior to zoning have typically pointed to either a lack of political and public support or the effectiveness of land use coordination under the existing common law and prevailing social norms. Fenster. Yale Law Journal p. 1095 In 1929, the Hall of Records was built on Orange Street and in 1971, the New Haven County Courthouse was built down the street from the Green on Church and Wall. In September 1912, Ford released his report on the avenue or, as it was commonly called, the railroad approach. Following Gilbert and Olmsteds plan, he used the axis of Commerce Street to connect the station plaza with downtown George Street, but he reduced significantly the size of the civic plaza at the avenues north end, where it intersected with Congress Avenue. He also introduced another public square at the avenues midpoint, to be used as a market garden for New Haven County farmers. Like the civic plaza, the new square deflected the avenues axis, a move motivated in part by the need to find the most economically feasible route. Indeed, his elaboration of Gilbert and Olmsteds schematic design typified the process of translating the board gestures of the City Beautiful planning into physical reality. The result, far from compromising their plans intent and principle, was a richer, more complex scheme. It provided a succession of civic spaces, varied in shape and function, which inflected the approach to the Green. Vogt. Yale in New Haven p. 245 The project began with a budget of $600,000, which grew quickly to more than $2 million. Although Gilbert prepared several presentation drawings in the spring of 1907, the design was not officially chosen until two and a half years later. Further complications occurred when the

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railroad encountered difficulty in obtaining the land that had been chosen for the project. Change in leadership occurred in 1913, when Howard Elliott became the new president, having come from a post at the Northern Pacific Railroad. His administration was short-lived; he was forced out in 1917, only months after Gilberts original design had been radically stripped down. The onset of World War 1 was also a factor in the delays [...] Margaret Heilbrun, ed. Inventing the Skyline: The Architecture of Cass Gilbert (Columbia University Press; 2000) p. 224 2.82 The monumental, four-story, brick building is [...] a restrained example of the Second Renaissance Revival style. The symmetrical facade is divided into three sections with the central portion projecting a few feet forward. [...] The name Union Station symbolized the buildings function as the nexus for several New England railroads. It was the third station in New Haven, built to replace the former Union Station which burned May 9, 1918. The existing station, which opened April 5, 1920, is an example of a rapidly disappearing species of building in which monumental interior space and precise proportions are essential to the structures harmony. Union Station epitomizes Gilberts personal architectural credo: that no matter how ornate or how simple and plain a structure may be, in the last analysis, its principal claim to beauty lies in its proportions, not in its adornment. Stephen J. Raiche. National Register of Historic Places New Haven Railroad Station (May 5, 1975) pp. 2, 5 The deisgn, like the Library, shows Gilberts effort to create a specifically New Haven idiom, mixing Colonial motifs with the new grandeur of the Beaux-Arts movement. Brown. New Haven p. 95 2.83 Rae. City pp. 217-218 2.84 Brown. New Haven pp. 3, 9 2.85 Hommann. Wooster Square Design p. 11 2.86 Rae. City pp. 266, 274 2.87 Hommann. Wooster Square Design p. 19 2.88 See How to get renewal off dead center Architectural Forum Vol. 105 (October, 1956) pp. 166-169 New Haven, test for downtown renewal Architectural Forum Vol. 109 (July, 1958) 2.89 The immediate issue was the wholesale reconfiguration of the commercial downtown, the so-called Church Street project, which had been delayed by lawsuits and unsteady business decisions. Rae. City p. 323 2.90 The city recently named the corner of Chapel and Academy after DeLauro (mother of U.S. Rep. Rosa DeLauro). The mayor said that in recent months suggestions shifted to find a way to honor not just Luisa but her husband Ted, an early activist in the preservation of Wooster Square during the era of urban renewal. Allan Appel. Wooster Square Awaits DeLauro Sculpture New Haven Independent (September 28, 2011) 2.91 New Haven Historic Preservation Trust. About Us http://nhpt.org/index.php/about_us/ accessed 12/21/12 Nationally, the preservation movement organized and successfully implemented the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, which provided tax credits and other incentives for rehabilitation projects. See Robert E. Stripe. A Richer Heritage: Historic Preservation in the 21st Century (HPFNC, Inc. 2003) 2.92 Thwarted Urban Renewal projects included parts of the Fair Haven, Lower State Street, Hill, and Newhallville projects, and the completion of the inner ring road projects. See Mandi Isaacs Jackson. Model City Blues: Urban Space and Organized Resistance in New Haven (Temple University Press, 2008) 2.93 New Haven Oral History Project interview with Theresa Argento. Life in the Model City: Stories of Urban Renewal in New Haven http://www.yale.edu/nhohp/modelcity/argento.html (CFGNH, 2004) 2.94 Sletcher. New Haven p. 130 2.95 Vincent Scully. Modern Architecture at Yale: A Memoir Yale in New Haven p. 343 2.96 See New Haven Closing Was Expected The New York Times (November 28, 1979) Reuters. Olin May Sell U.S. Arms Unit The New York Times (June 19, 1981) AP. Winchester Sold The New York Times (July 10, 1981) John S. Rosenberg. Gun Industrys Role Is Shrinking The New York Times (August 9, 1981) Stacey Stowe. A Hard Kick From John Waynes Gun The New York Times (January 21, 2006)

Jeff Holtz. Sun Sets On Factory That Won The West The New York Times (January 22, 2006) 2.97 Rae. City p. 367 2.98 Rae. City p. 259 2.99 William Finnegan. New Haven: Work Boy Cold New World: Growing Up In A Harder Country (Modern Library, 1998) p. 44 2.100 When the New Haven Register surveyed public opinion on the citys worst problems in 1980, drugs did not make the top ten. A similar poll in 1989 found drug abuse ranked third. Drug-related crime came first. Meanwhile, the New Haven chief of police estimated that 80 percent of all crime in the city was drug-related. In 1988, there were 19, 425 serious crimes reported in New Haven. Residents and nonresidents alike considered large parts of the city unsafe. Finnegan. Cold New World p. 16 See New Haven Pledges Not to Rest Until Black Girls Killer Is Caught The New York Times (August 07, 1980) John T. McQuiston. 3 Youths Shot As Gangs Clash At Courthouse The New York Times (December 13, 1989) AP. Saying Drug Gang Is Broken, New Haven Police Arrest 15 The New York Times (April 30, 1990) Andy Rierden. Armed Youths Turn New Haven Into a Battleground The New York Times (May 26, 1991) Kirk Johnson. Three Killed in New Haven During a Sickout by Police The New York Times (September 23, 1991) George Judson. 6-Year-Old in New Haven Shot in the Head on a Bus The New York Times (June 11, 1992) Student Is Shot at a High School in New Haven The New York Times (November 10, 1994) Bill Slocum. The Battle of the Drug Trade in Fair Haven The New York Times (February 04, 1996) 2.101 Rae, et al. Crime Violent: Comparison of Cities 1940-1990 Historical New Haven Digital Collection http://www.library.yale.edu/thecitycourse/Data_Tables/Crime/Crime_Violent_Comparison_of_Cities_1940_1990.xls (accessed 12/21/12) 2.102 In New Haven, between 1985 and 1991, the number of murders each year almost tripled, from twelve to thirty-four. Assaults doubled - to two thousand while robberies increased by half. The citys overall crime rate (14,900 per 100,000 population) is greater than that of Washing, Detroit, Dallas, or New York. Forty percent of New Havens ghetto schoolchidlren, according to a survey in the summer of 1992, have witnessed a murder before they turn fifteen. [...] In New Haven between 1989 and 1991, there were 1,162 shootings, a little more than one a day. Ninety-nine were fatal[.] Roughly 75 percent of the victims were black. [...] In January 1993, three students from the same high school, in separate incidents two weeks apart, died of gunshot wounds. In late 1992, a five-year-old was caught in the cross fire between posses; he was shot in the mouth but survived - the second kindergartner in ten months to take a bullet intended for a member of a rival gang. The first was on her way to school, shot through the window of a bus. In October 1992, three members of the Latin Kings were shot and killed on a baseball field - execution style, the paper said - by Eddie Loco Hernandez, another member of the gang. The three, reportedly, had attempted to resign. Geoffrey Douglas. Dead Opposite: The Lives and Loss of Two American Boys (Henry Holt and Company; 1995) pp. 16, 19 2.103 At exactly 6 a.m., the task force executed a coordinated sweep, simultaneously arresting 29 out of the 32 people indicted. Jay Dixit. Gangbuster http://jaydixit.com/writing/gangbuster.htm accessed 12/21/12 2.104 Urban Revitalization/Livable City Initiative succeeds in New Haven http://americancityandcounty.com/mag/government_livable_city_initiative accessed 12/21/12 (American City and County) Jan. 1, 1997 2.105 See Neighborhood Housing Services of New Haven. What We Do http://www.nhsofnewhaven.org/what-we-do.html accessed 12/21/12 Thomas MacMillan. On Winchester, To Pioneer Or Not To Pioneer New Haven Independent (Jul 21, 2011) Hank Hoffman. Artists Next Door: Colin Caplan promotes New Havens history, architecture The Arts paper (November 5, 2012) 2.106 Downtown New Haven looks deserted. Finnegan. Cold New World p. 7 See Sletcher. Decay and Renewal New Haven pp. 143-147 2.107 Paul Bass. Check Out Their Dorm Room Now New Haven Independent (Mar 20, 2012) 2.108 Levinthe CEO of New Havens largest employer since 1993 Paul Bass. Levin Leaving; Describes Next Jobs Challenge New Haven Independent (Aug 30, 2012) 2.109 Peter Dobkin Hall. How Yale destroyed New Havens economy Yale Daily News (September 30, 2003) 2.110 The West Creek from the earliest colonial times had been a place of [...] marshes. Brown. New Haven p. 13

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2.111 One of the oldest roads in New Haven, the Milford highway has existed since at least 1639. The first bridge across the West River was here, and from this the main routes into town diverged: now Davenport, Congress, and Columbus Avenues. At first serving merely as access fields, Congress was opened to the bridge around 1810. Brown. New Haven p. 84 2.112 Brown. New Haven pp. 11-13 2.113 Brown. New Haven pp. 13, 86, 89 2.114 Brown. New Haven p. 94 2.115 Brown. New Haven pp. 13, 86 2.116 Brown. New Haven p. 94 2.117 Brown. New Haven p. 86 2.118 Brown. New Haven p. 89 2.119 Gerard Hallock next entered the scene, along with the Trowbridge family, a merchant dynasty who had owned land in this part of town since the first Colonial grants. It was they who built the church and probably the cast iron fence, imitating the one on the Green; and in the end of Trowbridges did much developing around the area. The south side of the square was built in the 50s; the north side in the 60s; the west side in the 70s; and the eat side in the 80s with four houses on the upper end. Brown. New Haven p. 94 2.120 This is really a continuation of Union St. and runs past the present Union Railroad Station. The name signifies a union other than that of the states - that of various railroads joining to form the New York, New Haven, & Hartford in 1870. Whereas four separate railroads had served New Haven in the Civil War period, a single system now operated the six lines running into the city. (Osterweis, 386) Doris B. Townsend. Union Avenue - Meadow to Spring The Street of New Haven: The Origin of Their Names (The New Haven Colony Historical Society; 1984, 1998) p. 143 2.121 Brown. New Haven p. 95 2.122 Ibid. 2.123 Charles Moore. Church Street South Moderate Income Housing A + U: The Work of Charles Moore (1973) p. 208 2.124 Brown. New Haven p. 95 2.125 Because of delays in construction starts on the second phase of 100 units, funding from the government had been withdrawn. When renewed funding finally came from HUD, the developer asked for even more money. Construction had taken three years to complete instead of one and one-half years and costs had escalated since the original contract was negotiated. Though HUD acquiered several times and gave the developer more money, he finally quit, leaving the city with the funding but with no one to build. By the time a contract was negotiate with a new developer, HUD had lost patience and withdrew the money again. Due, also to a lack of money from the developer, most of the site work on the first phase was accomplished only because the city called the outdoor space a park and could then appropriate federal recreational money for landscaping and play areas. SLR. Progressive Architecture p. 82 2.126 See Edmund Mahony. State Embraces A Tough New Ally In Its War On Crime: The Feds Hartford Courant (July 05, 1992) Gang Information: Jungle Boys Information http://www.segag.org/ganginfo/frjboys.html accessed 12/22/12 See Paul Bass. Church St. South Murder Reveals Extra-Duty Gap New Haven Independent (October 3, 2012) 2.127 New Haven is the leading economic, educational and cultural center of southern Connecticut. In recent years, the business mix has evolved from a traditional industrial city to a broad and diverse economic center with a balance of educational institutions, advanced manufacturing companies and commercial service businesses. The City is encouraged as employment in basic industries continues to increase in spite of global competition in knowledge-based economic sectors and Connecticuts overall job loss the past 10 years. There are approximately 77,000 jobs in New Haven, mainly in the downtown core and medical district. From a socio-economic perspective, New Haven is growing. At 5%, the City realized the largest gain in population of any large city in New England between 2000 and 2010 on a per capita basis. Likewise, the commercial office and rental apartment markets have been strong throughout the national economic downturn. According to Bloomberg, New Haven had the second lowest residential rental vacancy rate in the nation in Q1 2011 at 2.3%, behind only New York City. Colliers reports the commercial vacancy rate in New Haven at 12.2%, well below the national average of 15.3% in Q3 2011. These impressive statistics are attributed in part to the growing national stature of the Citys major institutions, which is generating demand for commercial space for high tech spin offs in medical science, information technology, new media and other next generation fields.

The City is working aggressively with numerous private and public partners to continue this positive trend by expanding Downtown into a larger, more sustainable and transit-oriented regional center. For example, Yale-New Haven Hospital recently opened the $430 million Smilow Cancer Hospital, which catalyzed $150 million in private residential and med/lab development at 55 Park Street and 2 Howe Street. As the city grows, it is vitally important to connect growth to public transportation. To this end, the City is advancing plans to remove the Route 34 expressway and develop a new street grid from Downtown to Union Station. Related plans include the redevelopment of the Church Street South housing complex, the redevelopment of the former New Haven Coliseum site and the execution of a transit-oriented development at Union Station, which is the subject of this RFP.The initial concept plan for the entire district around Union Station envisions over 4,000 new jobs, 2,000 new residences and over $441 million in new economic activity at full build out. These are real opportunities with development teams identified for over 10 acres of land within the target .5 mile walking distance of the station. Simultaneously, the city will be launching a wider residential market study for all potential developable sites within a .5 mile radius of our two train stations. City of New Haven. Scope of Services: Community Setting and Project Background New Haven Union Station Transit-Oriented Development Study: Request for Proposals (New York & Connecticut Sustainable Communities; January 6, 2012) pp. 5-6 2.128 Mary E. OLeary. Merger of Yale-New Haven Hospital, Saint Raphaels signed New Haven Register (September 11, 2012) 2.129 The Hill was the wrong side of the tracks even before the tracks were invented. It began life poor in 1638 as the area where those settlers who were not shareholders in the New Haven Colony were given small lots outside the Nine Square. The neighborhood name is a shortened version from an old nick name, Sodom Hill, and the area has been not only poor but also regarded as dirty and spiritually and physically threatening for the last two centuries. It seems to have been a reputation created in the classic way, by a combination of noxious uses (leather manufacturing, which used the West Creek, whose bed is now covered by the Oak Street Connector, as its sewer) and a regular supply of traders and travelers passing through (Davenport Avenue was the road to New York). All this made for cheap land, a population drawn by jobs that others disdained, and cheap housing. Construction jobs on the Farmington Canal in the 1820s and 1830s also attracted laborers, and many of them, Irish with families, settled here. In 1834 they built the first Catholic Church in New Haven on ground now occupied by the South Pavilion of Yale-New Haven Hospital, in the heart of the medical campus. It was hardly accidental that the church was just across the street from the first building of New Haven (originally State) Hospital, completed two years earlier, in 1832, to a design by Ithiel Town. The Hospital was a charity institution, established in a poor neighborhood where it was particularly needed and where the whole lock of land could be gotten for comparatively little. Patrick L. Pinnel. The Medical School and The Hill Yale University: The Campus Guide (Princeton Architectural Press, 1999) p. 169 2.130 It was sited about half a mile south and a little west of the Old Campus, in the middle of a block bounded by Cedar Streets and Congress, Howard, and Davenport Avenues. [...] Between the autumn of 1862 and August 1876 it was leased to the U.S. government as a military hospital. Catherine Lynn. Building Yale & Razing It from the Civil War to the Great Depression Yale in New Haven p. 138 2.131 Fundraising was supplemented by back rent for wartime use of the hospital due from the federal government. Lynn, Yale in New Haven p. 139 2.132 Extending southwest of the East Ward, this third apse-ended form faced Congress Avenue. [...] Before the turn of the century, three more wings with apsidal ends were added at right angles to a corridor extending along the north-south axis centered through Ithiel Towns first hospital building. Lynn. Yale in New Haven p. 142 2.133 [An entrance piece and wings] along Cedar and Broad Streets were constructed during 1923 and 1924, but [this] principle facade did not last very long. It disappeared when Grosvenor Atterbury subsumed [the] building within his much larger Sterling Hall of Medicine of 1929 and faced it more regularly with classical facades. [...] Red-brick Georgian facades rose over ever-increasing square footage in the hospital area during the period leading into the Depression, enclosing and replacing most of the High Victorian Gothic of the late nineteenth century. The largest classical hospital structure of them all was Henry C. Peltons Clinic Building of 1929-31. Lynn. Yale in New Haven pp. 218-219 2.134 Scully. Yale in New Haven pp. 339-340 2.135 Separated from the city by the salt marshes of the West Creek and bordering on docks and tanneries, it was one of the shanty settlements that grew up on the fringes of town. New Haven Historic Preservation Trust. Trowbridge Square Historic District http://nhpt.org/index.php/site/district/trowbridge_square_historic_district/ accessed 12/23/12 2.136 The depression of 1807-25 intervened, temporarily arresting the citys expansion, and little new building took place. Ibid.

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2.137 Like its model, the central square of the village was reserved for use as an open public place. Ibid. 2.138 While the Village of Spireworth was not the largest real estate project initiated by Jocelyn, it proved to be the most significant of his ventures. It was the only project in which Jocelyn is known to have activity attempted to combine his passion for real estate speculation with the moral imperatives embodied in the gospel of responsibility. Jocelyns desire to establish and develop the village as a harmonious community in which the citys poor and disadvantaged could achieve spiritual, moral, and economic betterment was reflected in [...] restrictive covenants placed in deeds granted for lots in the village during the 1830s and 1840s, which stipulated that no ardent spirits could be sold on the property, that the property could never be sold or rented to persons of disreputable character, and, in some cases, that sale or rental of the property to colored individuals would not be refused solely on that basis. The settlement of the blacks in the village during the 1830s and early 1840s was further encouraged by the construction and transfer of title for a small school (no longer extant) on Carlisle Street to members of the villages growing black population, and the donation in 1834 of a lot on Salem Street opposite the square to these same individuals solely for the erection of a House of Worship. Ibid. 2.139 NHHPT. Ninth Square Historic District http://nhpt.org/index.php/site/district/ninth_square_historic_district/ accessed 12/23/12 2.140 Brown. New Haven p. 108 2.141 Matthew Roth, Bruce Clouette, and John Herzan. National Register of Historic Places Ninth Square Historic District (National Park Service, 1984) 2.142 Newman Architects. Ninth Square District Revitilization http://www.newmanarchitects.com/project.html?pid=98 accessed 12/23/12 2.143 Gray-Organschi Architecture. Firehouse 12 Music Studio http://grayorganschi.com/ accessed 12/23/12 2.144 Lionel Beehner and Christopher Gregory. Near Yale, A District Blooms The New York Times (2012) 2.145 A large area between downtown New Haven and its railroad station had been cleared in the early years of massive urban renewal, and great boulevards had been run through it. Moore. A + U p. 208 2.146 Rae, et al. City of New Haven Redevelopment Plan, 1955 Historical New Haven Digital Collection 2.147 Mies van der Vohe had planned a school and housing, but had resigned the commission duringmy first years at Yale and New Haven intellectuals, led by Vincent Scully, were calling for a renewed respect for street and neighbors. Our office was called on to design 400 three and four stroy low income apartment buildings, public elderly housing in an eight story buildings and elderly housing udner another federal program, sponsored by the Jewish Community Council. Moore. A + U p. 208 2.148 The New Haven Colony Historical Society. New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company headquarters building, Water and Meadow Streets, New Haven. The New Haven Redevelopment Agency Photograph Collection 2.149 Hommann. Wooster Square Design p. 11 2.150 Vision Appraisal. 54 Meadow Street, New Haven, CT Assessors Online Database for New Haven, CT 2.151 Emporis. Gateway Center http://www.emporis.com/building/gateway-center-new-haven-ct-usa accessed 12/24/12 2.152 Brown. New Haven p. 96 2.153 Ibid. 2.154 Brown. New Haven p. 95 2.155 Ibid. 2.156 Suffering from lack of maintenance, extreme water damage, and graffiti, it was almost demolished, until the Northeast Corridor Improvement Project came to the rescue. Newman Architects. Union Station http://www.newmanarchitects.com/project.html?pid=180 accessed 12/24/12 See Louis S. Thompson. The Northeast Corridor Improvement Project http://www.tgaassoc.com/documents/northeast-corridor.pdf accessed 12/24/12 (Federal Railroad Association, U.S. Department of Transportation; November 10, 1982) 2.157 Ibid. 2.158 SLR. Progressive Architecture pp. 76-78 2.159 SLR. Progressive Architecture p. 78-80 2.160 Moore. A + U p. 208

2.161 Littlejohn. Architect p. 245 2.162 Gerald Allen. Church Street South Monographs on Contemporary Archtiecture: Charles Moore (Whitney Library of Design; 1980) p. 60 2.163 Romeo Jova. Mafia Negra - Salimos de La Jungla http://youtu.be/PoyhJB3Ktyc?t=1m30s accessed 12/24/12 2.164 Moores housing attempts to rethink current planning stereotypes with their strong suburban bias and to provide a civilized urban environment[.] Brown. New Haven p. 95 2.165 Church Street South, across from the train station, would be funded independently of the housing authority but would serve a similar function in the local housing market, concentrating the very poor in large numbers. Rae. City p. 383 2.166 Areas of the complex are notorious for illegal drug activity. Its high walls and maze-like terrain invite drug dealers who can spot approaching police officers. Staff. Yes, I Have A Little Bit Of Weed On Me New Haven Independent (November 23, 2012) 2.167 DataHaven. Demographics: Overview Understanding the Greater New Haven Region through Data (The Community Foundation for Greater New Haven) p. 10 2.168 Metz. New Architecture in New Haven p. 22 2.169 [U]nder a citywide rule instituted two years ago, the officers who do show up for extra-duty work are regularly rotated. In that time, three murders have taken place at Church Street South: Mirvil on Sept. 18; Issah Gantt on April 20, 2011; Troy Perry on May 25, 2010. Bass. Church St. South Murder Reveals Extra-Duty Gap New Haven Independent 2.170 SLR. Progressive Architecture p. 83 2.171 Carbon monoxide from faulty furnaces drove Esther Martinez and Charleen Ortiz from their homes this winter. Allan Appel. Church Street South Tenants Organize New Haven Independent (May 18, 2011) For a week, residents of Church Street South have been shuffled from one hotel to another after several people were poisoned by carbon monoxide. City officials and the owners of the complex in the Hill neighborhood have been working in that time on a plan to fix faulty furnace pipes that led to the illnesses. Representatives of New Havens Livable Cities Initiative and the Fire and Building departments have inspected 223 of the 301 units there since the night of Jan. 15, when four adults and one child were rushed to a hospital. Of the units that were checked, inspectors found 122 furnaces with improperly installed exhaust pipes, said Erik Johnson, LCIs executive director. Ann DeMatteo. 14 families from New Havens Church Street South shuffled between hotels due to carbon monoxide problems New Haven Register (January 22, 2011) 2.172 Moore. A + U p. 208 2.173 Moore. A + U p. 212 2.174 Moore. A + U p. 214 [Tower One] consciously pokes rude fun at the heroic Knights of COlumbus Tower, with its great, dark, cylindrical corner piers, just across the highway; Moore used to speak of his tower, conspicuously pier-less by contrast, as a neutered K of C. Pinnell. The Campus Guide p. 174 2.175 Congresswoman Rosa L. DeLauro and Senator Richard Blumenthal praised the award of a $2,855,069 grant to the New Haven Jewish Federation Housing Corporation from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Developments Assisted Living Conversion Program. These funds, part of more than of $23.7 million in grants announced by the Obama Administration, will be used to convert 14 units in the Tower One/Tower East housing development from elderly units into assisted living units. These conversions will enable elderly residents to remain in the environments they are comfortable in while still receiving the support and the care they need. Additional renovations will also be made to update to the kitchen, laundry areas, and improve accessibility throughout the building. DeLauro, Blumenthal praise grant for Tower One/Tower East assisted living improvements http://delauro.house.gov/ accessed 12/24/12 2.176 See Thomas MacMillan. City Bails Out After Downpour New Haven Independent (August 10, 2012) 2.177 I 95 cuts the bottom of the city along the harbor, on landfill that lies half a mile beyond the original shoreline. Brown. New Haven p. 22

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Section 3: Conceptual Framework Notes


3.1 City Plan and Economic Development Departments. Route 34 East: Downtown Crossing, New Haven http://downtowncrossingnewhaven.com/ accessed 12/25/12 3.2 City Plan Department. Executive Summary New Haven Union Station Transit Oriented Development Study (City of New Haven; February, 7, 2008) p. 1 3.3 City Plan and Economic Development Departments. http://downtowncrossingnewhaven.com/ 3.4 Diane Orson. Alexion Pharmaceuticals To Anchor New Haven Downtown Crossing Your Public Media (June 10, 2012) 3.5 Staff. Now On To Temple & Orange New Haven Independent (December 3, 2012) 3.6 New Haven Urban Design league. Downtown Crossing: A Summary of Concerns Regarding Project Planning and Performance,and Compliance with TIGER II Criteria (February 2012) p. 24 3.7 With the advent of Mayor Lee and Edward Logue, attention focused on the revitalization of the central business district, which led to the first real disaster to affect the Church Street South site- construction of the Oak Street Connector in 1956. Although the road may have made access to the CBD easier and at the same time cleared some substandard building, its right-of-way severed this site from the center of the city. SLR. Progressive Architecture p. 76 3.8 Allan Appel. Bravo! Bike Lane Enters Stage Right New Haven Independent (June 10, 2011) 3.9 Newman Architects. Amistad Clinical Research Facility http://www.newmanarchitects.com/project.html?pid=69 accessed 12/25/12 3.10 Pinnell. The Campus Guide p. 176 3.11 Scully. Yale in New Haven pp. 340-341 3.12 Scully. Yale in New Haven p. 340 3.13 Brown. New Haven p. 89 3.14 Vision Appraisal. Assessors Online Database for New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/NewHavenCT/search.asp accessed 12/25/12 3.15 What has distinguished the New Haven Green is that it never became any one thing - never just downtown, never just a government center, never just a residential park, never just a grove of academe. It has continued to be many things and so had held its place as the center. Along with this, consciously or unconsciously, an urbanist discipline created an architectural fabric around the perimeter that for many years was directed toward increasing the definition and enclosure of the space, dramatizing the concept of centrality. It is these two remarkable balancing acts - a balance of social functions, a balance of architectural scale and rhythms - that have hitherto given the Green its special visual quality. Brown. New Haven p. 103 3.16 Moderator. Northland Chosen for New Haven Coliseum Site: Details on the RFQs Design New Haven (September 12, 2008) 3.17 Northland Investment Corporation was selected by the city in 2008 as the preferred developer for the 4.5-acre site. It proposed to build a Tenth Square of offices, retail and homes, complementing downtowns historic nine squares. The project would be built around a new home for the Long Wharf Theatre, which has long been waiting to relocate downtown. However, in the face of financial struggles, Northland failed to get a project off the ground before its exclusive contract with the city expired in February. The city has not renewed the contract. Melissa Bailey. Coliseums Grave To Remain Parking Lot New Haven Independent (April 1, 2010) Long Wharf Theatre is making room for even the longest-legged patrons as it puts in new seatsnot in a new downtown building, but at its current home on Long Wharf. The storied theater had been hoping to move from its home at the food terminal to a new downtown development atop the grave of the old New Haven Coliseum. But fund-raising proved slow. And the development itself fell victim to the recession. So now Long Wharf has signed a new ten-year lease at its current abode and begun spending money instead on improving its current homeincluding upgrading lights and making the seats four inches bigger. Allan Appel. Long Wharf Staying Put Until At Least 2022 New Haven Independent (January 14, 2011) 3.18 The city-owned site, which once held the monster trucks and rock shows, has remained a parking lot since the city blew up New Havens Veterans Memorial Coliseum in 2007. The city and developerthe second chosen so far to try to come up with a plan for the spotare now negotiating a deal to extend their one-year deal as both parties grapple with the slope of the land Melissa Bailey. Discovery Delays Coliseum Project New Haven Independent (May 8. 2012)

3.19 Several program elements could be either office or residential depending on market demand at the time of planning and design. Todays residential rental and retail markets are continuing to experience great success, with steadily increasing rental and occupancy rates, proving the most prospects for new development in downtown New Haven. Opportunities for new commercial development remain a viable option as the commercial market maintains its stable pace; however, the demand for new bio-medical space remains undetermined. Markets with the least flexibility for new development appear to be the residential condominium and hotel markets. The slowdown of the condominium sales market throughout the region, paired with the influx of recently completed and future projects to the market, hinders the opportunities for new condominium developments. Similarly, the hotel markets low occupancy rates and slowly increasing daily rates, coupled with the delivery of hundreds of new units downtown and in the greater region, do not create an optimistic outlook for new hotel developments. A phasing plan has been developed to meet immediate and future ridership parking demands, and to build-out the full site over time. The phasing plan is envisioned as follows: Phase 1 includes the New South Garage and the re-merchandising and renovation of Union Station. This garage would add 667 new spaces and could be completed by early 2011. This would provide supply in excess of demand and would eliminate the need for offsite parking. Union Stations program could be completed by the end of 2011, thereby creating a destination and bringing excitement to the area. Phase 2 includes the New North Garage and the build-out of new retail on the ground floor of the existing garage. This garage would add 530 new spaces and could be completed by early 2013, again providing sufficient supply to meet the projected demand in that year from ridership and demand from the new restaurants and activity in Union Station. New retail fronting Union Avenue in the existing garage could be completed early 2012, further increasing pedestrian activity in the area. Phase 3 includes the build-out of the new development parcel as described above. There could be sub-phases within Phase 3, as market conditions require. This opportunity becomes more attractive to developers as Union Station has become a destination, Union Avenue has pedestrian activity and there are amenities and services on site. Costs for each program element were estimated based on todays construction costs. Revenues for each program element were based on todays market rents for comparable properties. It was assumed that a Transportation Entity would be established to develop, own and operate all program elements in Phases 1 and 2 (see Governance in Section IX), and the costs, revenue and internal rate of return (IRR) for these phases were determined to evaluate the feasibility of this development. Results showed that Phase 1 costs approximately $44.3 Million and Phase 2 costs $24.8 Million; together, at $69.1 Million. Based on the Net Operating Income (NOI) expected from these program elements, and including the existing NOI that the existing garage generates (before payments to Connecticut Department of Transportation), the IRR for Phase 1 is 11.0% and Phase 2 is 8.2%. It was assumed that Phase 3 would be developed, owned and operated by a private developer. Results showed that Phase 3 costs approximately $141Million and that the NOI is negative at (-7.8%). Incentives or subsidies would be required to make a profit on this development venture due to the costs of high rise construction and the current market residential rental rates. There are basically three main models for governing large, complex public-private projects: private developer, internal agency management, separate special purpose entity. A viable solution for this TOD is to create a single-purpose entity to develop, own and operate the site which would be accountable and responsible for the financial and operational performance of the asset over the short and long term. In summary, there is a tremendous opportunity at Union Station to create a vibrant, exciting TOD while meeting ridership existing and future parking demands. This report will describe in detail the market conditions, a conceptual design approach and program, the financial feasibility and how it could be implemented through governance structures. City Plan Department. New Haven Union Station Transit Oriented Development Study pp. 1-3 3.20 The overall goals for this project are to increase rail ridership, reduce vehicle commute trips and generate economic activity by enhancing the station environment with a mix of higher density land uses that will serve the needs of our growing life sciences, medical, IT and new media sectors as well as support commercial and retail uses. The request comes at a critical time for the city and for Union Station given the need to (1) address the immediate need for commuter parking given the planned development of the New Haven Coliseum site and opening of Gateway Community College; (2) identify public/private financing strategies to finance both the new garage and fully built TOD; and (3) develop a new governance structure for implementation of the project. With that in mind, the consortium expects proposals that reflect a sense of urgency, skill and capacity to complete the tasks described herein. In addition, this RFP includes a supplemental scope of work to be funded out of a separate grant awarded to the City of New Haven by the Connecticut Department of Transportation. This is a transit-oriented development grant for facilitation of the Union Station project. As both grants are closely integrated, and the City of New Haven desires to have one unified consulting team engaged on the project, these tasks are listed in Section 2.4.6 as supplemental tasks and, subject to approval from the State of Connecticut, will be awarded on the basis of this RFP. City of New Haven. Scope of Services: Program Description New Haven Union Station Transit-Oriented Development Study: Request for Proposals

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(New York & Connecticut Sustainable Communities; January 6, 2012) p. 5 After more than three decades of gradual growth, Metro-North Railroads total ridership is expected to surpass that of the Long Island Railroad in 2012 to become the nations busiest rail line. Martin B. Cassidy. Metro-North to surpass LIRR to become nations busiest rail line Stamford Advocate (September 20, 2011) Amtrak continues the installation of underground signal and communication cables, the first portion of construction for the New Haven-Hartford-Springfield (NHHS) Rail Program. This work is required to upgrade signal and communication systems for the NHHS rail corridor and prepare for subsequent track and infrastructure improvements to re-establish Track 2. New Haven - Hartford - Springfield Rail Program. Information Center http://www.nhhsrail.com/info_center/newsbriefs.aspx accessed 12/25/12 Northland officials have refused to make themselves available for interviews about conditions. Northlands regional real estate empire has also started crumbling. Last month a lender foreclosed on Metro Center One, an office tower Northland owns in Hartford. Allan Appel. Housing Authority Signs On With Broke Slumlord New Haven Independent (February 16, 2011) He said aldermen are concerned about the density and lack of open space. There was hardly any space for kids to play. The plan showed only one-totwo bedroom apartments; Church Street South is home to many families. We want them to go back to the drawing board, Perez said. They need to come back to the Church Street South community with the proposal and with a comprehensive relocation plan for the 300 families that live there. [...] They dont take into consideration what the residents have come up with. Residents surveyed close to 200 people about what theyd like to see in a future development, including more playground space, Coln said. The architectural plans that the company has so far just completely dismissed it. Melissa Bailey. New Church St. South Goes Nowhere Fast New Haven Independent (January 18, 2012) New Haven, Connecticut, had the lowest vacancy rate in the third quarter, at 2.3 percent, followed by New York City; Long Island, New York; San Jose; and Central New Jersey, according to Reis. Hui-yong Yu. U.S. Apartment Vacancies Decline for the First Time Since 2007 Bloomberg (October 6, 2010) What has been completed is not in appearance what was shown in the final approved design. The housing structures were to be a system of precast concrete - concrete since the project was in the fire district and precast as the suggestion of the developer to keep costs low. Although the developer was expected to work with the architect throughout the design state, he did not, in fact, estimate costs until design was completed. At the point, the developer had to change the precast panels to concrete block to save $800,000 and to stay within FHA maximums. As there was little time to redesign, the units were constructed out of block with the regularity in design demanded by precast. The first few months of construction made a vivid improession on New Haven and Mayor Lee, who felt that the project more closely resembled army barracks than housing. Although Mayor Lee has since retracted his earlier statements, the impression nonetheless remains in some minds. At some point in time after the change in the building material, it became apparent to the architect that the concrete block demanded more or less radical visual treatment. The project had lost many of its subtleties or wooden stairs, smooth concrete facades with brick end walls and electrical garbage disposals. Such details as the cantilevered block cornices and rustication - reversed and asymetric - around double-hung windows lend a sense of humor to the conrete block facades. The painting over the doorways of the four-story units is an even subtler abstraction of history. Taken from the Collegio di Propaganda Fide in Rome, the shapes and colors repeat the rhythms of the window moldings of the Collegio. While the two-dimensiona; painted pattern is something less than Borromini might have wished, it gives Church Street South a vitality and energy that one often feels in the voluminous contortions of Baroque facades. SLR. Progressive Architecture pp. 80-82 Two distinct houses owned by different owners, sharing a party wall and a common porch - a popular model in this period of early urbanization, for it provided a facade of more impressive urban length than either owner could have afforded alone. [...] Such houses were usually owned by a single owner and half rented out. Brown. New Haven p. 65 Dorothea Penar, J. Paul Loether, and John Herzan. National Register of Historic Places Trowbridge Square Historic District (National Park Service, 1985) p. 14 Toward the end of the century Howard Avenue had its heyday as the fashionable center of this end of town - an eruption of ornate frame houses which, like Orange Street and Sherman Avenue, represented the new money and the new style of a swiftly rising middle class. Brown. New Haven p. 89 J. Paul Loether, Dorothea Penar, and John Herzan. National Register of Historic Places Howard Avenue Historic District (National Park Service, 1985) p. 14

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The first meetinghouse on the Green was completed within two years of the colonys founding. Poorly designed and constructed, the walls soon began to buckle under the weight of the roof. Thomas J. Farnham. New Haven, 1638 To 1690 New Haven: Illustrated p. 13 Brown. New Haven p. 107 Brown. New Haven p. 115 Brown. New Haven p. 89 Vision Appraisal. Church Street South http://data.visionappraisal.com/NewHavenCT/findpid.asp?iTable=pid&pid=13552 accessed 12/25/12 Row houses were introduced in the 60s [...] Brown. New Haven p. 7 Penar, et al. Trowbridge Square Historic District (National Park Service, 1985) p. 24 Loether, et al. Howard Avenue Historic District p. 12 Penar, et al. Trowbridge Square Historic District (National Park Service, 1985) p. 8 Loether, et al. Howard Avenue Historic District pp. 3, 12 CT History Online. Portsea Street rowhouses, after redevelopment, Hill project area, New Haven. http://www.cthistoryonline.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/cho/id/14512/rec/2 accessed 12/25/12 Vision Appraisal. 145 Dewitt Street http://data.visionappraisal.com/NewHavenCT/findpid.asp?iTable=pid&pid=16407 accessed 12/25/12 [A] tentative apartment house appeared in the 70s [but] the innovation turned out to be too much for New Haven, and apartment houses did not take hold until after World War I. Brown. New Haven pp. 7, 66, 67, 68, 70, 77, 87 & 115 Brown. New Haven p. 115 Penar, et al. Trowbridge Square Historic District (National Park Service, 1985) p. 15 Loether, et al. Howard Avenue Historic District p. 14 Penar, et al. Trowbridge Square Historic District (National Park Service, 1985) p. 12 Vision Appraisal. 115 Portsea Street http://data.visionappraisal.com/NewHavenCT/findpid.asp?iTable=pid&pid=15085 accessed 12/25/12 Brown. New Haven p. 94 Brown. New Haven pp. 65, 112, 117 & 203 Brown. New Haven p. 65 Penar, et al. Trowbridge Square Historic District (National Park Service, 1985) p. 12 During the early 20th century, the principal ethnic background of the districts population began to shift. As members of the areas upwardly mobile IrishAmerican population began to move out of the expanding middle-class streetcar suburbs along the citys northern and western fringes, they were increasingly replaced by Italian immigrant families. City directories indicate that by the onset of World War II, the districts population was dominated by Italian-American workers and their families. New Haven Historic Preservation Trust. Trowbridge Square Historic District http://nhpt.org/index.php/site/district/trowbridge_square_historic_district/ accessed 12/25/12 Brown. New Haven p. 108 Floor Plans, Amenities, Features http://www.360statestreet.com/ accessed12/25/12 The premise was that, given the Oak Street Connector as the new entrance to the city, nothing could be better than to locate a municipal arena at the gateway as an emblem of community and civic pride. The premise was maintained even when it was determined that the site was perhaps unsuitable; located just at the point where the East and West Creeks once entered New Haven harbor, it has a ground water level so high that parking could not be put below the arena. Pinnell. The Campus Guide p. 176 International Code Council. 2009 International Building Code (Cengage Learning; March 26, 2009) Newman Architects. Whitney Grove Square http://www.newmanarchitects.com/project.html?pid=126 accessed 12/26/12 Newman Architects. Audubon Court http://www.newmanarchitects.com/project.html?pid=127 accessed 12/26/12 Newman Architects. Ninth Square District Revilization http://www.newmanarchitects.com/project.html?pid=98 acessed 12/26/12

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Blending two new apartment and retail properties and their parking decks with existing historic buildings in a major rehabilitation project takes the proper mix of art and science. That was the key challenge facing the designers of the Ninth Square multi use complex in New Haven, Connecticut, on a site that was part of a historic redevelopment neighborhood. The intent was to unify the neighborhood and match the existing scale and materials, notes Carl Wies, project architect at Herbert S. Newman & Partners in New Haven. The Developer also wanted to attract pedestrian traffic by adding the first-floor retail spaces. All of the designs had to be approved by the State Historic Commission, creating a strong need to balance commercial and historic success. The design incorporates precast concrete bearing walls, shear walls, and floor planks, combining those with a brick exterior that meets the locales historic needs. A key advantage offered by this design was the speed with which the project could be erected, cutting down on loan payments and interest. In all, some 779 precast components were erected in 59 days. This includes structures for a five-story apartment building with 24 units and 4,000 square feet of retail space, a towered building with seven- and nine-story levels containing 188 apartment and 17,500 square feet of retail, plus two all-precast parking garages offering space for 628 cars. Precast concrete provided much-needed economy and time savings, Wies notes. It also offered enhanced durability, quality, and uniformity over cast-in-place concrete. Because precast can be erected in any weather, work continued through a very harsh winter with virtually no problems. He estimated that a cast-in-place design would have added three months to the schedule. The precast components used some distinctive shapes to achieve the design goals, including casting some wall units in sections and bolting them together at the site to avoid additional casting and shipping costs, notes Robert Vitelli, senior vice president at the Blakeslee Prestress in Branford, CT, the precaster. In addition, some pieces have slotted inserts cast into them to pick up relieving angles that support the brick facing. Although precast concrete has made its biggest impact in parking structures and other non-residential structures, says Weis, this project demonstrates that it can provide compelling economic, structural and aesthetic advantages in multi-unit residential construction. PCI Northeast. Ninth Square Garage http://www.pcine.org/ accessed 12/26/12 Fusco Builders. Residential: The Ninth Square http://www.fusco.com/builders/sitemap.php accessed 12/26/12 Ruhl Walker Architects. Wilkes Passage Loft http://ruhlwalker.com/projects/wilkes_passage_loft/ accessed 12/26/12 Tent City Apartments. Description http://www.tentcityapartments.com/boston/tent-city-apartments/ accessed 12/26/12

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SLR. Progressive Architecture p. 80 Results from studies of traffic and childhood asthma have been inconsistent, but there has been little systematic evaluation of susceptible subgroups. In this study, we examined the relationship of local traffic-related exposure and asthma and wheeze in southern California school children (5-7 years of age). Lifetime history of doctor-diagnosed asthma and prevalent asthma and wheeze were evaluated by questionnaire. Parental history of asthma and childs history of allergic symptoms, sex, and early-life exposure (residence at the same home since 2 years of age) were examined as susceptibility factors. Residential exposure was assessed by proximity to a major road and by modeling exposure to local traffic-related pollutants. Residence within 75 m of a major road was associated with an increased risk of lifetime asthma [odds ratio (OR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.86], prevalent asthma (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.16-1.95), and wheeze (OR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78). Susceptibility increased in long-term residents with no parental history of asthma for lifetime asthma (OR = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.11-3.09), prevalent asthma (OR = 2.46; 95% CI, 0.48-4.09), and recent wheeze (OR = 2.74; 95% CI, 1.71-4.39). The higher risk of asthma near a major road decreased to background rates at 150-200 m from the road. In children with a parental history of asthma and in children moving to the residence after 2 years of age, there was no increased risk associated with exposure. Effect of residential proximity to roadways was also larger in girls. A similar pattern of effects was observed with traffic-modeled exposure. These results indicate that residence near a major road is associated with asthma. The reason for larger effects in those with no parental history of asthma merits further investigation. Rob McConnell, Kiros Berhane, Ling Yao, Michael Jerrett, Fred Lurmann, Frank Gilliland, Nino Knzli, Jim Gauderman, Ed Avol, Duncan Thomas and John Peters. Traffic, Susceptibility, and Childhood Asthma Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 114, No. 5 (May, 2006), pp. 766-772

Section 4: Union Square Notes


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Ray Suarez interview with Vincent Scully. Vincent Scully and the New Urbanism http://0-digital.films.com.helin.uri.edu/ (PBS News Hour; 1999) SLR. Progressive Architecture p. 76 A developer named Trinity Financial is completing the $36 million,104-apartment tower at Sylvan and Ward right behind Hill Regional Career High School. Public-housing seniors who live around the block are expected to move in this September, a month early. The building also includes market-rate apartments aimed at medical workers. The seniors used to live at the William T. Rowe apartments at 904 Howard, a crumbling tower that will come down, with the land underneath going to Yale-New Haven Hospital for unspecified future use. Paul Bass. In Towers Shadow, Sylvan Avenue Gets A Shine New Haven Independent (July 19, 2011) In Moores program, Columbus Ave., the only remaining street crossing the site, was slated to be a link in the four-lane ring. To avoid an additional intersection along the ring road, Moores proposed vehicular street was converted to a pedestrian spine. Moore, then proposed a pedestrian bridge over Columbus Ave. to line. The fate of this bridge illustrates the process of decision-making at Church Street South. As the ring road was a hotly contested political issue at the time, the agency would not make a commitment about the eventual status of Columbus Ave. Moore himself faced a dilemma: Do you make the brdige only as wide as the existing two-lane road, and risk the possibility that it might not be rebuilt should the road loater be widened? Or do you make that bridge wide enough to space the proposed four-lane road, and also make it easier politically for proponents of the rinf road to get it built? Not that the question of where the funding for the bridge would come from had been settled, since FHA maximums wouldnt include such necessary amenities. Moores first porposal for the bridge had included shops and apartments, but the FHA didnt think much of a Ponte Vecchio and refused to fund the apartments located there. While the housing and shops were dropped, the bridge remained, in theory at least. But when the city sent a contractor to repair part of Columbus Ave. that had been torn up during construction of the housing, the residents blocked the bulldozers and the intimidated contractor left the site. For the moment the road is closed except for local parking, and since there was no longer a road, no bridge was built.

Background: There is increasing recognition of the importance of early environmental exposures in the development of childhood asthma. Outdoor air pollution is a recognized asthma trigger, but it is unclear whether exposure influences incident disease. We investigated the effect of exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life on risk of subsequent asthma diagnosis in a population-based nested casecontrol study. Methods: We assessed all children born in southwestern British Columbia in 1999 and 2000 (n = 37,401) for incidence of asthma diagnosis up to 3-4 years of age using outpatient and hospitalization records. Asthma cases were age- and sex-matched to five randomly chosen controls from the eligible cohort. We estimated each individuals exposure to ambient air pollution for the gestational period and first year of life using high-resolution pollution surfaces derived from regulatory monitoring data as well as land use regression models adjusted for temporal variation. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate effects of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter 10 m and 2.5 m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 and ${\rm PM}_{2.5}$), ozone, sulfur dioxide, black carbon, woodsmoke, and proximity to roads and point sources on asthma diagnosis. Results: A total of 3,482 children (9%) were classified as asthma cases. We observed a statistically significantly increased risk of asthma diagnosis with increased early life exposure to CO, NO, NO2, PM10, SO2, and black carbon and proximity to point sources. Traffic-related pollutants were associated with the highest risks: adjusted odds ratio = 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.12) for a 10-g/m increase of NO, 1.12 (1.07-1.17) for a 10-g/m increase in NO1, and 1.10 (1.06-1.13) for a 100 g/m increase in CO. These data support the hypothesis that early childhood exposure to air pollutants plays a role in development of asthma.m Nina Annika Clark, Paul A. Demers, Catherine J. Karr, Mieke Koehoorn, Cornel Lencar, Lillian Tamburic and Michael Brauer. Effect of Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution on Development of Childhood Asthma Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 118, No. 2 (Feb., 2010), pp. 284-290 The results of this exploratory study suggest that higher traffic flows may be related to an increase in repeated medical visits for asthmatic children. Repeated exposure to particulate matter and other air pollutants from traffic exhaust may aggravate asthmatic symptoms in individuals already diagnosed with asthma. Paul English, Raymond Neutra, Russell Scalf, Moira Sullivan, Lance Waller and Li Zhu. Examining Associations between Childhood Asthma and Traffic Flow Using a Geographic Information System Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 107, No. 9 (Sep., 1999), pp. 761-767 Background: Disproportionate life stress and consequent physiologic alteration (i.e., immune dysregulation) has been proposed as a major pathway linking socioeconomic position, environmental exposures, and health disparities. Asthma, for example, disproportionately affects lower-income urban communities, where air pollution and social stressors may be elevated. Objectives: We aimed to examine the role of exposure to violence (ETV), as a chronic stressor, in altering susceptibility to traffic-related air pollution in asthma etiology. Methods: We developed geographic information systems (GIS)based models to retrospectively estimate residential exposures to traffic-related pollution for 413 children in a community-based pregnancy cohort, recruited in East Boston, Massachusetts, between 1987 and 1993, using monthly nitrogen dioxide measurements for 13 sites over 18 years. We merged pollution estimates with questionnaire data on lifetime ETV and examined the effects of both on childhood asthma etiology. Results: Correcting for potential

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onfounders, we found an elevated risk of asthma with a 1-SD (4.3 ppb) increase in NO2 exposure solely among children with above-median ETV [odds ratio (OR) = 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-2.33)]. Among children always living in the same community, with lesser exposure measurement error, this association was magnified (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.48-3.88). Of multiple exposure periods, year-of-diagnosis NO2 was most predictive of asthma outcomes. Conclusions: We found an association between traffic-related air pollution and asthma solely among urban children exposed to violence. Future studies should consider socially patterned susceptibility, common spatial distributions of social and physical environmental factors, and potential synergies among these. Prospective assessment of physical and social exposures may help determine causal pathways and critical exposure periods. Jane E. Clougherty, Jonathan I. Levy, Laura D. Kubzansky, P. Barry Ryan, Shakira Franco Suglia, Marina Jacobson Canner and Rosalind J. Wright. Synergistic Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Exposure to Violence on Urban Asthma Etiology Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 115, No. 8 (Aug., 2007), pp. 1140-1146 Linking respiratory health effects to specific particle pollution composition or sources is critical to efforts to protect public health. We associated increased risk of symptoms and inhaler use in children with asthma with exposure to traffic-related fine particles. Janneane F. Gent, Petros Koutrakis, Kathleen Belanger, Elizabeth Triche, Theodore R. Holford, Michael B. Bracken and Brian P. Leaderer. Symptoms and Medication Use in Children with Asthma and Traffic-Related Sources of Fine Particle Pollution Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 117, No. 7 (Jul., 2009), pp. 1168-1174 Background: Traffic-related air pollution has been associated with adverse cardiorespiratory effects, including increased asthma prevalence. However, there has been little study of effects of traffic exposure at school on new-onset asthma. Objectives: We evaluated the relationship of new-onset asthma with traffic-related pollution near homes and schools. Methods: Parent-reported physician diagnosis of new-onset asthma (n = 120) was identified during 3 years of follow-up of a cohort of 2,497 kindergarten and first-grade children who were asthma- and wheezing-free at study entry into the Southern California Childrens Health Study. We assessed traffic-related pollution exposure based on a line source dispersion model of traffic volume, distance from home and school, and local meteorology. Regional ambient ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter were measured continuously at one central site monitor in each of 13 study communities. Hazard ratios (HRs) for new-onset asthma were scaled to the range of ambient central site pollutants and to the residential interquartile range for each traffic exposure metric. Results: Asthma risk increased with modeled traffic-related pollution exposure from roadways near homes [HR 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.251.82] and near schools (HR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.061.98). Ambient NO2 measured at a central site in each community was also associated with increased risk (HR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.184.01). In models with both NO2 and modeled traffic exposures, there were independent associations of asthma with traffic-related pollution at school and home, whereas the estimate for NO2 was attenuated (HR 1.37;95% CI, 0.692.71). Conclusions: Traffic-related pollution exposure at school and homes may both contribute to the development of asthma. Rob McConnell, Talat Islam, Ketan Shankardass, Michael Jerrett, Fred Lurmann, Frank Gilliland, Jim Gauderman, Ed Avol, Nino Knzli, Ling Yao, John Peters and Kiros Berhane. Childhood Incident Asthma and Traffic-Related Air Pollution at Home and School Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 118, No. 7 (JULY 2010), pp. 1021-1026

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age-related perceptual and cognitive deficits may play a substantial role in many of the crashes involving older pedestrians. Jennie Oxley, Brian Fildes, Elfriede Ihsen, Judith Charlton, and Ross Day. Differences in traffic judgements between young and old adult pedestrians Accident Analysis & Prevention Volume 29, Issue 6, November 1997, Pages 839847 Using an ecological model interviews with parents revealed that safety and social factors emerged as key social themes, facilities at parks and playgrounds, and urban design factors emerged as important physical environment themes. The childrens level of independence and attitudes to active free-play were considered to be important individual level influences on active free-play. The study findings have important implications for future urban planning and childrens opportunities for active free-play. Jenny Veitch, , Sarah Bagley, Kylie Ball, and Jo Salmon. Where do children usually play? A qualitative study of parents perceptions of influences on childrens active free-play Health & Place Volume 12, Issue 4, December 2006, Pages 383393 Active transport was strongly associated with the use of multiple recreation sites by children and adolescents, even when accounting for proximity and demographic factors. Adolescents living in neighborhoods with better traffic safety walked/biked to more recreation sites for physical activity. Findings support the need for built environments and transportation policies that facilitate safe, active transport to recreation sites for youth physical activity. Helene Mollie Grow, Brian E. Saelens, Jacqueline Kerr, Nefertit H. Durant, Gregory J. Norman and James F. Sallis. Where Are Youth Active? Roles of Proximity, Active Transport, and Built Environment Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 40, No. 12 (2008) pp. 20712079 Greater housing density predicted increased physical activity of boys, but not girls. Conclusion: Neighborhoods with increased proximity between homes and a greater proportion of park area are associated with greater physical activity in young children James N. Roemmich, Leonard H. Epstein, Samina Raja, Li Yin, Jodie Robinson and Dana Winiewicz. Association of access to parks and recreational facilities with the physical activity of young children Preventive Medicine Vol. 43 (2006) pp. 437441

Our findings provide evidence that even in an area with good regional air quality, proximity to traffic is associated with adverse respiratory health effects in children. Janice J. Kim, Karen Huen, Sara Adams, Svetlana Smorodinsky, Abby Hoats, Brian Malig, Michael Lipsett and Bart Ostro. Residential Traffic and Childrens Respiratory Health Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 116, No. 9 (Sep., 2008), pp. 1274-1279 Older pedestrians have been shown to be over-involved in casualty crashes, compared to younger pedestrians, in recent reports. This study set out to investigate whether older pedestrians road crossing behaviour might render them more vulnerable to crashes because of declines in their physical, sensory, perceptual or cognitive abilities. An initial blackspot accident analysis highlighted the types of crashes in which older (and younger) adult pedestrians were involved and likely crossing actions. Road crossing behaviour was then systematically measured from unobtrusive video recordings of individual road crossings for a sample of younger and older pedestrians at several urban locations. On two-way undivided roads, older pedestrians crossed more frequently when there was closer moving traffic and generally adopted less safe road crossing strategies than their younger counterparts. On one-way divided roads, their crossing behaviour was considerably more safe and similar to that of younger pedestrians. The findings suggest that

The purpose of this study was to examine how healthy weight status among youth was related to (i) three proximity-based park variables: number of parks within 1 km of home, total area of parkland within 1 km, and distance to the closest park from home, and (ii) the availability of 13 specific park facilities within 1 km of the home. Data were collected from parents of children living in four neighborhoods of a medium-sized Canadian city. Logistic regression analyses revealed that none of the three proximity-based park variables was significantly associated with healthy weight status among children in the sample. However, when availability of the 13 park facilities was examined, children with a park playground within 1 km were almost five times more likely to be classified as being of a healthy weight rather then at risk or overweight compared to those children without playgrounds in nearby parks. Results suggest that availability of certain park facilities may play a more important role in promoting physical activity and healthy weight status among children than availability of park space in general. Implications for park design are discussed. Luke R. Potwarka, Andrew T. Kaczynski, and Andrea L. Flack. Places to Play: Association of Park Space and Facilities with Healthy Weight Status among Children Journal of Community Health Vol. 33, Iss. 5 (October 2008) pp. 344-350 4.7 Charles Moores design for retail and commercial space was located on the interior of the complex along the pedestrian spine. As a result, the commercial spaces did not generate enough demand to support a supermarket and other shopping amenities. All that remains today is a convenience store. Alternatively, Union Square turns the commercial spaces to the major streets going through the site and creates large sidewalks to accommodate both passing automobile traffic and pedestrian shoppers. 4.8 Purpose: This study explored the relationship between pedestrian-friendly urban form as reflected in new urbanism design guidelines, and neighborhood service use, walking, driving, quality of life, and neighborhood satisfaction among older women. Design: A cross-sectional survey compared residents of census tracts similar in demographic characteristics but differing in urban form. Setting. The setting was urban and suburban areas of Portland, Oregon. Subjects: The sample consisted of 372 females living alone over age 70 in six census tracts; 133 (36%) completed surveys. Measures. The New Urbanism Index rated the physical features of respondents neighborhoods. The Neighborhood Resident Survey assessed travel modes and neighborhood satisfaction. The Quality of Life Index measured resident well-being. The Dartmouth COOP Functional Health Charts measured health status. Group comparisons were made with t-tests and regression analysis. Results: Although limited by the cross-sectional design, the study showed that new urbanism partially explained several differences in service use and activity: distance to a grocery store (r2 change = .11, p = .001), number of services used within 1 mile from home (r2 change = .06, p = .007), number of walking activities (r2 change = .08, p = .001), number of services accessed by walking (r2 change = .14, p = .000), and number of services accessed by driving (r2 change = .05, p = .001). Conclusions: Traditional urban

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neighborhoods with mixed services and good pedestrian access were associated with increased walking among older residents. Patricia K. Patterson, and Nancy J. Chapman. Urban Form and Older Residents Service Use, Walking, Driving, Quality of Life, and Neighborhood Satisfaction American Journal of Health Promotion Volume 19, Issue 1 (September/October 2004) pp. 354-361 4.9 Yale School of Architecture. Vlock Building Project http://www.architecture.yale.edu/drupal/student_work/building_project accessed 12/27/12 (Yale University, 2012) 4.10 This paper examines the relationship of propinquity (spatial proximity) to social interaction in a heterogeneous apartment, specifically, whether spatial propinquity or social homogeneity is the better explanation for resident interaction. We also examine the effects of other characteristics of the apartment design upon interaction patterns among apartment residents. Data are derived from indepth structured personal interviews with residents of the apartment complex and are analyzed with standard sociometric techniques. Findings indicate that while propinquity and other design features may precipitate initial contact and interaction, this contact will remain superficial unless it is reinforced by shared social and demographic characteristics. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature about the effects of the man-made environment upon behavior. David A. Snow, Peter J. Leahy and William A. Schwab. Social Interaction in a Heterogeneous Apartment: An Investigation of the Effects of Environment upon Behavior Sociological Focus Vol. 14, No. 4 (October, 1981), pp. 309-319 4.11 Our current focus on the city core includes reintroducing the mixed-use building. This typology is not without challenges, and arguably none is more pressing than full retail occupancy. This analysis investigates the potential for start-up companies to supplement traditional retail on an interim basis. By documenting the needs and expectations of the start-up and development communities (from multiple perspectives), this study assesses the potential connection between mixed-use and the start-up company. Using a methodology informed by literature and augmented by personal accounts, this analysis reveals that the inclusion of start-up companies in mixed-use projects can present both short- and long-term benefits to ongoing retail difficulties: mixed-use buildings can be an ideal location for start-up firms, including start-up tenants can be economically feasible if certain measures are in place, and a new development model is not needed to connect an emerging business with an existing project. Rebecca Ann Oeltjenbruns. Looking Beyond the Conventional Mixed-Use Development Model: Analyzing the Potential for Start-Up Businesses to Supplement Traditional Retail University of Oregon theses (2011) 4.12 4.13 This article examines the drivers that have shaped a more proactive and entrepreneurial approach to the creation of high-technology centers through three detailed case studies of research universities: the University of California, San Diego; the University of Texas at Austin; and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, North Carolina State University, and Duke University in Research Triangle Park. The cases show the importance of committed leadership, the power of a mobilizing event, the influence of an organization that can effect change, the acceleration that can come from the arrival of key corporations, the value of compelling role models, the impact of financial resources, and the benefit of a tolerant mind-set. Above all, they highlight the critical importance of a research university that can serve as instigator; promoter; collaborator; and magnet for talent, technological innovation, and entrepreneurial activity. Raymond Smilor, Niall ODonnell, Gregory Stein and Robert S. Welborn III. The Research University and the Development of High-Technology Centers in the United States Economic Development Quarterly Vol. 21, No. 3 (August 2007) pp. 203-222 This book describes how the concept of shared parking has become well established as an important element of mixed-use developments. With the continued growth in mixed-use developments, parking needs have changed, requiring a new look at the shared parking parameters advocated in the past. The International Council of Shopping Centers partnered with the Urban Land Institute provides current data for the increasingly complex mix of potential uses. Based on widely accepted methodology, the book now includes a new parking ratio that take into account trends in visits to restaurants, movie theaters, shopping centers and office trips. A thorough discussion of the methodology, findings, and derivation of these values provides a solid foundation for the validity of shared parking and the number of spaces recommended for various land use mixes. Mary S. Smith. Shared Parking (Urban Land Institute; 2005) The Anglican Congregational Church associations with Georgian and Federal style church buildings presents a problem with incorporating a rebuilt St. Basils Church since it is Greek Orthodox. The existing building that is proposed to be redesigned is a Greek Revival style building. The proposed replacement design is a Mediterranean style Greek building. However, instead of a Mediterranean style building, a Neo-classical design would fit in well with the proposed character for Union Square. The Neo-classical church building with columns supporting an entablature and freeze amongst Georgian and Federal inspired buildings would evoke the relationship the Cass Gilberts Federalized Beaux Arts New Haven Free Public Library of 1908 has with Allen and Williamss Neo-classical New Haven County Courthouse from 1914 on the New Haven Green.

4.14 4.15 4.16

Transportation services and facilities are part of a package that allows the elderly to perform important functions, including moving about at will, engaging in social and recreational activities when desired, and reaching business and social services when needed. However, major deficiencies in assistance to the elderly--from dysfunctional land use patterns to inappropriately targeted human services--exist and are obscured by myths and misconceptions that persist about the transportation patterns and problems of the elderly and how their mobility needs can be met. In addition, the persistence of historical views of the elderly--either no longer valid or totally false--interferes with societys ability to increase access for the elderly to community activities. The data and analysis presented in this paper effectively challenge many myths about the elderly. They suggest that the mobility problems of the elderly require both short term and long term responses in three areas: transportation, land use planning, and human service delivery models. The paper has seven major sections. The first indicates data sources and report organization. The next section focuses on demographic trends in society, especially the suburbanization of the elderly, and the transportation implications of those trends. The following three sections examine how the elderly provide their own transportation--in private vehicles, walking and cycling, in taxis and on transit--outlining current use patterns and barriers facing the elderly in each mode. The use of what has been called socially provided transportation--specialized transportation systems, human service agency programs, and volunteer networks--is examined in the next section. Although often advanced as the ultimate solution for the transport problems of the elderly, specialized transportation services face serious problems. In the last section, the data and analyses presented here are summarized and a simplified model is described that predicts both the number who will lose their driving skill and the number of trips that will be lost. S. Rosenbloom. The mobility needs of the elderly Transportation Research Board Special Report No. 218 (1988) pp. 21-71 A detailed computer simulation method was used to compare the energy consumption of a displacement ventilation system with that of a mixing ventilation system for three types of US buildings: a small office, a classroom, and an industrial workshop. The study examined five typical climatic regions as well as different building zones. It was found that a displacement ventilation system may use more fan energy and less chiller and boiler energy than a mixing ventilation system. The total energy consumption is slightly less using a displacement ventilation system. Both systems can use a similarly sized boiler. However, a displacement ventilation system requires a larger air-handling unit and a smaller chiller than the mixing ventilation system. The overall first costs are lower for the displacement ventilation if the system is applied for the core region of a building. Hu, S.; Chen, Q.; and Glicksman, L.R. Comparison of energy consumption between displacement and mixing ventilation systems for different U.S. buildings and climates ASHRAE Annual Meeting (Seattle, WA, US; 1999) pp. 453-464 Continuing moves towards full cost recovery for potable water and the impending privatization of water supplies in the Melbourne area have enhanced public interest in the reuse of wastewater, and particularly the domestic use of greywater. Victoria University of Technology, together with support from Melbourne Water and the Department of Health and Community Services, has been investigating the practicalities, costs and social attitudes of using greywater in and around the home. Four typical Melbourne homes were selected and plumbed to utilize greywater for toilet flushing and garden irrigation. Social surveys were conducted by mail and phone to homeowners to determine perceived attitudes towards greywater reuse. Greywater from baths, showers, laundry troughs and washing machines is being examined for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters to determine the potential health and environmental risks associated with reuse. Soil tests were also undertaken on gardens to determine any long-term detrimental effects that might occur as a result of using greywater. This paper describes the greywater testing, results of filtration and filter designs, appropriate disinfectants, and physical findings to date. Diana Christova-Boal, Robert E. Eden, and Scott McFarlane. An investigation into greywater reuse for urban residential properties Desalination Volume 106, Issues 13 (August 1996) pp. 391397 For a sustainable urban future, society must move towards the goal of efficient and appropriate water use. Reuse of domestic greywater and rainwater has a significant role to play in this task. In this study, rainfall time series have been used in conjunction with estimates of domestic water appliance usage generated by the Monte-Carlo simulation technique to predict long term system performance. Model results show that changes in the attributes of household occupancy, roof area, appliance type and storage volume affect the water saving efftciency of a single store reuse system. Considering greywater and rainwater in combination, the greatest rate of increase of efficiency with storage size occurs in the range 0100 litres. Further analysis of small volume storage and reuse indicates that savings of up to 80% of the WC flush water can be made with less than 50 litres storage. However, the collection of rainwater in addition to greywater in a single store reuse system offers little improvement in water saving efficiency. Small volume domestic water reuse systems lend themselves to application in the urban housing environment and therefore offer potential in the move towards a more sustainable city. A. Dixon, D. Butler, and A. Fewkes. Water saving potential of domestic water reuse systems using greywater and rainwater in combination

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Water Science and Technology Volume 39, Issue 5 (1999) pp. 2532 The aim of this paper is to assess the role of greywater reuse in sustainable water management in arid regions. Moreover, it intends to document the experience of greywater reuse in Jordan. Greywater (GW) is the water collected separately from sewage flow that originates from clothes washers, bathtubs, showers and sinks, but does not include wastewater from kitchen sinks, dishwashers, or toilets. Dish, shower, sink, and laundry water comprise 5080% of residential wastewater. GW is used in groundwater recharge, landscaping, and plant growth. A case study on GW reuse in Jordan is presented to shed some lights on its role in sustainable water management. To operationalize this concept, water is viewed as an economic good and a finite resource that should be valued and managed in a rational manner. The study concludedthat current environmental policies should aim to control pollution and to maximize recycling and reuse of GW within households and communities. Decentralized GW/wastewater management offers more opportunities for maximizing recycling opportunities. Odeh R. Al-Jayyousi. Greywater reuse: towards sustainable water management Desalination Volume 156, Issues 13 (1 August 2003) pp. 181192 Abstract. CITYgreen, a geographic information system (GIS)-based program, was used to evaluate selected benefits provided by the tree canopy in the city of Stevens Point, Wisconsin. We assessed the distribution of open space in and around the greater Stevens Point area, energy savings from lowered air-conditioning costs, and the reductions in stormwater runoff as a partial function of existing tree canopy. Estimated annual energy savings for residential areas in Stevens Point and surrounding communities was $126,859. A storm delivering 6.6 cm (2.6 in.) of rain in 24 hours will deposit just under 2 billion L (530 million gal) of water on Stevens Point, of which 400 million L (106 million gal) will run off into the Wisconsin River. Approximately 6% of Stevens Point is covered by impervious surfacing, which accounts for 24% of the citys total stormwater runoff volume. Orthophotographs were digitized on screen, and land surrounding Stevens Point was classified based on vegetation cover, land use, and current zoning. Land use in the greater Stevens Point area (22,250 ha [55, 000 ac]) is 20.7% developed, 24.1% agriculture, 46.8% undeveloped, and 8.4% surface water. Planners, managers, elected officials, and other interested parties in land-use planning for the region are using the results of this study for open-space planning. Mark C. Dwyer and Robert W. Miller. Using GIS to Assess Urban Tree Canopy Benefits and Surrounding Greenspace Distributions Journal of Arboriculture Vol. 25 No. 2 (March 1999) pp. 102-107 Although high water tables may limit tree rooting depth, some species may be effective tools for increasing water infiltration and enhancing groundwater recharge in this and other I-BMPs (e.g., raingardens and bioswales). Julia Bartens, Susan D. Day, J. Roger Harris, Joseph E. Dove and Theresa M. Wynn. Can Urban Tree Roots Improve Infiltration through Compacted Subsoils for Stormwater Management? Journal of Environmental Quality Vol. 37 No. 6 (2008) pp. 2048-2057 The re-design of street-tree rootzone environments as stormwater treatment systems is an example of the incorporation of stormwater management into street scale landscape design. Breen, Peter; Denman, Liz; May, Peter; and Leinster, Shaun. Street trees as stormwater treatment measures WSUD 2004: Cities as Catchments; International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design (2004) pp.701-712 We have performed a statistical analysis relating standardized math and reading test results of a large population of students to the lighting conditions of their classroom with controls for other factors such as teacher experience and the demographic characteristics of each school. We were able to identify statistically significant effects of daylighting on human behavior, as evidenced in the standardized test scores for elementary school students. These studies provide a useful gauge of the potential magnitude of such effects. The consistency of the findings across the three school districts, and in a separate study of another building type, a retail chain, strongly suggest there is indeed an important daylighting effect associated with increased window or skylight areas in buildings. Lisa Heschong, Roger L. Wright, Ph D. and Stacia Okura. Daylighting Impacts on Human Performance in School Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society (Summer 2002) 101-114 This paper reports on a study of the effect of daylighting on sales performance. In this project, we established a statistically compelling connection between sky-lighting and retail sales. The methodology used to conductthis research is described and the results are presented and interpreted. For the retail study, average sales for 108 stores of a retail chain were compared, controlling for age and size of store, hours of operation and location. The stores

were very similar with the same products, the same approach to merchandising and the same management. Two thirds of the stores were equipped with skylighs that provided general illumination, and which included automatic photosensor controls to reduce electric lighting when there was sufficient daylighting. The remaining third of the stores had conventional electric lighting with no skylights. The findings of this study show significantly higher retail sales in the stores with skylights, and they suggest that there is an important relationship between daylight availability in buildings and human factors that affect sales performance. Possible causal mechanisms are discussed, along with limitations of current findings and future research directions. The paper also presents an important methodology that may be applicable to other areas of lighting research. Lisa Heschong, Roger Wright, and Stacia Okura. Daylighting impacts on retail sales performance Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society Vol. 31, No. 2 (2002) pp. 21-25 4.18 We calculated the influence of thermal mass and night ventilation on the maximum indoor temperature in summer. The results for different locations in the hot humid climate of Israel are presented and analyzed. The maximum indoor temperature depends linearly on the temperature difference between day and night at the site. The fit can be applied as a tool to predict from the temperature swing of the location the maximum indoor temperature decrease due to the thermal mass and night ventilation. Consequently, the fit can be implemented as a simple design tool to present the reduction in indoor temperature due to the amount of the thermal mass and the rate of night ventilation, without using an hourly simulation model. Moreover, this design tool is able to provide for the designer in the early design stages the conditions when night ventilation and thermal mass are effective as passive cooling design strategy. Edna Shaviv, , Abraham Yezioro, Isaac G Capeluto. Thermal mass and night ventilation as passive cooling design strategy Renewable Energy Volume 24, Issues 34 (November 2001) pp. 445452 Thermal mass can reduce peak cooling loads and indoor air temperature swings in buildings. The factors affecting the performance of thermal mass are reviewed and classified. Experimental studies which demonstrate the effectiveness of thermal mass as an energy conservation alternative and in providing more comfortable indoor conditions, are also reviewed. A number of simplified design tools for calculating the cooling load and indoor air temperatures of a building, which also account for thermal mass effects, have been identified and are classified. The models are categorized in terms of their inputs, outputs and restrictions on their level of accuracy in treating thermal mass effects, type of loads or other design limitations. C.A. Balaras. The role of thermal mass on the cooling load of buildings. An overview of computational methods Energy and Buildings Vol. 24, Iss. 1 (1996) pp. 110 4.19 Traditional architecture comprises two complementary faces: vernacular building, on the one hand, classical or monumental architecture, on the other. Vernacular: from the Latin vernaculus, domestic, indigenous. Classical: from the Latin classicus, of the highest class[.] Both the vernacular and the classical make distinctions of rank at different levels,, between private and public, between individual and collective, between urban fabric and monumental, between house and palace, between street and square, etc. Vernacular building is the artisan culture of construction. It is concerned with domestic and utilitatian buildings and civil engineering works. Classical or monumental architecture is the artistic culture of vernacular building. It is concerned with symbolic language, with the construction and decoration of publiv structures, with buildings, squares, and monumental features in general. Leon Krier. Nature of the Architectural Object, Traditional architecture: vernacular building and classical architecture Architecture: Choice or Fate (Andreas Papadakis, 1998) p. 53 4.20 Vernacular building is necessarily shaped by geoclimatic conditions and local materials. A regional style represents the culture of forms and techniques suitable for a region, responding to its climatic, material, and topographic conditions. Its aesthetic and character emerge from the infinitely varied, intelligent repetition of a basic, continuously adapted formal and typological inventory. Leon Krier. Nature of the Architecture Object: Region and Style The Architecture of Community (Island Press, 2009) p. 53 A 39: pitch is good for a Georgian style home. Homebuilding Renovation. Getting the Right Pitch http://www.homebuilding.co.uk/ accessed 12/27/12

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Section 1: Introduction Figures


Fig. 1.0 Fig. 1.1 Fig. 1.2 Fig. 1.3 Fig. 1.4 Fig. 1.5 Fig. 1.6 Digital Photograph. Aerial View of New Haven, Connecticut http://www.wikipedia.org/ accessed 12/18/12 Digital Photograph. New Haven Green http://www.yale.edu/res/slideshow/17.html accessed 11/18/12 Douglas W. Rae and Alexandra Reeve, et al. Maps: New Haven, 1915 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Yale University, 2003) Jonathan Hopkins. Digital Photograph Kline Biology Tower (January, 2011) Rae, et al. Oak Street area before and after construction of the connector, c. 1960 Historical New Haven Digital Collection Thomas MacMillan. Winstanley Vows To Keep Listening New Haven Independent (August 7, 2012) Digital Photograph. Erik Vogt, et al. Synthesis of the New Haven Civic Improvement Plan of 1910 and the pope Plan of 1919 Yale In New Haven: Architecture & Urbanism (Digitized Image of Watercolor and graphite on board, 40 x 86 inches) p. 255

Section 2: Site Research Figures


Fig. 2.0 Fig. 2.1 Fig. 2.2 Fig. 2.3 Fig. 2.4 Fig. 2.5 Fig. 2.6 Fig. 2.7 Fig. 2.8 Fig. 2.9 Fig. 2.10 Fig. 2.11 Fig. 2.12 Fig. 2.13 Fig. 2.14 Fig. 2.15 Fig. 2.16 Fig. 2.17 Fig. 2.18 Fig. 2.19 Fig. 2.20 Fig. 2.21 Fig. 2.22 Larry Rosenthal. Federal sweep topples Jungle Boys gang The Hour (Norwalk, CT; Tuesday, June 23, 1992) Bing Maps. Road Maps http://www.bing.com/maps/ accessed 10/16/12 (Microsoft Corporation, 2012) Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. City of New Haven. Hill http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/Maps/NeighborhoodPlanningMaps/Hill.pdf accessed 10/16/12 Ibid. City of New Haven. GIS Maps City Plan Department (Autodesk Autocad Digital File) Ibid. Google Maps. Digital Satelite Image http://maps.google.com/ accessed 10/16/12 (Google, 2012) Charles Merguerian and John E. Sanders. Trips on the Rocks: Guide 22: New Haven-East Haven-Branford Area, Connecticut (Duke Geological Laboratory, 2010) p. 9 Merguerian, et al. Trips on the Rocks p. 8 Merguerian, et al. Trips on the Rocks p. 12 Digital Image. Tribal territories of Southern New England tribes around 1600 http://en.wikipedia.org/ accessed 10/26/12 Digital Photograph. Oyster esquire.com/ accessed 11/4/12 St. Thomas Day School. Learning about our History http://www.stthomasday.org/ accessed 10/26/12 (Digital Image of Woodcut) Digital Image. Connecticut Colony: 1636-1776 wikipedia.org/ accessed 11/5/12 Douglas W. Rae and Alexandra Reeve, et al. New Haven region before 1640 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Yale University, 2003) http://www.library.yale.edu/newhavenhistory/index.html (Digital Image) accessed 10/31/12 Rae, et al. The Nine Squares Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Image) Erik Vogt, et al. New Haven Colony around 1640 Yale in New Haven: Architecture & Urbanism (Yale University Press, 2004) p. 36 Jesse Talbot. Oil on canvas Embarkation of the phantom ship, 1646 (New Haven Colony Historical Society) Erik Vogt, et al. Yale College House: reconstruction of the plan and elevation Yale in New Haven p. 36 Boyle, Maureen E., Map of New Haven, 1775 The Failure of Americas First City Plan: Why New Haven, the Colonies First Planned City, Would Have Been Better Left Unplanned (2010). Student Prize Papers. Paper 57. http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/ylsspps_papers/57 (accessed 11/5/12) p. 96

Fig. 2.23 Rae, et al. New Haven Chronicle Masthead Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Image) Fig. 2.24 Rae, et al. New Haven, 1812 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Map) Fig. 2.25 Rae, et al. Yale Universitys Old Brick Row, College Street (before 1860) Historical New Haven Digital Collection Fig. 2.26 Digital Photograph. Center Church on the Green, New Haven, Connecticut commons.wikipedia.org/ accessed 11/5/12 Fig. 2.27 Rae, et al. New Haven Green, College Street and Statehouse, 1840 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Image) Fig. 2.28 Frederick Edwin Church. West Rock, New Haven Oil on canvas (John Butler Talcott Fund,1849) Fig. 2.29 Rae, et al. New Haven, 1852 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Map) Fig. 2.30 Rae, et al. Chapel Street between Orange Street and Church Street, 1910 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Image) Fig. 2.31 Rae, et al. Willow Street looking west from Livingston Street Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.32 Rae, et al. Winchester Repeating Arms Company, [business], 1876 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Image) Fig. 2.33 O. H. Bailey & J. C. Hazen. The City of New Haven, Conn. 1879 American Memory: Map Collections (Library of Congress) Fig. 2.34 Digital Photograph. New Haven Green: Elm Street http://www.flickr.com/ accessed 11/5/12 Fig. 2.35 Nick Marucci. Ives Memorial Library, 2007 http://www.cassgilbertsociety.org/index.html accessed 11/5/12 (Cass Gilbert Society Digital Collection) Fig. 2.36 Ink and wash drawing. Preliminary sketch for New Court at New Haven Cass Gilbert Collection (New-York Historical Society) Fig. 2.37 Graphite on tracing paper. Elevation of New Haven building group Cass Gilbert Collection Fig. 2.38 Cass Gilbert and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Birdseye view of proposed Avenue from the Station to the Green through the proposed Public Square Report of the New Haven Civic Improvement Commission (New Haven Civic Improvement Committee; December, 1910) pgs. 59-60 Fig. 2.39 Margaret Heilbrun, editor. Sketch of proposed Avenue Inventing the Skyline: The Architecture of Cass Gilbert (Columbia University Press, 2000) p. 195 Fig. 2.40 Rae, et al. Map of Yale campus in 1921 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Image) Fig. 2.41 Thomas J. Farnam. Winchester Avenue was a busy place during the World War 1 era, especially just after the noontime whistle New Haven: An Illustrated History (Windsor Publications, 1981) p. 213 Fig. 2.42 Digital Photograph. New Haven: Plates 4886, 4888 Digital Collections: 1934 Connecticut Aerial Survey (Connecticut State Library, 2012) Fig. 2.43 Rae, et al. Aerial view of New Haven, pre-1939 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.44 Rae, et al. Church Street Project, [housing], 1956 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.45 Rae, et al. Oak Street Project vacant lot, c. 1950 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.46 Digital Photograph. New Haven: Plate 175 Digital Collections: 1965 Connecticut Aerial Survey (Connecticut State Library, 2012) Fig. 2.47 Rae, et al. Oak Street demolition for the Connector, 1958 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.48 Rae, et al. Aerial view of Church Street Project, 1960 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.49 Rae, et al. Oak Street area, 1966 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.50 Digital Photograph. New Haven: Plate 175 Digital Collections: 1965 Connecticut Aerial Survey Fig. 2.51 City Plan Commission. Dwight Renewal and Redevelopment Plan Redevelopment Agency (City of New Haven; August, 1966) Fig. 2.52 Rae, et al. Wrecking ball demolishing a drugstore, c. 1970 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.53 G. William Domhoff. Mayor Lee and Frank OBrion of the Redevelopment Agency examine plans for the Oak Street Connector Who Really Ruled in Dahls New Haven? (September, 2005) http://www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/local/new_haven.html (accessed 11/5/12) Fig. 2.54 Rae, et al. Mr. Vanderbilt on the College Street Bridge, 1969 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.55 Rae, et al. Black Panther distributing food to children [?], c. 1970 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.56 Bill Wingell. Rally for Black Panthers, New Haven, 1970 photo.net/ accessed 11/5/12 Fig. 2.57 Rae, et al. Site of Temple Street African-American Congregation Church, 1998 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.58 Anne Claire Horner. Temple Plaza, New Haven, 2011 http://www.siteprojects.org/varini/photos.html accessed 11/5/12 (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.59 Rae, et al. Homicides, New Haven,1935-1985 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Microsoft Excel Sheet) Fig. 2.60 Digital Photograph. 48 Frank Street, Before http://www.nhsofnewhaven.org/completed-houses/hill.html accessed 11/5/12 (Neighborhood Housing Services of New Haven) Digital Photograph Fig. 2.61 Digital Photograph. 48 Frank Street, After, Jully 2005 Neighborhood Housing Services of New Haven (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.62 Robert Smuts. Audited Part 1 Crimes: Violent Crimes: Homicide, Rape, Robbery, Agg. Assault Chief Administrative Officers 2012 Annual Report:

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New Haven Police Department (City of New Haven, CT; 2012) p. 4 (Digital Image) Fig. 2.63 Cooper, Robertson & Partners. Yale University Campus, 2000 Yale University: A Framework for Campus Planning (Yale University) p. 8 Fig. 2.64 Thomas MacMillan. Memo: Most City Workers Live Out Of Town New Haven Independent (November 17, 2010) Fig. 2.65 Digital Photograph. View of Higher One Office Entrance Yale News (2011) Fig. 2.66 Brad Horrigan. Tract A at Science Park New Haven Register (2010) Fig. 2.67 Elizabeth Mills Brown. Topographical Note New Haven: A Guide to Architecture and Urban Design (Yale University Press, 1976) p. 12 Fig. 2.68 Rae, et al. New Haven Map Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Image) Fig. 2.69 Gilbert, et al. Report p. 17 Fig. 2.70 Rae, et al. Digital Map New Haven 1852a (Historical New Haven Digital Collection) Fig. 2.71 United States Coast Survey. Digital image New Haven Harbor, 1846 (Library of Congress) Fig. 2.72 Rae, et al. New Haven 1910 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Map) Fig. 2.73 Digital Photograph. New Haven: Plate 4886 Digital Collections: 1934 Connecticut Aerial Survey (Connecticut State Library, 2012) Fig. 2.74 Digital Photograph. New Haven: Plate 175 Digital Collections: 1965 Connecticut Aerial Survey (Connecticut State Library, 2012) Fig. 2.75 Don Metz. Church Street South Housing New Architecture in New Haven (MIT Press, 1973) pgs. 22-23 Fig. 2.76 Rae, et al. New Haven 1991 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.77 Bill Rankin. Population-density map of the Northeast megalopolis http://en.wikipedia.org/ accessed 11/6/12 (Digital Image) Fig. 2.78 Digital image. New York City Metro Real Estate Jobs selectleaders.com/ accessed 11/6/12 (SelectLeaders Real Estate Job Site Network, 2012) Fig. 2.79 DataHaven. Greater New Haven Income Understanding the Greater New Haven Region through Data (The Community Foundation for Greater New Haven) p. 7 (Digital Image) Fig. 2.80 DataHaven. New Haven EDC data on city centers Understanding Greater New Haven through Data p. 30 (Digital Image) Fig. 2.81 Data Haven. Demographics: Population in Poverty Understanding Greater New Haven through Data p. 15 (Digital image) Fig. 2.82 City of New Haven. GIS Maps City Plan Department (Autodesk Autocad Digital File) Fig. 2.83 Digital Image. 1911 Atlas of New Haven: Plates 15 & 17 http://www.library.yale.edu/ accessed 11/6/12 (Yale Universtiy Library Map Collection) Fig. 2.84 Google Maps. Digital Satelite Image http://maps.google.com/ accessed 11/6/12 (Google, 2012) Fig. 2.85 Digital Image. Yale-New Haven Hospital Map http://www.pwius.com/ accessed 11/6/12 Fig. 2.86 Digital Image. New Haven Medical Economy in Context Fig. 2.87 Digital Photograph. Yale-New Haven Hospital http://rarediseasesnetwork.epi.usf.edu/ucdc/centers/yale.htm accessed 11/6/12 Fig. 2.88 Digital Photograph. The Yale School of Nursing at 100 Church Street South http://info.med.yale.edu/ accessed 11/6/12 Fig. 2.89 Digital Image. Yale-New Haven Hospital Aerial http://www.pwius.com/ accessed 11/6/12 Fig. 2.90 City of New Haven. GIS Maps City Plan Department (Autodesk Autocad Digital File) Fig. 2.91 Amos Doolittle. Plan of New Haven (New Haven, CT; 1812) http://www.cthistoryonline.org/ accessed 11/7/12 Fig. 2.92 Digital Image. 1911 Atlas of New Haven: Plate 15 http://www.library.yale.edu/ accessed 11/6/12 (Yale Universtiy Library Map Collection) Fig. 2.93 Digital Photograph. Trowbridge Square Historic District, New Haven, square looking south wikipedia.org/ accessed 11/7/12 Fig. 2.94 Google Maps. Digital Photograph: Streetview http://maps.google.com/ accessed 11/7/12 (Google, 2008) Fig. 2.95 Digital Photograph. Trowbridge Square Historic District, New Haven, South Congregational Church wikipedia.org/ accessed 11/7/12 Fig. 2.96 Digital Photographs. Property Assessment: New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/newhaven/search.asp/ accessed 11/7/12 Fig. 2.97 Rae, et al. 24 Crown Street, [business], c. 1910 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Period Photograph) Fig. 2.98 Digital Photograph. A look down Orange Street in the 9th Square http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/ accessed 11/7/12 Fig. 2.99 Digital Photograph. Artspace http://artspacenh.org/about/facilities accessed 11/7/12 Fig. 2.100 Digital Image. NINTH SQUARE REDEVELOPMENT PROJECT, New Haven, Connecticut http://www.designadvisor.org/ accessed 11/7/12 Fig. 2.101 City of New Haven. GIS Maps City Plan Department (Autodesk Autocad Digital File) Fig. 2.102 Thomas MacMillan. Zoners OK 9th Square Historic Re-Do New Haven Independent (December 16, 2010) Fig. 2.103 Ellen Bulger. 44 Crown Street, New Haven flickr.com/ accessed 11/10/12 (December 2, 2010; Digital Photograph) Allan Appel. 9th Square Rescue Mission Triumphs New Haven Independent (July 14, 2011) Fig. 2.104 Digital Photograph. 26 Crown Street zillow.com/ accessed 11/10/12

Fig. 2.105 Rae, et al. Church Street South Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Period Photograph) Fig. 2.106 City of New Haven. GIS Maps City Plan Department (Autodesk Autocad Digital File) Fig. 2.107 Ibid. Fig. 2.108 Period Photograph. New Haven Department of Police Service building site New Haven Colony Historical Society (1973) Fig. 2.109 Period Photograph. New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Company headquarters building, Water and Meadow Streets, New Haven New Haven Colony Historical Society (1971) Fig. 2.110 Period Photograph. Union Avenue, Water and Meadow Streets, with railroad buildings and yards, Church Street Project area, New Haven New Haven Colony Historical Society (1955) Fig. 2.111 John W. Cahill. Gateway Center http://www.emporis.com/ accessed 11/8/12 Fig. 2.112 Digital Photograph. 54 Meadow Street http://data.visionappraisal.com/ accessed 11/8/12 (Assessors Online Database for New Haven, CT) Fig. 2.113 Bing Maps. Birds Eye http://www.bing.com/maps/ accessed 11/8/12 (Microsoft Corporation, 2012) Fig. 2.114 Rae, et al. Proposed Union Train Station, 1910 Historical New Haven Digital Collection (Rendered Handdrawing) Fig. 2.115 Cass Gilbert, et al. Sketch view of above plan showing how the Avenue would connect the Station with the City Report p. 57 Fig. 2.116 Margaret Heilbrun, editor. Preliminary sketch for the improvement of New Haven, February 24, 1908 Inventing the Skyline p. 197 Fig. 2.117 City of New Haven. GIS Maps City Plan Department (Autodesk Autocad Digital File) Fig. 2.118 Jerry Thompson. View of interior lobby, following abandonment in 1973, view northeast Yale Alumni Magazine (Connecticut Historical Commission) Fig. 2.119 Digital Photograph. Union Station Lobby http://www.newmanarchitects.com/ accessed 11/8/12 (Newman Architects) Fig. 2.120 Digital Photograph. Union Station Passageway Before http://www.newmanarchitects.com/ Fig. 2.121 Digital Photograph. Union Station Passageway After http://www.newmanarchitects.com/ Fig. 2.122 Digital Image. Union Station Restoration Drawings http://www.newmanarchitects.com/ T Fig. 2.123 Digital Photograph. Union Station at Dusk http://www.newmanarchitects.com/ Fig. 2.124 Digital Photograph. Union Station and Parking Garage from Union Avenue http://www.newmanarchitects.com/ Fig. 2.125 Digital Photograph. Union Station Main Stair http://www.newmanarchitects.com/ Fig. 2.126 City of New Haven. GIS Maps City Plan Department (Autodesk Autocad Digital File) Fig. 2.127 Metz.Site Plan New Architecture p. 22 Fig. 2.128 Digital Photograph. Model of Mies van der Rohe design for CSS Housing, 1965 http://www.trianglemodernisthouses.com/ accessed 11/9/12 Fig. 2.129 Gerald Allen. Model of Church Street South Housing Charles Moore: Monographs on Contemporary Architecture (Whitney Library of Design, Lakewood, New Jersey; 1980) p. 63 Fig. 2.130 Larry Speck. Pedestrian Street, Church Street South Housing http://larryspeck.com/ accessed 11/9/12 (Digital Photograph) Fig. 2.131 Speck. View of Tower One from Central Plaza, Church Street South Housing http://larryspeck.com/ Fig. 2.132 Vlad Isakov and Jawad S. Touma, and Janet Burke, et al. New Haven, CT, modeling domain Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (Vol. 59; April, 2009) p. 465 Fig. 2.133 Vlad Isakov and Jawad S. Touma, and Janet Burke, et al. New Haven, CT, modeling domain Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (Vol. 59; April, 2009) p. 465 Fig. 2.134 Ibid. Fig. 2.135 Ibid. Fig. 2.136 Isakov, et al. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association p. 467 Fig. 2.137 Google Maps. Digital Photograph: Streetview http://maps.google.com/ accessed 11/9/12 (Google, 2008) Fig. 2.138 Parsons Brinckerhoff and Fitzgerald & Haliday, Inc. Collisions at Intersections in 2008 Draft Whalley Avenue Corridoe Study (South Central Regional Council of Governments, July 2010) p. 16 Fig. 2.139 Mafia Negra Records. Posteado en el Bloque http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_lsxa1MYi4 accessed 11/9/12 Fig. 2.140 Mafia Negra Records. Pala Carretera http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6Kv_wEX-QI accessed 11/9/12 Fig. 2.141 Thomas MacMillan. City Bails Out After Downpour New Haven Independent (August 10, 2012) Digital Photograph Fig. 2.142 Mafia Negra Records. Mi Infierno http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6UfYd0s0s1o accessed 11/9/12

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Fig. 2.143 Fig. 2.144 Fig. 2.145 Fig. 2.146 Fig. 2.147 Fig. 2.148 Fig. 2.149 Fig. 2.150 Fig. 2.151 Fig. 2.152 Fig. 2.153 Fig. 2.154 Fig. 2.155 Fig. 2.156 Fig. 2.157 Fig. 2.158 Fig. 2.159 Fig. 2.160 Fig. 2.161 Fig. 2.162 Fig. 2.163 Fig. 2.164 Fig. 2.165

Paul Bass. The stairwell where Joseph Mirvil was shot to death New Haven Independent (October 3, 2012) Digital Photograph Jonathan Hopkins. Existing Church Street South Housing Program Excel Chart (Microsoft Corporation, 2012) Digital Photograph. 86 South Orange St http://data.visionappraisal.com/ accessed 11/9/12 (Assessors Online Database for New Haven, CT) Speck. View of Central Plaza, Church Street South Housing http://larryspeck.com/ William Kaempffer. New Haven shooting victim struggled with drug abuse, family says New Haven Reigster (May 26, 2010) Melissa Bailey. Welcome HomeTo Frozen Pipes New Haven Independent (January 26, 2011) Digital Image. Climate Zones of the United States http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ accessed 11/9/12 (U.S. Department of Energy) Digital Image. Annual Temperature, Precipitation and Snowfall in New Haven area wikipedia.org William Kaempffer. New Haven homicide victims identified New Haven Register (April 20, 2011) Bailey. Brian Michaud repairs a furnace Wednesday in Apartment 11A. New Haven Independent Ibid. Ann DeMatteo. 14 families from New Havens Church Street South shuffled between hotels due to carbon monoxide problems New Haven Register (January 22, 2011) Digital Photograph. St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church http://www.stbasil.ct.goarch.org/ accessed 11/10/12 Charles Moore. Lower Level Plan, Upper Level Plan A+U Extra Edition: The Work of Charles W. Moore (A + U, 1978) p. 212 Digital Photograph. 49 Union Avenue http://www.elmcitycommunities.com/ accessed 11/10/12 Speck. Tower One http://larryspeck.com/2011/05/10/knights-of-columbus-headquarters/ accessed 11/13/12 Digital Photograph. Tower One http://www.cesct.com/index.php/assisted-living-housing/tower_one_tower_east accessed 11/10/12 Moore. Ground Floor Plan, First Floor Plan A + U Extra Edition p. 216 Digital image. New Haven, CT http://www.topoquest.com/ accessed 11/11/12 (United States Geological Survey, 2010) Ibid. Digital Image. Median Household Income, New Haven, CT http://www.city-data.com/city/New-Haven-Connecticut.html accessed 11/11/12 City Plan Department. Zoning Map http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/Regulations/Zoning_Fullsize_Map_Index.pdfaccessed 11/11/1 (Office of Information Technology, Geographic Information System; 2012) Municipal Code Corporation. Article VII - Administration Zoning Ordinance (Title VI, Volume III, Code of Ordinances of the City of New Haven, Connecticut; 1995, 2003; last amended October 3, 2011) Section 65 - Planned Developments

Section 3: Conceptual Framework Figures


Fig. 1.0 New Haven Museum and Historical Society. Street and buildings near train station, Lower Project area, Church Street (South) Project, New Haven http://www.cthistoryonline.org/ accessed 12/12/12 (Period Photograph, 1963) Fig. 3.1 Paul Bass. Mayor Enters New Urbanist Lions Den New Haven Independent (May 14, 2012) Fig. 3.2 Elkus Manfredi. An architects rendering of 100 College Street New York Times (July 17, 2012) Fig. 3.3 Digital Photograph. Amistad Clinical Research Facility http://www.newmanarchitects.com/project.html?pid=69 accessed 11/11/12 Fig. 3.4 Period Photograph. New Haven Veterans Memorial Coliseum http://archinect.com/ accessed 11/11/12 Fig. 3.5 Department of Economic and Community Development. Project Activity V-VII Community Challenge Grant Application (HUD, 2010) p. 1 Fig. 3.6 Digital Image. Downtown Crossing Master Plan City Plan Department (City of New Haven) Fig. 3.7 Digital Image. Schematic Design for Roadway Reconfiguration City Plan Department (City of New Haven) Fig. 3.8 Fuss & ONeill. Intersection of MLK Blvd and College Street City Plan Department (City of New Haven) Fig. 3.9 Digital image. 100 College Street City Plan Department (City of New Haven) Fig. 3.10 Winstanley Enterprises, LLC. 100 College Street Longitudinal Perspective Section http://courantblogs.com/ accessed 11/11/12

Fig. 3.11 Fig. 3.12 Fig. 3.13 Fig. 3.14 Fig. 3.15 Fig. 3.16 Fig. 3.17 Fig. 3.18 Fig. 3.19 Fig. 3.20 Fig. 3.21 Fig. 3.22 Fig. 3.23 Fig. 3.24 Fig. 3.25 Fig. 3.26 Fig. 3.27 Fig. 3.28 Fig. 3.29 Fig. 3.30 Fig. 3.31 Fig. 3.32 Fig. 3.33 Fig. 3.34 Fig. 3.35 Fig. 3.36 Fig. 3.37 Fig. 3.38 Fig. 3.39 Fig. 3.40 Fig. 3.41 Fig. 3.42 Fig. 3.43 Fig. 3.44 Fig. 3.45 Fig. 3.46 Fig. 3.47 Fig. 3.48 Fig. 3.49

Christopher T. McCahill, and Norman W. Garrick. Influence of Parking Policy on Built Environment and Travel Behavior in Two New England Cities, 1960 to 2007 (University of Connecticut Civil & Environmental Engineering) Ibid. Ibid. Peter Swift, Dan Painter, Matthew Goldstein. Residential Street Typology and Injury Accident Frequency p. 6 Digital Image. Downtown Crossing: A Summary of Concerns Regarding Project Planning and Performance,and Compliance with TIGER II Criteria (New Haven Urban Design League) p. 18 Digital Photograph. Aerial View of the Medical Campus, 2004 Medicine at Yale, 1810-2010 (Medical Historical Library) Digital Photograph. Amistad Clinical Research Facility http://www.newmanarchitects.com/project.html?pid=69 accessed 11/11/12 Digital Photograph. 46 Prince Street http://www.strongwomenshealth.com/new_haven/default.html accessed 11/11/12 Digital Photograph. Richard C. Lee High School http://www.krjda.com/LeeHighInfo1.html accessed 11/11/12 Metz. Richard C. Lee High School New Architecture p. 20 Joe Amarante. Late (great?) New Haven Coliseum is subject of CPTV documentary: Its as much about history as legends New Haven Register (October 31, 2010) Period Photograph Digital Image. New Haven Coliseum Implosion, 2007 http://asteeves.wordpress.com/ accessed 11/7/12 Digital Image. Northland Development Co. & Robert AM Stern Architects Proposal http://downtownnewhaven.blogspot.com/ accessed 11/7/12 Ibid. Ibid. City Plan Department. Union Station TOD: Site Context New Haven Union Station Transit-Oriented Development Study: Request for Proposals (Regional Plan Association, Inc.; January 6, 2012) p. 15 City Plan Department. Adjacent Development Sites New Haven Union Station Transit Oriented Development Study (City of New Haven; February, 7, 2008) p. 8 Karyn Gilvarg and Carl Amento. Existing site conditions Union Station Transit Oriented Development & District Plan (City of New Haven, South Central Regional Council of Governments; September 13, 2011) p. 6 Jones Lang LaSalle. New Haven Union Station Transit Oriented Development Study (City of New Haven; February, 2008) p. 13 City Plan Department. Union Station Floor Plans New Haven Union Station TOD Development Study pgs. 24-27 Melissa Bailey. New Church St. South Goes Nowhere Fast New Haven Independent (Jan 18, 2012) ADD, Inc. and Northland Development Co. Ibid. ibid. Ibid. Digital Image. http://www.stbasil.ct.goarch.org/ Mark Shaiken. Moon Over the Free Library http://www.flickr.com/ accessed 11/11/12 SLR. Low-moderate baroque Progressive Architecture (A Reinhold Publication; May, 1972) p. 81 Jonathan Hopkins. Union Square Program Excel Sheet (Microsoft Corporation, 2012) Digital Photograph. Wilkes passage Loft http://ruhlwalker.com/ accessed 11/13/12 Digital Photograph. The Arts District: Audubon Court http://www.newmanarchitects.com/ accessed 11/13/12 Digital Photograph. Ninth Square Garage http://www.pcine.org/ accessed 11/13/12 Digital Photograph. Meet & Greet at Wooster Square Farmers Market http://artidea.org/ accessed 11/13/12 Jonathan Hopkins. Preservation Approach to Church Street South Autocad 2012 (Autodesk, 2012) edited in Adobe Photoshop Jonathan Hopkins. Typological development diagram Autocad 2012 (Autodesk, 2012) City of New Haven. Hill http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/Maps/NeighborhoodPlanningMaps/Hill.pdf Digital Photographs. Property Assessment: New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/ Ibid. Ibid. City of New Haven. Hill http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/Maps/NeighborhoodPlanningMaps/Hill.pdf

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Fig. 3.50 Digital Photograph. First Congregational Church, New Haven http://historicbuildingsct.com/?tag=ithiel-town accessed 11/15/12 Fig. 3.51 Digital Photograph. St. Anthony Church http://www.archdioceseofhartford.org/cgi-bin/history.pl?textdata=210 accessed 11/15/12 Fig. 3.52 Digital Photograph. Architecture & History http://www.trinitylutherannh.org/architecture.html accessed 11/15/12 Fig. 3.53 Digital Photograph. St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church http://www.stbasil.ct.goarch.org/ Fig. 3.54 City of New Haven. Hill http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/Maps/NeighborhoodPlanningMaps/Hill.pdf Fig. 3.55 Digital Photographs. Property Assessment: New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/ Fig. 3.56 Google Maps. Digital Photograph: Streetview http://maps.google.com/ Fig. 3.57 Digital Photographs. Property Assessment: New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/ Fig. 3.58 Digital Photograph. 518-526 Howard Ave http://www.irishinnewhaven.com/history.php accessed 11/14/12 Fig. 3.59 Digital Photographs. Property Assessment: New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/ Fig. 3.60 Google Maps. Digital Photograph: Streetview http://maps.google.com/ Fig. 3.61 City of New Haven. Hill http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/Maps/NeighborhoodPlanningMaps/Hill.pdf Fig. 3.62 Google Maps. Digital Photograph: Streetview http://maps.google.com/ Fig. 6.63 Digital Photographs. Property Assessment: New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/ Fig. 6.64 Ibid. Fig. 6.65 Google Maps. Digital Photograph: Streetview http://maps.google.com/ Fig. 6.66 Digital Photographs. Property Assessment: New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/ Fig. 6.67 Period Photograph. Liberty Square housing, children and pool, New Haven New Haven Museum and Historical Society (1962) Fig. 6.68 City of New Haven. Hill http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/Maps/NeighborhoodPlanningMaps/Hill.pdf Fig. 6.69 Digital Photograph. Exchange Building http://historicbuildingsct.com/?cat=96&paged=8 accessed 11/14/12 Fig. 6.70 Digital Photographs. Property Assessment: New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/ Fig. 3.70 Ibid. Fig. 3.71 Google Maps. Digital Photograph: Streetview http://maps.google.com/ Fig. 3.72 Digital Photograph. Taft Apartments http://bklynbiblio.blogspot.com/2011/11/28-new-haven-days-i.html accessed 11/14/12 Fig. 3.73 Digital Photograph. The Tower Nears Completion in Downtown New Haven http://archpaper.com/news/articles.asp?id=4680 accessed 11/14/12 Fig. 3.74 Municipal Code Corporation. Article III - Residence Districts: District Regulations Zoning Ordinance Section 13. - RM-1 Districts: Low-Middle Density Fig. 3.75 Francis D. K. Ching and Steven R. Winkel. Use and Occupancy Building Codes Illustrated: A Guide to Understanding the 2000 International Building Code (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) p. 28 Fig. 3.76 Municipal Code Corporation. Article III - Residence Districts: District Regulations Zoning Ordinance Section 16. - RH-2 Districts: General High Density Fig. 3.77 City Plan Department. Zoning Map http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/CityPlan/pdfs/Regulations/Zoning_Fullsize_Map_Index.pdf Fig. 3.78 Ching, et al. Structural Provisions Building Codes Illustrated p. 306 Fig. 3.79 Ching, et al. Use and Occupancy Building Codes Illustrated p. 55 Fig. 3.80 Municipal Code Corporation. Article IV - Residence Districts: General Provisions Zoning Ordinance Section 29. - Parking Fig. 3.81 Ching, et al. Means of Egress Building Codes Illustrated p. 145 Fig. 3.82 Ching, et al. Means of Egress Building Codes Illustrated p. 153 Fig. 3.83 Ching, et al. Means of Egress Building Codes Illustrated p. 161 Fig. 3.84 Ching, et al. Exterior Walls Building Codes Illustrated p. 252 Fig. 3.85 Ching, et al. Structural Provisions Building Codes Illustrated p. 324 Fig. 3.86 Ching, et al. Exterior Walls Building Codes Illustrated p. 253 Fig. 3.87 Charles Broto. Plans Urban Apartment Blocks (Links International; February 1, 2008) p. 110. Digital Image. Fig. 3.88 Broto. Section through courtyard Urban Apartment Blocks p. 111. Digital Image. Fig. 3.89 Ibid. Fig. 3.90 Broto. View of the interior courtyard Urban Apartment Blocks p. 112. Digital Image.

Fig. 3.91 Fig. 3.92 Fig. 3.93 Fig. 3.94 Fig. 3.95 Fig. 3.96 Fig. 3.97 Fig. 3.98 Fig. 3.99 Fig. 3.100 Fig. 3.101 Fig. 3.102 Fig. 3.103 Fig. 3.104 Fig. 3.105 Fig. 3.106 Fig. 3.107 Fig. 3.108 Fig. 3.109 Fig. 3.110 Fig. 3.111

Digital Photograph. Whitney Grove http://www.simonkonover.com/ accessed 11/17/12 Digital Photograph. Whitney Grove http:// http://www.newmanarchitects.com/index.html accessed 11/18/12 Ibid. Ibid. Gottscho-Schleisner, Inc - Eggers & Higgins. Silliman College, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Silliman room, 1881 Digital Database of Universities & Colleges (Library of Congress; Photograph; 1940) Digital Photograph. http:// http://www.newmanarchitects.com/index.html Digital Photograph. Audubon Court http:// http://www.newmanarchitects.com/index.html Digital Photograph. Silliman College inner courtyard http://blog.kierantimberlake.com/2009/04/silliman-college/ accessed 11/18/12 Digital Photograph. http:// http://www.newmanarchitects.com/index.html Ibid. Ibid. Digital Photograph. Residences at Ninth Square http://www.apartments.oodle.com/ accessed 11/17/12 Ibid. Digital Photograph. A look down Orange Street in the 9th Square http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/ Digital Photograph. Residences at Ninth Square http://www.hotpads.com/ accessed 11/17/12 Digital Photograph. Wilkes Passage http://www.kw.com/ accessed 11/16/12 Digital Photograph. Wilkes Passage http://ruhlwalker.com/projects/wilkes_passage_loft/ accessed 11/18/12 Ibid. Digital Photograph. The Tent City Housing Complex http://archpaper.com/news/articles.asp?id=3902 accessed 11/18/12 Digital Photograph. Tent City, Boston, USA http://www.worldhabitatawards.org/ accessed 11/18/12 Digital Images. Tent City Floor Plans http://www.tentcityapartments.com/ accessed 11/18/12

Section 4: Union Square Figures


Fig. 4.0 Fig. 4.1 Fig. 4.2 Fig. 4.3 Fig. 4.4 Fig. 4.5 Fig. 4.6 Fig. 4.7 Fig. 4.8 Fig. 4.9 Fig. 4.10 Fig. 4.11 Fig. 4.12 Fig. 4.13 Fig. 4.14 Fig. 4.15 City of New Haven. An Aerial View of The Hill and Downtown Projects in Planning: Hill-to-Downtown Planning Initiatve (Digital Photograph) Jonathan Hopkins. Church Street South Adjacencies Autocad 2012 (Autodesk, 2012) edited in Adobe Photoshop CS5.1 Jonathan Hopkins. Existing Vehicular Circulation in Church Street South and vicinity Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Perceptual Barriers of Church Street South Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Diagram of the perception of Church Street South and vicinity Google Earth (edited in Adobe Photoshop) City of New Haven. GIS Maps City Plan Department (Autodesk Autocad Digital File) Jonathan Hopkins. Proposed Demolition for Church Street South Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Proposed Replacement for building at Church Street South Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Proposed Church Street South Site Condition Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Existing & Proposed Street Connections from Church Street So. to Ninth Square Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Existing & Proposed Street Connections from Church Street South to Medical District Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Existing & Proposed Street Connections from Church Street So. to Trowbridge Square Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Existing & Proposed Street Connections from Union Station to Surroundings Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Proposed Master Block Plan showing Streets & Squares Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Proposed Master Roof Plan Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Birds Eye View of Union Square Form Z 7 & Bing Maps (AutoDesSys, Inc) edited in Adobe Photoshop

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Fig. 4.16 Fig. 4.17 Fig. 4.18 Fig. 4.19 Fig. 4.20 Fig. 4.21 Fig. 4.22 Fig. 4.23 Fig. 4.24 Fig. 4.25 Fig. 4.26 Fig. 4.27 Fig. 4.28 Fig. 4.29 Fig. 4.30 Fig. 4.31 Fig. 4.32 Fig. 4.33 Fig. 4.34 Fig. 4.35 Fig. 4.36 Fig. 4.37 Fig. 4.38 Fig. 4.39 Fig. 4.40 Fig. 4.41 Fig. 4.42 Fig. 4.43 Fig. 4.44 Fig. 4.45 Fig. 4.46 Fig. 4.47 Fig. 4.48 Fig. 4.49 Fig. 4.50 Fig. 4.51 Fig. 4.52 Fig. 4.53 Fig. 4.54 Fig. 4.55 Fig. 4.56 Fig. 4.57 Fig. 4.58 Fig. 4.59

Jonathan Hopkins. Mobile & Stationary Sources of Air Pollution at Church Street South Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Family-oriented Infrastructure in vicinity of Church Street South Autocad 2012 & Google Earth (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Proposed Calm & Local Street at Union Square Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Programmatic Union Square Ground Floor Plan in Context Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Programmatic Union Square Typical Floor Plan Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Proposed & Existing Thoroughfares of Union Square Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Business-Oriented Adjacenties of Union Square Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Community-Oriented Adjacenties of Union Square Autocad 2012 (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Birds Eye view of Block A: Single-Family Townhouses of Union Square Form Z 7 & Bing Maps (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Block A Floor Plans Autocad 2012 Ibid. Jonathan Hopkins. Single-family Townhouse Elevations Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Single-Family Townhouse A Section Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Single-Family Townhouse Floor Plans Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Single-Family Townhouse B Section Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Birds Eye view of Block E Two-family Houses Form Z 7 & Bing Maps (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Block E Floor Plans Autocad 2012 Ibid. Google Maps. Digital Photograph: Streetview http://maps.google.com/ accessed 12/14/12 (Google, 2008) Yale 2008 Building Project. Photos: Week 7 http://www.architecture.yale.edu/sites/BuildingProject/bp08/home.html accessed 12/14/12 (Yale School of Architecture, Yale University) Jonathan Hopkins. Birds Eye view of Union Square: Multi-family Apartment Buildings Form Z 7 & Bing Maps (edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Block C Floor Plans Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Typical Apartment Building Bay Elevation & Section Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. View from South Orange Street of Apartment Building Facade on West Water Street. Form Z 7 Jonathan Hopkins. Typical Section through Street Level Duplexes of Multi-family Apartment Building Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. First Floor Plans of Duplex Unites of Multi-family Apartment Building Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Second Floor Plans of Duplex Units of Multi-family Apartment Building Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Floor Plans of Multi-family Apartment Unit Flats on Floors 2-4 Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Section through Apartment Flats on Corridor Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. View of Interior Central Courtyard of Multi-family Apartment Complex Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. View down South Lafayette Street Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Secton through Attic Duplex Unit of Multi-family Apartment Building Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Fifth (First) Floor Plan of Attic Duplex Unit of Multi-family Apartment Building Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Sixth (Second) Floor Plan of Attic Duplex Unit of Multi-family Apartment Building Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Birds Eye view of Mixed-Use Live-work & Residential Apartment Buildings Form Z 7 & Bing Maps (edited in Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Block F Floor Plans Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Live-work & Residential Apartment Building Sectional Axonometric Autocad 2012 (Edited in Adobe Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Ground & First Floor Plans of Live-work Unit Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Longitudinal Section through Live-work Unit Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. View down Columbus Avenue from South Orange Street Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Live-work & Residential Apartment Building Bay Elevation & Section Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Live-work & Apartment Building Elevation Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Birds Eye view of Mixed-Use Retail & Residential Apartment Buildings Form Z 7 & Bing Maps (edited in Photoshop) Jonathan Hopkins. Block B Floor Plans Autocad 2012

Fig. 4.60 Jonathan Hopkins. View of South Orange Street towards Union Station Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.61 Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Retail & Apartment Building Bay Elevation & Section Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.62 Jonathan Hopkins. Birds Eye view of Mixed-Use Retail & Office Buildings Form Z 7 & Bing Maps (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.63 Jonathan Hopkins. Master Roof Plan of Union Square Autocad 2012 Google Maps. Digital Satelite Image http://maps.google.com/ Fig. 4.64 Jonathan Hopkins. Block G Floor Plans Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.65 Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Retail & Office Bay Elevation & Section Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.66 Jonathan Hopkins. View of a Mixed-use Retail & Office Building from Lafayette-Portsea Plaza Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.67 Jonathan Hopkins. Section through public Office Building Atrium Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.68 Jonathan Hopkins. Section through Ground Floor Commercial Retail Space Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.69 Jonathan Hopkins. View of Union Station from Lafayette-Portsea Plaza Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.70 Jonathan Hopkins. Programmatically Determining the height of Mixed-use Retail & Apartment Building Blocks Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.71 Jonathan Hopkins. Union Square Program (edited) Excell Sheet (Microsoft Corporation) Fig. 4.72 Jonathan Hopkins. Spatially determining the form of the Union Square buildings Autocad 2012 (editied in Photoshop) Fig. 4.73 Jonathan Hopkins. Section through Block F, Union Avenue, and Union Station Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.74 Edward Allen and Joesph Iano. Configuring the Egress System The Architects Studio Companion: Rule of Thumb for Preliminary Design (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, New York. 2002) p. 247 Fig. 4.75 Allen, et al. Exit Stairways The Architects Studio Companion p. 252 Fig. 4.76 Jonathan Hopkins. Typical Path of Egress for Block D Plans Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.77 Jonathan Hopkins. Exploded Axonometric of Block D Floor Plans Vertical Circulation Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.78 Allen, et al. Egress Widths: International Building Code The Architects Studio Companion p. 268 Fig. 4.79 Digital Image. AAC Lightweight Wall Blocks http://www.corpeacico.com/ (Emirates Aircrete Industries) accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.80 Digital Image. Figure AO101.1 Structural Design Approach Oregon Residential Specialty Code (2005) p. O-9 Fig. 4.81 Jonathan Hopkins. Structural Row Housing Floor Plans Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.82 Jonathan Hopkins. Townhouse Structural Plan Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.83 Jonathan Hopkins. Townhouse Structural Section Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.84 Jonathan Hopkins. Structural Floor Plans of Live-work Bay, & 2-1/2 & 1-1/2 Multi-family Apartment Bays Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.85 Jonathan Hopkins. Structural Plan & Section of Mixed-use Apartment Building Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.86 Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Livework & Multi-family Apartment Building Structural Axonometric Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.87 Digitized Photograph. Mount Sinai Hospital and power plant concrete frame 1950s_Jewish Historical Society of the Upper Midwest (Steinfeldt Photography Collection Fig. 4.88 Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Livework & Multi-family Apartment Building Exploded Structural Axonometric Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.89 Jonathan Hopkins. Underground Mechanical Plan of Union Square Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.90 Jonathan Hopkins. Supply & Return Mechanical Section through Mixed-use Residential Apartment Building Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.91 Jonathan Hopkins. Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning Mechanical Section through Mixed-Use Building Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.92 Jonathan Hopkins. Supply & Return Mechanical Axonometric Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.93 Jonathan Hopkins. Mechanical Supply Plan of Apartment Unit Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.94 Jonathan Hopkins. Water Service Plumbing Section through Mixed-use Retail & Apartment Building Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.95 Jonathan Hopkins. Water Service Plumbing Axonometric Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.96 Jonathan Hopkins. Water Service Plumbing Plan of Apartment Unit Autocad 2012 (editied in Photoshop) Fig. 4.97 Digital Image. Energence Rooftop Commercial Air Handling Unit http://www.lennoxcommercial.com. accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.98 Digital Image. WhisperGreen 80 CFM ceiling-mounted variable speed control ventilation fan panasonic.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.99 Michelle Peluso. Plumbing wall leed-greenhome.blogspot.com accessed 12/17/12 (Vertex Architects, LLC; Digital Photograph) Fig. 4.100 Jonathan Hopkins. Structural, Mechanical & Enclosure Systems Sectional Axonometric Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.101 Jonathan Hopkins. Overview of Passive Design Strategies on Block F Axonometric Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop)

N | 190

N | 191

Lee Waldock. Winter Heating & Summer: Sustainable Design in New England Cooling Diagram douglaskohun.net (Douglas Okun Associates; Digital Image) accessed 12/17/12 Digital Image. Natural Ventilation Sustainability Workshop autodesk.com (Autodesk Education Community) accessed 12/18/12 Digital Image. Rainwater collection animation LakotaWaterCompany.com accessed 12/18/12 Digital Image. Daylighting iesrmsdenver.org (LESRMS The Illuminating Society of North America) accessed 12/18/12 Fig. 4.102 Jonathan Hopkins. Winter Heating of Public Atria on the Ground Floor Plan Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.103 Jonathan Hopkins. Conductive Heating Plan of Office Building Atrium Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.104 Jonathan Hopkins. Public Atrium Conductive Heating Section of Office Building in Winter Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.105 Jonathan Hopkins. Public Atrium Summer Sun shading Section Office Atrium Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.106 Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Building Summer Sun shading Section Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.107 Jonathan Hopkins. Summer Sun Shading Devices in Plan Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.108 Jonathan Hopkins. Summer Natural Ventilation Diagram Section through South Lafayette Street Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.109 Jonathan Hopkins. Natural Summer Cross Ventilation through Live-work Loft in Plan Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.110 Jonathan Hopkins. Underground Water Recovery and Reuse Plan Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.111 Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Live-work & Apartment Building Water Recovery & Reuse Section Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.112 Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Live-work & Apartment Building Water Recovery & Reuse Elevation Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.113 Digital Image. Water Legacy Helps with Greywater Reuse jetson gree.com accessed 12/18/12 (June 16, 2011) Fig. 4.114 Digital Image. Greywater Recycling System sunandclimate.com Fig. 4.115 Jonathan Hopkins. Union Square Daylighting Roof Plan Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.116 Jonathan Hopkins. Residential & Office Bay Winter Daylighting Sections Autocad 2012 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.117 Digital Photograph. Metal roofing system greenisglobal.net accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.118 Digital image. Metal roofing assemblies diagram usa.sarnafil.sike.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.119 Digital Image. Metal roofing structure section garlandco.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.120 Digital image. Rigid foam insulation finehomebuilding.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.121 Digital Photograph. Wallboard square edge wickes.co.uk accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.122 Digital Photograph. English Flemish Bond Brick with Glazed Headers wikipedia.org accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.123 Digital Photograph. Precast concrete panel: Materials library visualsupercomputing.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.124 Digital Photograph. Building Insulation - Batt & Roll Masonry Wall Insulaton ebuild.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.125 Digital Photograph. How to paint new drywall paintinganddecoratingconcource.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.126 Digital Photograph. Wood siding 3d-dive.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.127 Digital Photograph. Metal stud wall marriedandthecity.com accessed 12/17/12 (July 18, 2009) Fig. 4.128 Phil. Mitchell. Metal stud wall insulation topofthehillmusic.com accessed 12/17/12 (Digital Photograph) Fig. 4.129 Digital Photograph. Painted wall jasonandjenn.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.130 Digital image. Solid wood raised access floor archiexpo.com accessed 12/17/12 (Camino Modular System, Inc.) Fig. 4.131 Digital Photograph. Pretressed concrete beam archiexpo.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.132 Digital Photograph. Suspended sheetrock ceiling alibaba.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.133 Jonathan Hopkins. Structural, Mechanical & Enclosure Systems Section Axonometric Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop) Fig. 4.134 Kamaria Greenfield. City wins transportation grant Yale Daily News (October 20, 2011) Digital Photograph Fig. 4.135 Digital Photograph. English Flemish Brick Bond with Glazed Headers Pattern environment7.uwe.ac.uk accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.136 Jonathan Hopkins. Mixed-use Retail & Commercial Office Bay Elevation Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.137 Jonathan Hopkins. Masonry Cavity Wall Construction in Plan Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.138 Jonathan Hopkins. Masonry Cavity Wall Construction in Section Autocad 2012 Fig. 4.139 Digital Photograph. Rother House Brick Quoin Detail geograph.org.uk accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.140 Digital Image. Celotex Masonry Wall Assemblies Diagram justinsulation.com accessed 12/17/12 Fig. 4.141 Digital Photograph. Kroon Hall Exterior Limestone Cavity Wall Cladding aiatopten.org accessed 12/17/12 (American Institute of Architects)

Fig. 4.142 Fig. 4.143 Fig. 4.144 Fig. 4.145 Fig. 4.146 Fig. 4.147 Fig. 4.148 Fig. 4.149 Fig. 4.150 Fig. 4.151 Fig. 4.152 Fig. 4.153 Fig. 4.154 Fig. 4.155 Fig. 4.156 Fig. 4.157 Fig. 4.158

Jonathan Hopkins. Metal Stud Wall Framing Section Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Metal Stud Wall Framing Plan Autocad 2012 Digital Image. Framing with metal studs - Metal stud framing wall construction Diagram ciyadvice.com accessed 12/17/12 Digital Photograph. Wood cladding archiexpo.com accessed 12/17/12 Digital Photograph. Types of clapboard house siding: Pine wood clapboard siding ehow.com accessed 12/17/12 Digital Photograph. 146 Portsea Street - Property Assessment: New Haven, CT http://data.visionappraisal.com/ accessed 11/7/12 Jonathan Hopkins. Multi-family Apartment Building Bay Elevation Autocad 2012 Jonathan Hopkins. Metal Roofing & Finish Ceiling System Section Autocad 2012 Digital Image. Glass Roof Skylights deamor.com accessed 12/17/12 Digital Photograph. Metal roofing kcpremierroofing.com accessed 12/17/12 Digital Photograph. Nicholas Callahan House, 175 Elm Street http://historicbuildingsct.com/?tag=ithiel-town accessed 11/15/12 Jonathan Hopkins. View of Mixed-use Retail & Apartment Building near South Orange Street & West Water St. Form Z 7 (edited in Photoshop) Digital Photograph. Real Wood Georgian Flooring - Wide Flank Wood Flooring fixandfit.com accessed 12/17/12 Digital Image. Raised floor assemblies dagram freepaterntsonline.com accessed 12/17/12 Jonathan Hopkins. Residential Finish Floor & Ceiling System Section Autocad 2012 Digital Image. Suspended ceiling assemblies diagram lutherline.com accessed 12/17/12 Digital Image. Ceiling & Wall Sheetrock Installation papasdrywall.com accessed 12/17/12 drywall installation

Section 5: Conclusions Figures


Fig. 5.1

N | 192

N | 193

Schematic Design
Appendix

A | 194

A | 195

New Haven, CT

Union Square Program

21 Acre Site

Existing Program
Tower One Tower East Robert T. Wolfe Building Subtotal Existing Program

units 217 119 93 429

total area (sf) Notes Rent-subsidized elderly housing Rent-Subsidized Elderly Housing HANH managed public housing for elderly

New Residential Program


One, Three & Four Bedroom Townhouses 3-4 Bedroom House w/ 1-bdrm Rental Multifamily Apartment Buildings
39 54 544 Single-family, Owner-occupied attached dwellings to be developed individually 2-family, owner-occupied detached dwellings to be developed individually 5-story apartment buildings organized around courtyard with a mix of flats and duplexes

New Haven, CT

Church Street South

Subtotal New Program Housing


Stories units Notes

637

21 Acre Site

Existing Program
Tower One Tower East Robert T. Wolfe Building Church Street South Housing Retail, Office and Community Space Recreation Space Total Housing

New Commercial Program


Commercial Retail Commercial Office Medical Office Bio-medical Research Laboratory Live-work Subtotal Commercial Program 64500 66000 88500 130612.5 24000 373612.5 High end and neighborhood-oriented retail space for lease Leasable space for mid-size and large commercial enterprises Leasable space for health services offices Leasable space for private companies Gallery, studio, workshop, small office, incubator business start-ups

20 12 8 3 to 4 2

217 119 93 301

Rent-subsidized elderly housing design by Charles Moore in 1971 Completed in 1982. Rent Subsidized elderly housing Studio, 1 & 2 bdrm. HANH managed public housing for elderly. CM 301 - 2, 3, 4 & 5 bdrm rent-subsidized family housing units. CM Convenience store, laundromat, management offices. CM. Greens, Playgrounds, Basketball Court

730

New Parking
Underground Off-Street On-Street Subtotal Parking Program 864 93 286 1243

New Community Program


Courtyards Lafayette-Portsea Plaza Union Square St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church Union Avenue Promenade Small Green 5 Restricted Access Courtyards Public Plaza Public Green New Construction for Relocated Church Pedestrian Right-of-Way Across from Union Station Public Green

A | 196

A | 197

A | 198

A | 199

Birds Eye View of Church Street South in Context Looking East Existing

Birds Eye View of Church Street South in Context Looking East Proposed

A | 200

A | 201

Birds Eye View of Church Street South looking North Existing

Birds Eye View of Church Street South looking North Proposed

A | 202

A | 203

Birds Eye View of Church Street South looking West Existing

Birds Eye View of Church Street South looking West Proposed

A | 204

A | 205

Block D
Studio, 1 Bath flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat 625 875 1250 1250 50 13 18 19 100 1062.5 1687.5 1812.5 2437.5 60 5 2 4 71 1000 4 4
175

31250 11375 22500 23750


88875

Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat

Block D
Commercial Retail Live-Work Subtotal Block D Commercial Program 1500 4 17500 6000 23500

Underground Off-Street On-Street Subtotal Block E Parking

0 52 44 96

New Haven, CT

Union Square Program

One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office net area (sf) units 217 119 93 429 total area (sf) Notes Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Block D Apartment Flats One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Existing building to be renovated or demolished and rebuilt elsewhere on the site Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Block D Duplex Apartments Live-work Loft Apartment
1782 2214 1350 12 18 9 21384 39852 12150 73386

21 Acre Site

Existing Program
Tower One Tower East Robert T. Wolfe Building Subtotal Existing Program Housing

Block F
2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment
Commercial Retail Live-Work Commercial Office Subtotal Block F Commercial Program 1500 7 15500 10500 66000 92000

Block F
Underground Off-Street On-Street Subtotal Block F Parking 132 0 35 167

63750 8437.5 3625 9750


85562.5

New Residential Program Block A


One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Townhouse Three-Bedroom, 3 Bath Townhouse One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Townhouse Subtotal Block A Housing

4000
4000
178437.5

Loft Apartment w/ Attached Commercial Space

Block G
Commercial Retail Medical Offices Medical Research Laboratory Subtotal Block F Commercial Program 7500 88500 130612.5 226612.5 373612.5

Block G
Underground Off-Street On-Street Subtotal Block F Parking Subtotal Parking 169 0 36 205 1243

Subtotal Block D Live-work Loft


Subtotal Block D Housing

Block E
One Bedroom, 1 Bath Basement Flat 3-4 Bedroom, 2.5 Bath House
594 1782 27 27 16038 48114 64152

39

Block B
Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Block B Apartment Flats One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Block B Duplex Apartments Subtotal Block B Housing 1062.5 1687.5 1812.5 2437.5 625 875 1250 1250 35 14 15 18 82 40 5 3 4 52 134 21875 12250 18750 22500
75375

Subtotal Commercial Program

Corridor Apartment Flat Subtotal Block E Housing Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat

54

New Parking Block A

New Community Program


Courtyards
0 41 32

Block F
Studio, 1 Bath flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat 625 875 1250 1250 24 6 6 6 42 1062.5 1687.5 2437.5 28 2 1 31 1000 8 8 81 637 15000 5250 7500 7500
35250

5 1 1 1 18635.5

Semi-Private for Blocks B, C,& D. Semi-Public for Blocks F & G Blocks F & G Small Square bounded by Union Ave, Columbus Ave, and So. Orange St Block G Blocks F & G Block B

Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat

Underground Off-Street On-Street

Lafayette-Portsea Plaza Union Square St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church Union Avenue Promenade Small Green

42500 8437.5 5437.5 9750


66125 141500

2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment

One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Block F Apartment Flats One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Block F Duplex Apartments Live-work Loft Apartment

Subtotal Block A Parking

73

Block B
2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment

29750 3375 2437.5


35562.5

Underground Off-Street On-Street Subtotal Block B Parking

164 0 43 207

Total New Building Program

1116098.5

Block C
Studio, 1 Bath flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Block C Apartment Flats One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Block C Duplex Apartments One-bedroom, 1 Bath Live-work Loft Subtotal Block C Live-work Lofts Subtotal Block C Housing 1000 1062.5 1687.5 1812.5 2437.5 625 875 1250 1250 7 13 24 26 70 54 9 7 7 77 7 7 154 4375 11375 30000 32500
78250

8000
8000 78812.5

Loft Apartment w/ Attached Commercial Space

Corridor Apartment Flat Subtotal Block F Live-work Loft Corridor Apartment Flat Subtotal Block F Housing Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat
Subtotal New Residential Program

Block C
Underground Off-Street 180 0 49 229

723850.5

On-Street Subtotal Block C Parking

New Commercial Program


2-Story Corridor Apartment Block B 2-Story Corridor Apartment Commercial Retail 2-Story Corridor Apartment Subtotal Block B Commercial Program 2-Story Corridor Apartment
19000 19000

57375 15187.5 12687.5 17062.5


102312.5

Block D
Underground Off-Street On-Street
5000 1500 5 7500 12500

219 0 47 266

Block C
Commercial Retail

Subtotal Block D Parking

7000
7000 187562.5

2-Story Corridor Apartment

Live-Work Subtotal Block C Commercial Program

Block E
Underground Off-Street 0 52 44 96

Block D

Block D
Studio, 1 Bath flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Block D Apartment Flats One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, A | 206 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex 1062.5 1687.5 1812.5 625 875 1250 1250 50 13 18 19 100 60 5 2 31250 11375 22500 23750
88875

Commercial Retail

17500 1500 4 6000 23500

On-Street Subtotal Block E Parking

Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat Corridor Apartment Flat

Live-Work Subtotal Block D Commercial Program

Block F
Underground 132 0 35 167

Block F Corridor Apartment Flat


Commercial Retail 15500 1500 7 10500 66000 92000

Off-Street On-Street Subtotal Block F Parking

63750 8437.5 3625

2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment 2-Story Corridor Apartment

Live-Work Commercial Office Subtotal Block F Commercial Program

A | 207

Block G

A | 208

A | 209

A | 210

A | 211

A | 212

A | 213

One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat

875 1250 1250

4 6 7 31

3500 7500 8750 28500

Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

New Haven, CT

Block A - Union Square Program


net area (sf) units 0 594 594 594
1782

New Haven, CT

Block B - Union Square Program


net area (sf) units 164 164 total area (sf) Notes 61100
61100

Subtotal Third Floor Plan

Four-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Townhouse


Unfinished Basement Main Floor Children's Bedrooms Master Bedroom w/ Home Office Subtotal 4-Bedroom Townhouse

total area (sf) Notes Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen, Half Bath 3 Bedrooms, Full bath Master Bedroom, Walk-in closets, Full Bath, Office, Lounge 12
21384

Underground Floor Plan


Structured Parking Subtotal Underground Floor Plan

Fourth Floor Plan


One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi 875 625 625 1500 1 31 3 3 38 875 19375 1875 4500 26625 One-Bedroom, Full Bath, Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Ground Floor Plan


Courtyard Small Green Commercial Retail One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat 875 625 1250 625 1250 1 9 2 3 1 6000 2250 Semi-Private Outdoor Space Public Green Space

Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan

19000 High-end on So. Orange Street & Neighborhood-oriented on So. Lafayette Street 875 5625 2500 1875 1250 One-Bedroom, Full Bath, Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage 1 Bedroom, Office, Living, Dining, Kitchen, 1.5 Baths, Storage Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage

Fifth Floor Plan


One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fifth Floor Plan 134 750 625 1500 31 3 3 23250 1875 4500 29625 244350 Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Three-Bedroom, 3 Bath Townhouse


Finished Basement Main Floor Master Bedroom Children's Rooms Subtotal 3-Bedroom Townhouse 594 594 432 594 2214 18 39852 Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi On-street parking Subtotal Ground Floor Plan

Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage, 1.5 Baths, Office, 1 Bedroom Subtotal Block B 43 on-street parking spaces

16

39375

One-Bedroom , 2 Bath Townhouse


Unfinished Basement Main Floor Workshop Master Bedroom Subtotal 1-Bedroom Townhouse 0 594 378 378 1350 9 12150 Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Studio/Workshop/Office, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Walk-in closet

First Floor Plan


Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi 625 875 1250 1250 750 625 1500 1500 7 4 3 4 9 2 3 1 18 4375 3500 3750 5000 6750 1250 4500 1500 30625 Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, 2.5 Baths, Storage 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Parking
Underground Off-Street On Street Subtotal Parking Total Block A 39 73386 0 41 32 73

Subtotal First Floor Plan

Second Floor Plan


Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Second Floor Plan 625 875 1250 1250 14 4 6 7 31 8750 3500 7500 8750 28500 Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

Third Floor Plan


Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Third Floor Plan 625 875 1250 1250 14 4 6 7 31 8750 3500 7500 8750 28500 Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

Fourth Floor Plan


One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan 875 625 625 1500 1 31 3 3 38 875 19375 1875 4500 26625 One-Bedroom, Full Bath, Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Fifth Floor Plan

A | 214

One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi

750 625 1500

31 3 3

23250 1875 4500

Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

A | 215

A | 216

A | 217

A | 218

A | 219

A | 220

A | 221

A | 222

A | 223

One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic

875 625 625 1500

1 44 3 3 51

875 27500 1875 4500 34750

One-Bedroom, Full Bath, Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic

875 625 625 1500

1 44 3 3 51

875 27500 1875 4500 34750

One-Bedroom, Full Bath, Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

New Haven, CT

Block C - Union Square Program


net area (sf) units 180 180 total area (sf) Notes 68150
68150

Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan

New Haven, CT

Block D - Union Square Program


net area (sf) units 219 219 total area (sf) Notes 79900
79900

Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan

Underground Floor Plan


Structured Parking Subtotal Underground Floor Plan

Fifth Floor Plan


One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fifth Floor Plan 750 625 1500 44 3 3 33000 1875 4500 39375 154 290150 Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Underground Floor Plan


Structured Parking Subtotal Underground Floor Plan

Fifth Floor Plan


One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fifth Floor Plan 750 625 1500 44 3 3 33000 1875 4500 39375 175 314875 Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Ground Floor Plan


Courtyard Commercial Retail Live-Work One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi On-street Parking Subtotal Ground Floor Plan 29 37375 1500 875 625 1250 625 1250 5 2 10 6 7 4 12600 5000 7500 1750 6250 7500 4375 5000 Semi-Private Outdoor Space

Ground Floor Plan


Courtyard Commercial Retail Live-Work One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi On-street parking Subtotal Ground Floor Plan 22 51975 1500 875 625 1250 625 1250 4 1 16 2 2 1 12600 Semi-Private Outdoor Space

Subtotal Block D

Neighborhood-oriented on Columbus Avenue & Church Street South Subtotal Block C Facing Columbus Avenue, Office/Workshop/Studio/Gallery/Small Business One-Bedroom, Full Bath, Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage 1 Bedroom, Office, Living, Dining, Kitchen, 1.5 Baths, Storage Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage, 1.5 Baths, Office, 1 Bedroom 49 on-street parking spaces

17500 High end on South Orange Street & Neighborhood-oriented on Columbus Avenue 6000 875 10000 2500 1250 1250 Facing Columbus Avenue, Office/Workshop/Studio/Gallery/Small Business One-Bedroom, Full Bath, Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage 1 Bedroom, Office, Living, Dining, Kitchen, 1.5 Baths, Storage Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage, 1.5 Baths, Office, 1 Bedroom 47 on-street parking spaces

First Floor Plan


Live-Work Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat Two Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal First Floor Plan 1000 625 875 1250 750 625 1500 1500 5 3 3 1 10 6 7 4 12 5000 1875 2625 1250 7500 3750 10500 6000 38500 Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage, Master bedroom, Full Bath Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, 2.5 Baths, Storage 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

First Floor Plan


Live-Work Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Three-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal First Floor Plan 1000 625 875 1250 1250 750 625 1500 1500 4 2 3 4 5 16 2 2 1 18 4000 1250 2625 5000 6250 12000 1250 3000 1500 36875 Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage, Master bedroom, Full Bath Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, 2.5 Baths, Storage 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Second Floor Plan


Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Second Floor Plan 625 875 1250 1250 2 4 12 13 31 1250 3500 15000 16250 36000 Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

Second Floor Plan


Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Second Floor Plan 625 875 1250 1250 24 4 7 7 42 15000 3500 8750 8750 36000 Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

Third Floor Plan


Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Third Floor Plan 625 875 1250 1250 2 4 12 13 31 1250 3500 15000 16250 36000 Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

Third Floor Plan


Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Third Floor Plan 625 875 1250 1250 24 4 7 7 42 15000 3500 8750 8750 36000 Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

Fourth Floor Plan


One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan 875 625 625 1500 1 44 3 3 51 875 27500 1875 4500 34750 One-Bedroom, Full Bath, Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Fourth Floor Plan


One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan 875 625 625 1500 1 44 3 3 51 875 27500 1875 4500 34750 One-Bedroom, Full Bath, Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

A | 224 1 Bath Duplex One-Bedroom,


Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic

Fifth Floor Plan

Fifth Floor Plan


750 625 44 3 33000 1875 Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath
One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi 750 625 1500 44 3 3 33000 1875 4500 Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

A | 225

A | 226

A | 227

A | 228

A | 229

A | 230

A | 231

A | 232

A | 233

One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat

875 1250 1250

3 3 3 20

2625 3750 3750 35000

Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

New Haven, CT

Block E - Union Square Program


net area (sf) units 594 594 594 594
1782 2376

New Haven, CT

Block F - Union Square Program


net area (sf) units 132 132 total area (sf) Notes 53762.5
53762.5

Subtotal Third Floor Plan

Two-family Houses
Basement Level Rental Unit Owner Unit Main Floor Owner Unit Upper Floor 1 Owner Unit Upper Floor 2 Subtotal Owner Unit Subtotal Two-family houses

total area (sf) Notes 27 16038 Living, Dining, Kitchen, Bedroom, Storage, Full Bath Living, Dining, Kitchen, Half Bath 2-3 Children's Bedrooms, Den, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage 27 27
48114 64152

Underground Floor Plan


Structured Parking Subtotal Underground Floor Plan

Fourth Floor Plan


Commercial Office Space Office Lounge One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic 625 625 1500 20 2 1 23
16500 1500

Offices, Service Core, Break Rooms Lounge overlooking lobby & courtyard Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Ground Floor Plan


Fayette-Portsea Plaza Residential Lobby Commercial Office Lobby Union Avenue Promenade Courtyard 5250 1125 3750 9500 8350 Public Space Entry for Residential Units Entry for Office Building 50 foot wide sidewalk flanked by street trees Semi-Private Outdoor Space

12500 1250 1500 33250

Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan

Fifth Floor Plan


One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic
Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fifth Floor Plan 81

Parking
Underground Off-Street On-Street Subtotal Parking Program Subtotal Block E Housing Units 27 39 0 52 44 96

750 625
1500

20 2
1

15000 1250
1500 17750 269112.5

Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath


2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

Commercial Retail Live-Work One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Loft w/ Office One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex On-street parking Subtotal Ground Floor Plan 9 1500 625 625 7 1 8

15500 igh-end on So. Orange St, Union Ave & Neighborhood-oriented on Columbus Ave 10500 Columbus Ave & Portsea Street, Office/Workshop/Studio/Gallery/Small Business 625 5000 Office, Workshop, Studio

Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage Subtotal Block F 35 on-street parking spaces

59600

First Floor Plan


Commercial Office Space Office Lounge Live-Work Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Loft w/ Office One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex Subtotal First Floor Plan 1000 625 1000 750 7 2 1 8 9
16500 3000

Offices, Service Core, Break Rooms Lounge overlooking lobby & courtyard Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage, Master bedroom, Full Bath Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen, Storage, Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath

7000 1250 1000 6000 34750

Second Floor Plan


Commercial Office Space Office Lounge Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Second Floor Plan 625 875 1250 1250 11 3 3 3 20
16500 1500

Offices, Service Core, Break Rooms Lounge overlooking lobby & courtyard Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

6875 2625 3750 3750 35000

Third Floor Plan


Commercial Office Space Office Lounge Studio, 1 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 1.5 Bath Flat One-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat w/ Office Two-Bedroom, 2 Bath Flat Subtotal Third Floor Plan 625 875 1250 1250 11 3 3 3 20
16500 1500

Offices, Service Core, Break Rooms Lounge overlooking lobby & courtyard Guest Bedroom, Full Bath, Storage, Mechanical Living, Dining, Kitchen Master Bedroom, Full Bath, Lounge 2 Bedrooms, Full Bath, Playroom

6875 2625 3750 3750 35000

Fourth Floor Plan


Commercial Office Space Office Lounge One-Bedroom, 1 Bath Duplex 625 625 1500 20 2 1 23
16500 1500

Offices, Service Core, Break Rooms Lounge overlooking lobby & courtyard Master Bedroom, Full Bath Master Bedroom, Full Bath 2 Bedrooms, Master Bedroom, Storage, 2 Baths

12500 1250 1500 33250

A | 234

Two-Bedroom, 2.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offic Four-Bedroom, 3.5 Bath Duplex w/ Offi Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan

A | 235

A | 236

A | 237

A | 238

A | 239

A | 240

A | 241

A | 242

A | 243

Medical Offices Medical Offices Lounge

19500 1500 14812.5 35812.5

Health Services, Physicians, Dentists Lounge/waiting area overlooking the lobby and Plaza Laboratory Facilities

New Haven, CT

Block G - Union Square Program


net area (sf) units 169 169 total area (sf) Notes 68750
68750

Medical Research Laboratory Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan

Underground Floor Plan


Structured Parking Subtotal Underground Floor Plan

Fifth Floor Plan


Medical Research Laboratory Subtotal Fifth Floor Plan 14812.5 14812.5 Laboratory Facilities

Ground Floor Plan


Commercial Retail Medical Offices Building Lobby Medical Offices Medical Research Laboratory St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church Courtyard Union Avenue Promenade Lafayette-Portsea Plaza On-street parking Subtotal Ground Floor Plan
74981.5

Sixth Floor Plan


7500 3750 10500 14812.5 7469 8075 15000 7875 High-end on Union Ave Atrium/Entry Lobby for Medical Office Building Health Services, Physicians, Dentists, Mechanical, Storage Mechanical, Storage Mechanical, Storage, Meeting Rooms 50 foot wide side walk flanked by street trees 50 foot wide sidewalk flanked by street trees Public Plaza 36 on-street parking spaces Medical Research Laboratory Subtotal Fifth Floor Plan 14812.5 14812.5 Laboratory Facilities

Seventh Floor Plan


Medical Research Laboratory Subtotal Fifth Floor Plan 14812.5 14812.5 Laboratory Facilities

Eight Floor Plan


Medical Research Laboratory
Subtotal Fifth Floor Plan Subtotal Block G

14812.5
14812.5 358935

Laboratory Facilities

First Floor Plan


Medical Offices Medical Offices Lounge Medical Research Laboratory St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church Subtotal First Floor Plan 19500 3000 14812.5 7469 44781.5 Health Services, Physicians, Dentists Lounge/waiting area overlooking the lobby and Plaza Laboratory Facilities Entry, Alter, Congregational Seating

Second Floor Plan


Medical Offices Medical Offices Lounge Medical Research Laboratory St. Basil Greek Orthodox Church Subtotal Second Floor Plan 19500 1500 14812.5 3734.5 39547 Health Services, Physicians, Dentists Lounge/waiting area overlooking the lobby and Plaza Laboratory Facilities Upper Congregational Seating

Third Floor Plan


Medical Offices Medical Offices Lounge Medical Research Laboratory Subtotal Third Floor Plan 19500 1500 14812.5 35812.5 Health Services, Physicians, Dentists Lounge/waiting area overlooking the lobby and Plaza Laboratory Facilities

Fourth Floor Plan


Medical Offices Medical Offices Lounge Medical Research Laboratory Subtotal Fourth Floor Plan 19500 1500 14812.5 35812.5 Health Services, Physicians, Dentists Lounge/waiting area overlooking the lobby and Plaza Laboratory Facilities

Fifth Floor Plan

A | 244

Medical Research Laboratory Subtotal Fifth Floor Plan

14812.5 14812.5

Laboratory Facilities

A | 245

A | 246

A | 247

A | 248

A | 249

A | 250

A | 251

A | 252

A | 253

A | 254

A | 255

A | 256

A | 257

A | 258

A | 259

A | 260

A | 261

A | 262

A | 263

A | 264

A | 265

A | 266

A | 267

View down South Lafayette Street from Tower One

Building Systems Sectional Axonometric

A | 268

A | 269

1.

Larry Speck. Church Street South Housing http://www.LarrySpeck.com/ accessed 12/27/12 SLR. Low-moderate baroque Progressive Architecture (A Reinhold Publication; May 1972) p. 78 Speck. http://www.LarrySpeck. com/ SLR. Progressive Architecture p. 80

2.

3. 4. 1. Christopher Green 2. Shops and walk looking from the forum back toward the station. 3. Jose Marti Court 4. Jose Marti Court looking toward small office building.

A | 270

A | 271

Interior Courtyard of Block C Mixed Use Multi-Family Apartment Buildings

View down Columbus Avenue toward Church Street South from South Orange Street

A | 272

A | 273

Mixed Use Retail and Multi-family Apartment Building at the corner of South Orange Street and West Water Street

View down South Orange Street looking towards Union Station

A | 274

A | 275

A | 276

A | 277

A | 278

A | 279

A | 280

A | 281

A | 282

A | 283

A | 284

A | 285

A | 286

A | 287

A | 288

A | 289

A | 290

A | 291

A | 292

A | 293

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A | 295

A | 296

A | 297

A | 298

A | 299

5. Existing Apartment Unit Floor Plans for Church Street South Housing Charles Moore. Church Street South Moderate Income Housing A + U: The Work of Charles W. Moore (1973) p. 210

A | 300

A | 301