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Lesson No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Topic Writer - Dr. Ashok Pandita - Dr. Ashok Pandita - Dr. Ashok Pandita Page No. 3 - 12 13- 23 24 - 31 Educational Administration Educational Management Different Patterns of Educational Administration Role and Functions of Head Master and Teachers with respect to Administration, Planning, organizing, Directing & Controlling Leadership in Educational Administration Types and Assessment of Leadership Educational Planning Communication in Educational Administration Barriers of Communication in Educational Administration and overcoming these Communication Barriers. Structure and Development of Education in J&K State Control of School Education in the State, a Critical Analysis Inspecting Agencies & their Problems with Special Reference to the Expanding System of Education in J&K Defects in the existing educational administration and supervision in the state of J&K Functions of State Govt. in relation to Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools The organization of education in India, relation between centre and state in the field of educational administration Role of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) Towards National System of Education

- Dr. Ashok Pandita - Dr. Mamta Garg - Dr. Mamta Garg - Dr. Mamta Garg - Dr. Mamta Garg

32 - 44 45 - 57 58 - 69 70- 82 83- 96

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

- Dr. C. L. Shivgotra

97- 102


- Dr. Usha Tickoo

103 - 111

11. 12.

- Dr. Usha Tickoo

112 - 116

- Dr. Usha Tickoo

117 - 123


- Dr. Usha Tickoo

124 - 129


- Dr. Usha Tickoo

130 - 133


- Dr. C.L. Shivgotra

134 - 141


- Dr. J.N. Baliya

142 - 148


Composition and Functions: - The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Composition and Functions :- University Grants Commission (UGC) Composition and Functions : National Institute / University of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA) / NUEPA District Institute of Education and Training (DIET) Composition and functions of Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and State Board Problem of Secondary School Administration in Government Schools Educational Supervision : Meaning, Nature, Supervision as Service activity, supervision as a process, supervisions as Function, supervision as educational leadership Functions of Supervision : planning & organizing, supervisory programmes Types of Supervision and Drawbacks in Present Supervision

- Dr. J.N. Baliya

149 - 157


- Dr. J.N. Baliya

158 - 165


- Dr. J.N. Baliya - Dr. Manjit Kaur

166 - 177 178 - 189

20. 21.

- Dr. C.L.Shivgotra

190 - 196


- Dr. C.L.Shivgotra

197 - 203


- Dr. C.L.Shivgotra

204 - 211


- Dr. Manjit Kaur

212 - 223


- Dr. Manjit Kaur

224 - 230


Problems of Financing Education in India, Resources and Expenditure of Education. Monitoring and Evaluation in terms of Modern Management Techniques-Case Study Monitoring and Evaluation in Terms of Modern Management Techniques-Manpower Surveys

- Dr. Manjit Kaur

231 - 241


- Dr. J.N. Baliya

242 - 245


- Dr. J.N. Baliya

246- 252

LESSON NO.1 EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Educational Administration 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.1 Nature of Educational Administration Objectives of Educational Administration Scope of Educational Administration


Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

A new era in the field of educational administration emerged in 1970s. With the change in whole social scenario, the field of education also adopted new concepts and new thoughts. Conceptual as well as operational changes are taking place day by day. New terms according to new approaches have changed even the nomenclature of the subjects. Instead of School Organisation, Educational Administration is the title for the subject i.e. of more wider scope. Educational Administration is concerned with Educational management, conduct, operation and management of whole educational operation from conceptual framework to line of action. Administration is execution stage which is concerned with actual conduct and operation of arrangements made available through organisation. 3


OBJECTIVES : After going through this lesson learners will be able to: Describe the nature of Educational Administration. Discuss need of Educational Administration. State scope of Educational Administration. Discuss in detail the objectives of Educational Administration.



Educational Administration is a specialized activity required for the running of whole educational programme composed of human resources and material resources in an organized manner towards constructive and fruitful direction. Educational Management as well as Educational Administration are synonymous terms used interchangeably. Both these terms mean getting things done in an organized manner to achieve the targets put forth by the planners and designers. 1.3.1 Nature of Educational Administration : Educational institutions operate in an environment of constant change. At least a quarter of their student population changes every year; faculty as well as staff dont stay in the same place forever. For such institutions there must always be a refreshing change according to situation in the institution. Educational institutions must constantly identify and implement improvements in their setup. Curricula need updating and revision, procedures need to be upgraded in accordance with new needs and technologies. Administrators, employees, faculty, staff and managers need access to constant training, refreshing and developmental opportunities. The process of continuous improvement requires mind set for constant monitoring, problem identification and research. Educational institutions provide value services to their students and aim to meet customer needs and expectations in general. In the field of education the nature of Educational Administration is to develop and update teachinglearning process in such a way as the objectives of education are realized properly. To make educational process more effective and efficient administration in the field is responsible body that works for it. Administration is the organ of organisation that has three fold task to perform for 4

efficient working; Stating the specific purpose and mission of education in general and of institutions in particular. Making the work productive. Education has a mission to cultivate human resources and to guide them to be productive in their endeavours. Designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals work together in groups efficiently to accomplish set goals. Enhance student learning vizaviz economic upliftment. Administration deals with the functioning of the institution in a proper manner Infact the term administration has been derived from the Latin word Minister- i.e. services rendered to others for welfare. The prefix Ad enhances its area in addition to management. So School Administration is the process which helps through schools, colleges and all institutions of education to develop human personality. Technically it is science of cultivation of human cult into balanced personalities. French, Hull and Dudds compare administration with a lens that brings forth everything in focus. So, Educational Administration focuses everything on educational platform in its true sense to be run smoothly. Infact, one can visualize that first of all the school is organized through an organisation, which is followed by administration. In administration it is mostly an administrator who as head of the institution is the responsible member that adopts and implements all the planned programmes of the administration. The subject matter of Educational Administration is not a thing of intellectual beauty but a hub of educational activities, where all excellent ideas policies and practices fail, in absence of good administration. Administration, in other words, is attitude of work, efficiency in implementation. Check Your Progress : Q1. Ans: What do you mean by Educational Administration? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5

Q2. Educational Administration is different from supervision. Clarify the statement with two arguments? Ans: ______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Q3. State three basic principles of Educational Administration? Ans: ______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 1.3.2 Objectives of Educational Administration Educational Administration is wholly and solely concerned with the efficiency and commitment that manpower available puts it together to help in goal realization. It looks towards practical measure which is adopted to ensure that the system of work assists educational process, carries out the set goals and objectives for benefit of the learners. Main objectives of Educational Administration are to:Execute :- Plans Direct :- Line of action Supervise :- Work done in the field Advice :- Proper ways of work Stimulate :- Work efficiency Explore :- New vistas Lead :- Learners programmes Assist :- Ways to adopt results and diagnose, all the practices done in the field of education. (i) Execution Infact it includes both organisation and administration also. First of all, it is the objective of administration to discuss thread and bare the new plan of opening an educational institution, why and what for? What are the resources, we need to execute this plan? Execution lays foundation of an institution. Execution makes it clear what resources are needed for the plan and how and where from to get these resources? 6

First of all how to get the material resources that are needed. Among the material resources include building, furniture, establishing libraries, laboratories. The second type of resources are non-material resources i.e. human resources- Managers, Learners, Parents, Teachers, Clerks, Peons, Technicians, etc. The third type of resources are abstract resources i.e. Ideas, Ideals, philosophy, etc. It is the task of Administrative Executive Body to systematically collect, arrange, plan and put to use all the above mentioned resources. (ii) Direction

As the administration fixes the aims which are generally contained in the Motto of the educational institution serve as direction for the institution. Direction is continuously needed in order to hammer till the Motto is achieved. For example: In an army institution Students/Learners are continuously directed to follow every programme in order of discipline. These directions are followed in dining halls, play grounds, class-rooms, libraries, laboratories and all programmes of day-to-day life. Direction while curriculum construction is the prime objective of Educational Administration. First direction about the whole content and then to distribute the whole content into different units according to the calendar of the institution and to accomplish the whole task within the term needs to be essentially obeyed. (iii) Supervision

Supervision is an essential objective of Educational Administration. Quality of supervision enhances quality of work. In the field of teaching and learning supervision is doubly needed i.e. supervision in material resources and human resources. Accomplishment of learning programmes is another indispensable task of educational administration. Work done under effective supervision leads to effective learning. In the words of P.W.L. Cox and R.E. Longfist Administration executes, directs and supervises, stimulates and assists. (iv) Advise & Stimulate

Educational Administration not only executes and supervises educational activities but also has a task to advise and stimulate new ways after having an analytical view. Administration has this task to observe the planned programmes, see the results of all 7

those programmes, weigh them wisely. Administration has to stimulate new plans and see their feasibility of introduction in the field of Teaching and Learning. (v) Explore

Educational Administration has to explore if there is some set-back in the set programmes and plans of education. Research and re-organize the whole programme of education. Explore new methods, techniques and devices. Research activities should goon continuously in this field. Since education is a continuous process, continuous research activities and continuous exploration of new techniques enhances learning possibilities. (vi) Lead & Assist

The objectives of Educational Administration can't be realised by simple visualisation. The programme needs to be initiated properly and directed well. In other words we can say that the objectives of Educational Administration became workable when they are assisted properly. To run, handle and control whole programme needs proper monitoring. Check Your Progress Q1. Ans : What are the objectives of Educational-Administration? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q2 Ans : Why are direction, supervision and advice necessary in educational programme ? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q3 Ans: "The programme of exploration and stimulation is to run Research activity continuously explain briefly. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 1.3.3 Scope of Educational Administration The scope of Educational Administration is very wide. It takes into its grip all types 8

of activities that take place in the field of teaching and learning. To provide good and appropriate education to the learners involves all steps of educational activity that is the concern of the Educational Administration. It is good administration that provides excellent education. The basic point to be noted is that administration must first conceive all round development of education and then ensure the maximum developmental programme of education. The scope of administration extends through all the activities of education that start from planning : 1. Planning

This is the key factor in all types of education. It is commonly understood as an activity which leads to future course of action. Chinese proverb justifies; If you plan for a year, plant a grain, if you plan for 10 years plant a tree and if you plan for 100 years plant men. Planning is not an independent activity. It is part of the whole process of administration. To avoid wasteful efforts efficient planning is needed. To execute activity proper planning is essential. Planning ensures (i) recognition of goals (ii) proper use of resources (iii) prevention of wastage, overlapping and haphazard efforts (iv) definiteness and orderly execution in any enterprise. In India Educational planning is required at four levels (I) central level (II) state level (III) local level and (IV) school level. 2. Budgeting

In smooth running of an institution budgeting is an essential element. Administration has to plan the first essential component that of budgeting. Organisation and administration involve well considered budgeting. It is a process of giving an estimated account of revenues and expenditure as educational institution need financial security. 3. Organising

Organisation is a very important aspect of administration. It deals with systematic arrangements so that the purpose of entire programme can be achieved. Broadly organisation deals with two aspects (i) Material equipment. (ii) Human equipment. Material Equipment involves buildings, furniture, libraries, laboratories, workshops, 9

museums, gymnasium, art galleries, playgrounds, farms, audio-visual aids, computers, T.Vs etc. All these things should be properly organized so that all this material element supplements learning. All this material element otherwise used for entertainment only will not enhance learning. The task of administration is to schedule time as well as use of all that material systematically, psychologically and scientifically. Arrangement and organisation of Material equipment in fruitful and purposeful manner is the responsibility of the administration. Human Equipment implies arrangement of all persons involved in teaching and learning situations. Educational Administration while planning the activity has scope to organize, budget and schedule time etc. in such a manner as all human elements involved in the activity be able to contribute towards teaching and learning. Human element involved in educational process are Students, Teachers, head of the institution, Ministerial staff, Accounts wing staff, organizers as well as Management. Educational Administration has to plan the task in such a way that every person involved in the activity is well knit to the whole orbit and be knit and led to contribute according to its talent and best of the capacity. Educational Administration has a wider scope in : preparing curriculum for the different classes according to their diverse abilities and diverse aptitudes. preparing appropriate time table. organising systematic co-curricular programme. organising and distributing work among staff accordingly. establishment of laboratories and libraries. organising health and physical camps. establishing canteen and hostel facilities. organising examination schedules and yearly calendars of the institutions. Organising guidance and counseling cells within the institutions to provide guidance services to the students. Programs to establish relationship between school and community, school and parents and school and government.


Providing various auxiliary services like mid-day meals, school uniforms, textbooks, etc. if possible. Financing & Budgeting & finally administer safely all the programmes so that the institutions function properly in a healthy manner. Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: Scope of Educational- Administration is very wide, write name of some areas; ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q2. Ans: Name material equipment and human equipment to be handled by educationaladministration. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q3. Ans: Pinpoint further scope of Educational-Administration? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 1.4 LET US SUM UP

Educational Administration has a vast area of operation vis-a-vis, planning, direction, co-ordination, supervision, execution, budgeting and making educational process functional and contributive. All this makes it clear that for efficient functioning of the institutions, administration is an effective tool. It is an effective, systematic arrangement for definite purpose. Administration is not primarily concerned with arrangements, time-table, scheme of study, type of building, records etc. but is concerned with the attitude of our work and with the children with whom we work. Educational-Administration means the practical measures which are adopted to ensure that the system of our work assists and carries out our aims of education for the benefit of our learners. Administration executes, gives directions, provides supervision, advises, stimulates, explores, leads, gives and assists, plans and diagnoses, inspects and decides activities to lead educational plan towards goal achievement of the organisation. 11

1.5 Q.1. Q.2. Q.3. Q.4. Q.5. 1.6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

UNIT END EXERCISES What do you mean by Educational Administration? Is Educational Administration different from School-Organisation? Explain aims and objectives of school administration? What is the scope of Educational Administration? How is school administration necessary for efficient and smooth functioning of school? SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Bhatnagar, R.P., Bhatnagar, A.B. and Aggarwal Vidhaya (1978) : Educational Administration. Choudhary, Namita Roy (2001) : Management in Education. Gupta, N.S. and Alka Gupta (1992) : Management Principles , Practices and Techniques. Sodhi, T.S. & Suri, Aruna (2000) : Management of School Education. Walia, J.S. (2001) : Foundations of School - Administration and Organisation. KEY TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Q1. Go through 1.3. Para 1 & 2. Q2. Go through 1.3 (i). Para 1, 2 & 3. Q3. Go through 1.3 (i). Para 3.


Q1. Go through 1.3 (ii). Para 1. Q2. Go through captions one by one. Q3. Go through same captions.


Q1. Go through 1.3(iii). Para 1 & 2. Q2. Go through caption Organising fully. Q3. Enlist all points one by one.




2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Educational Management 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.1 Concept of Educational Management Human beings as input Human beings as process Human beings as product

Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

The term management is more comprehensive than organization and administration. Management sets goals of education and in order to achieve those goals co-ordinates, collects, arranges and plans and puts to maximum use the three types of resources i.e. material, human and abstract. Educational management is to achieve the goals of education at large by systematic and planned utilization of all the three types of resources. 2.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson learners will be able to : Describe the concept of Educational Management. State human beings as inputs in Educational Management. Illustrate the process of School Management. 13

Discuss the product of School Management. 2.3 EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT

Educational Management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational institutions. Education and Management are large and complex concepts. Several definitions can be found on the title in the international literature available for learners in the field of study so it is clear that no single definition in either field commands the acceptance of all. Undoubtedly they provide a basiss for thinking about the management of school as an organization and the education of young people which schools are intended to provide. Education is a learning process by which values, attitudes, information and skills are acquired and integrated. Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently to accomplish selected aims. It is a function, a discipline, a task to be done, and the managers are the professionals who practice this discipline, carry out functions and discharge these tasks. Educational management is a process of learning values, attitudes, information and skills to achieve desired relations between resources and objectives. 2.3.1 Concept of Educational Management The term management is more comprehensive than administration and organization. In fact, it includes both administration and organization. Management is concerned with both objective and Subjective phenomena; it involves values, attitudes, techniques and behavioral patterns at both strategical and tactical levels. The rise of management as legitimate subject owed much to the work of German Sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920). Weber recognized rationality beyond the organizational objective to help produce goods and services efficiently. He examined a number of organizations, mostly public agencies like German Civil Services and Prussian Army. Several thinkers, psychologists, scientists and behaviorists followed the thought enthusiastically and advised that the management is a necessary organ of educational organization. Educational Institutions operate in an environment of constant change. At least a quarter of student population changes every year; faculty and staff will not stay forever. Since it is impossible to reach service excellence once for all, educational institutions have 14

constantly to improve and implement a fresh managerial skill in their setup. Curricula need updating and revision, procedures need to be upgraded in accordance with the new needs and technologies and the employees, faculty, staff and administrators need access to constant training and development opportunities. The process of continuous improvement requires a mindset of constant monitoring, problem identification and research. Educational Institutions provide valued services to their students and aim to meet customer needs and expectations. All institutions want to be responsive and effective and to deliver customer satisfaction value for their time and expenditure. Educational management is continuously on work to analyze the quality of education being provided to the clientele. They understand the customers who seek value for their expenditure of time, effort and money and they try to increase value by operating efficiently and effectively. Performance is the ultimate test of any institution. In an Educational Institution, where people want to serve a cause, you always have the challenge in getting people to perform so that they grow on their own terms. In education performance is three dimensional i.e. (a) Knowledge (b) As a participating citizen, (c) Able participant in the cultural life of society. Management is the organizational process of formulating objectives, acquiring and committing the resource and ensuring that the objectives are actually reached. It is a continuous process through which members of an organization seek to coordinate their activities and utilize the resource in order to fulfill the various tasks of the organization as efficiently as possible. Check Your Progress Q1. What do you mean by educational management? Ans: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2.3.2 Human beings as input

In educational scenario human beings are the first, fore most and ultimate inputs for process and product of the teaching learning activity. Pupils, teachers, head of the institutions, staff members, ministerial staff, games incharge, managing committees, 15

organizers, parents of the wards, nearest vicinity people, all are involved in this activity. Every individual has his part to play in moulding, shaping and reshaping the personality of the pupils in general and in the process of action and interaction with each other. Everybody influences others directly or indirectly. In latest terminology pupils are regarded as clients or outputs of schools and colleges. As participants in production process these young pupils markedly differ from the raw material of the industry and commerce. Children cant be processed, programmed or manipulated. The learning process is build on personal relationships and interaction that takes place between teachers and pupils directly and pupils and all other persons involved in the activity indirectly. Pupils are essence and life of institutions. Without them no activity takes place. Teachers in schools and colleges are from a common professional background with shared values, trainings and experiences. Teachers claim autonomy in teaching and learning process. Teachers as managers should be given chance in decision making regarding curricula formation, time scheduling, in organizational matters so that they remain committed throughout the programme of teaching and learning. This input after process yields the choicest output. If they are denied of the basic facility then their contribution becomes formality completion. This relationship with pupils extends a lot of learning because they have regular and extended contacts with each other. Teachers are ideals before learners. Their personality traits directly or indirectly influence the behavior of pupils. A teachers teaching and his way of life goes on making an impression on the minds of the learners and the contribution of teachers is regularly invested among pupils. Head of the institution is fountain head of the educational programme. He is hub of educational process. The success of whole educational process depends upon efficiency, alertness, tactfulness, imagination, initiative, academic excellence and dedication of Head of the institution. What the main spring is to the watch, the flywheel is to the machine or an engine to the steamship, the head of institution is to the institution. As every group needs a leader to lead and guide, proper working of the institution depends upon proper direction of the Head. Teachers are nation builders. They are human cultivators. If we really wish to build 16

nations pillars deep, we must care teachers so that the seeds of a strong nation are sown. What teachers imbibe in pupils is reflected in the behaviour of the citizens. Teachers cultivate citizens of tomorrow. So if nation wants to be the best, invest in the best prospects of teachers. Without ministerial staff the activity of teaching and learning will remain incomplete. To execute every planning and make it reach its target is the function of whole staff besides teaching staff. Human input in the educational process knit-together in cooperation with each other is an educational web where everybody is as important as every string of the web. Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: What do you mean by human element involved in educational process? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q2 Ans: What are the essential duties of head of the institution? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q3 How does educational institution function effectively? OR What is the importance of co-ordination and co-operation of every human element input in educational process? Ans: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2.3.3 Human beings as process

Education is special property of human beings. Intellect and sharpening of intellect through process of teaching and learning is the basic characteristic of human beings. For every industry to run needs raw material and for educational process the raw material that makes this industry to run is human element as input in this industry. In an 17

industry raw material processed comes out as finished and fine output of that industry. It is not only that fine input will give fine output but it is the process that prepares raw material into a finished stuff. In the management model of educational system we have firstly found the controlling compartment, where we come across with the managing committee. Principal, Headmaster, Teachers and Parents are regarded as first input. Process depends upon the processor which is divided into two parts i.e. structural component and operational component. Structural component comprises of (i) material (ii) non-material In material structural components we discuss all about house, the system, school building, class rooms, library, laboratory etc. In non-material structural component we discuss regarding evaluation, promotion, time-table framing, punishment rules, leave rule, etc. Operational components Operational components processor is also divided into (i) material operational component and (ii) non-material operational component. In material operational component we talk about teacher, student, books, equipments , their quality and relationship like, student teacher relationship, student community relationship, teacher-teacher relationship, teacher administration relationship, and teacher community relationship. After that we have what is known as quality control. This quality control means the ways and the procedure which are adopted by the administrative machinery of the system to process whole input towards good yields. To determine yield of the whole process it is external evaluation and examination that determines the quality of the processed ones. The whole process will be more clear with management model :




Structural components

Operational components


i) ii) iii)

i) Raw Raw Students Students Raw Teachers ii) Raw Raw Managers Teachers iii) Raw


Management model Dear learners, by now you must have understood that in human element there is student selection, Teacher selection, selection of managers, selection of books, admission policies, governed by educational objectives; educational goals laid by educational policies framed at national level are processed in the light of controlling authorities. In the field of education total process depends upon human element. Be a teacher who is expected to transmit what he owes through his participation to socialize the human element as raw students. A games incharge has to guide students in the practical field of life. Subject teachers to transmit knowledge of their subjects perfectly among students, team leaders to imbibe quality of leadership among students. Efficient workers to incorporate work efficiency among students and to look after their exceptional abilities and tastes. Dear students, teaching learning is a demanding job which requires a lot of commitment and dedication. Check Your Progress 19

Q1. Ans:

How are human beings a process in educational management? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Q2. Ans:

What according to management model is the raw material to be processed in teaching learning activity? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________


Human beings as Product

The product or the output of educational process is cultivated, finished and refined manpower. A prime objective of manpower planning system is the provision of adequately educated, trained and qualified personnel to meet the requirements of the society at large Manpower planning is designed to ensure that personnel needs of the organisation are appropriately met. Management on the basis of existing interdependencies of input and output (product) process acts in such a manner that the demands of the society are met. The process of educational management works successfully when there is proper co-ordination between input and product of the system. Man power planning is a challenging task today, given the easy competitive environment, projected labour shortages, changing pressure from government to protect both employees and the environment. An essential activity in manpower forecasting is to match the school systems future human resource needs with supply. If the system works with coordination to the needs and demands of different fields the output of educational system will be able to pinpoint shortages, highlight areas of potential over-staffing and identify the number of individuals who must be recruited from the labour force to satisfy current and future needs. To work for the right human output or human product that comes out after they are educated or trained efficiently in the different fields of life is the best product of educational industry. In short, human beings as product of the educational institution must recognize the importance of human resources development and provide one professional staff member and support staff for functional utility. Educational management should regularly be in touch with human resources 20

speciality and assess the development and training needs that will cater to the changing needs of the society. Institutions of human resources development must always feel the pulse of industrial bells so that genuine human product will be available. Effective human resource according to different job profiles is the efficient product. All this activity involves different procedures at different levels. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Goals or objectives framing. Admission policies to be framed. Staffing to the institutes. Subject specialists. Skilled human resource persons. Time scheduling. Effective evaluation system.

Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: What do you mean by human being as product? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q2 Ans: How is effective input policy essential to get best output? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q3 Ans: What are the essential steps to be taken to get the human beings as effective products? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2.4 LET US SUM UP

Management is the organizational process of formulating objectives, acquiring and committing the resources and ensuring that the objectives and utilization of resources is being done in order to fulfill the various tasks of the organisation as efficiently as possible. In simple way, management has been called the art of getting things done through people 21

effectively. Every industry works and takes a start when the required amount of raw material is available for processing and finishing. Educational industry is totally dependent upon the raw material as human beings as an input as well as an output of the process. Students admitted to the system, their I.Q, Health etc. at the time of admission is human element input in teaching learning situation. In the process of education this element processed properly in accordance with the needs gives us fine output as finished goods output in an industry. Educational industry produces genuine human resource developed accordingly in the institutions in accordance with the societal, industrial, technical and special needs and demands in the different fields of life. 2.5 Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. 2.6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. UNIT END EXERCISES What do you mean by educational management? What is the difference between management and administration? What do you know about human element as input element in educational process? What do you know about efficient human being as a product of educational process? SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Bhatnagar, R.P., Bhatnagar, A.B. & Aggarwal, Vidhaya (1978) : Educational Administration. Choudhary, Namita Roy (2001) : Management in Education. Gupta, N.S. and Gupta, Alka (1992) : Management Principles, Practices and Techniques. Sodhi , T.S. & Suri, Aruna (2000) : Management of School Education. Walia , J.S. (2001) : Foundations of School, Administration and Organisation.

KEY TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2. Q1. First three paragraphs of 2.3(i). Q1. Go through Para 1, 2, 3 of 2.3(ii). Q2. Go through Para 4, 5 of 2.3(ii). 22

Q3. Go through Para 6, 7 of 2.3(ii). 3. Q1. Go through Para 1, 2 of 2.3(iii). Q2. Go through Para 3, 4 & Management Model. 4. Q1. Go through Para 1, 2, 3 of 2.3(iv). Q2. Go through Para 3, 4 of 2.3(iv). Q3. Go through last Para of 2.3(iv).





3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Different Patterns of Educational Administration 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.1. Administration: Centralized & Decentralized Human Relationship Approach to Educational Administration

Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

In the world of today a man can not live and prosper in isolation. To ensure an organization to achieve its set objectives a proper management is needed, which directs and plans programmers for its proper development. Management involves good many factors and types in order to make administration effective, functional and progressive. What so ever the type of administration is, emphasis is on getting dignified and efficient results out of teaching learning process. 3.2. OBJECTIVES Learners, after getting through this lesson you will be able to: Know different patterns of Educational Administration. Discuss what is Centralized Administration State Decentralized Administration. 24

Explain the process of human relationship on Educational Administration. 3.3 DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION

The challenges and opportunities which are emerging in the administration of Educational Management in all parts of the world are increasing complexity and diversity in social order. The administrators everywhere feel increasing pressure to provide adequate management and up to date knowledge through classroom, lecture rooms in offices of educational institutions at school level, district level and state level. The purpose of education is to provide enriched learning experience in order to bring about desired change. When an educational organization is functioning effectively, each operational level of the organization, from the board of education to classroom teacher, knows exactly what performance is expected. Management is committed to provide educational opportunities that must be consistent, from the highest goal of the society to the objective of classroom lesson. According to rapidly changing political, economic and social scenario educational objectives also have to change. The educational management has to keep vigil upon all aspects and accordingly widen its horizons to be up to date and serve the purpose according to expectations. The continuing change in pattern of society influences the pattern of Educational objective via educational management. If Education is to be run for an authoritative pattern of social welfare control of educational management is in the hands of one pattern. It is centralized pattern of education. Centralization is upper managements control of major policy making in the hands of Big Bosses. Where educational objective is to prepare citizens for democratic setup, there authority of decision making, policy making, planning, executing and directing is delegated among a body of experts in the field. This is called Decentralization of Authority. 3.3.1 Administration : Centralized and Decentralized The concept of centralization and decentralization are at opposite ends of continuum. We can only speak about them only in degree. Dear Learners Centralization is upper managements systematic control of major policy making authority. Such type of authority I found mostly in small organization. They need it in order to show their survival in highly competitive environment. In this pattern all authority lies in 25

the chief executive. He is big boss of the concern, chief administrator, chief director and chief planner. He is directly in touch with all operations and with all operators to make all decisions and give all directions. To obey and to operate orders of bosses there are hard and fast rules. There are situational decisions and that too nobody can deny. Every thing is decided and directed upon personnel dynamics and control. Finance, Accounts, Budget sales and Purchase all are under one control of centralized pattern of administration. Authority and Accountability lies under one control. If authority feels that product is not satisfactory in the field of educational administration, if results are not satisfactory the persons are taken to task as accountability lies in hands of some authority. His orders are to be followed blindly. Result of work is demanded according to the policies of authority. Subordinates are to work in rigidity of principles and plans. Decentralization Decentralization is delegation of authority in the hands of lower management. It is lower managements systematic control of major policy making authority. The degree of Decentralization rests on the discretion and authority of the managers and the nature of the decisions they make at each level of the organization. It thrives under four conditions: (a) When the number of decisions made lower down in the managerial hierarchy, increases. (b) When the importance of decisions made lower down in the managerial hierarchy, increases. (c) When the number of functions affected by lower level decision, increases. (d) When the independence of lower level managers increases. Authority delegated among central hands and committees means Decentralization of powers. There are no hard and fast rules about much to decentralize. Decisions can be made by lower department or managerial committees according to their situation, working conditions, activities and work environments. With the change in pattern of Govt; there is always change in patterns of organisation and administration. More organizations today are decentralized but to a limited degree. Present work force demands greater authority. Decentralization gives top level managers freedom to do what they are supposed to do; with in the limits of complexity in technology and surrounding work environment. In the field of education the pattern of Decentralization has hard tasks to do in 26

comparison to other industries. Industries deal with raw material and that raw material processed through hard and soft machine produce planned and finished goods as desired. In educational industry it is human being as input and trained and educated human beings as products. It is very difficult to be accurate planner, decision maker or processor as for as human life is concerned. Human being with full balanced self to be processed is as difficult as to put, Sun into a cage. But still Decentralization pattern of administration provides changes of planning programs framing curricula, scheduling time and fixing evaluation programs into the hands of base level administrator and executors. Base level officers and committees of teachers as well as subject specialists plan such programs that can make top level managers nearer the targets. Group decision making techniques are being adopted. Face to face interchanging and interacting takes place which are applicable to high ratio of population. Managing committees, electronic meeting, open discussions, transparent studies through media, brain storming activities of experts are involved in decentralized pattern of administration. Expert view from trained and skillful teachers in matters of executing some new pattern and policy are taken into view, the prime need of course is the role to be played by creative and talented persons who can prove to be the real assets in their respective fields. In decentralized pattern of administration, problems are understood by all participants and decisions are taken by all members after good deal of discussions. Members/committees meet as a group decide policies clearly and reach the final with highest aggregate ranking. Schools and colleges are staffed by professionals. This has implication for the nature of management in educational institutions because professionals seek a measure of control over their working environment. As Handy (1984) suggests, schools are, organizations of professionals who in the manner of professionals like to manage themselves. In practice teachers usually are too busy with their pedagogic activities to be able to devote much of their time to management. Most of the management responsibilities are exercised often by the head of the institution, on their behalf. Check your progress Q.1 Ans: What are the different patterns of administration? ___________________________________________________________ 27

___________________________________________________________ Q.2 Ans: What is centralized pattern of administration? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q.3 Ans: What is decentralized pattern of administration and what are its steps? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3.3.2 Human Relationship Approach to Educational Administration

The objective of educational institutions is much more difficult to define than the purpose of commercial organization. There are clear-cut educational equivalents to such major private sector objectives as profit maximization of product diversification. Schools and colleges are to develop personal abilities of the individuals, to inculcate the accepted values and beliefs to prepare pupils for the next stage of education or for employment. In this industry give and take or teach and learn is the main maxim of administration, where at both ends human beings are involved giver as well as taker i.e. human beings. This way approach to the management of educational institutions markedly depends upon human relationship. In educational scenario pupils are clients or outputs of school and colleges. They are not processed or programmed or manipulated. The learning program or process is purely built on personal relationships between, Managers, teachers, pupils, parents, community members, organizers and administrators. Even leaders, politicians, officers, inspectors and local bodies have their access to the educational administration. All human being responsible at their own positions and places have cordial relationships with each other. It gives an effective and efficient impetus to the educational process. The inter personal human relationship approach reminds us of Mary Parker Follett (1933) who was convinced that no one could become a whole person except a member of the group. Thus she came to a conclusion that Learner and Educator though share a common platform and have common purpose, but she believes that all this process is interactive and integrative effort of every individual from every group to frame a holistic model. Cohesiveness of the group is important to make an activity productive. Cohesiveness 28

is the product of inter personal relationship between all involved in the teaching learning activity. A frame work for the study of educational administration, formulated in terms of actual interacting persons, was developed by Jacob W. Getzels, Guba and Thalen based on three major dimensions: a) b) Individual with personality and needs; Group with its climate and intentions, and Institutions with roles and expectations.
Ethos Mores Values

The class as he class as aa social system social system










Source: J.W. Gatzels, E.G. Guba Social behaviour and Administrative Process The School Review(winter 1957) Univ. pf Chicago Press 1957.


Goal: Modification of Behaviour Based on: (a) Belongingness (b) Rationality (c) Identification



In the human relationship approach in educational administration, the importance of individuals working in the organization, and in particular, their views, needs and prejudices dominate. The need of teachers and schools are complementary, each requires the other. If they dont match, both suffer. The teacher will not be able to achieve, school will fail to meet its objective. If they fit each other, objectives are achieved as suited to the salient features. So relationship approach helps education to achieve effective results.


The business in educational administration is oriented with teaching, nurturing, simulating and providing a healthy and supportive learning climate for children. The effective use of motivational theories and methods play a significant role in student teacher, teacher principal, principal community, and principal administration relation. The motivational theories also probe into relationship among ends, as behaviour, rewards, satisfaction and productivity. Check your progress Q.1 Ans: What do you mean by relationship approach in administration? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q.2 Ans: Which human beings are involved in educational administration? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q.3 Ans: Does human relationship approach prove an efficient tool? How? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 3.4. LET US SUM UP

In summing up, the concept of decentralization and centralization refer to the extent to which authority and accountability have been passed down to lower level (decentralization) or have been retained at the top of the organization (centralized). The terminology derives from a perspective of organisation as a series of concentric circles where the chief executive is situated at a very centre of organisation and a web of authority radiates out from him. All this depends on external environmental forces i.e. organisation size and growth and its culture. Human relationship is the best way to pool the experiences of different members of the committee involved in the activity. Expert views channel the effort of organization/ administration towards effective problems solving and decision making. Collective decisions made with co-ordination of each other can also serve as incubators for young teachers because discussion are reached after good deal of discussions and debates. 30

3.5 Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. 3.6 1. 2. 3. 4.

UNIT END EXERCISES What are different patterns of Educational Administration? What do you mean by centralized pattern of administration in Education? Decentralized pattern of administration suits todays needs! Discuss? How do cordial human relationships help Educational Administration process? SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Benjamin, Harold (1950) : Democracy in the Administration of Higher Education, Prentice Hall Inc. N.Y. Publications. Choudhary, Namita Roy (2001) : Management in Education. Cook Lloyed.A. (1938) : Community Foundation of Education, McGraw Hill Publication. Sodhi, T.S. & Suri, Aruna (2000) : Management of School Education.

KEY TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. Q1. Para 1, 2, 3. of 3.3. Q2. Para 1, 2, 3. of 3.3(i). Q3. Para 1, 2, 3. of 3.3(i)(d). 2. Q1. Para 1, 2 of 3.3(ii). Q2. Para 3, 4 of 3.3(ii). Q3. Gatzel and Guba Thalen Model and last Para of 3.3 (ii).




4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Role and Functions of Headmaster 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.4 Role of Headmaster in Administration Role of Headmaster in Planning Role of Headmaster in Directing Role of Headmaster in Controlling

Role and Functions of Teacher 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 Teacher in Administration Teacher in Planning Teacher in Directing Teacher in Controlling

4.5 4.6 4.7 4.1

Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

Every scheme of educational reconstruction will produce desired results if it is headed by a person who plans with vision, executes with responsibility and efficiency, 32

directs with precision and controls adequately. The responsible person in this context is virtually the headmaster. The school is appropriately called the lengthened shadow of the headmaster. School proclaims the character of the headmaster. 4.2 OBJECTIVES Dear learners, after going through this lesson you will be able to: Know the role of Headmaster. Describe the function of the Headmaster. Reproduce Headmasters role in administration, planning, organizing and controlling the activities of the institution. Elaborate the role/functions and position of Teacher, and State teacher as organizer and controller. 4.3 ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF HEADMASTER

The headmaster is the centre of the whole organization of the school. The success of the school ultimately depends upon the efficiency, alertness, tactfulness, experience, resourcefulness, academic excellence, dedication, devotion and capability of the headmaster. It is the headmaster who inspires and motivates teachers to implement policies of education and to work for the desired results in every aspect of school life. No school can succeed in achieving desired goals of educational program if teachers work as individuals in the school. In the control of a group leader they work in a group or a team. They get success in all programs if their group leader directs them with precision. He has to provide a constructive leadership to the staff that works besides him. He has to be a co-worker with each of his staff member and not as a dictator. He is the person who inspires discipline, devotion and dedication towards his job and other follow it. He evokes respect by giving respect to each and every individual involved in school activity. He commands and guides every member of the institution with sincerity and purity in efforts. Headmasters position is like a gardener who waters every plant in the garden 33

of his school with his nectar, of sympathy, love, guidance, care and concern. He is not interested in his own self but in the fulfilment of the ideals and objectives for which the school has been established. Headmaster is the leader of the society. School represents a mini society and Headmaster preserves, emancipates and reconstructs all good and healthy in that mini society. He acts as a coordinating agency between school and society. India is a democratic country and the students have to be trained in the qualities of good citizenship. John Dewey has remarked that school is a miniature society and the leader of that miniature society is the headmaster. He initiates societys practicing ground for democratic citizenship. He must try to understand the social background, educational background and the history of the institution which he has to run. Then he will be able to understand what are the difficulties in situation as well as organization and will be able to overcome them. Simple living and high thinking is a good quality of the team leader. He can transmit the ways of life by living and adopting simple ways. He has various duties related to state, Department of Education, Board of Education, school management, local community, parents of the wards studying in his school, the school staff and finally the children those are attending the school. He has to deal with both the external as well as internal agencies. He is connecting and controlling link between the two. By virtue of the position as head of the institution the head performs some duties of ceremonial nature e.g. hoisting the flag on Independence day and Republic Day, Inaugurating Science Exhibitions, Book Exhibitions, Competitive Exhibitions of art, drawing and painting, inaugurating teaching aids preparation ceremony and award prizes to the best students. In latest terminology Headmasters role is Managers role in the industry as unit head. In broad sense, a role consists of behavioral patterns expected of an individual with a social unit. Henry Mintzberg (1973) made an extensive survey on the subject of managerial role and concluded that all managers are involved in the interpersonal relationships with subordinates, peers, superiors who in turn provide heads information they need to make decisions, and play their roles well.



Formal head of the Institution Informational Role, Knowledgeful, vigilant, spokesman, supervisor, inspector. Interpersonal RoleDutiful Figure ,head, Leader, Laison officer.

Decision maker, Planner, Administrator, Organizer, Leader, Knowledge seeker, Efficient speaker.

In short Headmasters position and his role in society is indispensable for making future citizenship better, healthier and bright based on high moral values. Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: Write in brief the role and functions of Headmaster? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4.3.1 Role of Headmaster in Administration What the main spring is to the watch, flywheel to the machine or the engine to the steamship, the headmaster is to the school. It is the headmaster who inspires and motives whole school environment to function properly. As an administrator it is he who regulates the proper and smooth work in the school. He brings order in policy implementation. He in the school is director, cocoordinator, superintendent, teacher, friend, philosopher, adviser and guide. He controls the school affairs by planning, directing, executing and evaluating the educative process. His multidimensional ability of administration sets the tone of the school to the tune of educational policies and programs. Headmaster as an administrative head of the institution indicates several programs of community awareness so as to get good response from the 35

community in which he works. He administers energies and abilities of good teachers and makes their best use for the benefit of the institution. Without the support from a good headmaster even energetic and well trained teachers with the best of intentions cant do much. A splendid school is ruined by an inefficient headmaster. A wrecked school is immediately improved by an efficient leader, administrator and dedicated Headmaster. 4.3.2 Role of Headmaster in Planning: Headmaster of a school has various facets of his personality. In the class he has to act as a teacher. As a leader of the team, he has to act as a capable leader. As an administrator, he has to act like an able administrator and guide all aspects of school life besides being a nice planner while planning school program of teaching learning. As far as his duties are concerned it will not be possible to prepare a complete list but I can say he has to live a different role moment after moment. While planning schools yearly budget, yearly school calendar, activity plan. He has to keep an alert mind towards all plans of school. Planning implies that head of educational institution thinks through goals and actions in advance. He plans actions that are based on the principle of logic. He always plans to give the institution its objectives, and sets up the best procedure for reaching to them. In addition plans are guides which the headmaster has to prepare under his headship- by which (a) the institution obtain and commit resources required to reach its objectives (b) members of the institution carry on activities consistent with chosen objective and procedures (c) progress towards the objectives is monitored and evaluated so that the corrective action can be taken if progress is satisfactory. Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: What is the role of Headmaster in Administration? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q2. Ans: What are the activities to be planned by a headmaster for an academic year? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 36

Q3. Ans:

Who can be called an effective headmaster? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________


Role of Headmaster in Direction

Leading involves directing employees to perform essential tasks. As a team leader he has to perform the role of best director. All activities in the school are run under proper direction of headmaster. Be it time scheduling committee, construction committee, school improvement, academic counsellor committee, curricular activities committee or funds and budget committee, Headmasters precise guidance and direction leads whole school complex towards constructive purposes. Perfect direction enhances positive qualities in school development program. Headmaster has to keep proper knowledge of all development plans of his school so that he can be able to provide right directions. He has to develop his qualities of head and heart first. He has to always realize the excellence in himself in order to imbibe excellent outlook among his team workers. It is psychologically proved that a balanced head leads and directs towards integrated direction to achieve the target. The headmaster under whose direction and care cream of nation and future of country is groomed is the best director in big drama of life. 4.3.4 Role of Headmaster in Controlling Headmaster is monitor of the whole school program. The process of monitoring is what we mean by monitoring. Monitoring means controlling the functions. Control helps manager (teachers) to monitor the effectiveness of the planning, organizing, leading and taking corrective actions as needed to achieve the target. As a controller headmaster has to: 1) 2) 3) 4) Establish standards and methods measuring performance. Measure the performance. Determine whether performance matches the standard of performance. Take remedial action or corrective action which involves a change in one or more activities of organizations operations or it may involve a change in the standards originally established. 37

Headmaster has also to control on devising constructive ways to bring performance up to the standard, rather than on merely identifying past failures. He has to find out the conformity of plans to actual activities. He has to see and evaluate the effectiveness of planning, organizing and leading. As a controlling force he has to go through four controlling types in order to run school smoothly or while implementing new plan or new policy in education. i) ii) iii) iv) Pre-action control. Steering control. Yes/No control. Post-action control.

The idea behind pre-action control is to prevent problems. Steering control provides corrective measures by and by so that institution runs smoothly. Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: Why is the headmaster called Director of School programme? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q2. Ans: What are the duties of headmaster ? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4.4 ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF TEACHER

Almighty has faith in mankind he creates; Mankind has faith in teacher who cultivates. Teacher as the gardener constructs and reconstructs human resources of the nation through his personal qualities, values and professional training towards progress and prosperity. In the words of Swami Vivekananda, True teacher is one who can immediately come down to the level of students and transfer his soul to the students soul and see through and understands through his mind. We are convinced that the most important factor in the contemplated educational reconstruction is the teacher- his educational qualifications, his professional efficiency and 38

the place that he occupies in the school as well as in the community. The reputation of a school and its influence on the life of the community invariably depends on the kind of the teacher working in it. 4.4.1 Teacher in Administration: Kothari Education Commission holds, Of all different factors which influence the quality of education and its contribution to material development, competence the character of teacher is undoubtedly the most significant. The teacher is the pivot around which all educational programmes revolve. All educational plans and policies will remain on paper unless and until teacher with his dynamic personality administers them. He is the sparkplug of the administration. He has to administer all programmes in the class, this way we can say he is the basic administrator who inspires and imbibes the qualities of an administrator amongst his students. A teacher has to be of principle i.e., impartial, fair and just in his behaviour with his students and faculty members as well as the members of the society. A good administrator has magnetic touch in his personality to be transferred among students. He is a good leader and a good leader should have an ideal character. He must have professional competence, self confidence and friendly attitude with everybody because this is the prerequisite of the democratic administrator. He has to administer his class, has to prepare tomorrows citizens, imbibe in them the fundamental qualities and values of good citizenship. As an effective teacher he has to administer the energies of the students in the class. He has to bring out the best among the students whom he teaches. In the class as well as outside the class, in the institution, in the play field, in the library, the teacher has an effective role to play. In fact, the teacher is the first administrative symbol before an innocent child, an adolescent, or an upcoming youth. 4.4.2 Teacher in Planning: Professor Humayun Kabir holds the view, Without good teachers even the best of the systems are bound to fail, with good teachers even the defects of a system can be largely overcome. Of all different factors which influence the qualities of education and contribution 39

to national development, teachers quality of planning is undoubtedly the most significant. Teacher is planner of nation through his classroom action. Teachers are being called architects of future nation, country and community. Best architect is fine planner. While planning Institutional plan they have to take care of planning every facet of the institution and its development. They have to plan their time schedule so as to make a child feel easy as in home, and comfortable in learning as in the lap of the mother. Teachers have to locate the interest of students and plan activities in the school, in the class room vis--vis outside the classroom. Since the concept of education has changed its place from academic class to complete life, the teachers duty also has doubled its area. It is not only in the classroom activity teacher has to plan, but teacher has to plan future citizens complete life, not only time schedule from 10 Oclock to 4 Oclock but for his whole life to come. If the pillars of teachers planning are deep then only future buildings can stand erect upon it. Teacher as a social engineer has to play vital role of planning as how and when to transform rich social heritage into the hands of the youngsters, what is to be reconstructed and refreshed to be passed on to next generations. He is the personification of affection of Eternity. He, with his vision, intelligence, devotion and dedication moulds the habits, interests, behaviour and character of learners through his role model played before them. Todays teacher, a great planner has to schedule how and when to pass religious, moral, spiritual and friendship values among next generations. For best planning he must be possessed with the best qualities i.e. Academic qualities. Professional competency. Emotional stability. Wit and humour. Sympathetic attitude. Optimism and enthusiasm. Leadership qualities. Professional loyalties and Respect for learners individuality. Teachers wherever they are given the chance to plan the activities of the institution 40

they have to keep in consideration above written qualities in order to be the best planner. Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: Q2. Ans: Q3. Ans: What are the duties of teacher in administration? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ What are the activities that a teacher has to plan inside the school? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ What are the points a teacher has to consider while planning school or classroom activities? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 4.4.3 Teacher in Directing Todays teacher is director, mentor, guide, senior partner of the activity. He is the leader of the class. A leader whose direction is precise and perfect is the leader of today. As director, teacher has to direct precious energies of students towards constructive and positive channels. He has to direct the learners inner potentialities intelligently towards higher learning. Teacher has to first realize his own abilities and capacities in order to direct others potentialities and capacities towards constructive purposes. He has to be aware of his own mannerism and habits in order to imprint upon students good habits. Learners consciously or unconsciously imitate their teachers and guides. The biggest task of teacher is to direct children properly and help them in : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Exploring their abilities. Channelising their energies. Leading them on the right track. Imbibing in them sympathy and affection. Reaching their inner self and gaining their confidence. Playing a role model before them. 41

vii) viii) ix) x)

Training their interests. Imbibing patriotic feelings in them. Having friendly attitude. Being with learners always in their activities.

In the words of Dr. Pires, He has to concern himself with total development of child and not only with one or two aspects; must be friendly to him and help in his emotional and social development. He must be philosophical illuminating the way of his intellectual and social progress; must be his guide in moral and aesthetic advancement. In fact he must be all for all his pupils. 4.4.4 Teacher in controlling Control is an essential element in the field of teaching and learning. Generally control means checking of performance. Performance is checked at various levels in this field. R.J. Mockler observes, control is a systematic approach and effort to set performance standards with planning, objectives, to design information feedback systems, to compare actual performance with predetermined standards, to determine whether there is a modification or not. As controller, teacher has to determine an efficient way of achieving objectives of learning. In this process he has to undergo through four steps: i) ii) iii) iv) To establish methods for achieving the learning and measuring performance. To measure the performance. To determine whether it matches the standard of learning and To take remedial action or corrective action which involves change in one or more activities of the teacher.

A teacher as controller, must be himself aware of the upto date trends, objectives and standards of achievement. As a paper setter, he must fully observe first what he has to check. He must always keep in mind what the objectives of learning are. As evaluator again, he must confirm what he has to evaluate. Conformity of evaluation according to learning objectives is real performance check. As syllabus setter, he must clear the standards for which he is going to set the syllabus. While recommending books, he has to be aware of the course norms so that his job in controlling the teaching- learning situation is justified. 42

Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: Q2 Ans: Q3. Ans: 4.5 What are teachers duties as director of teaching-learning process? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ What is the precious thing that a teacher directs? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ What are the teachers duties as controller in teaching- learning programme? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ LET US SUM UP The teacher is the social engineer and social worker. In practical sense he is the custodian of our future. Teacher is being generally called nation builder. Teachers by interest are, in real sense, effective teachers. Dr. F.L. Calpp has given a list of qualities of a successful and effective teacher : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) Dress Personal appearance Optimism Reserve Enthusiasm Fairness of mind Sincerity Sympathy Vitality Scholarship and training.

The Headmaster is the leader of the team in the school a coordinating agency, head and heart of institution, who keeps the balance, ensures the harmonious development of the institution. He sets tone of the school to the tune of the demands. He is the chief force in moulding and setting general trends of the institution in accordance with the set 43

objectives. 4.6 Q1. Q2. 4.7 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. UNIT END EXERCISES Explain the role of the headmaster in administration, planning and organising. What are the teacher's duties as director and controller in teaching learning process? SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS : Choudary, Roy, Namita (2001) : Management in Education. Sodhi, T.S. & Suri, Aruna (2000) : Management of School Education. Study material from the University. Q1. Q1. Q2. Q3. 3. 4. Q1. Q2. Q1. Q2. Q3. 5. Q1. Q2. Q3. Go through 4.3, all paras. Go through para 1, 2, 3 of 4.3 (i). Go through para 1, 2 of 4.3 (ii). Go through para 3, 4 of 4.3 (ii). Go through para 1, 2 of 4.3 (iii). Go through 4.3 (iv). Go through 4.4 and 4.4 (i). Go through 4.4 (ii). Go through 4th para of 4.4 (ii). Go through 4.4 (iii). Go through 2nd para 4.4 (iii). Go through 4.4 (iv).






5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Meaning of Leadership 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.1 Definitions of Leadership Principles of Leadership Educational Leadership

Nature of Educational Leadership Theories of Leadership Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

Leadership is the process of influencing others to get the work done. It involves motivating, influencing, and directing individuals towards attainment of long term organizational goals. A leader remains in the limelight. The success or failure of an organizational endeavour is attributed upon its leader. Leadership is currently the most commonly associated word with administration. Whenever there is a discussion on administration or administrator, this word finds a place of prominence. It is considered that no act of administration can proceed in the direction of achievement of pre-set goals unless it is steered by the leadership. If it is good leadership, goals have greater chances of 45

achievement. It is also to be remembered that even setting of goals is an act of leadership. In this lesson, we will try to understand the meaning and the nature of leadership and along with leadership theories. 5.2 OBJECTIVES After going through this lesson you will be able to: Define the term leader and leadership Discuss about leadership in Educational Administration Describe the nature of leadership Explain the theories of leadership 5.3 MEANING OF LEADERSHIP

5.3.1 Definitions of Leadership The meaning of leadership varies amongst people. Leadership can be defined by many different but similar meanings. The term leadership is a recent addition to the English language. In fact, the word did not come into usage until the late 19th Century. Although the words lead and leader have a much longer history, they usually referred only to authority figures. The dictionary meanings of leadership are given as the act of being in the van of an enterprise or the act of directing the activities of those organized to achieve a given goal. Both these dictionary meanings emphasize that leadership relates to the assumption of the responsibilities for directing. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills. For Debra Jordan, leadership is a constant changing process of interactions and situations between members of a group consisting of two or more people. Leadership also consists of a common recognition and understanding of leader-follower roles between all its group members. Since leadership is goal-oriented it also involves the leader and its followers to participate in activities to help move the group further in reaching and obtaining its goal. 46

The birth and evolution of the idea of leadership focuses on a much more complex concept that reaches beyond the single leader. In fact, contemporary definitions most often reject the idea that leadership revolves around the leaders ability, behaviours, styles or charisma. Today, scholars discuss the basic nature of leadership in terms of the interaction among the people involved in the process: both leaders and followers. Thus, leadership is not the work of a single person, rather it can be explained and defined as a collaborative endeavour among group members. Therefore, the essence of leadership is not the leader, but the relationship (Rost, 1993). Rosts definition says that leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes. This contemporary definition is composed of four basic components, each of which is essential and must be present if a particular relationship is to be called leadership. (1) The relationship is based on influence. This influence is multidirectional, meaning that influence can go any way (not necessarily top-down), and attempts to influence must not be coercive. Therefore, the relationship is not based on authority, but rather persuasion. (2) Leaders and followers are the people in this relationship. If leadership is defined as a relationship, then both leaders and followers are doing leadership. He does not say that all players in this relationship are equal, but does say all active players practice influence. Typically there is more than one follower and more than one leader in this arrangement. (3) Leaders and followers intend real changes. Intend means that the leaders and followers promote and purposefully seek changes. Real means that the changes intended by the leaders and followers must be substantial. (4) The changes the leaders and followers intend reflect their mutual purposes. The key is that the desired changes must not only reflect the wishes of the leader but also the desires of the followers (Rost, 1991). Thus, Leadership is A Process of influencing people toward group objectives Interpersonal influence towards attainment of institutional goals through communication process. Leadership a function of the leader, the follower and the other situational variables. Power, authority and influence help in changing group members behaviour. Filley, Hose and Kerr (1977) in an attempt to define leadership, differentiated 47

between power, authority and influence. These three ways help in changing the behaviour of individual or groups. In order to understand the concept of leadership clearly, these three concepts need to be explained. Power includes the personal and positional attribute that are the basis for a leaders ability to influence others. Note that power includes personal and positional attributes, while the concept of authority involves the use primarily of positionally related power. For example the first line supervisor position has authority because of hierarchy rank and not because of personal characteristics, such as the charisma of the individual. The ability to influence, persuade, and motivate followers is based largely upon perceived power of the leader. Check Your Progress Q1. Define the term Leadership. Ans: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5.3.2 Principles of Leadership Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees tasks. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools. Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see - Mahatma Gandhi Know your people and look out for their well-being - Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. 48

Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers - Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished Communication is the key to this responsibility. Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams...they are just a group of people doing their jobs. Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities. 5.3.3 Educational Leadership The leadership in education means directing the activities of those engaged in the training of minds towards the achievement of the goals set by those persons who have organized themselves for the same. Bartky considers that an educational leader is always trying to get others to accept his decisions or his objectives, or encouraging them to join him in some common purpose. His skill like that of any other leader rests on his ability to make significant judgments and to encourage others to accept these judgments. He has identified three types of educational leaders: 1. The administrator 2. The teacher 3. The educational statesman The successful educational leader is : Sensitive to the feeling of others while being at once considerate, helpful, responsive, and friendly. Loyal to his ideals and ideas and respectful of the beliefs, rights and dignity of others. Consistent, generous, humble, honest, modest and fair in dealing with others. Strong in his/her feelings of self-confidence and the ability to identify easily with co-workers. 49

Takes interest in improving the group, while also possessing the ability to get the work done quickly and economically. Understands the need to avoid envy, jealousy, and is willing to take blames for his/her own mistakes. Firm but not proud or stubborn in making judgments and decisions. Straightforward, approachable, easy to talk to, alert to get the best out of people without aggressiveness. Ready to give others the benefits of doubt and/or advantages whenever possible. Up to this, you may have come to know about the principles of leadership and Educational Leadership. Before we proceed further, try to respond to the following questions: Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: Q2. Ans: Enlist the Principles of leadership ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Explain the meaning of Educational Leadership. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5.4 NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP

In the previous section, we discussed the meaning of leadership and educational leadership. Now, it is important to know the nature of the educational leadership to elaborate the understanding of educational leadership. Leadership matters. Thats an undisputable fact, especially in our world of constant change, rampant threats, and routine scandals. Whats debatable is what it takes to lead successfully. Does leadership require the courage to act decisively and assert control? Does leadership depend on the sensitivity to inspire and empower followers? Or, does leadershipgreat leadershipdemand something more. According to Joe White, the nature of leadership reveals the dichotomy at the 50

core of every effective leader: being part Reptile, analytical, rational, and tough as nails, and part Mammal, nurturing, participative, and warm as toast. Having the hallmarks of both species, and knowing when to be which, is a huge personal challenge, as White acknowledges. Its right up there with running marathons or learning to play the violin well. Or more accurately, running marathons and playing the violin well. The following points would help you to understand the nature of leadership, Leadership is given, not assumed itself Group is required for leadership to act Leadership is a product of interaction not a status or position Leadership can not be structured in advance Leader in one situation can not be leader in another Leadership depends on perception of group. Leadership also depends upon the perception of the leader about his/her own role There can be more than one leader in a group Leadership foster positive sentiments Leadership protects the critical group norms Leadership can be autocratic/democratic/laissez-faire Bartky suggests that the term leadership can be classified on the basis of (1) its manner of operation, (2) its functions, (3) its source of authority, and (4) the philosophy of the organization, the leader serves. The first classification emphasizes the way of leadership functions. It may be through example or teaching, mediation or coercion that the leadership may influence the people. The second classification recognizes leader as an employee of organization to serve its ends. The organizational functions which the leader is required to perform are: 1. The legislative function, 2. The judicial function, 3. The executive function, 4. The advocate function, and 5. The expert function. The third classification defines leadership in terms of its source of power. The sources of power are described as: 1. Natural sources, 2. Divine sources, 3 Contract, and 4. Usurpation. The fourth classification refers to the political philosophy of a state 51

which can determine what its social leaders are like as well as how its government officials comfort themselves. From the above discussion, it is clear that the leadership is such an affair in which two parties, one which leads, make such suggestions which are acceptable to others, acts as a model and gives commands etc. and the other, which is led, accepts the suggestions of the first party and follows the commands. The co-operation of these two parties is essential for the proper functioning of leadership. The leader should be acceptable to the followers. It is necessary that the leader should always be prepared to adjust himself to the wishes and desires of the followers. It is quite an apt remark that the leader himself is led by those whom he seeks to lead. Check Your Progress
Q1. Explain the nature of leadership in 60 words?


___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________



Up to this, you may have understood the meaning of the Leadership. Over the years, a number of theories of leadership have been proposed. We will discuss some of the theories of leadership in this section. Great Man Theory This theory is based on the assumption that the leaders are born and not made i.e. the capacity for leadership is inherent. The term Great Man was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. These people were often from the aristocracy, as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. This contributed to the notion that leadership had something to do with breeding. Trait Theory This theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioural 52

characteristics shared by leaders. People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits. Over the time the psychological focus was put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders. Stogdill (1974) identified the following traits and skills as critical to leaders.
Adaptable to situations Alert to social environment Ambitious and achievement-orientated Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Dominant (desire to influence others) Energetic (high activity level) Persistent Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility

Clever (intelligent) Conceptually skilled Creative Diplomatic and tactful Fluent in speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organised (administrative ability) Persuasive Socially skilled

But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. Behavioural Theory Leaders can be made, rather than are born, is the basic assumption of Behavioural theories of leadership. Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behaviour. Rooted in behaviourism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. These theorists look at what leaders actually do. If success can be defined in terms of describable actions, then it should be relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral traits or capabilities. A behavioural theory is relatively easy to develop, as you simply assess both leadership success and the actions of leaders. The Managerial Grid The Managerial Grid was the original name. It later changed to the Leadership Grid. According to this theory, the leaders may be concerned for their people and they 53

must also have some concern for the work to be done. The question is, how much attention to they pay to one or the other? In 1960s, Blake and Mouton described this model.
Concern for people High Medium Country Club management Middle of the road management Low Impoverished management Low Medium Authoritycompliance High Team Management

Concern for Production (Task)

This is a well-known grid that uses the Task vs Person preference. They are both clearly important dimensions, but as other models point out, they are not all there is to leadership and management. Situational Leadership This theory of leadership is based on the assumption that the best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors The leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variable. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making. A good situational leader is one who can quickly change leadership styles as the situation changes. Most of us attempt to do this in our dealings with people: we try not to get angry with a new employee, and we remind forgetful people. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers and also the relationship between followers and the leader. Thus, the situational theory tends to focus more on the behaviours that the leader should adopt, given situational factors (often about follower behaviour). Contingency Theory Contingency theory of leadership is based on the assumption that the leaders ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leaders preferred style, the capabilities and behaviours of followers and also various other situational factors. 54

It focuses on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. The leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation. Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: Q2. Ans: Explain Great man theory of leadership in 50 words? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Differentiate between situational and contingency theory of leadership. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Participative Theories The assumption of the participative theory of leadership is that the involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions. People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making and they become less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals. When people make decisions together, the social commitment to one another is greater and thus increases their commitment to the decision. Thus, better decisions are taken as several people deciding together than one person alone. Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. Management Theories Management theories are also known as Transactional theories. These theories assume that the social systems work best with a clear chain of command. The focus of these theories is on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. When 55

people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager. The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells him to do These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. People are motivated by reward and punishment. The transactional leader works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following orders. Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well-understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. Relationship Theories Relationship theories also called as Transformational theories are based on the assumption that the people will follow a person who inspires them. Therefore, a person with vision and passion can achieve great things. The Transformational theories focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed. Transformational Leaders are often charismatic, but are not as narcissistic as pure Charismatic Leaders, who succeed through a belief in themselves rather than a belief in others. Transformational leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. These leaders often have high ethical and moral standards. 5.6 LET US SUM UP

Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills. The leadership in education means directing the activities of those engaged in the training of minds towards the achievement of the goals set by those persons who have organized themselves for the same. According to Joe White, the nature of leadership reveals the dichotomy at the core of every effective leader: 56

being part Reptile, analytical, rational, and tough as nails, and part Mammal, nurturing, participative, and warm as toast. Having the hallmarks of both species, and knowing when to be which, is a huge personal challenge, as White acknowledges. Its right up there with running marathons or learning to play the violin well. Or more accurately, running marathons and playing the violin well. The theories of leadership include Great man, Trait Theory, Behavioural, Situational, Contingency, Participative, Transformational and Transactional theory. These theories have their own strengths and weaknesses. 5.7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5.8 1 2 3 4 5 6 UNIT END EXERCISES Explain the meaning of educational leadership. Discuss its nature. Describe the theories of leadership. Differentiate between Transformational and Transactional theories of leadership. What are the criteria of good leadership behavior? Discuss Contingency, Participative and situational theories of leadership. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Bass, B.M and Stogdill (1900) : R.M. Hand book of leadership, New York, Free Press. Bhatnagar, R.P. and Aggrawal, V. (2004) : Educational Administration, Supervision, Planning and Financing, Meerut ; R. Lall Book Depot. Burns, J.M. (1978) : Leadership, New York, Harper and Rows. Fiedler, P.E. (1967) : A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, New York, McGraw Hill. Mathur, S.S. (1975) : Educational Administration; Principles and Practices, Jalandhar, Krishna Publications. Vashisht, S.R. (1994) : Future of Supervision, New Delhi, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. great_ man_ theory.htm





6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Types of Leadership Leadership Assessment 6.4.1 Meaning of Leadership Assessment

6.4.2 Methods of Leadership Assessment 6.4.3 Leadership Assessment Tools 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.1 Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

A leader is a person that inspires you to take a journey to a destination you would not go to by yourself. The traditional manager who maintains status quo leaving what he found will not be effective in todays environment. Also depending upon the objectives of the organization and the situation or the decision to be taken, the leaders have to assume different kinds of leaderships. The leaders adopt many techniques, so that their followers may work in accordance with their directions. Describing the leadership styles on the basis of the techniques employed or attitudes adopted by the leaders towards their followers we find that there are three important styles: The Autocratic, the Democratic and the Anarchic or Laissez faire. In this chapter we will discuss about the different types of 58

leadership. As times change, leadership skills must also change. What was successful in the past is still relevant, but may not be everything needed for the future. Thus assessment of the leadership is required from time to time to others to have an honest appraisal. There are different approaches to analyze leadership. We will also talk about the meaning and methods of leadership assessment. Let us start with the types of leadership. 6.2 OBJECTIVES After going through the lesson you will be able to: Enlist the types of leadership Differentiate between different types of leadership Explain the Meaning of Leadership Assessment Describe the Methods of Leadership Assessment 6.3 TYPES OF LEADERSHIP

The traditional categorization of the kinds of leadership can be inferred from William Shakespeare (Midnight Summers Dream) assertion that: Some are born great; some achieve greatness; and others have greatness thrust upon them. On the basis of this quote there are three main types of leadership as proposed by Lewin. They are as under:
Laissezfaire leadership

Types of leadership






Let us discuss these three types of leaderships in detail: Authoritarian Leadership (Autocratic) This is traditional leadership, which is firm and strict. Authoritarian leadership as it is clear from the term itself, is when you obey to exactly what is demanded from you. Authoritarian leaders provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. There is also a clear division between the leader and the followers. Authoritarian leaders make decisions independently with little or no input from the rest of the group. They do not allow the subordinates to put up with arguments and ask to be treated with respect. They believe in punishment and force. This will be used if the followers disagree, argue or maybe even question what they have been told to do. Researchers found that decision-making was less creative under authoritarian leadership. Lewin also found that it is more difficult to move from an authoritarian style to a democratic style than vice versa. Abuse of this style is usually viewed as controlling, bossy, and dictatorial. Thus the authoritarian leadership has following characteristics: Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else High degree of dependency on the leader Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff May be valuable in some situations where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively Authoritarian leadership is best applied to situations where there is little time for group decision-making or where the leader is the most knowledgeable member of the group. Participative Leadership (Democratic) Democratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members. Its hard to order and demand someone to be creative, perform as a team, solve complex problems, improve quality, and provide outstanding customer service. The style presents a happy medium between over controlling (micromanaging) and not being engaged and tends to be seen in organizations that must innovate to prosper. This type of leadership may be emphasized throughout the organization. It encourages decision making from different perspectives. 60

Some of the qualities in democratic leaderships are: Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct May help motivation and involvement Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business Can delay decision making Lewins study found that participative (democratic) leadership is generally the most effective leadership style. Participative leaders encourage group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative. Laissez-Fair (Delegative) The leadership takes a passive stance towards the problems of the group or the organization anything goes is watchword. A delegative leader offers little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making up to group members. While this style can be effective in situations where group members are highly qualified in an area of expertise, it often leads to poorly defined roles and a lack of motivation. Let it be the leadership responsibilities are shared by all Can be very useful in situations where creative ideas are important Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction Relies on good team work Relies on good interpersonal relations The style is largely a hands off view that tends to minimize the amount of direction and face time required. Works well if you have highly trained and highly motivated direct 61

reports. Researchers found that children under delegative (laissez-fair) leadership were the least productive of all the three groups. The children in this group also made more demands on the leader, showed little cooperation, and were unable to work independently. Before going further, it is important to check your progress by answering the following questions: Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: Enlist the three basic types of Leadership. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q2. Ans: Describe Participative leadership. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Besides the above mentioned types of leadership, there are a few more types. Let us now take up some of the many leadership strategies that define every leaders personal leadership style and one may adopt some of these in achieving his organizations goals and objectives. Transformational leadership creates and sustains a context that maximizes human and organizational capabilities to facilitate multiple levels of transformation and align them with core values and a unified purpose to respond to a dynamic environment. Creative leadership has the ability to uniquely inspire people to generate shared innovative responses and solutions to complex and readily changing situations. Corrective leadership empowers staff to facilitate collaborative and synergism and emphasizes working with and through other people instead of bowing to authoritarianism. Appreciative inquiry facilitates positive change in human systems, e.g. organizations, group through an appreciative approach in inspiring action for collaborative and strength-based change. Change leadership is a philosophy that endorses alteration while beyond thinking about individuals and individual organization, single problems and single solutions. It entails rethinking systems to introduce change on parts of the whole and their 62

relationship to one another. Intelligence leadership focuses on the ability to navigate the future by embracing ambiguity and reframing problems as opportunities. It is a proactive stance in taking their organizations into uncharted territory. Multicultural leadership fosters team and individual effectiveness and drives for innovation by leveraging multicultural differences so that teams work harder in an atmosphere of understanding and mutual respect. Pedagogical leadership involves a paradigm shift from leader/teacher centered orientation to an interactive, connective organizational system using a democratic learning and communicative style. It proposes an alternative to instructional leadership by enabling the learning and intellectual growth of those led. Servant leadership is a practical philosophy focussing on people who choose to serve first and then lead as a way of expanding service. Servant leaders are servants first with the object of making sure that other peoples highest priority needs are being served. Bridging leadership concentrates on fostering synergy and reinforcing behavior and motivation through the use of communication to create climate of trust and confidence. Purposeful leadership is established when a leader and the community share a common purpose to develop or provide the drive, authority and commitment to undertake projects. Determining the Best Leadership Style In the 1950s, management theorists from Ohio State University and the University of Michigan published a series of studies to determine whether leaders should be more task or relationship (people) oriented. The importance of the research cannot be over estimated since leaders tend to have a dominant style; a leadership style they use in a wide variety of situations. Surprisingly, the research discovered that there is no one best style: leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led. One dimension of it has to do with control and ones perception of how much control one should give to people. The laissez faire style implies low control, the autocratic style high control and the participative lies somewhere in between. From these given leadership strategies, you can choose and apply to make a 63

difference in improving quality and change in the organization you serve. Check Your Progress Q1. Ans: Enlist the various types of Leadership. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q2. Ans: Which leadership style is best and why ? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 6.4 LEADERSHIP ASSESSMENT

In the previous section we talked about the types of leadership. In this section we will discuss how we can assess the leadership: 6.4.1 Meaning of Leadership Assessment The practice of leadership assessment has traditionally been associated with the corporate world, as businesses in search of executive candidates have utilized screening methods to narrow the talent pool. Although the educational sector has been slow to implement such practices, the principle is equally applicable. School officials require many of the same managerial and interpersonal skills as a CEO of a corporation and are often obliged to work within seriously constrained budgets to affect positive results. Leadership assessment can help to identify those candidates who will not only flourish in administrative roles, but will encourage those throughout their school communities to do the same. Although the themes of leadership and assessment are highly relevant in education today, leadership assessment is a concept that has not received a great deal of attention. The concept behind leadership assessment is that by identifying an educators leadership strengths and weaknesses, one can construct a suitable professional development program to address those issues. Leadership Assessment is the process of assessing the identities of leaders and comparing them with the identities of non-leaders. It is composed of the images and evaluations of a person, as held by those people with whom that person interacts. Leadership reputation is assessed using observer ratings from whatever source a researcher might 64

prefer. Usually relevant research questions include whom to ask to provide ratings, what rating dimensions should be used, and how leaders differ from non-leaders in terms of these ratings. Leadership Assessment can be of two types: (i) (ii) Leadership Assessment from the inside In this type, the assessment is done by asking a person about his/her goals, aspirations, and self- image. Leadership from the outside, which we call reputation, is composed of the images and evaluations of a person, as held by those people with whom that person interacts. Leadership reputation is assessed using observer ratings from whatever source a researcher might prefer.

The bottom line of this discussion is that leadership needs to be assessed from the inside and from the outside. 6.4.2 Methods of Leadership Assessment There are several methods of leadership assessment. Let us have a look on a few methods that are generally employed to assess the leadership: Assessing Leadership from Inside: As noted above, personality from the inside concerns a persons values, motives, and self-imageidentity. Various methods and instruments are available to assess leadership from the inside and many of them yield valid results. It is possible to predict leadership performance using measures of identity and in many cases with an admirable degree of validity. The most robust procedures for assessing leadership from the inside fall into four categories: (A) projective measures of personality; (B) objective measures of personality; (C) specialized measures of personality; and (D) mixed measures of personality. Assessing Leaderships from Outside: Subjective ratings of others reputation as leaders began the 1950s using: (a) on-the-job behavioural description; and (b) assessment centers We can describe the methods of assessing the leadership in the following ways also: Self-Evaluation The most readily accessible, and perhaps least comprehensive, is self-evaluation. A self-assessment is scored and interpreted by the individual completing the questionnaire. Self-assessments can provide immediate insight into leadership characteristics, how to 65

use job assignments as opportunities to develop valuable skills, and preferred learning behaviours and styles. This type of assessment is informal in nature. But these selfevaluations provide the inquirer with a means to begin considering his/her ability to serve as an effective leader. The self-assessment tools are composed primarily of either checklists or a series of questions to which the participant is asked to respond. In sum total, selfassessment provides educators with an introduction to thinking about leadership skills, but lacks potentially revealing input from colleagues. 360-Degree Feedback Method 360-degree feedback is a method of systematically collecting opinions about a managers performance from a wide range of co-workers. This could include peers, direct reports, and the superiors, along with people outside the organization, such as community in case of educational leadership. The method of the 360-degree feedback leadership evaluation requires participation from the community at large, in the form of either surveys or written evaluations. Respondents should ideally include not only teachers, but support staff and district personnel. Due to the highly personal nature of the task, this method is generally more effective when completed anonymously. That being said, it provides the leadership candidate with a much more thorough picture of his/her leadership strengths and weaknesses. Only by addressing the specific concerns of the school community can one become a more effective leader. The benefits of collecting data of this kind are that the person gets to see a panorama of perceptions rather than just self-perception, which affords a more complete picture. School Leadership Series The most standardized method of leadership assessment is the School Leadership Series. This series is composed of two distinct assessments, the School Leaders Assessment and the School Superintendent Assessment. Technologically Savvy Assessment It is interesting to note that among some educators, the notion of leadership is closely linked to technologically savvy. A school official is considered a leader if able to introduce technology into the schools daily life. This type of leadership assessment seeks to evaluate the administrators ability to utilize technological resources as part of the schools curriculum. 66

Team & Organizational Assessments : Team and organizational assessments provide insight into aspects of leadership and the work environment that impact workgroup performance. This type of assessments can help teams and organizations assess the climate for creativity and innovation and identify strengths and weaknesses. Up to this you may have understood the assessment of leadership. Before going forward, it is better to assess your understanding: Check Your Progress : Q1. Explain the meaning of assessment of leadership.

Ans: ______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Q2. Enlist the various methods of leadership assessment.

Ans:______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6.4.3 Leadership Assessment Tools There are various leadership tools. A few leadership assessment tools have been presented below : Leader Values Self-Assessment comprised of a five-minute anonymous test based on the 4 Es (Envision, Enable, Empower & Energize) with some directional action steps for self-improvement. An Assessment of Leadership Qualities and Skills with the help of 10-minute assessment which can be done alone or with input from colleagues, prompting an introspective look at leadership qualities and skills. Leadership Quiz is a two minute leadership quiz about knowledge management. Leadership Skills Questionnaire: This is a ten minute leadership skills questionnaire with brief analysis. Leadership Development Methods Quiz includes a five minute quiz about the most effective leadership development methods with feedback on proven effective methods. 67

Innovative Leadership Assessment is a tool for self-assessment or companywide assessment for leaders or their peers on leadership competencies. The Leadership Difference Snapshot has a ten minute leadership quiz with feedback IT Leader Quiz is two minutes quiz to test IT leaders, but applicable to any field. Leadership Self-Assessment: In this tool, thought-provoking questions for many aspects of leadership are assessed. Myers-Briggs type self-assessment is a personality trait questionnaire. 6.5 LET US SUM UP : In this chapter we discussed different types of leadership as Democratic, Autocratic and Laissez faire along with some other types of leadership. Then we discussed leadership assessment which is the process of assessing the identities of leaders and comparing them with the identities of non-leaders. For leadership assessment, different methods like selfevaluation, 360-Degree Feedback Method, School Leadership Assessment, Technological Savvy Assessment are used. The tools used for leadership assessment are , leadership Development Methods Quiz, Leadership Skills Questionnaire, Innovative Leadership Assessment, the Leadership Difference Snapshot, Myers-Briggs type Self-Assessment etc. 6.6 UNIT END EXERCISES Q.1. Describe the various types of leadership. Which type of leadership is the best? Q.2. Compare the Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez Faire type of leadership. Q.3. Explain the meaning of Educational Assessment. Enlist the tools that are used for leadership assessment. Q.4. Illustrate the different methods of educational assessment. 6.7 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. Bass, B.M and Stogdill, R.M. (1990) : Hand book of leadership, New York ; Free Press. 2. Bhatnagar, R.P. and Aggarwal, V. (2004) : Educational Administration, Supervision, Planning and Financing, Meerut ; R.Lall Book Depot. 3. Hall, G.Rutherford, Hord, W.L., Huling, L.L. and S.M. (1984) : Effects of three principal styles on school Improvement, Educational Leadership. 68

4. Peters, L.G. (1974) : Some aspects of leader style, adaptability and effectiveness among western Massachusetts principals. Ed. D, University of Massachusetts. 5. Vashisht, S.R. (1994) : Future of Supervision, New Delhi ; Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. ID=16




7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Education Planning Meaning and Nature 7.3.1 Meaning of Educational Planning 7.3.2 Nature of Educational Planning 7.3.3 Characteristics of Educational Planning 7.3.4 Why Planning is Required 7.3.5 Principles of Educational Planning Approaches to Educational Planning 7.4.1 Inter-Educational Extrapolation Approach 7.4.2 Demographic Projection Model 7.4.3 The Social Demand Approach 7.4.4 The Manpower Approach or Human Resource Development Approach 7.4.5 Rate of Return Approach or Cost-Benefit Analysis or CostEffectiveness Approach Perspective Planning 7.5.1 Meaning of Perspective Planning 7.5.2 Advantages of Perspective Planning Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings 70



7.6 7.7 7.8



After reading the lesson you will be able to: Elucidate the Meaning and Nature of Educational Planning Portray the Characteristics of Educational Planning Enlist the various Principles of Educational Planning Explain the Approaches to Educational Planning Describe the Perspective Planning 7.1 INTRODUCTION

Planning means to make a sketch of, to draw a design, a scheme or project of any kind of activity. Without knowing where we are going, it is unlikely that we will get there. Planning is pre-requisite of any kind of development programme of any family, society and nation at large. Educational planning is the road map. It focusses the attention of administration, board of education, teachers, students and community members, and helps determine where the school should be going and how to get there. It helps identify where the pitfalls are over the short-term. Without planning, the operational and functional performance of the school district will be less than optimal and the overall objectives and goals of the district will be difficult, at best to achieve. Educational planning is an organized thought process participated in by administration, board of education, teachers, students and community members. The ultimate result is the determination of long-term goals and objectives, and the short-term implementation of specific goals using focussed techniques, tactics, and strategies which will permit the school district to meet long term goals and objectives. In this chapter we are going to discuss in detail about the educational planning and its approaches along with perspective planning. 7.3 EDUCATIONAL PLANNING MEANING AND NATURE

7.3.1 Meaning of Educational Planning Webster International dictionary (1981) defines planning as an act or process or making or carrying out of plans. Plan is the preparation and vision to do a particular function. In the process of planning we visualize the needs and specific equipment to achieve desired goals. At the time of planning we have to find out the manpower as well as other facilities already available with us. After that we have to visualize the number of 71

persons and equipments and other such facilities that are needed than the ones already existing with us. The purpose of doing all this will be to achieve the goal. Thus, planning is a process of preparing a set of decisions or strategies or detailed scheme of a program of action for future directed towards achieving some specific goals by the best possible means. Educational Planning is the process of determining events, conditions and needs of education system in future, aimed at keeping pace with the changing environment to improve the system. The educational planning involves following steps:

Analysis and Projection of Educational situations

Formulting and Write-up of Educational Plan

Identifying Educational Problems

Selection of Priorities

Defining Goals and Objectives

Formulating and Write-up Educational plan


Implementation of the Plan



7.3.2 Nature of Educational Planning The procedure and arrangement for implementation of the educational plan starts from the issue of the government order indicating the physical targets and financial outlay. This is done by various sections of the state education secretariat where plan schemes are dealt with. Regular evaluation of those schemes is done at the meetings of the officers under the chairmanship of the state education secretary from time to time. Specific evaluation of some schemes is done by the state planning institutions. The co-ordination of educational planning with the educational sector of the state is the responsibility of the deputy secretary in the education secretariat who is assisted in this work by a section officer and an upper division assistant. He is also responsible for co-ordination with man-power planning and with Planning Commission at the Central level. It has been suggested that for plan coordination at the secretariat level and its evaluation and implementation there should be provision of specially trained personnel. Planning has been one of the pillars of our approach to economic development since independence, and has stood us in good stead. Planning is not a static concept, and each of our Plans has reflected the changing imperatives of the times. During planning, the cross-linkages that exist within the set of social and environmental indicators, need to be given due recognition. The essence of planning is to weave all the seemingly disparate strands into a cohesive and well-knit strategy so that the various cross-linkages operate in a synergistic manner in order to attain the ultimate objective of all development initiatives namely human development. Conceptually, the aggregative objectives and targets that are set for the nation can be thought as being comprised of two sets of sub-targets across sectors and across regions which are consistent with the aggregates. Thus, there are at least three broad dimensions in which a Plan needs to be presented the national aggregates, the sectorial requirements, and the state-wise distributions. Furthermore, the conduct of policies and design of programmes for attaining the targets must also reflect this tri-dimensionality. All planning is based on an a-priori appraisal of emerging trends and the initial programme content reflects the strategy to address these. During the course of the Plan, however, as new developments occur, suitable changes can and should be made in the content and design of the plan programmes (10th Five Year Plan). 73

Educational Planning is of two types : Short Term: The plan is prepared for a short duration i.e. three to five years. Long Term: The planning is done for a longer duration i.e. for more than five years. 7.3.3 Characteristics of Educational Planning Logical, Systematic and Scientific. Expert Opinion. Emphasize Social and Economical Growth. Cooperative Planning. Anticipatory in Nature. Remedial & Guidance Oriented. Problem Solving.

Check Your Progress

Q.1. Explain the meaning of Educational Planning.

Ans:______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
Q.2. Why do we require Educational Planning?

Ans:______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7.3.4 Why planning is required ? Political initiatives Professional initiatives Demographic changes Change in other related services To ensure success of enterprises. To economize resources (time, effort, money). 74

To solve problems. To keep pace with time. For advancement of the nation.

For improvement in the education sector of our country, the Five Year Plans have been formulated and executed. The plans covered: 1. Improvement of educational facilities; 2. Removal of disparities among States; 3. Provision of educational facilities for different sections of the society; 4. Improvement of Industrial, Vocational and Technical Education; 5. Targets of Universal Primary Education; 6. Improvement of Teachers Salaries: 7. Improvement of Quality of Teaching; 8. Removing the Economic Hardships of the students and the like. 7.3.5 Principles of Educational Planning Careful and well formulated plans Integration (with national policies and planning). Empirical and Research based. Continuity Functional, Realistic and Practical Participation by all Result Oriented Utilization of Corollary Services Continuous Evaluation Focus on People Comprehensiveness Based on Aims and Goals of Education. Need based and Situation Oriented Availability of Finances/Resources Modification.

Check Your Progress Q.1. Enlist the principles of Educational Planning.

Ans:______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 75


Why do we require Educational Planning?

Ans:______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7.4 APPROACHES TO EDUCATIONAL PLANNING

From the previous section you may have got the meaning of educational planning. In this section we are going to discuss various approaches that can be employed for educational planning. The planning is a scientific process , it involves different approaches to planning. These are :
Approaches to Educational Planning Intra-Educational Extrapolation Model Demographic P projection Model Social Demand Approach Manpower Approach Rate of Return Approach

7.4.1 Intra-Educational Extrapolation Approach This approach involves setting goals for a particular aspect of the educational system. For example, the Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, the Government of Indias flagship programme for achievement of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner, as mandated by 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory Education to the Children of 6-14 years of age group. The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants. The educational planners extrapolated the ways in which these basic educational infrastructure and facilities have to 76

be provided to achieve that target. 7.4.2 Demographic Projection Model Demographic projection models describe the development over time of the population in terms of events. The projection process includes development, production, and distribution. Thus, in every approach of planning, the demographic projection is used as this provides the essential information about the population for which planning is to be done. In Educational Planning, estimation of the number of children in a particular age group, their localities (urban or rural), socio-economic status etc. have to be made to plan for the education of the population of the nation. 7.4.3 The Social Demand Approach The social demand depends upon the number of students getting in to the particular stream of education or the aspiration of the parents for the type of the education for their children. When the planners take in to account the social demands at the time of educational planning for short or long term goals, it is considered as social demand approach of educational planning. Educators and politicians usually favour this approach. This approach implies that the educational planners must give due respect to the aggregate popular demand for education while drawing up educational plans. This aggregate popular demand for education must receive the top priority in the allocation of scarce sources. The social demands may be unrealistic. In this case, if the planners satisfy the social demands, that may lead to poor quality and wastage of public resources. 7.4.4 The Manpower Approach Or Human Resource Development Approach The Manpower Approach deals with human resource development. Under this approach it is assumed that the manpower is variable and may be modified with the technical, economic and social development. The manpower is considered to be the most dynamic function of an educational system. The manpower planning approach assumes that education has a place in the economy of the country and positively contributes it the nations growth. This approach focusses on the vocationalization of the education, multiple educational course and skill based education that leads to the satisfaction of the manpower needs of the country. This approach emphasizes that education should be linked with the jobs.



Rate of Return Approach Or Cost-Benefit Analysis or Cost Effectiveness Approach

Rate of return approach or cost benefit approach stresses on the investment in education, should be based on the returns that are expected from that investment. This approach is favoured by a group of economists. Maureen Macdhall, an economist, defines cost-benefit analysis as a systematic comparison of the magnitude of the costs and benefits of some form of investment (in case of education it is investment in human capital). Costbenefit analysis provides a means of appraising these future benefits in the light of the costs that must be incurred in the present. The proponent of this approach assumes that the expenditure of education be thought of as a form of national investment or input that would come back or return in the form of higher productivity and greater earnings of the educated ones. Thus education is related with the economic development. In this approach, the social demand is not given consideration. Under this approach, planning emphasizes that changes in educational system should be so that the individual citizens and the nation both are benefited by the education of the people of the country. There are certain complexities in this type of planning as it requires working out of the amounts of educational investments and measurements of the return in the form of benefits to the individuals as well as to the society is to be calculated, which is very difficult. Check Your Progress
Q.1. Which approch of Educational Planning is more suitable in Indian context and why?

Ans:______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
Q.2. List and describe advantages of manpower approach in Education Planning.

Ans:______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7.5 PERSPECTIVE PLANNING

As discussed earlier, you know that the planning may be done for a short period of time or for an extended period of ten or more years i.e. the long term. The planning done for longer period generally includes perspective planning. 78

7.5.1 Meaning of Perspective Planning A Perspective Plan is a written document supported by illustrations, containing developmental policies, strategies and general programmes of the authority. Being a long term plan, the basic purpose of the Perspective plan is to provide a policy framework for further detailing and it serves as a guide for the authority in preparation of the developmental plan. Perspective Plan preparation revolves around the idea of optimum allocation of available and potential resources to enhance the quality of human life and its influence on national development. Optimum allocation and effective utilization of resources can be only met with adequate and appropriate provision of infrastructure. Therefore, the entire exercise of the Perspective Plan preparation primarily concentrate on formulating longterm strategies which helps to allocate the resources optimally and provide adequate and appropriate infrastructure necessary for this envisaged development. These long term strategies endeavour to comprehensively encompass physical/spatial, social, economic/ fiscal and institutional/organizational dimensions. The goal of any Perspective Plan is to guide towards achievement of a better quality of human life. This planning initiative will endeavour to provide a sustainable and operational framework for suitable strategies, policies, and priorities for resource planning to achieve the desired objective. As the Educational objectives are formulated on the basis of the national objectives or the goals. The perspective planning in education involves a planning for which the first step is to frame the educational objectives. Long-term perspective plans based on different futuristic scenarios should be prepared for educational development at district, state and national levels. These plans should form basis for mid-term and short- term plans. For our country the following may be some of the objectives for educational development. (1) (2) All new elementary schools should be located in such areas where there are no such schools. All the children in the age-group of 6 to 11 years must be enrolled in the schools. Efforts should be made to bring all the children in the age-group 11 to 14 years to the schools so that the Constitutional Directive is implemented. Adult literacy should be given high priority raising the percentage of literates both among men and women to nearly 100 percent. Vocational Education should be provided in all secondary schools. 79

(3) (4)

(5) (6)

Stepping up of involvement of educational institutions and voluntary organizations for undertaking adult literacy/adult education programmes. Management of education should be taken over from the Local Boards and entrusted to Educational Authorities, basic Shiksha Parishads, with corresponding Zilla, Shiksha Samitis and blocks Shiksha Samitis, with power to levy Education Cess of enhancing tuition fees. In the establishment of new Institutions of National or Statewide importance, a deliberate effort should be made to set them up in cities and towns other than the major metropolitan centers where such centers are now concentrated.


During perspective planning the resource-material, human and financial are to be availed for an extended period of time for the achievement of the objectives. The efforts should be made to raise the resources throughout the plan. The objectives have to be reformulated, in case, the efforts fail to move up the desirable resources due to various constraints. 7.5.2 Advantages of Perspective Planning From the above discussion, it may be clear to you that perspective planning is essential to achieve long term educational goals. Let us now have a look on the advantages of perspective planning: Continuity As the education is a continuous process, the perspective planning that is long term also believes that the development and progress of education cannot be attained in a short period of one year or five years. During perspective planning the needs of education for the future are formulated in accordance with the needs of the society. Perspective planning also enables the programmes of development to continue unhindered for a longer period of time. Futuristic Perspective planning emphasizes on development on the basis of future needs. It looks towards the child as a future citizen and plans for him in such a manner that when he grows up he will be a useful, efficient and law-abiding citizen. Optimum Utilization of the Resources The perspective planning involves maximum utilization of the available resources. 80

There is no constraint to utilize the resources within a short duration of time e.g. when a short term plan is framed, then all the financial allocation must be utilized within shot period like one year. At the end of financial year the funds have to be exhausted, otherwise it lapses. To escape from the situation, purchases or expenditure on substandard items and articles are made. During perspective planning care is taken to replenish the shortage of resources financial, materials or personal. Periodic Appraisal As the perspective planning is long term planning thus monitoring and evaluation from time to time is possible. The periodic appraisal helps in reformulating and reorganizing the plan for the remaining period and for the future according to the results of evaluation and thus ensures the attainment of the objectives. Broader Aims It is important to mention that during perspective planning the objective of educational planning is not narrow, like to enhance the efficiency and ability of the individuals but the broader aims are formulated like to bring desirable social change. 7.6 LET US SUM UP In the present lesson, we discussed about the meaning, nature, characteristics and principles of planning along with the approaches of educational planning and perspective planning. Educational Planning is the process of determining events, conditions and needs of educational system in future, aimed at keeping pace with the changing environment to improve the system to find out coordination between goals and means. It is done to improve upon the functioning with a vision. There are various approaches to planning which include Extrapolation, Demographic projection, Social Demand Approach, Manpower Approach and Rate of Return Approach. All these approaches have their limitations. Perspective Planning is done for a longer period of 15 to 20 years, in such a plan the first step is that of framing objectives. Under this, the estimate of the resource material, human and finances is done. 7.7 Q.1. Q.2. Q.3. UNIT END EXERCISES Define Educational Planning and Discuss its Nature. Explain the Principles of Educational Planning. Give the steps of Educational Planning. 81

Q.4. Q.5. 7.8 1. 2. 3. 4.

Delineate the Approaches of Educational Planning. Explain the concept of Perspective Planning. What are the advantages of such planning? SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Bhargaua, B.K (1985) : Planning and Economic Policy, The Indian Experiment, New Delhi ; Sudha Publications. Bhatnagar, R.P, and Aggarwal, V, (2004) : Educational Administration, Supervision, Planning and Financing, Meerut, R.Lall Book Depot. Mathur, S.S (1975) : Educational Administration, Principles and Practices, Jalandhar, Krishna Brother. Shukla, P.D (1983) : Administration of Education in India, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.





8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Meaning and Definitions of Communication 8.3.1 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.1 Communication Process

Role of Communication in School Management Methods of Communication Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

Communication is a process that allows beings - in particular humans - to exchange information by one of several methods. Communication requires that some kinds of symbols from a kind of language are exchanged. There are auditory means, such as speaking or singing, and nonverbal, physical means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch or eye contact. Communication is universal to all human beings and central to our lives; In fact, it regulates and shapes all human behaviour. If we talk about an educational organization, it has many working parts that necessitate the establishment of a means of interchanging thoughts and coordinating efforts. Therefore, it is important for us to have a clear 83

understanding of the concepts of communication. What is communication? Why is it important in educational administration? What are the various methods of communication in an organization? In this chapter we will try to answer these questions. 8.2 OBJECTIVES

After reading the lesson you will be able to Explain the meaning of the term Communication Specify the meaning of Communication in Educational Administration Discuss the role of Communication in School Management and Administration Delineate the methods of Communication 8.3 MEANING AND DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNICATION

Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for all beings, and some machines. Many or all, fields of study dedicate some attention to communication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sure about what aspect of communication one is speaking about. Some definitions are broad, recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beings within the parameters of human symbolic interaction. Some of the more functional definitions of 84

communication describe it as the transfer or conveying of meaning (Oxford Dictionary), transmission of stimuli (Colin Cherry), one mind affecting another. (Claude Shannon) one system influences another (Charles E; Osgood), the mechanism through which human relations exist and develop, or sharing of experience on the basis of commonness (Wilbur Schramm). Let us discuss few definitions of the term communication : Any act by which one person gives to or receives from person information about that persons needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes. Communication is the process of exchanging information and ideas. An active process, it involves encoding, transmitting, and decoding intended messages. There are many means of communicating and many different language systems. Speech and language are only a portion of communication. Other aspects of communication may enhance or even eclipse the linguistic code. These aspects are paralinguistic, non-linguistic, and Communication is the generic process of translating information from one domain to one or more domains through a medium. A domain can be the mental world of a person, the computational domain of a computer, the economic domain of a market, and so on. Each medium (voice, images, etc.) to some degree structures the information as it is translated. Talking about communication in educational administration it perceives as: Whether in a faculty meeting, a mentoring session, or a parent-teacher conference, effective communication is the foundation of a healthy social life in a school. Throughout the Institutes, the instructors model clear, nonjudgmental, and objective speaking, and offer specific listening and speaking skills that ease difficult situations and lead to resolution of recurring frustrations. Communication is more than mere transferring or transmission of ideas or thoughts. It is not a static act as some of the earlier definitions suggest but it is a dynamic process of action and interaction towards a desired goal, as suggested by later definitions. Communication is, therefore, a process of sharing or exchange of ideas, information, 85

knowledge, attitude or feeling among two or more persons through certain signs and symbols. In the above definition communicator is significant who desires to have some impact upon another person, a group of persons as the initiator of the communication process. He is the prime motivator of the communicatory activity. A communicatee is one who has experienced some degree of awareness that another is attempting to convey an image. Whether the communicator has succeeded in conveying the image in its actual or distorted form is measured on the communicatees side of the picture. The administrator is regarded as a key link in the communications system of the organization. The major portion of the administrators time is spent in communicating with personnel within the organization and those outside, but related to it. Without communication, coordination would be impossible. Without communicating, there could be a little agreement on such important matters as the goals of the organization, how they are to be achieved, and how they might be appraised. From the above definitions, it is clear that communication involves following dimensions : i. Content (what type of things are communicated) ii. Source (by whom) iii. Form (in which form) iv. Channel (through which medium) v. Destination/Receiver (to whom) vi. Purpose/Pragmatic aspect (with what kind of results)

Types of Communication



Verbal Communication Verbal communication is when a person puts across a message by speaking or in writing. The message can be sent to an individual, a team or a group. The message can be sent in person, via an intercom, over the phone, email etc. Non-verbal Communication There are numerous ideas, thoughts and feelings that are communicated without words. Only one third of a message is sent in a person-to-person exchange in words alone. People have the ability to read non-verbal cues. These cues are learnt from the environment. Silence can be a type of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is divided into six types. They include body language, physical characteristics and appearance, voice, space, environment and time. From the above discussion, you may have got the clear concept of communication. Before we proceed further, its better to check your progress by responding to the following questions : 8.3.1 Communication Process : The communication process can be understood by taking Shannons (1948) model of the communication process.

1. An information source. Presumably a person who creates a message. 2. The message, which is both sent by the information source and received by the destination. 3. A transmitter. For Shannons immediate purpose a telephone instrument that captures an audio signal, converts it into an electronic signal, and amplifies it for transmission through the telephone network. Transmission is readily generalized within Shannons 87

information theory to encompass a wide range of transmitters. The simplest transmission system, that is associated with face-to-face communication, has at least two layers of transmission. The first, the mouth (sound) and body (gesture), create and modulate a signal. The second layer, which might also be described as a channel, is built of the air (sound) and light (gesture) that enable the transmission of those signals from one person to another. A television broadcast would obviously include many more layers, with the addition of cameras and microphones, editing and filtering systems, a national signal distribution network (often satellite), and a local radio wave broadcast antenna. 4. The signal, which flows through a channel. There may be multiple parallel signals, as is the case in face-to-face interaction where sound and gesture involve different signal systems that depend on different channels and modes of transmission. There may be multiple serial signals, with sound and/or gestures turned into electronic signals, radio waves, or words and pictures in a book. 5. A carrier or channel, which is represented by the small unlabelled box in the middle of the model. The most commonly used channels include air, light, electricity, radio waves, paper, and postal systems. Note that there may be multiple channels associated with the multiple layers of transmission, as described above. 6. Noise, in the form of secondary signals that obscure or confuse the signal carried. Given Shannons focus on telephone transmission, carriers, and reception, it should not be surprising that noise is restricted to noise that obscures or obliterates some portion of the signal within the channel. This is a fairly restrictive notion of noise, by current standards, and a somewhat misleading one. Today we have at least some media which are so noise-free that compressed signals are constructed with an absolutely minimal amount of information and little likelihood of signal loss. In the process, Shannons solution to noise, redundancy, has been largely replaced by a minimally redundant solution: error detection and correction. Today we use noise more as a metaphor for problems associated with effective listening. 7. A receiver. In Shannons conception, the receiving telephone instrument. In face to face communication a set of ears (sound) and eyes (gesture). In television, several layers of receiver, including an antenna and a television set. 88

8. A destination. Presumably a person who consumes and processes the message. Besides, Shannons model, an interactive model, that is an elaboration of Shannons model without changing any other element of Shannons model is also there. The key concept associated with this elaboration is that destinations provide feedback on the messages they receive such that the information sources can adapt their messages, in real time. Feedback is a message (or a set of messages). The source of feedback is an information source. The consumer of feedback is a destination. Feedback is transmitted, received, and potentially disruptable via noise sources. None of this is visible in the typical depiction of the interactive model. This doesnt diminish the importance of feedback or the usefulness of elaborating Shannons model to include it. People really do adapt their messages based on the feedback they receive. It is useful, however, to notice that the interactive model depicts feedback at a much higher level of abstraction than it does messages.

Up to this you may have got the understanding about the meaning and the process of communication. Before moving to the role of communication in school management, check your progress. Check Your Progress Q.1. Explain the meaning of Communication. Ans._______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 89


Illustrate the process of communication.

Ans._______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 8.4 ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN SCHOOL MANAGEMENT

You have just been acquainted with some definitions of communication. It is evident that communication is one of the basic functions of educational administration and its importance can hardly be overemphasized. It is a process of transmitting information, ideas, thoughts, opinions and plans between various parts of an educational organization. Effective communication is required at various levels and for various aspects in an organization. Many of the problems that occur in an organization are the direct result of people failing to communicate. Faulty communication causes the most problems. It leads to confusion and can cause a good plan to fail. Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another. It involves a sender transmitting an idea to a receiver. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit. It is the chain of understanding that integrates the members of an organization from top to bottom, bottom to top, and side to side. The communication plays many important roles in a school management. Let us discuss a few of these roles here:
Sharing Information

Good Relations


Coordination Ordering



Debate & Discussion

Entertainment Entertainment


Establishing good interpersonal relations : It is not possible to have human relations without communication. However, good and effective communication is required not only for good human relations but also for good and successful administration. Communication undoubtedly plays a foundational role in the development of any healthy relationship, and it often serves to bridge the gap between people with misunderstandings, or to solidify a mutual sense of commitment. Indeed, communication plays a critical role in all phases of interpersonal relations, from incipience to maintenance. Sharing Information : Communication provides a fund of knowledge, expertise, and skills that enable people to operate as effective members. Thus, one reason that we engage in communication is to share information. In an organization, the administrator informs the employees about the new educational policies, rules and regulation etc. The teachers share information related to innovative practices in education and related to their subjects. Coordination : It is through the communication that the administrator may convey information to the employees in schools and the employees submit their work reports, comments, grievances and suggestions to their seniors or management. Organization should have effective and speedy communication policy and procedures to avoid delays, misunderstandings, confusion or distortions of facts and to establish harmony and coordination among all the concerned people and departments. Ordering (Command and Instructions) : The head of the school or administrator can pass the orders orally or in written forms that the teachers and other employees have to obey. According to the purpose, an administrator conveys the orders in written or oral form. The written communication or message should be clear, purposeful and concise with correct words, to avoid any misinterpretation of your message. Written communications provides a permanent record for future use and it also gives an opportunity to employees to put up their comments or suggestions in writing. Influence and Persuasion : Because persuasion helps in reaching decision or consensus on public policy so that it is possible to control and govern. However, it is possible that one may resort to persuasion with a bad motive. Motivation : Communication is also a basic tool for motivation, which can improve morale of the employees in schools. The administrator should clarify to employees about 91

what is to be done, how well they are doing and what can be done for better performance to improve their motivation. He can prepare a written statement, clearly outlining the relationship between company objectives and personal objectives and integrating the interest of the two. Integration : The administrator in schools may build a clear understanding of the goals and objectives of the school by using effective communication method and may get an emotional commitment from the teachers and other employees. He may give regular feedback on the progress of the school to the staff through meetings and to higher authority via letters, telephone etc. The teachers and other staff may also give their feedback to their superiors. Apart from helping them feel involved with the organization it is also enlightening for the management. Thus, effective communication channels help in the integration of the organization and its progress. Debate and Discussion : By encouraging the discussion and debates at vertical as well as horizontal level, new ideas or suggestions come out. This enhances knowledge of the teachers and also some innovative ideas can be implemented in improvement of the school. Entertainment : Human beings must be entertained to break the monotony of routine and divert their attention from the troubles and tensions of daily life. Check Your Progress Q.1. Enlist the roles of Communication in School Management.

Ans.________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Q.2. How does Communication help in Integration of the School Organization?

Ans.________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 8.5 METHODS OF COMMUNICATION

Studying the communication process is important because you coach, coordinate, counsel, evaluate, and supervise through this process. There are various methods of communication : 92

Depending upon the flow of message: Upward: The communication flowing from subordinates to superiors, usually concerning employees comments about themselves, their reactions about others, their reactions to practices and policies, and their thoughts about their work, (Andrews& Herschel, 1996). Along with this, the subordinates send messages providing answers to inquiries, reporting on activities, tasks, and projects, communicating, understanding about practices and policies, or revealing job-related problems. Downward: Information flowing from the top of the organizational management hierarchy and telling people in the organization what is important (mission) and what is valued (policies). Superiors can send job instructions, information on procedures and practices, requests for tasks, feedback on job already in progress, or information on organizational goals and objectives. Horizontal : Horizontal communication involves messages that are exchanged among individuals at the same hierarchical level in an organization. Also called lateral communication they serve a number of functions including problem solving, information sharing, task coordination, and conflict resolution. Depending upon the Feedback, we can categorize communication as follows : One-way Communication : In which information is always transferred in only one preassigned direction. One-way communication is not necessarily constrained to one transmission path. Usually, the information from the administrator to subordinates is one way in nature.

ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION MODEL Send Received . . . V Encode----------------->Transmit---------------->Decode TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION MODEL Send----------------->Feedback---------------->Receive . . . V Encode----------------->Transmit---------------->Decode

. . . V . . . V

Two-way : The importance of the two-way nature of communication in which the success of the process depends heavily upon the sender receiving feedback. The sender requires assurance that his / her points are being received and understood, e.g., on a notice board, if a petition has been put up, the group organising the petition need others to put their name on the petition to give feedback, and show that the message is being spread across. It is the use of a common system of symbols, signs and behaviour in exchange for information, ideas and emotions. The horizontal and upward communication is usually two way communication. Internal and external are another two methods of communication. Internal Communication: There are various methods of internal communication, which can be used in an organisation. These include notices, bulletins, newsletters, fax, letters, memos, face to face, reports, memorandums etc. External Communication : Its goals to make sure there is a free flow of appropriate information from the organization to outside. There are many different ways of external communication. This includes letters, annual reports, forms, newsletters, advertisements, telephone, internet etc Formal: Communications which are routed through what have been known as official channels, for example, a written memorandum from a managing director to his / her departmental heads to call a meeting. Formal communication can be defined as a presentation or written piece that strictly adheres to rules, conventions and formal procedure and is free of informal expression. It connotes the flow of the information by the lines of authority formally. The different forms of formal communication include, notices, verbal (oral or written) orders, departmental meetings, conferences, telephone calls, bulletins etc. Informal : Informal messages are exchanges outside of official channels, in hallways, in coffee rooms, at parties, at lunches, in parking lots, or in bars after work. Informal networks are often used intentionally to bypass formal channels to insure that information gets to the place where it is most needed. Informal networks are developed and sustained by special relationships that are formed by its members. Information is passed on by word of mouth among interested colleagues. The small number of employees in a small organisation means that 94

most of the communication is informal. In a larger organization, communication becomes more formal as each employee / worker will come into personal contact with few others outside their own area of work. There are lots of different types of communication. Some of them combine with other methods as both types of communication can be used. 8.6 LET US SUM UP

Communication is, therefore, a process of sharing or exchange of ideas, information, knowledge, attitude or feeling among two or more persons through certain signs and symbols. Whether in a faculty meeting, a mentoring session, or a parent-teacher conference, effective communication is the foundation of a healthy social life in a school. In school management, communication plays many important roles like sharing information, establishing good relations, debate & discussion, motivation, integration, entertainment, ordering, persuasion etc. There are many methods of communication e.g. Upward, downward and horizontal on the basis of flow of information, external and internal, informal and formal, one-way and two-way depending upon the feedback. 8.7 Q.1. Q.2. UNIT END EXERCISES Define Communication. Demonstrate the process of communication. Describe the meaning of the communication in Educational Administration. Explain the importance of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Educational Organization. Discuss the Role of Communication in School Management with Illustrations. Delineate various Methods of Communication that are effective in different situations in an Educational Organization. Differentiate between Formal and Informal Communication. Also mention the situations that are best suited to these two methods of communication. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Andrews, P.H. & Herschel, R.T (1996) : Organizational communication. Empowerment in a technological society, Boston ; Houghton Mifflin Company. 95

Q.3. Q.4. Q.5. 8.8 1.

2. 3. 4.

Black, J. & Bryant, J. (1993) : Introduction to Mass Communication. Wim C. Brown Publishers. Fiske, J (1982) : Introduction to Communication Studies, London, Methue. Griffin, E (1991) : A First Look at Communication Theory, New York, McGrawHill. ModelOf Communication.htm




BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND OVERCOMING THESE COMMUNICATION BARRIERS 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.1 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Meaning of Communication Role of Communication in Educational Administration Methods of Communication barriers in Communication Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

In any educational situation there are always involved atleast two persons, these may be the teacher and the taught , the student and the author of the Book or the parents and the child . Generally, these are the persons who participate in the educational process and whenever more than one person is taking part in any activity, there takes place some type of communication . The Communication may be verbal or non-verbal. In the process of communication many a times, we face number of difficulties due to the interference of various factors which become barriers for effective communication. But in the field of education communication is considered very Important because success and failure of educational efforts depends upon Effective Communication. Therefore, in this lesson we are explaining the meaning of Communication in Educational Administration, its barriers and ways to control 97

Communication barriers. 9.2 OBJECTIVES After reading this lesson, a student should also be able to : To explain the meaning of Communication. To explain the various methods of Communication . To explain the Communication Barriers. To explain the ways to control the Communication Barriers. 9.3 MEANING OF COMMUNICATION

Communication is the process by which information, ideas, explanation and directions are transmitted from person to person, person to group or group to group through verbal or non-verbal techniques. In this process , there is an involvement of three elements a sender, a message and a receiver, which simply means in relation to the class room situation A Teacher (a sender) Subject matter (a message) and learner (a receiver). Through the process of communication individuals are brought in mutual relationship which further enhances the chances of cooperation, coordination and mutual understanding. 9.5 METHODS OF COMMUNICATION

Generally, Communication is Communicated with the help of two methods Viz Verbal and Non Verbal :Verbal Techniques : Which includes verbal and written language, facial expression, bodily movements, postures, art. Non-Verbal Techniques : Which includes, communication through facial expression , through touch, style, action and signals . 9.6 BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION

The communication suffers if in the transmission of message there are distortions. Distortions may be at any of the components described above in the process of 98

communication. The message may not be clearly identified or the sender may be poor in encoding or the channel may be ineffective or decoding may be difficult due to the ignorance of the receiver. All these are barriers in effective communication. These barriers can be identified and steps may be taken to overcome them. Below we are describing these barriers. 1. Filtering :

This is one important barrier. It refers to a sender manipulating information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver. For example, when a teacher tells his principal what he feels, the principal wants to hear, he is filtering information. Similarly, when a student tells his teacher that he is the best teacher, he likes to hear this, the information is being filtered. 2. Selective Perception :

The receivers in the communication process, selective see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experiences, background , and other personal characteristics. The teachers many a times hear only those things from the students that help in their teaching work. The students while talking with the teachers may say something that goes against the needs or the motivations of the teachers in that case the teachers may not hear those things. 3. Emotions :

How the receiver feels at the time of the receipt of a communication message will influence how he or she interprets it. The same message received when you are angry is likely to be interpreted differently when you are in a happy mood. Extreme emotions such as jubilation or depression are most likely to hinder effective communication. In such cases, we are prone to disregard our rational and objective thinking processes and substitute emotional judgements e.g. when a teacher is in a bad mood or had a quarrel with his wife or someone else, the students minor fault is looked by him in a magnified manner. 4. Language :

Words mean different things to different persons. The meaning of words is not in the words ; It is in us. Age, education and cultural backgrounds are three of the more obvious variables that influence the language a person uses and the definitions they give to 99

words. A child coming from the slum area might use words that are considered vulgar by the children of those who live in better environment . The teacher while communicating with the students should keep in mind the backgrounds from which his students are coming. He might remember that while his various students use the same language say Hindi or Punjabi the usage of the language by them is far from uniform. Ways to control communication barriers 1. Use Feedback :

Many communication problems can be attributed directly to : misunderstandings and inaccuracies. These are less likely to occur if you ensure that the feedback loop is utilized in the communication process. The feedback can be verbal, written or nonverbal. 2. Simple Language :

Since language can be a barrier, the sender should seek to structure messages in ways that will make them clear and understandable. Words should be chosen carefully. The sender needs to simplify his language. He should take into consideration the receivers to whom his message is directed. He should avoid long sentences and difficult words that may be beyond the range of understanding of the students. Remember that effective communication is achieved when the message is both received and understood. 3. Active Listening :

Listening is an active search for meaning, whereas hearing is passive. Listening, infact, is more tiring than talking. Many of the people are poor listeners causing communication problems with special reference to hearing. Listening demands intellectual efforts unlike hearing and it demands total concentration. The average person speaks at a rate of about 150 words per minute whereas the average person listens at the rate of about 1000 words per minute. 4. Control your Emotions :

It would be natural to assume that we always communicate in a fully rational manner. We are often affected by our emotions while communicating with others. Emotionally upset people generally become confused over an issue and are more likely to misunderstand the incoming messages. We may also fail to express our outgoing messages 100

clearly and accurately. In other words, disturbed state of mind of a man may not allow him to understand completely and correctly what he actually wanted to convey. Therefore, controlling our emotions can prove very effective in controlling barriers of communications. Check Your Progress Fill in the blanks : Q.1. Q.2. Q.3. Q.4. 9.7 the process by which information, ideas, explanation and directions are transmitted from one person to another. Communication in which information is always transferred in only one pre-assigned direction is called as.................. The Communication suffers, if in the transmission of messages there are.............. ............... .................. and .................... are the barriers in communication. LET US SUM UP

In the present lesson, we have tried to explain the meaning of communication, its barriers and ways to control them. In educational administration effective communication is of very great importance. The communication can be verbal or nonverbal. The verbal communication is related to written or spoken language whereas non verbal communication is through gestures, facial expressions, bodily movements, art etc. Moreover there are a number of barriers that effect the communication process. The main barriers are of filtering, selective perceptions, emotions and language. In order to control these barriers, certain measures are also suggested in the same lesson which is feedback, use of simple language, active listening and control of emotions. 9.8 UNIT END EXERCISES

In this component, we have tried to check the progress of the learners by attempting the following exercises : Q1. What do you understand by the term communication? Q2. Discuss the important barriers of communication with relation to Educational Administration? Q3. Discuss the important ways and means to overcome the communication barriers in Educational Administration ? 101

9.9 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. Aggarwal, J.C (1994) : Educational Administration, Management and Supervision, Arya Book Depot, New Delhi. 2. Chand, Tara and Prakash Ravi (1997) : Advanced Educational Administration, Kanishka Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi. 3. Lulla B.P. and Murty S.K (1976) : Essentials of Educational Administration, Mohindra Capital Publishers, Chandigarh. 4. Mukerjee, S.N (1962) : Administration of Education in India , Acharya Book Depot, Baroda. 5. Sinha, R (1977) : Educational Administration in India, The Indian Publications Bureau Hill Road, Ambala Cantt, 133001. 6. Verma, Romesh (2005) : Educational Administration, Anmol Publications Pvt, Ltd., New Delhi. KEY TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Communication, one-way communication, distortions, filtering, selective perception & language.




STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN J&K STATE 10.0 STRUCTURE 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Objectives 10.3 Structure and Development of Education 10.4 Development of Education in J&K State 10.4.1 Pre-Independence Educational Development 10.4.2 Educational Development in Post Independence Period in J&K State.

10.5 Educational Ladder 10.6 Educational Ladder in J&K State 10.7 Let Us Sum Up 10.8 Unit End Exercises 10.9 Suggested Further Readings 10.1 INTRODUCTION

Education in India has traditionally been an intermixture of religion, culture and limited knowledge or training in skills. Vedic, Buddhist, and Muslim educational institutions i.e. Gurukuls, Vihars and Maqtabs and Madarasas, all have been ungraded single teacher schools. Great advancement and improvement has taken place in the field of education. Now the system caters to the vivid and distinct needs of the students. We have developed a unique, sophisticated & complex structure of education which in a gradual manner takes the students from first introductary phase of education to highly advanced and specialised educational levels. All this transformation did not take place in one day. It is the result of 103

regular research, changes and modifications done in the field of education during the course of history of education in the last one and a half century. Today we have a very complex structure of education based on highly graded educational needs of students in various stages of education i.e. Pre-Primary to University and Professional education of specialised & technical nature, in numerous streams, subjects and courses. In this lesson we will discuss the structure and development of education in J&K state in Pre-Independence and Post - Independence periods. 10.2 OBJECTIVES After studying the lesson, the students will be able to Understand the present Structure of Educational Development. Explain the educational structure in the State of J&K. Describe the development of the educational structure in J&K. Define the Educational Ladder. Explain and discuss the Educational Ladder in the State of J&K. 10.3 STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION The Educational structure in India owes its origin to the Woods Despatch of 1854, which postulated a pyramidical educational framework. Woods educational structure, started from introductory Primary level & moved upward passing through middle school to high school, to college and to university. It was only after independence that education was viewed as an important instrument of change and development. Various Commissions and Committees were constituted to evolve an educational system and Structure suited to and responsive to specific needs of the country. To begin with, Secondary Education Commission 1952 suggested : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 4-5 years of primary or Junior Basic education stage; Middle, Junior Secondary or Senior Basic stage of Education of 3 years of duration. Hr. Sec. Stage of 4 years and First Degree Course of 3 years duration. However in 1954 Central Advisory Board of Education modified this scheme of education and recommended the following pattern : 104

(i) (ii) (iii)

8 years of integrated elementary (Basic) education. 3 or 4 years of secondary education with diversification of courses; and 3 years University Education after Higher Secondary School Leading to first degree.

Indian Education Commission (1964-66) headed by Dr. D. S. Kothari & famously known as Kothari Commission recommended the adoption of the following uniform pattern of Educational Structure. i. Pre Primary education, prior to the commencement of general education of 1-3 years. ii. Primary stage of 7 to 8 years divided into :a) b) iii. iv. A lower Primary stage of four or five years. A higher primary stage of two or three years.

A Lower Secondary stage of two or three years. A Higher Secondary stage of two years for general and three years for vocational education.


A higher education stage of three years.

The Commission therefore, proposed a uniform pattern of 10+2+3. National Policy statement on Education (1968); Committee of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) 1972; The conference of Education Secretaries DPIs 1972 and National Committee on 10+2+3 Educational structure too emphasized adoption of 10+2+3 educational structure. National Policy on Education (1986) however in its 29 pages report further authenticated 10+2+3 pattern and further emphasized decentralisation of education by way of sharing of responsibility between centre and states, peoples involvement, establishment of National level Mechanism, State Board of education and village level education committees to facilitate educational planning at micro level. The Jammu and Kashmir has also witnessed changes in the structure of Education from time to time and has ultimately followed the 10+2+3 pattern as envisaged by Kothari Commission, at present we have 10 years of schooling leading to matriculation, 2 years of 105

Higher Secondary Stage which provides diversification of courses and three years of Degree Course leading to graduation. 10.4 DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN J&K

Jammu and Kashmir state got its present political entity in the wake of the Amritsar Treaty signed between Maharaja Gulab Singh and the British Govt. in 1846. Prior to that all the four regions of the state Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh and Gilgit passed through great upheavals resulting in the steep decline in the education of the masses. As such it would be worth while to study the development of education in J&K state in historical perspective. We can categorise the course of development of education in the state in two phases development of education in J&K (Jammu and Kashmir) in Pre-Independence period and development of education in the Post-Independence period. 10.4.1 DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN THE PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD : Development of Education in the state of Jammu & Kashmir has got its own history under the rule of different rulers. It seems that throughout history, the people remained interested in cultural pursuits. This fact is revealed when one goes through the literature of different periods such as the Hindu period, the Medieval period and so on. If one goes through the literature of Hindu period, one learns that Kashmir, has been the seat of higher learning and the knowledge of Sanskrit rose too high during the period upto 1320 A.D. During the Muslim period, Education continuously got recognition by the rulers and people. After going through the history of J&K state during the regime of the Muslims, one cannot deny the hard reality that the Muslim Kings generally encouraged education and learning in normal time in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. The meritorious King Zain-ul-abdin for the purpose of learning merit, built extensive lodging houses for the students. The Sikh Rulers remained in power in Kashmir for a short period of about two and a half decades (1819-46 A.D.). Throughout the Sikh Rule, the frontier districts of Kashmir remained in a state of turmoil. Education under the Dogra rule (1846-1947) got impetus and an attempt was made to improve the quality of education in the state. Maharaja Ranbir Singh (185785) made Liberal donations for establishments of Punjab University and Sanskrit institutions of Varanasi. He founded a translation bureau to translate books of other 106

languages in Hindi and established first printing press. He was the first ruler to open Middle standard in Srinagar to begin with the Modern institutionalized formal instruction in state where various subjects were taught. He also opened two pathshalas, one each at Jammu and Utterbeni. Next to follow him was Maharaja Partap Singh (1885-1925) he also paid good attention to education. He opened several new schools. There were 10 (ten) schools on modern lines functioning in state in 1890. He re-organised the schools in state on the lines of Punjab University. Two colleges were also established, one each in Jammu and Srinagar. He appointed a committee under the Chairmanship of Mr. M. Sharp, Education Commission in 1905 and with his tireless efforts by 1911, the number of public high, middle and primary Schools was 379 and in next 10 years i.e., by 1921 there were 1175 educational institutions on modern lines established in the state with 32271 boys and girls studying in them. Maharaja Hari Singh was equally interested in the expansion of Education in J&K state. His ambition was to make the state of J&K an educationally modern and advanced state. He was the first ruler in the state to introduce Compulsory Primary Education. He invited Dr. Zakir Hussain to advise on the ways and means for implementing recommendations of Wardha Education Scheme. In 1938 an Educational Organisation Committee was constituted under the chairmanship of Mr. K.G. Saiyidain. The Committee made several recommendations regarding the duration of Primary education, Universalization of education, Teacher training, Secondary education, female and adult education. Implementing the recommendations, a Teacher Training School at Srinagar was established in 1938 and at Jammu in 1944. As a result of these actions there was a significant development of education in the state. In 1946-47 there were as many as 2158 educational institutions in the state, where in 1,34,309 students studied. The state expenditure on education increased to Rs. 37,51,500/- in 1946-47 from Rs.1,10,000/at the beginning of his rule in the state. Check Your Progress Q.1. Ans : Write a short note on structural development of education ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________


Q.2. Ans :

Explain in about 50 words the development of education in the Pre-Independence period. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

10.4.2 Educational Development in Post-Independence period in J&K State : India got Independence in 1947 and Maharaja Hari Singh had to leave the state and the rule of the state came into the hands of the people. The state government showed keen interest in educational development in the state. It setup a Text Book Advisory Board, to prepare text books for class 1 to 8 in 1948. In the same year, Jammu and Kashmir University was established. Social Education was amplified, with three fold increase of social education centres from 40 to 120. In 1953-54 education was made free at all stages in the state. A Teacher Training College and a new Arts College was established in Jammu in 1957-58. Academy of art and culture was established, with these steps taken there was a significant increase in the number of institutions. In 1972 one more university as Kashmir University was established. The number of colleges in the state was 23, 14 for boys & 9 for girls in 1972-74 as against 12 in 1961 besides it, there were 12 professional colleges functioning in the state. The Government kept on working relentlessly to promote education and for its structural development on the modern lines. A committee on education was appointed in 1964-66 under the chairmanship of the Governor, Sh. Bhagwan Sahay, to review educational development in state and recommended that primary and middle school stage should be of 8 years duration, secondary stage of 4 years, class (IX to XII) and that class P.U.C. and 1st year T.D.C should be transferred to this stage. A five years university stage, i.e. 3 years for first degree and two years for post graduation was also recommended. Revision of curricula, construction of Jammu and Kashmir Board of Secondary Education and Special stress was laid on the education of women and girls. It also made recommendations for upgrading institutional planning, supervision, text books, methods of teaching, evaluation and vice versa. In 1974 state government framed private Educational Institutions rules and made provisions for grant-in-aid. In 1976 a conference was organised for introduction of 10+2+3 structure of education on the analogy of the Indian Union, various recommendations of 108

Bhagwan Sahay Committee were executed. State Board of School Education was constituted. However in 1975 a Round Table Conference of college and school teachers was orgainsed which studied various problems & recommended school and community to go closer, introduction of universal primary education, introduction of 10+2+3 pattern. As a result of the above measures the educational development in the state got an impetus, at the end of 1980-81 the primary school enrolment in the state touched 5,48,000. There were 813 High and Higher secondary schools with enrolment of 65,000, 22 colleges with an enrolment of 16,000 and 2 universities with 40 teaching departments with 5,351 students enrolled. In 1984 the number of schools increased to 11,000 with an estimated enrolment of 10, 15, 000. Education system which was based on traditional lines in J&K state, was recognised, re-structured on modern lines by Dogra rulers. They tried their best to bring about qualitative and quantitative improvement in educational field and to a great extent they were successful in their attempt. But educational expansion virtually got impetus in post- independence period. Extensive efforts were made to ensure that a school is within an easy access of every school going child and that there is a uniform pattern and structure of education in the state of J&K as in the rest of the country. 10.5 EDUCATIONAL LADDER The literal meaning of the term Ladder refers to a stair case. The term ladder in education specifies the step by step process of imparting knowledge and skills to the learners in a system of education. Just as one while going upstairs, follows certain steps and ascends the ladder gradually . Similarly, in attaining education we follow certain steps and ascend from the lower rungs to the higher rungs step by step. The educational ladder thus, means different stages of education connected with each other in a ascending order as in a ladder each stage in preparatory step for the next higher stage. Evidently, education can not proceed without ladder. The educational ladder involves a systematic order of the various stages. There is no confusion or overlapping and there is no gap and lapses, no waste of time due to the repetition or duplication of courses because of an ideal Educational ladder. First concerted effort, in this connection, was initiated by the British rulers through Woods Despatch of 1854. It was through this Despatch that the basis of structural 109

development of education on modern lines was laid. Numerous Committees, Commissions, Conferences and Advisory Boards were constituted for this purpose. On their recommendations, three stage educational structure was adopted which constituted of Primary, Secondary and Higher Stages of Education. And vide recommendations of Indian Commission of Education (1964-66) and consequent recommendations of Central Advisory Board of Education (C.A.B.E) of 1974, National Review Committee (1999), National Policy on Education (1968), C.A.B.E. (1972), conference of education secretaries and D.P.I.S. National committee on 10+2+3 Educational structure. 10.6 EDUCATIONAL LADDER IN J&K STATE

As we already learnt that in Ancient and Medival periods Education in the state of J&K was unstructured and ungraded. It was carried on traditional lines. It was only Dogra rule (1846-1947) that efforts were made to carry out educational activities on modern lines. In 1976 10+2+3 structure of education was adopted as per Recommendations of Kothari Commission (1964-66) in J&K State, i.e., (1) (I) (II) (III) (2) I. Primary Stage (8 to 10 years) Pre Primary Stage Lower Primary Stage (Class I to IV) Higher Primary Stage (Class V to VIII) Secondary Stage 1-3 years 4 years 3 Years (3 years)

(a) Lower Secondary Stage (Class VIII to X) 3 years (b) Vocational Education 1 to 3 years 1 to 3 years 2 years 1 to 3 years


(a) Higher Secondary Stage General Edu. Class XI, XII (b) Vocational Education


University Stage I. First Degree Course (Graduation) II. Second Degree Course 3 years 2 to 3 years

Recently pre-primary stage of education has been reconsolidated through Rehaber-e-Taleem. Efforts are being made to ensure Compulsory Universalization of 110

Education and Universal retention at least upto the Primary Stage through Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan. 10.7 LET US SUM UP

Traditionally Education was ungraded and unstructured without any uniformity. It was only after Woods Despatch of 1854 that education was structured on modern lines. It was only after Independence that education was viewed as an instrument of change and due attention was paid for its development. The Structure of Education in J&K State too was based on traditional lines. It was only in 1846, that Maharaja Gulab Singh established schools on modern lines. All Dogra rulers followed the same course and developed on Educational structure. After independence relentless efforts were made for structural development of education. Appointment of various Commissions and Committees resulted in present 10+2+3 pattern of education. 10.8 Q.1. Q.2. 10.9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. UNIT END EXERCISES Discuss the growth and development of Education in J&K State in PreIndependent and Post Independent period. Explain the meaning of Educational ladder. Discuss the Educational ladder of Jammu and Kashmir State. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Banghart, F.W. and Albert,Trull Jr (1973) : Educational Planning, Mac Millan, New York. Bhatia, R. L. and Ahuja, B.N. (2001) : School Organisation and Management, Surjeet Publications, 2nd Edition, Delhi. Bhatnagar, R.P., Aggarwal, Vidya (1999) : Educational Planning; Surya Publications, Meerut. Bhatnagar, Suresh (1988) : Indian Education, Loyal Book Depot, Meerut. Verma, Romesh & Sharma, Suresh, Vinod Publications, Ludhiana.





11.0 STRUCTURE 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Objectives 11.3 Administrative set up at state level 11.4 Critical Analysis of Control of School Education in the State. 11.5 Let Us Sum Up. 11.6 Unit End Exercises. 11.7 Suggested Further Readings. 11.1 INTRODUCTION

Any organizational management requires autonomy as well as control for its functioning. The desirable educational outcomes depend on its control system. The control of school management is of two types : (a) Internal control, and (b) External control The internal control of school management is in the hands of the headmaster and may be guided or directed by managing committee. The external control management is executed by the state authorities because education is by and large the state subject. It is the responsibility of the state government to have control over management. At present, the entire Educational system in India is controlled by the Ministry of Education in the Central Govt., the state Govts., the Education Departments in various states., the local bodies, the private agencies and the universities, etc. In this lesson we will describe the administration of education at state level and we will also critically analyse the control of school education in the state. 112


OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson the learner will be able to :Explain the Educational Administrative set up in the state. Describe the responsibility of the state government for education. Critically analyze the control of school education in the state.



India is a sovereign democratic republic with a parliamentary form of govt., based on universal adult franchise. In any scheme of educational reconstruction which envisages a large-scale development of educational institutions of diverse varieties, a careful consideration of the administrative machinery is necessary so that it is responsible for spread of education and for its orderly development. The forty-second amendment of constitution in 1976 made education a concurrent subject. According to this amendment Central and State govts. are now equal partners in framing educational policies. Inspite of education being put on the concurrent list of subjects of states, in the promotion responsibility of education is not minimized. For school education the state is a main controlling authority. The machinery for educational administration in the state is composed of Department of education headed by a minister who is responsible to the legislature and is appointed by the Chief Minister. In some states he is assisted by a Minister of state or a Deputy Minister. The minister exercises his authority through the officers of the department and other agencies like the universities and assisted by the Education Secretary and Director of Education. The administration of education in any state is usually run at six levels as under : I. The Secretariat of Education The secretariat of education is headed by a Secretary of Education. There are a number of other officers of the rank of Deputy Secretary, Under Secretary etc. These officers keep a link between the Executive function of the Directorate and the policy making functions of legislature. II. The Directorate of Education The executive of the department of education is the Directorate of education. It is described as the eyes, ears and feet of the State govt. in the field of education. 113

The Directorate keeps the government in touch with the educational institutions. It passes orders for their efficient functioning, arranges for instructions and determines the financial aid to be given to them. The government institutions are directly under the control of the Directorate. It gives the grant-in-aid to the privately managed institutions. To assist the Director of Education there are one or more joint Directors, a few Deputy Directors, District Education Officers and other Inspectorial and supervisory staff. III. Deptt. of Education The two levels of administration the Secretariat and Directorate together composes the Department of Education of a state. The executive functions are in charge of the director while policy making functions are with the Secretary of Education. The functions of department of education are (I) Regulatory (II) Operational and (III) Directive. Regulatory function involves three important aspects : (a) Development of standards, rules and regulations (b) Examinations and Inspection (c) Investigation in those cases where the compliance of rules is to be examined. In Jammu and Kashmir these are two Directors of School Education-one is Director of the School Education. (Jammu) and other Director of School Education (Kashmir) IV. Regional or Circle Level Usually a state is divided into a number of regions, divisions or circles. These regions are under the charge of Deputy Director or Chief Education Officer. The regional offices are created to coordinate the efforts of District Education Officers, in the region so that the wasteful expenditure may be avoided and efficiency is ensured. V. The District Level. The level is considered of great importance. The District Office of Education is usually under the charge of a District Education Officer (DEO) or District Inspector Of School (DIOS). In J&K there are appointed Chief Education Officers who directly supervise and Control Higher Secondary schools in the districts. DIETS :- Now District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET) under the District Boards have been set up. These Institutes are responsible for making substantive and pedagogic inputs of all the programmes of education at district level and are also responsible for the training of personnel and provision of resource support to educational programmes. 114


Block Level

In many states there is another level of educational administration. It is block or Taluka level. The block level is considered to be effective level of administration of primary education. In J&K Zonal Education Officers are responsible for elementary education at the zonal level State Advisory Board of Education At present almost all the states have Advisory Boards of Education for advising the government on all matters regarding education. The advisory bodies which at present exist in a number of states are neither properly constituted nor do they perform their functions adequately. Usually the membership of the advisory bodies is governed by political favouritism. Check your progress Q.1. Ans : 11.4 Write a short note on administrative set up at state level ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CONTROL OF SCHOOL EDUCATION IN STATE

India is a vast country and it is not possible for the centre to exercise control over large enterprise like education. That is why control of school education by states has been considered essential in our country. The states have failed to provide universal elementary education to pupils and have faced difficulty in raising the standards of school education. There are also financial constraints that do not allow these states to allot sufficient funds for education and it is because of this that the school education has not made much qualitative and quantitative progress. The states must make serious efforts to allocate more funds for school education. For better control of school education of state must redefine the roles of educational administrators. The roles of the Minister, Director, Secretary and other officers of the education department should be clearly delineated. The delegation of authority must take place from the ministry level to the directorate and from the directorate to the field level workers. Too much centralization in the directorate has very often been responsible for the slow progress of the school education. What is required is a change in the attitude 115

towards work from top to bottom hierarchy of education. For this responsibility with freedom to work is necessary. For efficient control over school education, the states must not only provide more funds for school education but also develop efficient machinery of supervision and training of the personnel working in the field of education. The teacher education should be properly organized and the refresher courses for the teacher must be made compulsory.



In India all the states have almost similar pattern of administrative organization. There are six levels of administration. These are :(I) Level of Ministry of Education, (II) Level of the Secretariat of Education, (III) Level of the Directorate of Education, (IV) Circle or Regional Level, (V) The District level, and (VI) The block level. Besides these there are also Advisory Boards of Education and DIETS. The control of school education in the state has not resulted in much progress in education qualitatively or quantitatively. For better control of school education, there is need that states should redefine the roles of educational administrators. 11.6 Q1. Q2. Q3. 11.7 1. 2. 3. UNIT END EXERCISES What are the various levels at which school education is administered in a state? Explain the relationship between the Secretariat and Directorate of Education. Critically examine the role of state in the administration of school education. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Bhatnagar, S.S and Gupta, P-K (2006); Educational Administration & Management, Surya Publications, Meerut. Mukerjee, S.N (1962) : Administration of Education in India, Baroda, Acharya Book Depot. Verma, Romesh (2005) : Educational Administration, Anmol publications, New Delhi. 116



12.0 STRUCTURE 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Objectives 12.3 Inspecting Agencies 12.3.1 Inspecting Agencies Before 1986 12.3.2 Inspecting Agencies After 1986 12.4 Problems of Educational Inspection 12.5 Let Us Sum Up 12.6 Unit End Exercises 12.7 Suggested Further Readings 12.1 INTRODUCTION

The term inspection means a critical examination or review. The history of Inspection system can be traced back to Woods Despatch (1854), when it was stated: An adequate system of inspection will become an essential part of our educational system and we desire that a sufficient number and qualified inspectors be appointed who will periodically report on the state of colleges and schools which are managed by the Govt. as well as those which are brought under the control of Govt. by the measures we propose to adopt. This view was further strengthened by Hunter Commission (1882); Sadler commission (1919); Hartog Committee (1928); and Secondary Education Commission (1952-53);. As Educational Institutions are ever growing & ever changing in their components i.e. the 117

number of pupils, of teachers are changing every day with respect to mind, knowledge and experience. Thus, the traditional inspection has been changed to supervision, as was stated by I.E.C. (1964-66) also. 12.2 OBJECTIVES After studying the lesson students will be able to. Understand the meaning of Inspection. Explain various Agencies of Inspection in J&K State. Describe the Problems of Inspection. Discuss the role of Inspection in respect to expanding Educational System in J&K State 12.3 INSPECTING AGENCIES : The Inspections form an important part of effective administration of Education which in turn has its long history in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. The development of Inspecting agencies of education in J&K State can be studied under two periods, the first before the commencement of New Policy of Education (1986); and the second after the commencement of New Educational Policy. 12.3.1 Inspection Agencies Before 1986 The first inspector of schools was appointed in J&K State in 1889. The duty of the inspector was to inspect all the schools of Jammu and Kashmir. Later more inspectors of schools were appointed and the system of inspection was developed. From the year 1910-11 inspection agency was properly organized and one inspector and one District inspector was appointed for each Province of Jammu and Kashmir. In 1916, there were sixteen District Inspectors to meet the need of expanding education. However, the nomenclature of inspecting agency was changed during the second half of the 1950s and new inspection officers were designated as District Education officers and Tehsil Education officers. In 1981 reorganisation of the Department of Education resulted in two separate Departments of Education, the Boys Education Department and the Girls Education Department and thus a new system based on Regional Division came into existence thus resulting a change in the inspection agencies. 12.3.2. Inspection Agencies After (1986) The state of J&K like other states of India, showed unprecedented increase in 118

the number of educational institutions, teaching staff and enrolment of students in the educational institutions. With the introduction of New Education Policy (1986), Government took a decision to reorganize the administrative, supervisory and inspecting structure of education. The reorganisation of educational administrative structure was approved by the state Ministry of Education as a result, the following structure was evolved. At Ministry level 1. A. Minister of Education At Secretariat level ; i. ii. iii. iv. v. B. 2. Commissioner - cum - Secretary (Principal Officer) Secretary Higher Education. Additional Secretary (Technical Education) Dy. Director Monitoring and Evaluation and Chief Accounts officer or Financial Adviser.

Divisional Level ; Director of Education ; i. ii. iii. iv. v. Jt. Director Schools; Jt; Director Training; Jt ; Director Adult / Non-Formal Education Administration officer and Accounts officer

The Director and the Joint Directors are thus the Principal officers to inspect all types of schools at Divisional level. C. 3. District Level ; Chief Education Officer ; i. ii. iii. iv. Dy. Chief Education Officer (Zone - I); Dy. Chief Education Officer (Zone - II); Dist. Education Planning Officer; Project Officer Adult / Non-Formal Education and Assistant Project Officer, Adult / Non Formal Education; 119

v. vi.

Zonal Education Officers ; and Zonal Education Planning Officers

The above pattern at Division and District level Officers is followed in Jammu as well as in Kashmir Division of J&K State. The following officers directly responsible for inspection and supervision, in addition to their multifarious duties are ; i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. The Director of Education ; Joint Director Training ; Joint Director School Education ; Joint Director Adult / Non - Formal Education ; Chief Education Officer ; Deputy Chief Education Officer ; Zonal Educational Officers ; and Zonal Educational Planning Officers ;

Besides these Inspecting Agencies some alternative arrangements of inspection are also made as and when required to ensure achievement of high standards of education. 12.4. Problems of Educational Inspection : (With special reference to the expanding system of education on the state of J&K.) The state of Jammu & Kashmir is a very unique constitutional (Art 370) entity having great diversities in respect of language, culture, life-styles, religious faith, dress and food habits. The state of Jammu of Kashmir is facing the problems in Educational Inspection as other states of our country face. There are certain problems which are common in nature. In brief, the problem of Educational Inspection in J&K State can be described as under : 1. Geographical Handicaps : J&K state is vast state covered by remote and far flung hilly areas. Certain areas of the state remain cut off from the rest of the state for fairly long periods due to heavy snow. This makes inspection work not only difficult but also impossible at certain periods of the year. This difficulty is specially felt by female officers of inspection agencies. 120

2. Lack of Coordination : There is a lack of Co- ordination in the inspecting agency. Department of Education has lack of co-ordination in the inspection office. Some times one teacher is transferred from one school to another but another officer does not know about it and he transfers the same person to another place with the result the work of the institution suffers to a great extent and at the same time the concerned teacher is also put to trouble. 3. Insufficient Inspection Staff : There has been a large expansion in the number of Educational Institutions in J&K State but the inspection agency has not been expanded according to the vast growth of educational institutions. The result is that the members of inspection agency in J&K State is over burdened and over worked. It is essential that there should be corresponding increase in the number of inspecting officers in accordance with the increase in the number of educational institutions. 4. Combination of Administrative and Supervisory Functioning : There is combination of administrative and supervisory functions of educational officers in J&K State. In fact, both the administrative and supervisory functions are in the hands of inspecting agencies. Combined duties of the educational officers is also responsible for over burdening of inspection agency. As a result, the inspecting officers can not pay attention to the inspection of academic activities, rather they spend their maximum time to settle the administrative problems at the cost of academic side of the inspection field. 5. Dearth of Subject wise Inspecting officers : The inspection agency in J&K State is handicapped in respect of subject specialized inspectors. Most of the inspecting officers are not well versed in the various subjects, techniques of teaching etc. There is special dearth of inspectors in - service subjects. 6. Non - Availability of Professional Education Inspection Agency : Supervisors and Inspectors in J&K state are not oriented with the latest techniques of inspection. In fact there is no proper arrangement for providing the latest professional training to the inspecting agencies. 7. Inadequate Funds : The inspection agency in Jammu and Kashmir state is allocated with inadequate funds with the result the inspectors can neither pay frequent visits to the schools, nor can perform the duty of clearing house of information. Thus, the inspectors or education officers in J&K State are helpless to meet the demand of the time by paying frequent visits to the schools. They are also unable to acquaint themselves with 121

the latest trends of inspection, because of inaccessibility of subscribed literature and journals. Besides, the inadequate funds at the disposal of the inspecting officers, confines them to their offices which ultimately impedes the functions of educational inspectors. From the above discussion, it becomes clear that educational inspection is the back bone of educational system. Effective inspection develops heathy interaction between the educational policy and its practical application. Mere framing of educational policies can never prove useful for the furtherance of society unless our educational institutions are able to implement the polices. To make the implementation effective and efficient inspection is essential. Check your progress Q.1. Ans : Highlight the problems of educational inspection. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 12.5 LET US SUM UP

Inspection is a probe or assessments with a easy or casual but critical view. We also come to know that various types of inspection agencies were there which gradually improved and an elaborate inspection mechanism with various agencies authorised to function at various levels came into existence. In state of J&K, the inspection system in education was introduced in 1889, which gradually developed into present three tier complex comprising of various officers capable of designated and authorised to discharge inspection duties at division level, district level, and zonal level since 1986 i.e. inception of New Education Policy. Despite it, the inspection system in J&K State is confronted and infested with various problems resultant of unprecedented expansion of educational system. Besides this there are problems geographic in nature, financial in nature, lack of technical expertise in inspecting officer, multifarious nature of their jobs, which need to be addressed to make the inspection system more efficient & effective. 12.6 Q.1. Q.2. Q.3. UNIT END EXERCISES What do you understand by Inspection of an Educational Institution? Discuss the pattern of Educational Inspection Agencies in J&K State. Discuss the Problems faced during Educational Inspection with Special reference 122

to the expanding system of education in the state of J&K. 12.7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Bhatia, R.L & Ahuja, B.N (2001) : School Organisation and Management, Surjeet Publications, IInd Edition, Delhi. Bhatnagar, R.P & Aggarwal, Vidya (1999) : Educational Administration, Surya Publications, Meerut. Dash, M (2000) : Education in India - Problems and Perspective, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, Delhi. Kochhar, S. K (1991) : Secondary School Administration, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Shukla, S.P (2000) : Educational Administration, Organisation and Health Education, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra -2. Verma, Romesh and Sharma, Suresh, Educational Administration, Vinod Publications, Ludhiana.




13.0 STRUCTURE 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Objectives 13.3 Meaning and Nature of Supervision 13.4 Defects in Educational Administration and Supervision 13.5 Let Us Sum Up 13.6 Unit End Exercises 13.7 Suggested Further Readings 13.1 INTRODUCTION

National resources, cultural and political will of a country decides educational system of a Nation. In developing an educational system, the educationists at the helm of affairs decide the policies. To implement those policies the educational administrators devise the wayouts. To check up those policies implemented at the lower level, an administrative structure with sound academic knowledge and experience is essential. The activities involved in checking and supervision of the educational institutions, for the furtherance of the institutional academic environment, teachers methodology of teaching, students grip on the knowledge, community involvement in the curricular and co-curricular activities is known as Educational Supervision. Previously, the supervision was simply a matter of inspecting the work of teachers and at many places, the person responsible for this task was known as the School 124

Inspector. It is a general practice that the supervisory function is performed by a layman of the school i.e. trustees particularly in private institutions. However a great change is being noticed in the theory and practice of educational supervision and inspection these days. As a result highly democratic, dynamic, enlightened and creative type of supervision is emerging. 13.2 OBJECTIVES After studying the lesson, students will be able to :Understand the meaning and nature of supervision. Explain the defects in existing Educational Administration and Supervision in the state of J&K. 13.3 MEANING AND NATURE OF SUPERVISION Supervision is the name given to the activities that contribute to the achievement of the goals of the plan prepared by the administration. Supervision infact means to look and supervise the proper functioning of the schools and other educational institutions. The concept of supervision has changed. It is not only authoritative inspection, but it has to look to the efficient functioning of the school while enlisting the active co-operation of the teachers and the students. As a matter of the fact in this age of Democracy, Supervision has different meaning . Supervision means to instruct, guide and give good and healthy suggestions for the development of both curricular and co-curricular activities in the schools and Educational Institutions. According to Adams and Dicky, Supervision is a planned programme for the improvement of institutions. Barr and Burton :- Supervision is the foundation upon which all programmes for the improvement of teaching must be built. Kimball wiles :- Supervision is the service activity that exists to help the teachers to do their job better. Harled Spears Supervision is the service provided by the state for helping educators and educational administrators to do a better job. From the above definitions, it can be said that supervision is a specialised service focussed to bring qualitative improvement in education. Good supervision is concerned to improve total learning situations rather than with the improvement for instruction only. Supervision coordinates and guides the constant growth of the teachers. Supervision exists 125

for the sake of the teachers who work under the direction of supervisors and for the sake of pupils under the direction of teachers. Supervision is a dynamic process which provides guidance and help to the teachers, so that the whole process may help in the all round development of childs behaviour and personality. Supervision is not administration or inspection. Supervision, in infact, is a cooperative responsibility of the supervisors and teachers for the betterment of educational process. To conclude, supervision is a carefully planned technical service designed to improve the learning situation for children. 13.4 DEFECTS IN SUPERVISION EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND

(With special reference to the state of J&K) Supervision is considered as the backbone of educational improvement strategies. Inadequate supervision has been reported to be detrimental in the way of improvement of quality of education. For instance, large expansion in the number of institutions and decline in the number of inspecting officers has affected supervision adversely because administration work, which has increased largely in recent years always has a priority over the supervision. Main Defects in Educational Supervision in J&K state 1. Authoritarian Attitude : In our state, the supervisor has an authoritative attitude towards teachers. He

seldom acts as a friend, philosopher and a guide. He seldom forgets his false prestige of superiority and does not mix with the members of the staff. He is a terror for the school community as a whole. Every body in the school community feels hesitant to talk to him. He enters the class room with a mind of finding faults and snubbing poor teachers, sometimes even in the presence of pupils. He provides little opportunities for the teachers to exchange views to share their problems with him. His remarks as suggestions are the final words in that particular situation and they must be carried out willingly or unwillingly. He evokes non co-operation from teachers and does not serve the purpose of improving education. An Artificial Affair : To please the supervisor, schools generally take to artistic decorations and royalistic receptions so much so that all routine work of the school is suspended for a week or so 126 2.

preceding the scheduled date of supervision. All time and energy of the students and teachers is devoted to ornamental decorations or preparation of cultural programmes to secure the inspectors appreciation. The supervisor enters the school with official stamp to be honored and welcomed with great pomp and show. Everybody remains at his beck and call. 3. Over-burdened : Supervisor is over burdened with routine type of official work. He remains so busy in official correspondence and signing papers that he finds hardly any time to look to the academic and administrative aspects of the school. 4. Mechanical Conduct : Because of large number of schools entrusted to his care, the time taken for supervision is too less for all aspects of curricular and co-curricular activities to be deeply penetrated and rightly evaluated. The already prepared data and notes by the headmaster in the prescribed form are entered in the Log Book. This brief time too is taken up by the work like checking of accounts, time table, syllabus act. Enough time is not devoted to academic side. A clever headmaster can easily hoodwink the supervisor by arranging shows like mass drill, exhibition and cultural programmes without letting him have time to see and judge the realities of educational work. 5. Paucity of staff : With the rapid expansion of education sufficient increase has not been made in the supervisory staff. Consequently, the average work load of supervising officer is very heavy. He has more schools in his charge than he can actually visit. As a result he cannot have personal contact with the teachers whom he is expected to guide and inspire. He contacts them only through correspondence. Hence, his directions do not have much impact on the teachers. 6. Procedure of recruitment : The recruitment procedure of supervisors is also very defective. They are appointed on the basis of seniority alone. There is no other criterion of suitability or merit. Most of the inspectors have no experience and knowledge of school education. After all, supervision is a specialised job and every body cannot undertake it efficiently. Only persons with the knowledge of school education, experience, originality, resourcefulness and imagination should be appointed. 127


Expert supervisors :

The supervisor is supposed to examine the work of every subject teacher whether he is duly qualified or not. This is educationally unsound. Every supervisor cant be a specialist in all subjects. Real supervision requires the services of subject experts and one person for taking care of general supervision and administration. 8. Training of supervisors : As the things stand now, supervisors are selected from the education department who might not have seen training institute etc and have thus little or no training in the field of supervision. Check your progress Q.1. Ans : Q.2. Ans : 13.5 What do you understand by the term Supervision ? Explain in brief. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Name some of the defects of educational supervision in J&K State. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ LET US SUM UP Supervision in the present system of education is greatly affected by the increasing insight into the aims of education, the relation of education to the society in which it exists, by the Scientific method and by the democratic philosophy. The present supervision has not been able to produce desired results. It suffers from many defects likes, problems related to supervising staff, policy framing at the central level, emphasis on administrative aspects during supervision, and so on. The need is to bring some changes in the existing supervision system in order to overcome its defects. 13.6 Q1. Q2. 13.7 1. UNIT END EXERCISES Describe the meaning and nature of educational supervision. Discuss the defects in educational supervision in the state of J&K. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Aggarwal, J.C : Land mark in the history of Modern Indian Education, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi. 128

2. 3. 4.

Bhatnagar, R.P, Aggarwal, Vidya (1999) : Educational Administration, Surya Publication, Meerut, Delhi. Sawhney, K.K : Issues in Education and National Development, Malhotra Brothers, Educational Publishers, Jammu. Verma, Romesh and Sharma, Suresh : Educational Administration, Vinod Publications, Ludhiana.





14.0 STRUCTURE 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Objectives 14.3 State Administrative Machinery of Education 14.4 Functions of the state Govt. in the existing Secondary & Hr. Secondary Schools 14.5 Let Us Sum Up 14.6 Unit End Exercises 14.7 Suggested Further Readings 14.1. INTRODUCTION Education is organised, administered and supervised in India by four types of Agencies : (1) The Central Government, (2) The State Government, (3) Local Bodies, and (4) Private Enterprise. With the launching of the five - years plans, the Centre allotted funds to the states, specially for the expansion and development of universal primary education and social education of the adults. With the control of these grants, the centre started supervising education in the states. The centres educational activities expanded and the Central Ministry of Education was reorganised. It discharged its responsibilities through the appointment of advisory council for several purposes and continued to help the states with funds, technical advice, coordination and cooperation. The activities of Central Ministry of Education of the Government of India are chiefly directed by the policy flowing from the clauses of the Constitution of India. 130

14.2. OBJECTIVES : After studying the lesson the students will be able to : Understand the State Adminstrative Machinery of Education. Discuss the functions of the State Government in the existing Secondary & Higher Secondary School. 14.3. STATE ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY OF EDUCATION The machinery for educational administration in the state is composed of the Department of Education headed by a Minister, responsible to Legislature and appointed by the Chief Minister. In some states, he is assisted by a State Minister or a Deputy Minister. The Minister exercises his authority through the officers of the Department and other agencies like the Universities, Statutory Boards etc. He is assisted by the Education Secretary at the Secretariat level and the Director of Education, who is the Chief Executive Officer of the department. 14.4. FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE GOVERNMENT IN THE EXISTING SECONDARY AND HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS State Government has the following functions as far as education is concerned. 1. Finance :- The most important function of the state Government is to find out all the resources needed for Secondary and Higher Secondary education. This responsibility is subject only to two limitations : (1) Central grants that may be received from time to time, and (2) the contributions raised by local bodies and private agencies, if any. 2. Legislation :- To pass laws for different types of education is the second major function of the state. To pass laws for compulsory attendance for elementary education, education for women, handicapped etc. is the state responsibility. 3. Supervision and Inspection :- Since the state provides the vast bulk of the funds required for education and is responsible for its accounts to the state legislature, it has to maintain an agency to supervise schools in all cases. Even when the authority over Elementary and Secondary Education is transferred to local bodies, the state has to maintain a supervising machinery of its own to watch over the manner the schools are being run by them. Where they fail to run the schools properly, the state takes over these schools. 4. Recruitment of Teachers :- The states are responsible for recruitment of teachers, for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. The recruitment 131

of teacher is sometimes done by the Public Service Commission and sometimes by authorities appointed by the state, for example, Subordinates Service Selection Board. Even when it is transferred to local bodies, the state retains the right to frame recruitment rules and to lay down the procedures for recruitment. 5. Prescription of Curricula :- The State prescribes the text-books for the entire state or for different zones or regions in the line with the curricula framed. The production and easy supply of text books is one of the major responsibilities of the state. When the responsibility for education is transferred to local bodies, the State Government has to take over itself, in relation to the local bodies under its control, all those functions which the centre has to perform in respect of the states viz. (a) (b) (c) It has to act as a clearing house and co-ordinating agency so as to bring about unity and coherence. It has to provide leadership through training of staff supervision, research and pilot projects. It has to equalize educational opportunities by providing special assistance to the poorer and more backward local bodies.

Check your progress Fill in the blanks : 1. 2. 3. 14.5 Education is organised, administered and supervised in India by four types of agencies...................., ....................., ..................., ..................... The most important................. of the state government is to find out all the resources needed for Secondary & Higher Secondary Education. The states are responsible for................... of teachers for prescribing the remuneration and other service conditions of teachers. LET US SUM UP

The functions of state at the level of higher education are to provide financial aid to the Universities and Colleges, to ensure that proper standards of education are maintained and to legislate for the establishment of new Universities and for the amendments of acts of the existing universities. The technical and professional education is administered by different ministries of the State Government. There are very large number of functions that 132

are performed by the state with regard to the Secondary Education. Almost complete control of Secondary education rests in the hands of the State Govt. 14.6 Q1. Q2. 14.7 1. 2. 3. UNIT END EXERCISES Discuss State Administrative Machinery of education. Discuss the functions of State in the existing Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Bhatia, R.L & Ahuja, B.N (2001) : School Organisation & Mgt, Surjeet Publications, 2nd Edition, Delhi. Dash, M (2000) : Education in India-Problems & Perspective, Atlantic Publications and Distributors, Delhi. Kochar, S.K (1991) : Secondary School Administration, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Key To Check Your Progress 1. The Central Government 2. The State Government 3. Local bodies 4. Private enterprises 5. Function 6. Recruitment.




15.0 STRUCTURE 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Objectives 15.3 Historical Back ground 15.4 Meaning of Organization of Education at Central level and State level 15.5 Role of Central and State Governments in the field of Education 15.5 Relation between Centre and State in the field of Educational Administration 15.6 Let Us Sum Up 15.7 Unit End Exercises 15.8 Suggested Further Readings 15.1 INTRODUCTION

After attaining independence in 1947 , many Organizational and Administrative changes took place in the field of education in India at its different stages. The responsibility of Education mainly rests with the state government. There are certain provisions like article 45, under Directive Principles of State Policy included in the Constitution of India which have a bearing on education .The article says, the state shall endeavour to provide with in a period of 10 years from the commencement of this Constitution for free and compulsory education to all the children up the age of 14 years. The word State includes the Government of India, the State Governments and 134

all local or other authorities with in the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India .However, under 42nd Constitutional amendment of 1976, Education was transferred from the State list of the Constitution to Concurrent list, Making both the Centre and the State to share the task of education . 15.2 OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson the Student should be in a position to understand. The Historical Development of Education in India The Organizational set up of Education at Central level and State level. The relationship between the Centre and the States in the field of Educational Administration. 15.3 HISTORICAL BACK GROUND

The Minutes of Macaulay probably, was the first official policy of British system of education in India .It could not be implemented due to the controversy between Anglicists (Occidantalists) regarding the type of Education to be provided to Indians. Thus the Woods Despatch of 1854, is looked upon as the beginning of an era of educational reforms in India . On the basis of the recommendations of the Despatch ,the Department of Public Instruction was set in all the Provinces of the country in 185556 and the Universities were in-corporated in 1857. Many Acts, Commissions and Committees were constituted and constituted afterwards in order to bring reforms in the rank of Cabinet Minister in the State. He further assisted by one or entire system of education in India, till the time of its Independence even after that. 15.4 MEANING OF ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATION AT CENTRAL LEVEL AND STATE LEVEL

Prior to 1945, Education as Department had no separate existence at the National Level .The Department of Education was upgraded just after Independence and was given a proper status , and in 1957 it was also given the charge of scientific research . In the year 1958 the Independent Department of Education was formed at National level with the Ministry of Education which has to look after the affairs of the Department. Right from the year 1958 to 1984 number of changes took place in the development of structure of the Education Department. But finally under the 74th 135

amendment of the Constitution of India. Ministry of Human Resource Development was formed on Sept. 26, 1985. The Ministry of Human Resource Development Consists of 5 Departments Namely :- Department of Education, Culture, Arts, Youth affairs and Sports and Womens Welfare. This Department at present has been working under the independent charge of Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi . The administrative structure of the Department is as under :Secretariat : The Secretariat of the Department is headed by the Secretary who is assisted by one Special Secretary, Additional Secretary, Educational Advisor, Joint Secretary and Joint Educational Advisor. Further the Ministry is advised on educational matters and assisted to perform many of its activities by a number of Advisory and Autonomous Bodies like CABE, NCERT, UGC. These bodies not only guide the Ministry in formulation of its plans and policies, but also help in implementing its various programmes and schemes in their own way. ORGANISATION OF EDUCATION AT STATE LEVEL. Since Education is on the concurrent list, the State level Machinery is also expected to deal with education and determine largely its success and achievements . The Department of Education at State level prepares as well as implements all educational plans on their own . The general organizational structure of department of Education at State level is like this :The Department of Education at State level is being governed by the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education is headed by the Minister who holds the rank of Cabinet Minister in the State. He is further assisted by one or two Deputy Ministers depending upon the area and population of the State. The Ministry has to lead and inspire the entire educational set up of the state. Though the Organisational Structure of the Department of Education vary from state to state but Generally the structure of the Department is as under : 1. 2. The Secretariat, which is headed by the Secretary of Education . The Directorate, which is headed by the Director of Education. 136

3. 4.

The District Level Educational Officers are DEOs, CEOs, DEPOs Dy. CEOs the Position and powers may differ from state to state. The Tehsil/Block /Zone Level Educational Officers are TEOs, BEOs, ZEOs

The Secretariat is the apex of the State Administrative structure and is directly associated with the activities of the Ministry. The State Government Policy regarding various aspects of education is given concrete shape by the secretariat. The another wing of the State Education Department is the Directorate which is primarily known as Executive Body. It practically executes the policy of the Government in the field . It keeps the Secretariat informed about the problems , needs and progress of the state in the field of education. The Directorate is further divided into Divisions , District Circles, Zones etc. whose heads are mentioned above. 15.5 ROLE OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND STATE GOVERNMENTS IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

The Central Government has a significant role to play in the field of Education such as :1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7 8 9. 10. To finance and supervise the Central Universities and other institutions of National Importance. The Administration of the Institutions of Education (Scientific and Technical) financed by the Government of India . Sharing responsibility with the state Governments on various issues related to Education . Award of Scholarships and fellowships. Assistance for special provisions for Education of the weaker sections of the society. Financing, directing and controlling of education in the union territories. To take up the responsibility of economic and social progress. To develop National Integration . Cooperation with National and International Organizations working on Education. To disseminate the Information related to Education, through out the Country. 137

ROLE OF STATE GOVERNMENT IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION Though all the states do not have a uniform or Identical Administrative set up, but generally, each state performs the following functions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. To find out all the resources needed for education in the state, in addition to central grants and the contributions raised by the states for their own resources. All legislations for school education have to be enacted by the Individual states. Inspection and Supervision of Schools is a state responsibility . The State has to provide Training facilities to both pre-service and in-service teachers. The State has to perform some administrative responsibilities like selection and appointment of teachers , deciding their pay scales and service conditions . The State has to prepare Curriculas for various stages of education and has to get the text books prepared accordingly. Educational planning at the State level is mostly done by the State Government. The State has to decide the rules and regulations regarding the examinations . The State has to coordinate all the Educational Activities organized by the different organizations in the state.

On the whole we can say, that the state governments have big responsibilities in the field of education, particularly up to under graduate level. 15.6 RELATION BETWEEN CENTRE AND STATE IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION

The following few headings shall explain the relation between Centre and States in the field of Education . Constitutional Relations : First of all, Centre is related with all the states and union territories of India Constitutionally in many of its aspects including Education. There are 32 Articles and 28 Entries in the 6th and 7th schedules of the Indian Constitution which pertains to Education. The part 4th of the Constitution Contains Directive Principles of the State Policy , which are applicable to both the State and the Centre and they have a strong bearing in the matter of Administration , Formulation of Policies and laws in the field of Education.


Planning :Educational Planning is a part and parcel of the total planning of the country. The Government of India, determines targets, priorities and prepares the educational plan to be implemented by the country as a whole. Reforms :In order to bring reforms in the field of Education at different levels , the Government of India has set up various Commissions and Committees from time to time and have provided valueable recommendation and suggestions. The states are requested to implement all such recommendations and suggestions. Organisations :Government of India has set up a number of organizations like CABE, NCERT, NIEPA, NAAC, AICTE etc . All these Organisations provide guidance to the states in the field of Education . Direction :The Government of India also issues directions, instructions and guidelines to the State Governments, Local Bodies and Private Enterprises, so as to encourage education on right perspective. Control :The Financial relation between Centre and States are governed by article 268 to 281 of the Constitution of India . These articles deal with the division of revenues between the both. However the Centre has a superior resource position and this leads to transfer of finance from Centre to States . The Government of India, allocates suitable grants to the States , Local Bodies and Private Agencies in support of their Educational Programmes. Thus, it Exercises Considerable Control on Education. Administration :Government of India is directly responsible for Administration of Education in Union Territory and Centre and Administrative areas. Projects :The Ministry of Education Government of India has undertaken a large number of Pilot Projects through out the Country related to the problems and issues of Education .


Institutes :The Ministry of Education at Central level is directly responsible for the running of a few Universities, National Libraries, Art Galleries, Kendriya Vidayalas, Navodaya Vidayalas etc. Though these Organisations have their own Administrative setup, but their overall control lies in the hands of Ministry of Human Resource Development. Check Your Progress Q.1. Ans. Discuss the meaning of organisation of education at Central Level. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Q.2. Ans. 15.7 Explain the relation between the centre and the state in the field of educational administration in brief. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ LET US SUM UP In brief it is concluded that for improvement and expansion of education, Close relationship between Centre and States is very essential . Centre has now assumed the role of leadership and has been rendering financial as well as Academic Assistance to the states and union territories, through different financial and academic organizations , which provide forums of mutual discussion and exchange of expertise for Improvement of education and solving different educational problems. There are also occasional meetings and conferences at national level for Interchange of ideas and views. 15.8 1. 2. 3. 4. 15.9 1. UNIT END EXERCISES Give in brief the organizational set up of Education in India. Discuss the role of Central Government in the field of Education . Discuss the role of State Government in the field of Education. Discuss the relationship between the Centre and the State in the field of Educational Administration. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Chandra, S.S & Chakrabborty, A.K (2004) : School Administration, 140

Organization and Management, R. Lall Book Depot, Near Govt. Inter College, Meerut (U.P.) 2. 3. 4. 5. Lulla, B.P and Murty, S.K (1976) : Essentials of Educational Administration, Mohindra Capital Publishers, Chandigarh. Sinha, R (1977) : Educational Administration in India, The Indian Publications Bureau Hill Road, Ambala Cantt-133001. Shukla, S.P (2001) : Educational Administration, Organization & Health Education, Vinod Pustak Bhandar, Agra-2 Verma, Romesh (2005) : Educational Administration, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.




16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.1 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Geneses of CABE Composition of CABE Key Functions of CABE towards National System of Education Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), the oldest and the most important advisory body of the Government of India in education was first established in 1920 and dissolved in 1923 as a measure of economy. It was revived in 1935 and has been in existence ever since. It is the main advisory body of long standing in the field of education. On the whole, the board provides a common platform for a nation wide cross section of representatives hailing from various sectors of education whose deliberation and decisions emerge out of the cross-fertilization of rich ideas and long experiences. This helps immensely in the formulation of sound educational policies and programmes keeping aloof from hot-bed of nasty politics and partisan verbal fights. In the present lesson, you will have the detailed deliberations on growth and development of CABE along with its composition. You will also come to know about 142

some key functions of CABE as an apex organisation of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India towards National System of Education. 16.2 OBJECTIVES After having studied this lesson you will be able to : Narrate the geneses of the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) Describe the composition of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) as an apex organization of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India Explain key functions of CABE towards National System Of Education 16.3 GENESES OF CABE The idea that there should be a Central Advisory Board of Education was first put forward by the Calcutta University Commission (1917-19) which felt that the Government of India could perform an invaluable function by defining the general aims of educational policy, by giving advice and assistance to local governments and to the development of educational ideas in the various provinces, and also elsewhere than in India." Almost simultaneously the Government of India Act (1919) decided to make education mainly a provincial and a transferred subject and to limit the control of the Central Government over it to the minimum. This fundamental decision changed the character of the Government of India from that of an executive to an advisory authority; and consequently, the Secretariat Procedure Committee set up to implement the Government of India Act(1919), observed that, in future, the executive authority of the Government of India should be mainly exercised through moral persuasion and recommended that, "in place of giving executive orders it should tend more and more to become a centre of the best information, research and advice." This recommendation made the adoption of the recommendation of the Calcutta University Commission all the more imperative and accordingly, a Central Advisory Board of Education was set up in 1920 under the chairmanship of Education Commissioner to the Government of India. It is a good deal of useful work but, owing to a financial crisis calling for drastic retrenchments, was abolished in 1923. For the next twelve years, there was no Central body to advise the Government of India in educational matters. However, a feeling of regret at the discontinuance of the 143

Board began to grow, especially after the Report of Hartog Committee (1928) which observed that the divorce between the Government of India and education had been unfortunate. Consequently, the present Central Advisory Board of Education was revived in 1935. It was to meet once every year and was to function through its Committees. The CABE met 50 times between 1935 and 1994. Practically all important matters concerning education till 1994 were debated in the CABE and a national consensus was reached. The CABE remained dormant for almost a decade since 1994, and it is only in 2004 that this important body in the field of education has been revived by the Government of India. Check Your Progress Q.1. Give a brief description of the geneses of CABE.

Ans._______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________



The tenure of office of the non-official members of the board is 3 years. They, however, cease to be members of the board as soon as they cease to be members of the organizations, for which they are representatives. Similarly, the ex officio members of the board will continue in their position as long as they hold the office by virtue of which they are members of the board. All temporary vacancies in the memberships, other then ex officio members are filled by the organizations that nominated or elected the members whose place falls vacant. The individuals by whom such temporary vacancies are filled, continue as members of the board for remaining period of the term for which the person whose place he fills would have been a member of the organisation. The details of the composition have been illustrated as under : Composition of the Central Advisory Board of Education 1. Chairman Minister of Human Resource Development. 2. Vice-Chairman Minister of State for Human Resource Development. 144


Representatives of the Government of India i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) Minister of Information and Broadcasting. Minister of Science and Technology. Minister of Health and Family Welfare. Minister of Labour. Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment. Minister of Tribal Affairs. Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports. Member (Education), Planning Commission.


Representatives of State Governments and UT Administrations i) ii) One Minister in charge of Education in each State Government (to be nominated by the Chief Minister) Lt. Governor or Minister in charge of Education in each UT Administration


Elected Members i) ii) Four members of Parliament from the Lok Sabha. Two members of Parliament from the Rajya Sabha.


Ex-officio Members i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Secretary, Department of Elementary Education and Literacy, Government of India. Chairman, University Grants Commission. Chairman, All India Council for Technical Education. Chairman, Medical Council of India. Chairman, Central Council of Indian Medicine. Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Chairman, Central Social Welfare Board. Director, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration. Director, National Institute of Educational, Research and Training. Chairman, Central Board of Secondary Education. 145

xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) 16.5

Secretary-General, Association of Indian Universities. Chairman, Indian Council of Historical Research. Chairman, Indian Council for Social Science Research. Chairman, Indian Council for Philosophical Research. Director-General, National Literacy Mission.


It is important to appreciate the role of the CABE, particularly because of its revival after a gap of about a decade. Decisions of the Union Government relating to education are enforceable only if they are taken in pursuance of Central legislation, as for example, the unquestioned acceptability of the decisions taken by the statutory bodies set up by the Government of India covering various aspects of higher education. Other decisions by the Union Government have little sanctity unless they are based on consensus. The CABE provides a forum for sharing and consensus building on national issues in education among the States. The Education Commission (1964-66) refers to the CABE as the most important advisory body in the field of education. The National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 (with modifications undertaken in 1992) states that "the CABE will play a pivotal role in reviewing educational development, determining the changes required to improve the system and monitoring implementation". During the pre-independence era, matters of far-reaching importance were considered by the CABE pertaining to various educational issues. In 1938, the CABE set up a Committee on the Wardha Education Scheme. The Committee went into great detail in working out modalities for the implementation of the Nai Taleem and recommended it for adoption by all provincial governments at that time. This was reiterated by the CABE Committee on "Post-War Plan for Educational Development in India" (1944), also known as Sargent Plan. This was a Plan for Indianisation of education to universalize primary education and to improve quality of education so that our education system became comparable with that of the industrialized nations. The CABE secured a national consensus on the structure of education namely the '10+2+3 pattern', made recommendation towards establishment of 'Common School System' as the bedrock of educational quality, social cohesion and national integration calling for moving towards a common admission policy, 146

tuition-free school education, parity among all the teachers, involvement of the community and adoption of the concept of 'neighbourhood school' to eliminate segregation. The crucial role of the CABE has been in the area of school curriculum and related matters, and amongst the significant recommendations made by it may be mentioned in the three language formula, issues related to curriculum and the examination system with a focus on internal evaluation, grading and provision of testing service etc.. The CABE Committees on the question of values, national and emotional integration, and assessment of textbooks to be built on scientific and secular outlook also made significant recommendations. The latest of contributions of CABE relate to the approval of the National Curriculum Framework of 1975 and 1988 for school education in India. In the field of higher education, the CABE has played an important role in analyzing the report of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Committee 'Towards New Educational Management' (Gnanam Committee) 1992. The CABE has, therefore, been an effective instrument of appreciation of cohesion of different views, ideological standpoints and academic perspectives on policy issues in education. It is a significant decision of the Government of India that the Board has now been reconstituted to perform the onerous role in the context of the educational development of the country. 16.6 LET US SUM UP Dear students, from the above discussion you might have learnt about the geneses of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) and its composition as an apex body of Ministry of Human Resources and Development. You also came across with various major activities and functions of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) as a specific body to implement various aspects of National System of Education. A comprehensive reading of this lesson will certainly make you well informed about various dimensions of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE). 16.7 1. 2. 3. UNIT END EXERCISES Give a brief description of geneses of CABE since its establishment. Discuss main functions of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) towards the National System of Education. Give a brief description of composition of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE). 147

16.8 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Aggarwal, J.C (2002) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Organisation, Arya Book Depot, Karol Bagh, New Delhi. Aggarwal, S.P (1992) : Educational Planning in India with a slant to Educational Financing and Administration, Concept, New Delhi. Bhatnagar, R.P (1996) : Educational Administration, Anupurna, New Delhi. Gakhar, S.C (2006) : Educational Management, N.M. Publication, Panipat. Goel, S.L & Goel, Aruna (1994) : Education Policy and Administration, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. MHRD (1986) : National Policy on Education and Programme of Action, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Ministry of Education (1964-66) : Education and National Development, Report of Indian Education Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Mohanty, Jagannath (2005) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Management, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. Mukerji, S.N : Education in India Today and Tomorrow. Srivastava, B.D : Development of Modern Indian Education.




17.0 STRUCTURE 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Objectives 17.3 Objectives of NCERT 17.4 Composition of NCERT 17.5 Key Functions of NCERT 17.6 Let Us Sum Up 17.7 Unit End Exercises 17.8 Suggested Further Readings 17.1 INTRODUCTION

NCERT is concerned with all problems of school education through developing various programmes of research, publication, extension and training. NCERT works as the academic wing of the Ministry of Education and social welfare and assists the ministry in the formulation and implementation of its policies and programmes in the field of school education. In the present lesson you will have the detailed discussion about the growth and development of NCERT, its main objectives and the organizational structure. You will also become familiar with some significant information about the main programme and activities of NCERT as an apex agency of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. 17.2 OBJECTIVES After having studied this lesson you will be able to: 149

Illustrate the growth and development of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Analyze the main objectives of National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Describe the composition of National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) as an apex organization of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India Explain key functions of NCERT for the research and development dimensions of education 17.3 OBJECTIVES OF NCERT

The NCERT works as the academic wing of the ministry of Education and social welfare and assists the ministry in the formulation and implementation of its policies and programmes in the field of school education. Main objectives of the council are as under: a) b) c) d) e) To undertake studies, investigation and surveys relating to school education. To organize pre-service and in-service training mainly at an advanced level. To disseminate improved educational techniques and good practices. To act as a clearing house for ideas and information on all matters relating to school education. To study the issues and problems related to preschool education, elementary education, non-formal education, education of the disabled, teacher education, education in science and mathematics, social sciences and humanities and secondary education. To develop teaching-learning materials in areas related to school education and teacher education. To study issues and problems related to education of girls and to undertake developmental activities for girls. To assist and advise the States in in-service teacher education programmes. To study issues and problems in science and mathematics education, undertake research, develop prototype curriculum and instructional materials, design and develop science equipment. 150

f) g) h) i)

j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) s) t) u)

To conduct measurement and evaluation related to school education and to suggest measures for examination reform. To conduct All India Educational Surveys for benefits of research workers and other agencies. To promote computer education in schools and training institutions. To coordinate the implementation of various externally assisted projects such as population education, DPEP, SOPT, etc. in various States. To give training to teacher educators, principals, administrators and teachers on the contents and processes of school education. To advise the MHRD on matters related to school education. To keep liaison with international agencies like UNESCO, UNICEF, WORLD BANK, etc. for implementation of various projects. To work for qualitative improvement of school education and teacher education. To encourage innovation in school education, teacher education and education of the disabled. To conduct, monitor and publish the results of NTS examination. To run Kendriya Vidyalaya, Navodaya Vidyalaya, National Open Schools and other institutions and organizations financed by the MHRD. To disseminate latest ideas and information on various aspects of school education among teachers, teacher educators and educationists.

With a view to achieve such objectives effectively, the council works in close cooperation with the education department in the states and the universities and generally with all organizations in the country for furthering the objectives of school education. Check Your Progress Q.1. List out any six objectives of NCERT. What steps would you suggest to realize these objectives? Ans._______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 151



The NCERT was established as an autonomous organization in September 1961 under the Societies Registration Act of 1860. It is concerned with all problems of school education through developing various programmes of research, publication, extension training. It is an autonomous organisation. It is the academic wing of the Department of Education, MHRD. It is headed by a Director. He is assisted by a Joint Director, a number of Professors, Readers and Lecturers. Besides, there are various Field Advisers in different States. It is fully financed by the ministry of education and acts as the principle academic advisor to the ministry in matters relating to school education. It not only undertakes implementation of the policies and programmes of the ministry, but also deals with specific problems of educational importance on its own initiative. The union education ministers is the president of the council. It has a general body on which all the state minister of education are represented in addition to eminent educationists. Management of all the affairs and funds of the council vests in the governing body or executive committee which is composed of officers of the council, representatives of the faculty of council, representatives of the ministries of the education and finance, and eminent educationists. Its programmes are carefully considered by a Programme Advisory Committee on which are represented several faculty members, representatives of state institutes of education and university departments of education. It has several advisory committees for dealing with specific problems in different fields like publications, science, etc. with men of repute and standing drawn from all over the country. The functioning of NCERT is regulated by the articles of its Memorandum of Association, and Rules and Regulations made under the Articles of the Memorandum. NCERT has a large publishing house. It publishes model text books, hand books, guides \ books and children literature or supplementary reading materials. The publication unit undertakes the publication of research monographs etc. the magnitude of the work of the public unit can be realized from the fact that it handled books worth 45 lakhs of rupees during the 1970-71. The guideline for the fixation of prices of books is to make the books as cheap as possible. As such, all publications are sold on no-profit- no- loss basis. NCERT possesses a production workshop with huge quantities of materials flowing in and flowing out. Hundreds of science kits are manufactured and sent out. Such production 152

is reinforced and backed with massive developmental work. The estimated cost of the plant and machinery in the shops is about 40 lakhs of rupees and at any time hold materials for consumption worth lacks of rupees. The success of the NCERT will depend on the extent to which it gains confidence of the entire country and gets accepted by the professional group of various states in the field of education. In this context, the Kothari Commission (1964-66) has very rightly suggested, "it would, therefore, be desirable that there is a considerable interchange and flow of officers from the NCERT to state departments and vice versa. This could be secured by inviting selected officers from the state education departments to work in the NCERT on tenure appointments. Arrangements should also be made with the state government under which officers of the NCERT could work in state education departments for specified periods". Thus the NCERT should have a free flow of personnel having necessary experience and expertise between the NCERT and state education departments. Besides, the council maintains close relations with similar national and international agencies through out the world. In order to implement its programmes efficiently it has not only a large number of advisory bodies but also it has an array of executive as well as academic institutions, departments and organizations through out the country. It also maintains a liaison with all the state governments through the network of offices of Field Advisers. 17.5 KEY FUNCTIONS OF NCERT The state of affairs of education has been an issue of concern for every citizen of India. The functions of NCERT relate to the changing needs of the country in the area of school education and teacher education. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an apex resource organisation set up by the Government of India, with headquarters at New Delhi, to assist and advise the Central and State Governments on academic matters related to school education. In order to perform the functions the NCERT has to work in coordination with the SCERT in different States, State Education Departments and external agencies. The NCERT has numerous academic and technical functions for improvement of school education which are as follows : a) Research As an apex national body for research in school education, the NCERT has taken 153

up lead in performing the important functions of conducting and supporting research and offering training in educational research methodology. The different Departments of the National Institute of Education (NIE), Regional Institutes of Education (RIEs), Central Institute of Educational Technology (CIET) and Pandit Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE) undertake programmes of research related to different aspects of school education. Besides conducting in-house research, the NCERT supports research programmes of other institutions/organizations by providing financial assistance and academic guidance. Assistance is given to scholars for publication of their Ph.D. theses. Research fellowships are offered to encourage studies in school education to create a research base for developmental, training and extension programmes and to create a pool of competent research workers. It also organizes courses for educational research workers. The NCERT also organizes educational research in the country. It has computer facilities for storing, processing and retrieval of data. It collaborates with international agencies in inter-country research projects. b) Development

Developmental activities in school education constitute an important function of the NCERT. The major developmental activities include development and renewal of curricula and instructional materials for various levels of school education and making them relevant to changing needs of children and society. The innovative developmental activities include development of curricula and instructional materials in school education in the area of pre-school education, formal and non-formal education, vocationalisation of education and teacher education. Developmental activities are also undertaken in the domains of educational technology, population education, and education of the disabled and other special groups. c) Training

Another important aspects of NCERT's activities is the pre-service and in-service training of teachers at various levels; pre-primary, elementary, secondary and higher secondary, and also in such areas as vocational education, educational technology, guidance and counseling, and special education. The pre-service teacher education programmes at the Regional Institutes of Education (RIEs) incorporate innovative features such as integration of content and methodology of teaching, long-term internship of teacher trainees in the actual classroom setting, and participation of students in community work. The RIEs also 154

undertake the training of key personnel of the states and of state level institutions and training of teacher educators and in-service teachers. d) Publication and Dissemination

The NCERT publishes textbooks for different school subjects for Classes I to XII. It also brings out workbooks, teachers guides, supplementary readers, research reports, etc. In addition, it publishes instructional materials for the use of teacher educators, teacher trainees and in-service teachers. These instructional materials, produced through research and developmental work, serve as models to various agencies in States and Union Territories. These are made available to state level agencies for adoption and/or adaptation. The textbooks are published in English, Hindi and Urdu. For dissemination of educational information, the NCERT publishes six journals: The Primary Teacher is published both in English and Hindi and aims at giving meaningful and relevant educational inputs to primary school teachers for direct use in the classroom; School Science serves as an open forum for discussion on various aspects of science education; Journal of Indian Education provides a forum for encouraging original and critical thinking in education through discussion on current educational issues; Indian Educational Review contains research articles and provides a forum for researchers in education; and Bharatiya Adhunik Shiksha(published in Hindi) provides a forum for encouraging critical thinking in education on contemporary issues and for dissemination of educational problems and practices. Besides these, a house journal called NCERT Newsletter is also published in English and Hindi. The title of the Hindi version of the newsletter is Shaikshik Darpan. e) Exchange Programmes

The NCERT interacts with international organisations such as UNESCO, UNICEF, UNDP, NFPA and the World Bank to study specific educational problems and to arrange training programmes for personnels from developing countries. It is one of the Associated Centres of APEID. It also acts as the Secretariat of the National Development Group (NDG) for Educational Innovations. The NCERT has been offering training facilities, usually through attachment programmes and participation in workshops, to educational workers of other countries. The NCERT also acts as a major agency for implementing the Bilateral Cultural Exchange Programmes entered into by the Government of India with the 155

governments of other countries in the fields of school education and teacher education by sending delegations to study specific educational problems relevant to Indian requirements and by arranging training and study visits for scholars from other countries. Educational materials are exchanged with other countries. On request, the faculty members are deputed to participate in international conferences, seminars, workshops, symposia, etc. f) Extension

The NCERT has comprehensive extension programmes in which various Departments of the NIE, RIEs, CIET, PSSCIVE and the offices of the Field Advisers in the states are engaged in various ways. It works in close collaboration with various agencies and institutions in the states and also works extensively with Extension Service Departments and Centres in teacher training colleges and schools with the purpose of providing assistance to various categories of personnel, including teachers, teacher educators, educational administrators, question-paper setters, textbook writers, etc. Conferences, seminars, workshops and competitions are organised as regular on-going programmes as a part of the extension activities. Several programmes are organised in rural and backward areas in order to reach out to the functionaries in these areas where special problems exist and where special efforts are needed. Special programmes are organised for the education of the disadvantaged sections of the society. The extension programmes cover all States and Union Territories of the country. Check Your Progress Q.1. Describe any four functions of National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) with specific focus on the issues of educational research.

Ans.________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 17.6 LET US SUM UP

Dear students, from the foregoing discussion you came to know about the growth and development of National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) since its inception. You also came across with various aims and objectives of NCERT with specific focus on its significance at national and state level. A Detailed description of its various functions and programmes at state and national level has also been given with 156

regard to some major as well as minor activities being organised by NCERT. A thorough reading of this lesson will certainly make you well informed about various aspects National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). 17.7 1. 2. 3. 4. 17.8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. UNIT END EXERCISES Give a brief description of growth and expansion of NCERT since its establishment Describe main objectives of NCERT with specific mention of its relevance to academic and research issues. Discuss main functions of National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) in context of innovative training and exchange programmes. Give a brief description of major functions of National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) with relevant illustrations. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Aggarwal, J.C (2002) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Organisation, Arya Book Depot, Karol Bagh, New Delhi. Aggarwal, S.P (1992) : Educational Planning in India with a slant to Educational Financing and Administration Concept, New Delhi. Bhatnagar, R.P (1996) : Educational Administration, Anupurna, New Delhi. Gakhar, S.C (2006) : Educational Management, N.M. Publication, Panipat. Goel, S.L & Goel, Aruna (1994) : Education Policy and Administration, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. Mohanty, Jagannath (2005) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Management, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi.





18.0 STRUCTURE 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Objectives 18.3 Growth and Developmment of UGC 18.4 Objectives of UGC 18.5 Composition of UGC 18.6 Key Functions of UGC 18.7 Let Us Sum Up 18.8 Unit End Exercises 18.9 Suggested Further Readings 18.1 INTRODUCTION The University Grants Commission is the body through which the Government of India discharges its constitutional functions of promoting, co-ordinating, and maintaining standards of higher education in the country. The main function of the University Grants Commission (UGC) is to ensure the promotion and co-ordination of university education and the determination and maintenance of standards of teaching, examination and research in universities. In the present lesson you will have the detailed deliberations on growth and development of U.G.C., its main objectives and the composition. You will also come across with information about the key functions of University Grants Commission (UGC) as a key agency for looking after standards of higher education in India. 18.2 OBJECTIVES After having studied this lesson you will be able to : 158

Understand the growth and development of University Grants Commission (U.G.C.) Analyze the main Objectives of University Grants Commission (U.G.C.) Illustrate the composition of University Grants Commission (U.G.C.) as an agency of coordination and maintenance of higher education standards of India Describe key functions of University Grants Commission (U.G.C.) 18.3 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF UGC Before Independence an advisory agency named as Inter University Board set by Indian Universities was set up to ensure coordination and maintenance of educational standards in the field of higher education. This was taken over by University Grants Committee set up in 1945 in the response of the Sargent Report. From a Committee, it became a Commission in 1953 through an executive order of the Government of India based upon the recommendation of the University Education Commission (1948-49) for the purpose of allocation and disbursement of grants to the Universities as well as for the purpose of co-ordination and maintenance of standards of higher education in India.. It consists of a full time Chairman, a Secretary and nine members generally selected from among eminent educators and administrators of the country. With the passage of University Grants Commission Bill, 1956 of Parliament, it became a Statuatory Body when Sh. C. D. Deshmukh was appointed its first Chairman. The New Education Policy (1986) suggested the creation of national body on Higher Education. It recommended that "In the interest of greater co-ordination and consistency in policy, sharing of facilities and developing inter-disciplinary research, a national body covering higher education in general, agricultural, medical, technical, legal and other professional fields will be set-up." The National Policy Education Review Committee (NPERC) did not agree with this view. The CABE Committee on Policy agreed with NPERC. Following NPE, the Department of Education initiated the process of consultation with Planning Commission, the UGC and other Ministries concerned like Agriculture and Health. All these organizations expressed reservations about the proposal to set up an apex body as they felt that such a body would erode the autonomy of existing institutions. 18.4 OBJECTIVES OF UGC

The main aim of the University Grants Commission, U.G.C. as it is popularly called, is to ensure the promotion and co-ordination of university education and the 159

determination and maintenance of standards of teaching, examination and research in universities. Some main objectives of U.G.C. are listed as below : to advise the Central Government on problems connected with the co-ordination of facilities and the maintenance of standards in universities and to take such executive action as may be necessary in that behalf; to enquire into the financial needs of universities and to advise the Central Government on the allocation of funds, for grants-in-aid to them; to take all necessary executive action in the matter of deciding on the grants to the universities and in disbursing them out of funds placed at the disposal of the Commission; to advise any authority, if such advice is asked for, on the establishment of new university or on proposals connected with the expansion of the activities of any existing university; to advise the Central Government or any university on any question which may be referred to the Commission by the Central Government or the University as the case may be; to advise the Central Government or a State Government in regard to the recognition of any degree conferred or granted by a University for the purpose of employment under the Central Government or the State Government or for any other purpose; to advise universities on measures necessary for the reform and improvement of University Education; and to undertake such other duties and functions as may be prescribed or deemed by the Government of India for advancing the cause of higher education in India or as may be incidental or conducive to the attainment of the above objectives. Check Your Progress Q.1. Illustrate the growth and development of UGC as an agency of co-ordination and maintenance of higher education standards of India.

Ans._______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 160


List out any five objectives of U.G.C.

Ans._______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 18.5 COMPOSITION OF UGC UGC Act, 1956 provided for a Chairman and 9 members. The nine members were to be distributed as: not more than three should be from amongst the Vice-Chancellors of the Universities, two members from amongst the Officers of the Union Government to represent the Government; the remaining members were to be eminent educationists. The Committee of the Members of Parliament (Sapru Committee) suggested strength of 15 members of whom at least 5 members should be full time and serving ViceChancellors should not be the members. The UGC Act was amended in 1968 and then in 1972. According to the Amended Act, UGC consists of 12 members excluding a Chairman and Vice-Chairman. The other members are drawn from: (a) (b) (c) Officers of the Central Government, Teachers of the Universities, and Experts in the areas of Agriculture, Industry, Medical, Commerce, etc.

The National Policy Education Review Committee (NPERC) suggested in line with the Sapru Committee the creation of full time members. In the opinion of the Committee, the Commission should consist of at least five full time members apart from the Chairman and Vice-Chairman, with specialization in specific areas - teaching, research, extension, management and finance. This was not endorsed by CABE Committee. To quote CABE Committee "The NPERC suggested a change in the structure of the UGC by providing for at least five full-time Members, apart from the Chairman and Vice-Chairman, with specialization in the specific areas of teaching, research, extension, management and finance (R. No. 200). Though the UGC Act was indeed amended in 1971 to provide for three full-time Members the amendment was later repealed as it was felt that it would not be desirable to have two categories of members, viz., full-time Members and part-time Members, with the latter having, by implication, lower role and status as compared to fulltime Members. We appreciate this point of view and feel that there is no need for appointment of full-time Members." 161

Both the NPERC and CABE Committee suggested the setting up of regional offices all over India. Check Your Progress Q.1. Illustrate the composition of UGC with a brief description of its historical perspective.

Ans._______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 18.6 KEY FUNCTIONS OF UGC

The main function of the University Grants Commission, U.G.C. as it is popularly called, is to ensure the promotion and co-ordination of university education and the determination and maintenance of standards of teaching, examination and research in universities. In pursuance of this, the U.G.C. continues to give full grants to the Central Universities and also for the development grants approved by the Commission. Grants are also given to State Universities for their various development projects. The U.G.C. also renders assistance for the development of existing post-graduate departments and establishments of new ones in various universities and colleges. It contributes liberally towards the improvement of salary scales of teachers, construction of students' hostels and staff quarters and institution of fellowships and scholarships for post-graduate work. With a view to promoting researches not only a large number or junior and senior fellowships are given by the U.G.C., a number of grants are paid to universities to enable teachers and research workers to visit centres of learning in the country in pursuance of their work and to obtain specialised training in their respective fields. Similarly, grants are given to such research workers and teachers for the purchase of books and journals to be used as references. During recent years, a scheme has been introduced for utilizing the services of retired teachers. Under the scheme, outstanding teachers are given assistance to continue their teaching/research after superannuation. The scheme of Exchange of Teachers implemented by the U.G.C. provides a university with grants ranging from Rs.10,000 to Rs.15,000 to enable it to invite teachers or experts from other universities or centres of learning to deliver lectures, conduct seminars, or advise research workers. Besides, assistance from a number of foreign agencies and countries is made available to the 162

universities through the U.G.C. Such assistance helps developing the programmes of teaching and research in various fields of the universities. Foreign aid programmes are operated by the U.G.C. in collaboration with the Department of Economic Affairs, the Ministry of Finance and other Union Ministries concerned. Such assistance usually comes from the foreign countries like, U.K., U S.A. and France for the benefit of the universities under the specific agreements entered into by the Government of India. Exchange of visits by educationists, teachers and scholars between India and other countries is arranged by the U.G.C. under the programmes of cultural exchange finalized by the Government of India with the Government of the countries concerned. Reports are normally received from the participants in the programmes and requisite action is taken on the reactions and recommendations made therein. Kothari Commission has rightly remarked that the U.G.C. should represent entire spectrum of higher education. It should be professionally concerned and adequately equipped to deal with all its problems. Because in the modern world no discipline can be fully developed in isolation from the main stream of academic life. Agriculture, technology, medical sciences and teaching will all be richer for being part of this broad stream and by being concerned with the problems and needs of one another. The Commission also have fully supported the recommendation of the Committee of the Members of the Parliament of Higher Education that all higher education should be regarded as an integrated whole, that professional education cannot be completely divorced from general education and that it is essential to bring all higher education, including agriculture, engineering and medicine, within the purview of the U.G.C. This should be the ultimate objective, which was also pointed out by the University Education Commission more than two decades ago. The Kothari Commission (1964-66) has also suggested some measures for improvement of its functioning. Important of them are as follows: i) It is not desirable that Government should deal direct with the Universities. It is always a great advantage to interpose between the Government and the universities, a committee of persons selected for their knowledge and standing. U.G.C. type of organisation should be set-up for dealing with technical, agricultural and medical education. For purposes of co-ordination there should be a certain overlapping membership between the U.G.C. and the U.G.C. type organizations. 163

ii) iii)


It will be advisable for the U.G.C. to adopt a practice of working through a number of standing committees set-up to deal with important responsibilities entrusted to it. It is essential that U.G.C. should inspect the universities more frequently and more intensively.


The Commission has been bringing out publications from time to time regarding the development of University and collegiate education in the country. The reports of various committees, conferences and seminars convened to consider important problems relating to teaching, research and allied matters in the field of higher education are published by the U.G.C. 18.7 LET US SUM UP

Dear readers, through the foregoing discussion you came across with the historical growth and development of University Grants Commission (U.G.C.) since its inception. You also came to know about various aims and objectives of University Grants Commission (U.G.C.) with specific focus on improving standards of higher education in India. You have been made aware through this lesson about the composition of University Grants Commission (U.G.C.) alongwith some recommendations of various committees and commissions. I am sure a thorough reading of this lesson makes you well informed about various aspects of University Grants Commission (U.G.C.). 18.8 Q1. Q2. UNIT END EXERCISES Give a brief description of genesis and expansion of U.G.C. Describe main objectives of U.G.C. with specific mention of its relevance to administrative issues. Discuss main functions of University Grants Commission (U.G.C.) in context of Research and cultural exchange programmes. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Aggarwal, J.C (2002) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Organisation, Arya Book Depot, Karol Bagh, New Delhi. 164


18.9 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Aggarwal, S.P (1992) : Educational Planning in India with a slant to Educational Financing and Administration, Concept Publications, New Delhi. Bhatnagar, R.P (1996) : Educational Administration, Anupurna, New Delhi. Gakhar, S.C (2006) : Educational Management, N.M. Publication, Panipat. Goel, S.L & Goel, Aruna (1994) : Education Policy and Administration, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. Mohanty, Jagannath (2005) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Management, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi.




19.0 STRUCTURE 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Objectives 19.3 Growth and Development of NUEPA 19.4 Objectives of NUEPA 19.5 Composition of NUEPA 19.6 Key Functions of NUEPA 19.7 Let Us Sum Up 19.8 Unit End Exercises 19.9 Suggested Further Readings 19.1 INTRODUCTION

The National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA), an apex body of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, is a premier organization dealing with capacity building and research in planning and management of education not only in India but also in South Asia. It has been recognized for its pioneering work in the field of educational planning and administration, is actively engaged in educational research, training and consultancy. The Government of India has empowered it to award its own degrees by way of conferring it the status of Deemed to be University in August, 2006. Since then it is popularly known as National University of Educational 166

Planning and Administration (NUEPA).In the present lesson you will have the detailed deliberations on the growth and development of NUEPA, its main objectives and the composition. You will also come across with information about the key functions of NUEPA as an apex organisation of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. 19.2 OBJECTIVES After having studied this lesson you will be able to : Understand the growth and development of National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) Analyze the main objectives of National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) Describe the composition of National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) as an apex organization of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India Explain key functions of NUEPA for the capacity building, research and professional support services to governments 19.3 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF NUEPA The National University has its origin dating back to 1962 when the UNESCO established the Asian Regional Centre for Educational Planners and Administrators which later became the Asian Institute of Educational Planning and Administration in 1965. After 4 years of its existence, it was taken over by the Government of India and renamed as the National Staff College for Educational Planners and Administrators. It has been the apex training institute in our country for educational planners and administrators. Subsequently, with the increased roles and functions of the National Staff College, particularly in capacity building, research and professional support services to governments, it was again renamed as the National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA) in 1979. In recognition of the pioneering work done by the organization in the field of educational planning and administration, the Government of India have empowered it to award its own degrees by way of conferring it the status of Deemed to be University in August, 2006. The National University of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi is popularly known as NUEPA Like any Central University, NUEPA is fully maintained by the Government of India. 167

19.4 OBJECTIVES OF NUEPA NUEPA has reorganized itself and drawn up its perspective plan which provides broad guidelines for its development over the next decades. Its main areas of activity consist of: Training Educational Planners and Administrators Promotion of Research Diffusion of Innovations Providing Consultancy Services. NUEPA works with various objectives as mentioned below :To undertake, aid, promote and co-ordinate research in various aspects of educational planning and administration and allied disciplines, including comparative studies in planning techniques and administrative procedures in the different States of India and in other countries of the world; To provide academic and professional guidance to agencies, institutions and personnel engaged in educational planning and administration; To offer M. Phil, Ph. D. and Post-Doctoral Programmes and award degrees in educational planning, educational administration, educational finance, comparative education, school education, higher education, professional education, policy research, gender in education, discrimination in education, education and globalization, educational management and information system, etc.; To act as a clearing house of ideas and information on research, training and extension in educational planning and administration services and other programmes; To prepare, print and publish papers, periodicals and books in furtherance of these objectives and especially to bring out a Journal on Educational Planning and Administration; To organize training, conferences, workshops, meetings, seminars and briefing sessions for educational personnel of the Central and State Governments and Union Territories; To offer, on request, consultancy service to Governments, including State 168

Governments, educational institutions and institutions/organizations in India & abroad. To organize orientation and training programmes and refresher courses for teachereducators and for University and College Administrators engaged in educational planning and administration; To organize orientation programmes, seminars and discussion groups for persons including legislators in the field of educational planning and administration at the level of policy making in Central and State Governments; To award consultancy work/services to other organizations/individuals; To collaborate with other agencies, institutions and organizations, including the University Grants Commission, the Universities, Institutes of Management and Administration and other allied institutions in India and abroad, in such a way as may be considered necessary for the promotion of these objectives; To provide, on request, facilities for training and research in educational planning and administration to other countries, especially of the Asian Region, and collaborate with them in programmes; To offer fellowships, scholarships and academic awards in furtherance of the objects of the National University; To confer honorary fellowships on eminent educationists for their contribution in the field of educational planning and administration; To undertake extra-mural studies, extension programmes and field outreach activities to contribute to the development of society; To disseminate and advance knowledge by providing instructional, research and extension facilities in such branches of learning as it may deem fit and to provide to students and teachers the necessary facilities and atmosphere for the promotion of innovations in education leading to restructuring of courses, new methods of teaching and learning, and integral development of personality, studies in various disciplines, inter-disciplinary studies, and National Integration & International Understanding; To conduct the above-mentioned programmes and courses in its off - Campuses, and off-shore campuses; and 169

To do or perform all such other acts, functions and things as may be deemed necessary, desirable or incidental by the National University in furtherance of the above objectives of the National University. Check Your Progress Q.1. Illustrate with a flow chart the growth and development of NUEPA as an apex body of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India .

Ans.________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Q.2. List out any five objectives of NUEPA.

Ans.________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 19.5 COMPOSITION OF NUEPA

The National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA), established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, is a premier organization dealing with capacity building and research in planning and management of education not only in India but also in South Asia. The National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA), comprises ten Departments, which are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (ix) (x) Department of Educational Planning; Department of Educational Administration; Department of Educational Policy; Department of Educational Finance; Department of School and Non-formal Education; Department of Higher & Professional Education; Department of Comparative Education & International Cooperation; Department of Educational Management Information System Department of Foundations of Education; 170

(viii) Department of Inclusive Education;

It has an outstanding multi-disciplinary faculty and a library which is well stocked with a large number of books, national and international journals and official documents in the area of educational planning and administration.In addition to its multifarious activities, the National University offers Full-time Integrated M.Phil.-Ph.D., Full-time Direct Ph.D. and Part-time Ph.D. programmes in educational policy, planning and administration from a broader inter-disciplinary social science perspective. The research programmes of NUEPA cover all levels and types of education from both national and international development perspectives.
NUEPA COUNCIL (Headed by Honble Union Minister of HRD)


Board of M anagement

Vice-Chancellor Registrar


i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Library and Documentation Centre Computer Centre Publication Unit Cartography cell Hindi Cell Training Cell Hostel

i) Academic Administration Section ii) Personal Administration Section iii) General Administration Section iv) Finance and Accounts Section

Department of Educational Planning; (ii) Department of Educational Administration; (iii) Department of Educational Policy; (iv) Department of Educational Finance; (v) Department of School and Non-formal Education; (vi) Department of Higher & Professional Education; (vii) Departm ent of Comparative Education & International Cooperation; (viii) Department of Inclusive Education; (ix) Department of Educational Management Information System (x) Departm ent of Foundations of Education;




The National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) is actively engaged in educational research, training and consultancy. Its core activities include: Full-time M.Phil. Programme, Full-time & Part-time Ph.D. Programmes, National level and International level Diploma Programmes, training of educational planners and administrators; research; consultancy services at national and international levels; clearing house for dissemination of knowledge and information; and providing a forum for exchange of views and experiences between practicing educational administrators, planners and academics. NUEPA also sponsors research in educational planning, policy and management. NUEPA offers, every year, about four dozen professional programmes. It includes long-term and short-term training programmes, seminars, and conferences, meetings with senior national and international education policy-makers, planners and administrators. It offers two (six-month) diploma programmes in educational planning and administration one each for the national and international participants. On an average, each year, about thousand five hundred senior planners and administrators participate in these programmes. NUEPA uses a combination of modern methodologies in training delivery including structured presentations, practical work, syndicate work, case studies, group discussions and modern audio-visual methods. All training programmes are supported by professionally developed training material. The National University of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi is popularly known as NUEPA. It is the apex training institute in our country for educational planners and administrators. In order to discharge its functions properly, NUEPA has reorganized itself and drawn up its perspective plan which provides broad guidelines for its development over the next decades. Its main areas of activity consist of: (1) training educational planners and administrators (2) research (3) diffusion of innovations (4) consultancy services. The NUEPA performs mainly six types of functions which are mentioned below: (a) Training (b) Research (c) Innovation 172

(d) Consultancy Service (e) Publication (f) Collaboration The detailed descriptions of the key functions of NUEPA are as under:1. Training : NUEPA organizes a large number of seminars and workshops and training programmes each year for various educational functionaries of India on educational planning and administration. The seminars and workshops are intended to generate discussion and provide forums for preparation of work plans on important issues concerning educational policies and programmes and their implementation. The training programmes are generally aimed at sensitizing for Indian personnel and Overseas Personnel to new educational management enhancing their capabilities and bringing about an attitudinal change in them with a view to having greater efficiency in educational planning and administration. NUEPA is also engaged in the organisation of diploma courses in educational planning and administration and associative courses for post-doctoral work. There are a few diploma courses organized by NUEPA. One of them is Diploma in Educational Planning and Administration (DEPA). It is a six month pre-induction programme for district education officer who have either been newly recruited or promoted or are likely to be promoted as such in near future. Out of six month period three months are spent by the trainees on intensive curricular work in NUEPA and the remaining three months are spent on e supervised project work on the job. The curricular work in NUEPA lays stress on various themes like modern techniques of inspection and supervision, horizontal and vertical linkages, involvement of community education norms for opening schools, mobilization and utilization of resources, district and block level planning, formulation of projects and district level plans, monitoring and evaluation etc. there are also field visits, practicums and syndicate work. 2. Research : One of the major thrusts of NUEPA is its research programme. This programme is intended on one hand, to link research and training so that the former serves as a vital input into the institute's various training programmes and on the other to 173

provide a useful aid to policy-makers, planners and educational administrators in their decision-making and chalking out the future course of action.The NUEPA's research activities are varied and includes surveys, analytical studies and research projects having policy implications for different sectors of education. While some of the researches carried out by it are basic and fundamental in nature, some others are formative or summative in character. 3. Innovation : In order to serve as a catalytic agent in the matter of diffusion of innovative practices adopted by various states in the area of educational planning and administration, the NUEPA in 1982 undertook an in-depth study of the innovative RapportBased Programme of school complexes in Maharashtra. The study is particularly relevant in the context of the challenging task that lies before the schools, to achieve universalisation of elementary education, increasing the rate of retention of pupils, improving the quality of education and optimum utilization of available resources. National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) has reflected Its main concern for creating innovative practices in the field of educational planning and administration to orient educational planners and administrators. 4. Consultancy : NUEPA has provided consultancy services to various states and UTs for reorganization of their departments of education. Particular mention may be made of the service rendered by it to Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and many other states and UTs. It has evolved norms for opening and upgrading of schools, transfer of teachers, construction of school buildings etc.. It has evolved a model financial code for the universities of India. It has evolved a comprehensive scheme of monitoring and evaluation of these programmes. Several faculty members providing their expert services to various organizations, states governments, central governments and other agencies like UNESCO in different aspects of educational planning and management. NUEPA also gives advices to the Government of India from time to time on matters relating to decentralization of educational planning and management, universalization of elementary education, removal of adult illiteracy, monitoring and evaluation of educational programmes etc.. 174


Publication : National University of Educational Planning and Administration has taken a lead in the publication of relevant materials for educational planners and administrators. Its main function is to bring out publications relating to educational planning and administration and also to publish quarterly journal/periodicals, research papers and occasional papers on different aspects of school education, higher education and University education. Some of the publications on which the institute is currently working are an Atlas of Indian school education, Atlas of Tribal literacy, Five year plans on education, and government support for higher education and research. The institute has been bringing out a quarterly journal providing information and ideas on training, research and extension in the field of educational planning and administration including articles, summaries, documents and books abstracts, etc... The NUEPA has taken up a new venture of preparing a series of books on different issues of educational planning and administration in India.


Collaboration : To have collaborations with various other agencies and bodies is the key function of National University of Educational Planning and Administration. NUEPA has close links with key level national organizations such as the University Grants Commission (UGC), National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Planning Commission, Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA), Indian Council for Social Science Research (ICSSR), National Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS) and Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) etc.. The main purpose of having collaborations is to take full advantage of the resources and expertise of various experts in the field of educational planning and administration for its furtherance. The NUEPA has also been organizing several programmes for overseas participants too. These include Regional workshops on educational future and long term educational planning sponsored by UNESCO regional office, Bangkok, seminar on contribution of education to new international order sponsored by IIEP, Paris and inter country workshop on exchange of experiences in the field of educational facilities. It organized in Bangkok at the instance of UNESCO a training programme 175

for Rectors of teacher training colleges in Thailand on the subject of resource utilization. It also organized a two and a half month programme in Delhi for senior education officer and Papua New Guinea which was sponsored by common wealth secretariat, London and another programme of three months duration for Srilanka educational personnel has also been held by NUEPA in 1983. A programme for Asian trainees was also held last year in collaboration with IIEP, Paris. It has been organizing a series of orientation programmes for supervisors and curriculum consultants in social studies from USA on Indian history and culture, in collaboration with USFEI for past few years. Check Your Progress Q.1. Illustrate the composition of NUEPA with a brief description of its administrative structure.

Ans._______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Q.2. Describe any three functions of NUEPA with specific focus on the issues of educational administration.

Ans._______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 19.7 LET US SUM UP Dear students, through the foregoing discussion you came across with the growth and development of National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) since its inception. You also came to know about various aims and objectives of NUEPA with specific focus on its significance at national and state level. A glimpse of its various functions at state and national level has also been given with illustrative description of some major as well as minor activities being organised by NUEPA. I am sure a thorough reading of this lesson makes you well informed about various aspects of National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA). 19.8 1. 2. UNIT END EXERCISES Give a brief description of growth and expansion of NUEPA since its inception. Describe main objectives of NUEPA with specific mention of its relevance to administrative issues. 176

3. 4. 19.9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Discuss main functions of National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA) in context of innovative practices and publication. Give an outline of major administrative functions of NUEPA with illustrations. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Aggarwal, J.C (2002) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Organisation, Arya Book Depot, Karol Bagh, New Delhi. Aggarwal, S.P (1992) : Educational Planning in India with a slant to Educational Financing and Administration, Concept, New Delhi. Bhatnagar, R.P (1996) : Educational Administration, Anupurna, New Delhi. Gakhar, S.C (2006) : Educational Management, N.M. Publication, Panipat. Goel, S.L. & Goel, Aruna (1994) : Education Policy and Administration, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. Mohanty, Jagannath (2005) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Management, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi.





20.0 STRUCTURE 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Objectives 20.3 Historical Background 20.3.1 Functions of DIET 203.2 Functions of Academic Branches of DIET 20.3.3 Role of DIET 20.4 Questions For Self-Evaluation 20.5 Let Us Sum Up 20.6 Unit End Exercises 20.7 Suggested Further Readings 20.1 INTRODUCTION

In order to overhaul the teacher education programmes in the country, the MHRD (Ministry of Human Resource Development) has evolved the centrally sponsored schemes for the orientation of primary school teachers, secondary school teachers, college and university teachers, the agency which is responsible for providing pre-service and inservice education to elementary school teachers, non-formal and adult education instructors is termed as DIET. 20.2 OBJECTIVES To make the students aware of DIETs. 178

To give them the knowledge of the functions of DIET. To give them the knowledge of historical background of Diets. To give them knowledge of functions of academic branches of DIET. To explain them the role of DIET. 20.3 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

National Policy on Education (1986) states DIET will be established with the capability to organize pre-service and in-service courses for elementary school teachers and for the personnel working in non-formal and adult education. Programme of Education (1986) observes keeping in view the central place of teacher education, NPE calls for its overhaul as first, step towards educational reorganization. It is envisaged that selected institutions would be developed as District Institute of Education and training both for pre service and in-service courses of elementary school teachers and for continued education of the personnel working in non-formal and adult education programmes. The DIET would be the major agency to conduct the programme of in-service education for primary teachers. 20.3.1 Functions of DIET According to Ram Murti Committee Report following are the functions of DIET. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) A. (1) Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) Womens education with stress on giving a gender perspective to the entire educational process. Examination reforms, modularization, multiple entry and exit points. Vocationalisation of the entire educational process. Universalisation of elementary education. Education for promoting equity and social justice among SCs/STs and other educationally backward sections of society, including minorities. Academic and Resource Support to the elementary education and adult education system within district in other ways e.g. by : Extension activities and interaction with field. 179


Development of locally relevant available materials, teaching aids, evaluation tools etc.

(3) (4) B. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Serving as an evaluation centre for elementary schools and programmes of nonformal education. Provision of services of a resource and learning centres to teachers and instructors. Training and Orientation of the following groups : Headmasters, heads of school complexes and officers of education department; Elementary school teachers (both pre-service and in-service teacher education). Instructors and supervisors of non-formal and adult-education. Resource persons - who will conduct suitable programmes for the target groups at the centres other than DIETs. Members of District Boards of Education (DBEs), Village Education Committees (VECs), Community leaders, youth and other volunteers who wish to work in the educational activities. Action Research and Experimentation to deal with specific problems of district in achieving the objectives in the areas of elementary and adult education.


20.3.2 Functions of Academic Branches of DIET DIET has 7 Academic Branches : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Pre-service Teacher Education Branch Educational Technology Branch District Resource Unit Curriculum Material Development and Evaluation Branch Work-Experience Branch In-service programmes, Field Interaction and Innovation Coordination. 180

(7) 1. A (1)

Planning and Management Branch. Pre-service Teacher Education (PSTE) Branch To serve as a nodal branch for the following : Propagation of (a) learner-centred education (b) education for personality development including values and cultural development (c) through training, extension, preparation of suitable teaching aids, action research etc. Providing guidance and counseling services to schools/Non-Formal Education Centres of the District. General matters related with teaching methodology and specific methods dealing with teaching methodology of the school subjects represented in the branch. Education of handicapped children and gifted children. All matters related to learning by children of disadvantaged groups. Organisation of pre-service course for elementary school teachers includes admission, instruction and evaluation) and to provide input in such academic subjects. To conduct such in-service programmes contents of which are related exclusively to the subject represented in the branch. To provide input into programmes and activities of all other branches of the institutes related with subjects or areas handled or represented with branch such as. In-service programmes for elementary teachers. Training programmes for NFE (Non-Formal Education) personnel. Development of locally relevant curriculas, teaching learning material, low cost teaching, aids, testing and evaluation tools, techniques etc. Field interactions including extension activities. Action research, especially to improve learning by disadvantaged groups and in education of gifted. 181

(2) (3)

(4) (5) (6)

B. C.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


To promote and support co-curricular activities in areas related to literature, science fairs, visual and performing arts, sports, physical education competitions, yoga, hobbies etc. Educational Technology Branch : To correlate the branch with other branches. To prepare simple, effective and low cost teaching aids, tools, new innovation aids by using locally available material with the help of other branches.

2. (1) (2)

(3) (4) 3. (1)

To maintain audio-visual components, computer lab and cassettes. To conduct the workshop for the production of simple, effective and low cost teaching aids. District Resource Unit for Adult Education and Non-formal Education. To serve as nodal branch for organizing. (1) (a) Orientation programme for the resource persons of the following type: Who will organize the programme at other centres of the district e.g. Personnel from Nehru Yuvak Kendras, NFE/AE projects, Non-govt. organizations. Resource persons for the successful implementation of nonformal education programmes as a whole e.g. community leaders, retired teachers, ex-service men, NSS volunteers, others involved in Mass Literacy Mission, Programme.


(2) (3) (4) (5)

Programme of induction, training and continuing education for instructors/ supervisors of non-formal education/adult education to be organized in the DIET. To evaluate the quality and efficiency of programmes for non-formal education/ adult education personnel. Outside DIET and strive for continuous improvement To maintain the data of training personnel of non-formal education/ adult education at institutes and to organize follow-up activities to such training. To provide instructional input into core areas : (i) the programme of need, philosophy, objectives, methodology, evaluation, problems etc. in non-formal education/adult education. 182

(ii) (6)

Teaching of individual subject/areas such as languages, arithmetic, functional skills.

To undertake with the help of other branches, activities like curriculum, post-literacy teaching-learning material, low cost teaching evaluation tools for adult education/non-formal education.


To help District Board of Education and non-formal education authorities in organizing media support for non-formal education/adult education programmes.

4. (1) (2) (3) (4) 5. 1. 2.

Curriculum Material Development and Evaluation Branch : To help the District Resource unit to prepare curriculum for it. To conduct the workshops for teaching-learning material with the help of other branches. To help the schools to get media support. To adopt existing items and develop new items for framing the curriculum of new units. Work Experience Branch : To help educational authorities, schools/non-formal education centres inplanning the work-experience activities in schools/centres. To relate work-experience input into all other programmes, activities of the institutes.


To conduct appropriate in service programmes for the teachers in the workexperience are as.


To survey work experience areas in co-operation with nodal branches for the development of sample curricular units, teaching- learning material, low cost teaching aids, evaluation tools and techniques in these areas.

5. 6. 7.

To maintain workshop / farm / garden for work-experience activities. To promote work related hobbies among trainees of the institute. To organize community service activities and to study visits to work centre as a 183

part of training programmes and to promote such activities on co-curricular basis. 8. 6. 1. 2. To organize activities for cleanliness, upkeep, development of the institute campus. In-service Programmes, Field Interaction and Innovation Co-ordination (IFIC) Branch To evaluate and monitor the quality and efficacy of in-service programmes held in and outside the DIET and strive for continuous improvement. To maintain data base on all persons except non-formal education and to organize follow-up activities to such training through correspondent, visits, transmission printed material. To act as a nodal branch for all action research and field interaction activities of the institute: (i) Acting as a clearing house confirmation on results of all studies, researches, innovations etc. in the area of elementary education wherever undertaken.


(ii) Publication of materials, journals and to be sent to every elementary school, non-formal education and adult education centre in the district. 4. 5. To serve as a reference and resource centres for teachers who wish to continue their education. To serve as nodal branch for organizing : (i) (ii) (iii) 6. In-service education programmes for teachers, headmasters, institutes whose content doesnt relate to any one branch. In-service education programmes for teachers in the distance/ distance cum contact modes. Orientation programmes for resource persons who would conduct in-service programmes.

To assist educational authorities in planning and co-ordination of inservice education programmes for elementary teachers throughout the district, and to plan and co-ordinate such programmes held in DIET etc., this branch would : 184

(i) (ii) (iii) 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 20.3.3

Identify training needs of elementary teachers in the district. Help the concerned authorities in preparing an annual calendar of in service programme to be held outside the DIET. Prepare calendar of all programmes to be held in the DIET.

Planning and Management Branch To give technical assistance to educational authorities for school, mapping, micro planning for elementary education for specific area. To conduct investigation to give advice to educational planners, administrators or educational authorities. To make involvement in community programme. To prepare the annual report of educational institutions. To evaluate all the educational institutions and their programme. To maintain the data at a district level for use of exercise and mass education and adult education. To frame the programme and activities of school complexes. Role of DIETs DIETs have following significant role to play in the field of education :


DIETs Pace Setting Institutions DIETs have two aspects (i) Excellence in the institutes own work. (ii) Helping the elementary and adult education systems in the district in achieving excellence.

As far as the first aspect is concerned, efforts are being made to equip DIETs with all necessary physical and manpower resources. It is for the DIETs to learners, these and other resources in the rest possible manner to achieve excellence. Thus, DIETs are expected to act as models for other teacher training institutions in the district in terms of meticulous, efficient and effective planning and execution of functions, harmonious and creative organizational climate and maintenance of a clear and attractive campus, etc. 185

2. DIETs as Linking agency DIETs are supposed to establish a close and continuing, dialogue with the field. Field means elementary schools, school complexes, teachers, headmasters, school supervisors or B.Ed. adult education functionaries and district level officers in primary, non-formal and adult education sectors. DIETs have to establish link with organizations and institutions of national, state, divisional and district levels whose interest and aims match with its own. Some of these institutions are as given below : (a) (b) (c) At District Level: NGOs colleges, secondary teacher education institutions, local radio stations. At Division Level : Colleges of teacher education, institutes of Advanced Study in Education (IASE), NGOs etc. At National level : NCERT, NIEPA, CRT, Central Institute of Indian languages (Mysore), Kendriya Hindi Sansthan (Agra), Directorate of Adult education, other premier organizations and institutions and NGOs working in the area of elementary education, non-formal education and adult education.

This linkage would be established through a meaningful and continuous dialogue in which institutions share problems, experience, achievements, information and resources. 3. DIETs are part of larger design

DIETs are part of larger strategy of MHRD to achieve national goals as envisaged in NPE and POA and are listed below : (1) Achievement of Universal Elementary Education for all. (2) Adoption of a National system of Education enrichment of cultural content of the curricula readjustment in the curricula to make education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values oriented towards the achievement of unity and integration of our people. (3) Achievement of the objectives set form by National Literary Mission (NLM). Objective of the NLM is to provide functional literacy to illiterates in the 1535 age group. (4) DIETs as promoters of Equality of Educational Opportunity for all : National system of education implies that upto a given level all students, 186

irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex have access to education of a comparable equality. Therefore in order to promote equality, it will be necessary to provide for equal opportunity to all not only in access, but also in the condition for success. This is what is meant by universalization of education and it implies that the needs of disadvantaged groups would be considered. 5. DIETs as promoters of child centred approach in Education : DIETs are supposed to perform the following four main functions: (1) Pre-service education (2) In-service education (3) Resource support (4) Conducting of Research The basic approach in performing these functions must be child/ centredness. The child centred approach necessitates a fundamental change in the manner of curriculum transaction. The role of a teacher here becomes role of a designer and facilitator of learning experience and an active contributor to an all round development of the learner. For this, DIET will itself adopt an attitude of a life long learner. It would receive as much from the field as it would endeavour to give to it. 6. DIETs as Institutions Promoting : Autonomy and Accountability : In NPE, it has been said that an overhaul of the system of planning and management of education will receive top priority. In this process two of the guiding considerations will be : (i) Decentralization and Creation of a spirit of autonomy for educational institutions.

(ii) Establishing the principle of accountability in relation to give objectives and norms. In view of this statement, DIETs have been accorded an adequate loss of functional autonomy/financial, administrative and academic. At the same time, DIET would be 187

answerable to the DBEs and state Govt. or U.T. Administration, wherever they are located. DBEs and state Govt. or U.T. Administration, wherever they are located. DBEs will set longs medium and short term goals and performance norms for the DIETs where DBEs have not been set up, SCERT, will evaluate their functions. To conclude, it can be said that DIETs have crucial role to play in the field of education in order to make it more and more productive. Check Your Progress (NOTE : Please put at an appropriate alternative) 1 2 DIETs have to provide academic and resource support to elementary and adult education throughout the country. (Yes or No) DIETs have no responsibility to give training to educational personnel. (Yes or No) 3 DIETs conduct action research to deal with problems which come in the way of achieving objectives in the area of elementary and adult education. (Yes or No) 4 5. 6. 7. DIETs have several academic branches. DIETs prepare low cost teaching aids. DIETs help schools in plainning the work-experience activities. (Yes or No) (Yes or No) (Yes or No)

DIETs work as linking agency between schools and district level officers. (Yes or No)

DIETs work to promote equality of educational opportunity for all. (Yes or No)

9. 10 20.4

DIETs promote child-centered approach in education.

(Yes or No)

DIETs are not concerned with MHRD (Ministry of Human Resource and Development. (Yes or No) LET US SUM UP

It can be concluded that DIETs have a significant role to play in the sphere of education. DIETs have many important functions to perform. DIETs have to provide 188

academic and resource support to elementary and adult education within the district. They have to give training to various educational personnel. DIETs have several academic branches viz pre-service teacher education branch, educational technology branch, district resource unit, curriculum material development and evaluation branch, work experience branch, in-service programmes, field interaction and innovation coordination, planning and management branch DIETs have to work as pace-setting institutions, as linking agency between schools and district level officers. They have to promote equality of educational opportunity. They have to promote child centred approach in education. They have to promote autonomy and accountability among educational institutions. 20.5 UNIT END EXERCISES (Long Questions) Q.1 What is DIET? Describe its historical background and functions. Q.2 What do you understand by DIET ? Q.3 What is its role in the field of education ? Q.4 Describe role and function of DIETs.

Short Questions : Q.5 Discuss functions of academic branches of DIETs in detail. 1. Discuss the meaning of DIET in brief. 2. Name the academic branches of DIET and discuss the functions ofany one branch. 3. Briefly discuss the role of DIETs. 20.6 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

MHRD, Govt. of India : District Institutions of Education and Training MHRD (1986) : Programme of Action. MHRD (1986) : National Policy of Education, 1986 with modifications undertaken in 1992. MHRD (1992) : Programme of Action. Ministry of Education, Govt. of India (1986) : Programme of Action. Key Check Your Progress Answers : (1) No (8) Yes (2) No (3) Yes (9) Yes (10) No (4) Yes (5) Yes (6) Yes (7) Yes




21.0 STRUCTURE 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Objectives 21.3 Historical Background 21.4 Composition of CBSE 21.5 Functions of CBSE 21.6 State Board 21.6.1 Historical Background 21.6.2 Composition of the Board 21.6.3 Functions of the Board 21.7 Let Us Sum Up 21.8 Unit End Exercises 21.9 Suggested Further Readings 21.1 INTRODUCTION

The Central Board of Secondary Education is an apex body which is functioning in the Country for the Education of the Children up to the level of 10+2 . It prepares the syllabus for students from lower K.G. to Class 12th. for Schools affiliated with it . It Conducts two board examinations : the All India Secondary School Examination for class 10th and the All India Senior School Certificate Examination for Class 12th , which is a school leaving Examination . The Medium for education prescribed by CBSE 190

is either Hindi or English .The jurisdiction of the Board is extensive and stretches beyond the national geographical boundaries. As a result of the reconstruction , the erstwhile Delhi Board of Secondary Education was merged with the Central Board and thus all the educational institutions recognized by the Delhi Board also became a part of the Central Board . Subsequently , all the schools located in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands , Arunachal Pradesh and the state of Sikkim got affiliation with the Board. From a group of 309 Schools in 1962 the Board today has approx. 9000 schools which include Kendriya Vidayalayas , Government and Government Aided Schools , Independent Schools , Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and Adhoc Schools. 21.2 OBJECTIVES After Studying this lesson, the Students should be able to :Understand the Historical Back ground of the CBSE and its present form. Understand the structural design of the Board (CBSE) Understand the different functions of the Board. 21.3 HISTORICAL BACK GROUND

The Central Board of Secondary Education is a board of School Education in India, whose short form is CBSE . The present status of the board has a Historical background which can be described in two periods of History i.e. History of the board in Pre Independence period and History of the board after the Independence of India . A trial of developments mark the significant changes that took place over the years in shaping up the Board to its present status .U.P. Board of High school and intermediate Education was the first set up in 1921. It had under its jurisdiction Rajputana. This included Ajmer, Marwana, Central India and Gwalior in response to the representation made by the government of United provinces , the then Government of India suggested to set up a Joint Board in1929 for all the areas and this was named as the Board of High school and Intermediate Education , Rajuputana. This included Ajmer, Marwana, Central India and Gwalior. The Board witnessed rapid growth and expansion at the level of secondary education resulting in improved quality and standard of education in its institutions . But with the advent of state Universities and state Boards in various parts of the country the 191

juridiction of the board was confined only to Ajmer, Bhopal and Vindhya Pardesh later. As a result of this in 1952, the constitution of Board was confined where in its jurisdiction was extended to part C and part-D territories and the board was given its present name "Central Board of Secondary Education", it was in the year 1962 finally that the board was reconstituted . The main objectives were those of serving the Educational Institutions more effectively, to be responsive to the educational needs of those students whose parents were employed in the Central Government and had frequently transferable jobs. Now the Board is a full fledged body working through out the country in the field of School Education. 21.4 COMPOSITION OF CBSE The Board has a full time Chairman , who is the Chief Executive of the Board. He is assisted by the Three Heads of the Departments : Secretary , Controller of Examination s, Director ( Academic) . The Chairman and Heads of Departments are appointed by the Controlling Authority of the Board , the Secretary Education , MHRD Govt. of India. The Secretary of the Board is the Chief Administrative Officer and is responsible for all matters pertaining to general Administration, Establishment , Vigilance, Legal , Accounts, Public Relations, Grievances Redressal , Affiliation and property of the Board. He also looks after the PMT and JNV examinations. The Controller of Examinations & Director is responsible for all matters Concerning Examinations administrative as well as confidential. The Director ( Academic ) is responsible for all matters pertaining to the development of syllabi , textual and other materials including publications of the Board. He also handles Inservice teacher training and other academic projects. Check your Progress Q.1. Ans. Explain the composition of CBSE in brief. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 21.5 FUNCTIONS OF CBSE

As we have already discussed that the board functions under the overall supervision of the Controlling Authority which is vested with the Secretary Education, 192

Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi. Besides this the Board has various statuatory committees which are advisory in nature. The Governing Body of the Board is constituted as per its rules and regulations the committees and their functions are as under :1. To prescribe conditions of examination and conduct public examinations at the end of Class X and XII . To grant qualifying certificates to successful candidates of the affiliated schools. 2. To fulfill the educational requirements of those students whose parents were employed in transferable jobs. 3. To prescribe and update the courses of instructions for examinations. 4. To affiliate institutions for the purpose of examination and raise the academic standards of the country. 5. Reforms in examinations and evaluation practices. 6. Skill of learning by adding job oriented and job linked inputs. 7. Regularly updating the pedagogical skills of the teachers and administrators by conducting in-service training programmes, workshops, etc 21.6 STATE BOARD (Ref. J&K State Board of School Education )

21.6.1 Historical Background After the submission of report in the year 1966 by the Indian Education Commission 1964-66, the Government of J&K state appointed a High Power Committee under the chairmanship of Sh. Bhagwan Sahay , the Governor of the state to review the development of education in Jammu and Kashmir state and to make recommendations in the light of recommendations made by IEC 1964-66. The committee submitted the report in 1973. The committee has given a number of recommendations. Out of that one was related to the reconstruction of J&K Board of Secondary education in order to make its functions effectively. However, the Board of School Education (J&K) has been constituted by an act of the legislative assembly, to look after Academic supervision , examinations of the state to look after the affairs of the school education up to the level of Higher Secondary Part 2 of the state. Objectives After studying the lesson the student should be able to:193

To explain and understand Historical Background of the Board. To explain and understand the composition of the Board. To explain and understand the different types of functions of the Board. 21.6.2 Composition of the Board : Each state has the following constitution of the Board except for some slight variations. But so far as the constitution of Jammu and Kashmir Board of school education is concerned ,it is constituted with the following structure:1. Chairman : The Chairman is the head of the Board and is appointed by the State Govt. The chairman is also administrative head and holding superior type of responsibilities of the Board. It is the duty of the chairman to ensure that the board is functioning in the best possible manner. All the meetings of the Board are required to be presided by the chairman. 2. Secretary :The secretary is appointed by the State Govt.. He is the chief executive officer of the Board. He is given the administrative and financial powers to manage the affairs of the Board. Besides the Secretary, there are many other executives like Joint Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Assistant Secretary etc. who look after different types of affairs of the Board. 3. Members of the Board :The Board has three types of members who are called upon in order to take some important decisions. They are :i. Ex-officio members ii. Nominated members iii. Co-opted members Check Your Progress Q.1. Ans. List the functions of J&K Board of School Education in brief. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 194

21.6.3 Functions : The Board performs the following functions :1. Academic functions (a) Prescribing syllabi, courses of study and text books for school education. (b) Conducting examination based on such courses as prescribed by the Board. Determining the eligibility of the candidates appearing for examinations, evaluation of scripts and declaration of results. (c) Prescribing syllabi for certain diploma and certificate courses that are conducted in the state. (d) Prescribing standards that the school and other institution seeking affiliation with board ought to observe. The standards may be in terms of the number of teachers, their qualifications, curriculum implementation, equipment, building and other educational facilities. 2. Administrative functions

(a) Demanding and receiving such fees as may be prescribed . (b) Placing before the government the views of the Board on any matter with which the Board is concerned. (c) Providing recognition to institutions engaged in imparting school education on the basis of the prescribed norms. The Board has the power to de-recognize an institution if it does not fulfill the prescribed norms. 21.7 LET US SUM UP

Evaluation is an important component of the teaching-learning process. It helps the teachers and learners to improve teaching and learning. In learning, it contributes to the formation of objectives, designing of learning expression and assessment of learning performance. Evaluation is a continuous process not a periodic exercise. It helps in forming the values of judgement educational status or achievement of students. It is inevitable in teaching and learning process in one form or the other. In the same regard, Govt. of India as well as State Governments have constitution, independent organization namely Central Board of Secondary Education and State Board for the conduct, making laws at state 195

levels, evaluation, results and other associated activities of the school education up to Higher Secondary level. In the present lesson, we have tried to explain a brief historical background, composition and function of both the organization viz. CBSE (Central Board of School Education) and SB (State Boards) with special reference to J&K State Board of school education. 21.8 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. Discuss the composition, functions and role of CBSE. Discuss the composition, functions and role of State Board (especially J&K State Board of School Education).


SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. 2. 3. 4. Aggarwal, J.C : Land mark in the History of Modern Indian Education, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi. Bhatnagar, R.P & Agarwal, Vidya (1999) : Educational Administration, Surya Publication, Meerut, Delhi. Mukerjee, S.N (1962) : Administration of Education in India, Baroda, Acharya Book Depot. Verma, Romesh (2005) : Educational Administration, Anmol Publications, New Delhi.





22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.1 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Historical Background The Present Pattern of Secondary Education Problems Related to Governing Government Secondary Schools Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

Secondary Education gives desired direction to the Nations power, an idea of which the government has always been conscious. Moreover, Secondary Education is the backbone of the countrys entire Educational Programme. Full benefit of education cannot however be desired if the preparation at secondary stage has been incomplete Secondary Education has therefore, a big role to play in any programme of education for the community. This is the stage, where teachers for both elementary and adult education are produced. It also prepares students for the universities and other institutions of higher learning. Besides, it is the stage in which all countries mark the completion of education for the vast majority. Even the Minority which goes for higher education cannot take full advantage of the wider opportunities offered by the Universities unless they have received their groundings in a system of sound Secondary Education. Therefore, these considerations alone demand 197

that secondary education must be of the highest quality if it is to satisfy the needs of the modern society. 22.2 OBJECTIVES

The present lesson is based upon the following objectives whereas students are in a position to :Understand the Historical Background of Secondary education in India. Understand and explain the present structure of the Secondary Education. Understand and explain various problems in administering the Government Secondary schools. 22.3 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

By 1853, education in India had come to suffer from numerous problems. Consequently a survey was organized under the leadership of Wood. Its conclusions are contained in a declaration known as Woods Despatch of 1853. On the basis of its recommendations, new educational policies were framed, under which a Public Instruction Department, a post of Director, Public Instruction and Universities which conducted examinations came to be established . These universities began to organize Secondary and Higher Education in the country. After a couple of years i.e. In 1857, the first bloody revolution for the countrys independence took place and it put an end forever to the administration of the company. Now the reins of Indias administration passed into the hands of the British Parliament. The revolution of 1857, was responsible for far-reaching changes in Indian education. Therefore, keeping in view the educational interests of the Indian masses, Lord Rippon appointed an Indian Education Commission on Feb.3, 1882, under the leadership of William Hunter. The Commission had made various recommendations on the different aspects of education including Secondary Education. For Secondary Education, the Commission put forward the following suggestions :1. 2. 3. Secondary Education should be propagated through Local Bodies. A system of providing aid should be introduced. The Government should establish at least one Secondary school in every district of the Country. Therefore right from the Indian Education Commission of 1882 to 198

the day of Indias Independence in 1947. Number of changes took place in the field of Secondary Education. After Independence, the progress of Secondary Education was charted by some committees and commissions. Out of which Secondary Education Commission of 195253 was considered to be important because this commission was purely appointed to study the organization of Secondary education in the Country. On the whole, Secondary Education from 1853 to 1953 passed through numerous Types of ups and downs. With the result the objectives, organization and programmes of Secondary education underwent various types of changes from time to time. 22.4 THE PRESENT PATTERN OF SECONDARY EDUCATION

Secondary education is not a type of education. It is a stage in the formal system of Education which starts after elementary education and terminates with the entry of the student in the three years degree course of Education. According to Secondary Education Commissions report, Secondary Education covers the children who are between the age span of 11-17 years. The break up of seven years schooling is further divided as junior secondary stage of three years and higher secondary stage of four years. According to Kothari Education Commission (1964-66) about Secondary Education it said,+2 stage should be introduced. Vocationalisation of Education should be done at +2 stage and standard of teachers should be raised. Regarding Secondary Education National Policy of Education 1968 speaks on; educational opportunities at the secondary level should be extended to all classes of people as it is an effective instrument for bringing about social change and transformation, Facilities for technical and vocational Education should be Increased and it should be related to Employment opportunities. Covering the areas of agriculture, Industry trade etc. However by 1986, the situation had improved a little more and the National Policy on Education 1986, felt that the most noticeable development had been the acceptance of a Common structure of Education through out the country and the Introduction of 10+2+3 pattern was recommended, which has now been accepted in all parts of the country. The break up of the 10+2+3 is like this 10 year General type of School Education (Comprises of 5 year Primary Education, 3 year upper primary followed by 2 years of High School Education) 2 years Higher Secondary Education and 3 year degree course Education. 199

At present this structure of Education is being followed at the country level both by the Institutions of state and centre with very small variations. 22.5 PROBLEMS RELATED TO GOVERNING GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Since India is a developing nation in the world. All the Systems of the Country Including Education is at the Developing stage. Though, country had made a enormous progress in the field of Education in general and secondary Education in specific after its independence, but still a lot of efforts are required in this regard. As we all are aware that the expansion of education at secondary level is going on along with other levels. Being at the Expansion stage Secondary Education has been confronted with a number of problems which are responsible for its poor Governance particularly in Government sector, few of them are stated as under : Aim lessness : Today majority of the students at secondary school stage are Joining the Educational institutions only with the aim of getting Education in order to get employment or for getting admission in an Institution of Higher Education. Their aim is very limited. The purpose of Education is not solved. Moreover, the present design of Secondary Education is not in accordance with the changing needs of our society. It does not create self confidence in the students. Therefore, the Schools where such types of students are studying, it becomes very difficult to control and manage them. Unsuitable Curriculum : The Present Curriculum of Secondary Education is not suitable to the growing needs of the adolescents of the Country like India. Who is in the developing stage. The present Curriculum is narrowly conceived, more bookish in nature lacking practical and job oriented Courses. Moreover, all the students have to study on prefixed Curriculum, where students do not get opportunity to select subjects of their own Interests and desires. Problem of Expansion : Jawahar Lal Nehru, once remarked, that the prevailing system of Education may have been unsuitable in past Circumstances, but in the Modern Circumstances, at a time when stratification is taking place, it could cause nothing but harm. The New generation is the future hope of the country. The manner in which we developed their 200

innate powers and the directions in which we bent their minds would determine the future of the country. Therefore, the highest priority must be given to their education. Today, the Problem of growth and Expansion of secondary education is confronting all of us directly or in directly. The expansion has been unplanned and unsystematic. The infrastructure and trained man power are not available for such an increase which is still going on. Consequently a large number of sub standard Educational Institutions have come up, which are simultaneously affecting the standard of Higher Education at large in the Country. Problem of Teachers : The Success of any Scheme of Education depends on the Quality of teachers engaged in the process. Without good teachers even the best of system is bound to fall, with good teacher even defects of a system can be largely over come.( Prof. Humayun Kabir). But today, Secondary School stage is suffering for want of qualified, trained and experienced teachers on one hand and need base number of teachers on the second hand, because of shortage of teachers. Therefore, required number of qualified teachers at present is the dire need of the Secondary Schools. Inadequate Teachers Training Programmes : For Academic and professional growth of the teacher, training from time to time both in academic as well as in professional areas is must for him. For this purpose government has constituted a number of Institutions at all levels of the Teachers for Imparting training to them. But the present Training institutions are in adequate in many respects. There is a shortage of man power both skilled and un skilled, lacking requisite Infrastructure, no definite Policies and Programmers of training, no fixed calendar of activities, shortage of funds etc. With these implications, the training institutions are not able to provide training to the teachers on need basis, which is affecting directly to the standard of teaching and Education. Problem of Vocationalisation : The Education Commission (1964-66) had suggested, that Vocationalisation of Secondary Education should be linked to man power planning with employment opportunities available. But our system of Secondary Education is not linked to it. It lacks vocational back ground. It has created a large number of Educated unemployed 201

youths which is the matter of great concern for the planners of the country Moreover, in the absence of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education Problem of unemployment will remain as it is rather it would increase. Thus in order to bring Education closer for the process of productivity, It is necessary to give strong vocational bias to Secondary Education . Problem of Examination : Examination and Evaluation have an important place in the Educational sphere. The Evaluation of the Degree to which the student has progressed during his period of study is of value both for the teacher and the parents. Examinations have always existed in one form or the other. But the existing system of examination of our Secondary Education is full of defects . It fails to test the real knowledge of the students. The element of subjectivity is very high. Generally, students consider Examination as a means of passing the class only. Knowledge aspect is neglected in it. The students depend upon help books. Moreover, the worth of the teacher is measured in terms of the number of his students who pass from his class. Therefore there is a strong need to remove the defects in the system of examination so that knowledge aspect is developed in the students. In addition to the problems discussed above, there are certain other problems which secondary education is facing, such as problem of medium of Instructions, Problems related to the text books, administration and supervision etc. Check Your Progress Write short notes on : 1. Ans. Present pattern of secondary education in brief. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 2. Ans. Problems of Expansion and Vocationalisation in brief. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 22.6 LET US SUM UP The above discussion can be concluded with the words that the present system 202

of Secondary Education is more than 150 years old. Its foundation was laid down in the year 1853 by Wood. Many changes had taken place from the year 1853 till date in the field of Secondary Education. Number of Committees and Commissions were constituted from time to time in order to bring reforms and desireable improvements in the field of Secondary Education. But still the system of Secondary Education is suffering from a number of problems both at administrative and at functional levels, which are responsible for the poor governance of the Government Secondary schools. The problems may be :lack of trained man power, poor infra structure, defective curriculum, problems related to expansion, defective system of Examination etc. As we all know that Secondary Education is the backbone of the entire system of Education of the country. It needs to be strengthened both at administrative and functional levels. Its strength and success is possible only when we would look in to the problems of Secondary Education and try to find out the Solutions with core of hearts. Much care is required at this stage because Secondary Education is the linking stage between elementary and Higher Education. 22.7 UNIT END EXERCISES 1. 2. 3. Give a brief note on the history of Secondary Education of India Discuss the present pattern of Secondary Education of the country Discuss various problems which are related to governing of Government Secondary Schools.

22.8 1. 2.

SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Dash, M (2000) : Education in India Problems and Prospectives, Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, Delhi. Kochhar, S.K (1991) : Secondary School Administration, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.




23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Meaning of Supervision 23.3.1 23.3.2 23.3.3 23.3.4 23.3.5 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.1 Nature of Supervision Supervision as Service Activity Supervision as a Process Supervision as Function Supervision as Educational Leadership.

Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

The concept of supervision is based upon the belief that the improvement of instruction is a cooperative enterprise. It is intended to stimulate, coordinate, guide and make the teachers self-directive. Supervision can be called superior vision. It is vision with a mission. It is looking forward and to have a broad outlook for the growth of education. Retrospect :- It began at the time of Woods despatch. To provide grant-in-aid, 204

supervision was done for the first time. Zakir Hussain changed the old concept of supervision which had a fault finding attitude. It was negative in nature. But now it has a positive nature. It aims at improvement in teaching-learning process. 23.2 OBJECTIVES To give knowledge of Meaning of Supervision to the students. To tell the students about Nature of Supervision. To discuss Supervision as Service Activity, Process, Function and Educational Leadership. 23.3 MEANING OF SUPERVISION 1. 2. 3. Definitions :- In the words of DICKY supervision is a planned programme for improvement of instruction. According to Wiles, Supervision is assistance in the development of a better teaching/ learning situation. According to A.S. Barr, Supervision is an expert technical service primarily concerned with studying and improving the conditions that surround learning and pupil growth. According to Harold Spears, Supervision has gradually moved from improvement of instruction to improvement of learning. According to Briggs and Justman, In general supervision means to coordinate, stimulate and direct the growth of the teachers in the power to stimulate and direct the growth of every individual pupil through the exercise of his talents towards the richest and the most intelligent participation in the civilization in which he lives.

4. 5.

To conclude it can be said that supervision is to see or to oversee the working of the schools. It is a cooperative group effort. It is both a means and an end in itself Supervision is a special service, the aim of which is to help according to the need. It is an expert technical service, primarily concerned with studying and improving the conditions that surround learning and pupil growth. It is concerned not only with pupil and teacher 205

but also with supervisory staff itself as well as parents and other lay men. It is concerned with teacher, pupil, the curriculum, the materials of instruction, the socio-physical environment of the school. It evaluates the objectives, methods and brings improvement. 23 3.1 Nature of Supervision 1 Supervision is democratic : It is democratic leadership. It is a social force concerned with the development of human personality and of a stable democratic social order. 2. It is Scientific : Supervision adopts scientific method and influenced by science of education. Scientific supervision means securing as complete and accurate a picture as possible of current school practices. Then all scientific knowledge about learning material and method of learning to be utilized to improve conditions. 3. It is creative and constructive : Supervision is creative and constructional because it aims at bringing improvement in all the aspects of education which are overtly or covertly related with teaching and learning. Democratic supervision which provides ample opportunities for participatory discussion and group formulation of policies and plans, stimulates creative expression from all. 4. It is professional : Supervision is moving steadily towards professional status. A specialized body of knowledge is growing up, together with a body of techniques. Obligations and responsibilities are self-recognized and beginning to be stated in code of ethics. 5. It is based on philosophy : Good supervision is based on philosophy and sensitive to the ultimate aims and values, to policies etc. 6. It is progressive : It means supervision aims at the promotion of pupils and teachers growth and through them the improvement of society. It coordinates and integrates all available resources, materials and efforts. 23.3.2 Supervision as Service Activity Supervision is a service activity. It is a service which is provided to help teachers 206

to do better job. Earlier education was considered inspection which had a fault finding attitude and which checked whether the teachers were doing their jobs satisfactorily or not. But now its function has changed. Now it aims at improving teaching-learning situation and achieving the goals of education. This is a very comprehensive activity which means doing every thing that contributes to teaching-learning effectiveness. In this capacity, the supervisor is required to help and guide the teachers for improved teaching in identifying better methods of teaching, in the ways to motivate the students, in getting adjusted in school situations, in solving personal and professional problems, in identifying and using relevant teaching material, in keeping themselves abreast of the upto-date developments in the field of teaching and the subject of his own speciality, he is also required to raise the morale of teachers and students. Supervisor may be a principal, a specialist Inspector of schools, a head of the Department or a Vice Chancellor, he has to make all possible efforts to improve the teaching- learning situation. The emphasis in the concept of service activity is on doing something and helping others as opposed to just sitting, thinking, telling, directing controlling and pointing out faults of subordinates. Modem supervision is a highly responsible position linked with the responsibility for doing everything needed for effective teaching-learning. Supervision is assistance in improvement, not only supervisors own activity and efforts but a combined activity or efforts of all others who are involved in the process of teaching-learning. 23.3.3 Supervision as a Process Supervision is based on social, psychological and educational process Teaching learning cant be improved until the teachers quality improves. Interaction between the supervisor and teacher is necessary for developing teachers. The supervisor is required to stimulate, nurture and appraise the professional growth of teachers. Desirable knowledge, skills and attitudes have to be developed in them. This happens in a social context and through a social process. The kind of learning of teachers is a social process which is influenced by the kind of people around them, the way they are treated by their supervisors the way they are rewarded by their institution, the roles they are required to play. What they will learn depends very much on their interaction with others. Teacher development and improvement of teaching learning is thus a social process. Modern approach to 207

supervision is democratic, innovative and oriented-towards human relations. It depends on cooperation and team work. Modern supervision stresses the need for supervisors creating social situations in which teacher can develop those behavioural skills which can lead to improvement of teaching-learning. Modern supervision emphasizes developing insight on teachers as a result of their own experience. Supervision is a process which emphasizes using interaction with people and participation in social situations as important tools of developing teachers and other subordinates for improving teaching-learning. Psychological process are also involved in modem supervision Modern supervision is based on psychological principles of behaviour modification and behaviour technology. Supervision mean motivating and bringing about desirable changes in the behaviour of teachers and all others involved in teaching-learning improvement directly or indirectly. Curriculum construction or renewal, teaching methodology, testing and evaluation, managing human relations and conflicts effective communication are some of the jobs in which the modern supervisor has to engage himself frequently. All these tasks involve psychological process. Modern supervision rightly stresses the use of workshops, institutes, seminars, group discussions, independent studies, school visits etc. for the development of teachers. 23.3.4 Supervision as Function Modern supervision has many functions to perform. These are to improve the learning situation, by working with teachers to help teachers grow professionally, to develop materials for instruction and learning to improve the curriculum and to arrange for inservice education of teachers and other persons. A few more functions of modem supervision are co-ordinating instructional services over schools of several towns, districts, states, upgrading evaluation, study of problems, getting new schemes and decisions successfully implemented, managing reward system for teachers, helping teachers define their roles and role of others in the context of teaching-learning, facilitating cooperation and interaction among faculty and staff. Modern supervision has to help teachers to conceptualize teaching as a global activity consisting of a number of other activities related to one another sequentially as well as functionally. 23.3.5 Supervision as Educational Leadership It is considered today that supervision is leadership. In democratic societies freedom to teach and to learn to experiment and to innovate is considered quite important. Hence, the personal professional influence emanating from leadership qualities of supervision 208

is preferred for bringing about educational improvement as compared to the authoritarian methods of old time inspection. Modern supervisor pays attention towards achievement of goals through positive human relationships and effective communication resulting from supervisors better interaction skills. These skills consist of planning skills, organizational skills, co-ordination skills, communication skills, power delegating skills and evaluation skills. According to Jane Franseth Today supervision is generally seen as leadership that encourages a continuous involvement of all school personnel in a co-operative attempt to achieve the most effective school program. Check Your Progress (NOTE : Please put at an appropriate alternative) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Supervision is also known as superior vision. Supervision began at the time of Woods despatch. Supervision is never planned. Supervision is aimed at finding faults of teachers. Supervision is democratic, scientific & psychological. Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No

Modern Supervision emphasizes creating social situations for developing behavioural skills in teachers. Yes/No Modern supervision is based on psychological principles of behaviour modification and behaviour technology. Yes/No

8. Modern supervision is against the use of seminars, workshops, group discussions etc. for the development of teachers. Yes/No 9. In modern supervision, supervisor works alone and does not co-operate with teachers. Yes/No Yes/No

10. Modern supervision disregards old authoritarian methods. 23.4 LET US SUM UP

Supervision started at the time of Woods despatch to provide grant-in-aid. It means to oversee the working of schools. It is concerned with improving whole teachinglearning situation. It is, democratic, scientific, creative, constructive, professional and 209

psychological. It is based on philosophy. It is a technical service which is provided to help teachers to do better job. It is based on social, psychological and educational process. Modem supervision stresses the need for supervisors creating social situations in which teachers can develop those behaviour skills which can lead to improvement of teachinglearning. It stresses developing insight in teachers as a result of their own experience. Supervision has to improve the learning situation by working with teachers. It has to help teachers to grow professionally and has to develop material for instruction and learning, to improve the curriculum and to arrange for in-service education of teachers and other persons. Supervision is considered leadership. Personal professional influence emanating from leadership qualities of supervision can bring about educational improvement. 23.5 UNIT END EXERCISES

Long Questions : Q.I Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 What do you mean by supervision ? Discuss supervision as service activity. Define supervision. Discuss its nature. Define supervision and explain supervision as educational leadership. What do you understand by the term supervision what are its functions?

Short Questions : Q.I Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 23.6 1. 2. Define Supervision. Describe Nature of Supervision. Briefly Discuss Functions of Supervision. Briefly explain Supervision as Service Activity and Educational Leadership. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Aggarwal, Y.P, Sachdeva, M.S, Kaur, Manjeet : Educational Management, Planning & Administration Dr. Bhatnagar, R.P., Dr. Aggarwal, Vidya : Educational Administration 210

3. 4.

Mrs. Shukla, S.P. : Principles of Educational Supervision Vashist, S.R : Educational Administration.

Key Check Your Progress Answers : (1)Yes (2) Yes (3) No (4) No (5) Yes (6) Yes (7) Yes (8) No (9) No (10) Yes





24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 STRCUTURE Introduction Objectives Functions of Supervision 24.3.1 24.3.2 24.3.3 24.3.4 24.3.5 24.3.6 24.3.7 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.1 Planning the Supervisory Programme Objectives of Planning Principles of Planning the Supervisory Programme Steps in Planning the Supervisory Programme Organizing the Supervisory Programme Types of Organization Principles of Democratic Organisation

Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

Supervision can be described in terms of functions Supervision has many functions to perform. These are to improve the learning situation, by working with teachers, to help teachers grow professionally, to develop materials for instruction and learning to improve the curriculum and to arrange for in service education of teachers and other persons. Modern supervision coordinates instructional services over schools of several towns, 212

districts and the state, upgrades evaluation, gets new schemes and decisions successfully implemented, manages rewards system for teachers, defines role of teachers and role of others in the context of teaching-learning, facilitates co-operation and interaction among faculty and staff. Besides that, functions of supervision can be further categorized. 24.2 OBJECTIVES To give the knowledge of Functions of Supervision to the Students. To tell them about Planning and Organising Supervisory Programmes. To give them Knowledge of Principles, Objectives and Steps of Planning the Supervisory Programme. To give them Knowledge of Need, Types Principles of Democratic Organization. 24.3 FUNCTIONS OF SUPERVISION

Functions of Supervision are as follows : 1. It provides Leadership : Leadership is the process of formulation and achievement of the goals and purposes of the group. For success it is imperative to maintain the unity of the group. Leadership is essentialbecause it is the total process through which appropriate human and material resources are made available and made effective for accomplishing the purpose of an enterprise. When we talk of leadership in educational supervision, we mean to emphasize that leadership is not an exclusive quality of officially appointed leader but that it is a quality of group activity in which every /worker can and should participate and contribute. So leadership can be exercised by any member of the group. Policy Formulation : Education aims at the development of individuals powers and capacities and meeting the needs and demands of society so as to develop a better self and an improved and richer democraticsocial order. For this definite policies have to be formulated, aims and objectives have to be laid down and proper planning has to be done. It is for the realization of these policies and goals that society establishes schools, the state invests resources and the teachers and administrators strive hard. Supervision is charged with the task of improving education in all its aspects, so it should be responsible for formulating educational 213


policies. 3. Studying : Teaching Learning Situation : Modern supervision is concerned with the total teaching-learning situation. It aims at bringing all round improvement in learning programme and activities. For this supervision should first survey the present state of the situation which includes pupils, teachers, classrooms, the curriculum and materials of instruction as well as the administrative factors such as funds, equipment, time-table, evaluation of pupils, their progress report and records etc. Improving the Teaching Learning Situation : Having studied and observed, supervision has to take positive step for the improvement of teachinglearning situation. There should be proper planning for it and cooperation among all workers. Instruction should be adapted to the individual differences of the learners. Teachers should be kept abreast of the latest researches and developments in educational theory and practice. Curriculum should also be constantly revised. It should be life- centred i.e. related to the nature and needs of the learners and factors in their current family and community life. Supervision should be concerned with the improvement of equipment, facilities and servicesand also of socio-physical environment. Improving the Personnel : E.C. Elliott defines supervision, supervisory control is concerned with what should be taught when it should be taught ! To whom, by whom how and to what purposes. Improvement of teachers is possible only when they realize the need for it. It has been well said that the improvement of teachers is not so much a supervisory function in which teachers participate as it is teachers function in which supervisor participates. Improvement of staff can be effected through in-service training in which both the teachers and supervisors participate on the basis of the following well established principles of learning. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Learning is occurring all the time. Learning is determined by purpose; needs and past experience. When force is applied, the learning that occurs may be the opposite of what is desired. Supervisor and teachers learn simultaneously. 214




Improving Human Relations : The significant function of supervision is to develop and maintain good human relations with and among all the educational, workers. Good relations can be built by living and working with fellow staff members in such a way that they can practice good human relations. Supervisor should have spirit of service towards others and he should treat his co-workers as his equals. He should have faith in other persons worth and honesty. He must share with others the credit for the groups success. He should generate atmosphere of cooperation and live upto others expectations. Improving Group Interaction : It is the function of supervision to secure and maintain cooperation so that each worker is enabled to make his best contribution to group effort towards the desired goals. For good group interaction, workers should know each others duties and responsibilities. Decisions should be made by the group after discussion. There should be free and frank communication among the members. Improving the Product of Education : Educative process is launched to achieve certain aims and objectives. Supervision is also done to achieve these goals of education. Supervision has to assess the extent to which the aims are being achieved. It has to find out what has been done and what remains to be done. It should adopt remedial measure whenever and wherever needed. Supervision has to depend on the modern techniques of measurement such as rating scales, check lists, interview, objective testing etc. Improving Supervision : Supervision sets forth its own purposes and procedures and so it is essential constantly to evaluate whether and how far it is fulfilling its appointed tasks. This would involve appraisal of its results or outcomes, modification of its techniques and methods and improvement of the supervisory personnel. Efforts should be made by teachers and supervisors towards selfdirection, self-guidance and self- supervision. Improving Morale of Teachers : It is essential for a supervisor to understand the role of morale in teaching- learning situation and the ways it can be improved. A teacher whose morale is low does great harm to the student. His low morale results in criticising authorities, policies, programmes, showing temper tantrums, running away from facing responsibility and so on. Since supervisor is responsible 215





for improving teaching learning situation it becomes his duty to do everything that keeps the morale of teachers high. Supervisor must understand what affects teachers morale adversely and how such factors and conditions can be controlled. 11. Generating Favourable Learning Climate : Climate means psycho- social features of the atmosphere. These features greatly influence learning of student and teaching by teachers. Supervisor should study, analyze and improve the teaching-learning climate. By providing needed facilities, by enlisting teachers participation and involvement in decision making by talking to teachers by supporting them and rewarding them by providing effective counselling, by minimizing chances of conflict among teachers, by stressing goal achievement, by improving human relations it is possible to generate a favourable climate.

24.3.1 Planning & Organising : Supervisory Programmes Planning the Supervisory Programme / Need for Planning : The following reasons may be advanced in support of planning in supervision. (1) To analyze needs and resources : A planning program ensure that staff has examined the situation, analyzed needs and resources. It ensures a realistic appraisal of whole teaching-learning situation. Essential for all purposeful activities : Supervision involves many different persons and things. There are learners of different backgrounds and have different outlook and philosophy of life. There are different types of teachers who vary in knowledge of subject-matter and various other aspects. There is wide variety of available resources and rapid development of educational theory. All these factors combine to make the problem of coordination and integration of educational effort very complex and call for planning of the supervisory programme. Source of professional stimulation : The educational workers should have a clear idea of the aims and objectives of education they are striving to achieve. They have to design appropriate activities and experiences, analyse and systematize them so that when undertaken they run smoothly in desired direction. Clarification of What & Why of educative process : Through planning the workers come to understand both the nature and purpose of the required educational effort. It helps to secure the co-operation of the workers and the coordination of their efforts.






Security & Confidence to the Workers : Planning gives a definite course of action and knowledge of what and why of educative process. It makes workers secure & self-confident. Provides the criteria for evaluation : Planning provides an opportunity for evaluating the abilities of the staff since it gives a real basis for evaluating success of supervisory activities.


24.3.2 Objectives of Planning of Supervisory Programmes Following are the objectives of planning : 1. To unify and integrate educational effort : Supervisory programme should be planned with the objective of coordinating various resources and materials and unifying the efforts of all workers. To improve knowledge and skills of teachers : Supervisory programme should be planned around the work, the thinking and the attitudes of teachers. Supervisory programme should offer all possible opportunities to participate in co-operative planning of policies and procedures to exercise leadership and creativity by trying out new ideas experimentally. Incorporation of new trends : Improvement in instruction can be accomplished only of school practices, keep abreast of the changes in educational thinking and practice. Educational workers should keep upto date with the new educational literature. Improvement of Teaching-Learning Situation : The main purpose of supervisory programme is the assessment and improvement of the teaching-learning situation, the constituent of which are the pupils, teachers, curriculum materials and equipment and physical & social environment. For effective supervision it is necessary to appraise and improve these matters. Promotion of good relationship : Supervision depends for full effectiveness upon the existence between teachers and supervisors of a common agreement. Healthy relationships between teacher-to-child, child-to-teacher and child-tochild must exist. Similarly, for good supervisions, supervisor-administrator, teacher 217





supervisor-administrator-teacher relationship must be developed. 24.3.3 Principles of Planning the Supervisory Programme Following are the principles of planning the supervisory programme : 1. Supervisory, programme should be formulated Co-operatively : Democratic Philosophy of education demands that administrators, supervisors, teachers, pupils and the members of the community all should participate in formulating the programme. The supervisory programme should be derived from the situation: The supervisory programme should be based on the facts of the situation, the physical and material setting and the needs of the persons involved standard tests and other techniques should be used to obtain a clear and complete picture of situation. Situation is best studied by observing the activity, noting the continuous on-going change and analyzing its complexity. For all this supervision has to provide an effective leadership. The supervisory programme should be planned with an experimental outlook : The modern supervision is experimental in nature. It is believed now that current practices should always be questioned, examined, evaluated and placed under the searching light of critical analysis and such analysis should be applied to supervisory practice itself. The supervisory programme should be flexible : Supervisory programme should be flexible. It should be modified in the light of experiences gained. To increase flexibility, cooperative planning is essential. Free communication between the members also help flexibility because mutual consultation and re-adjustment becomes easier. Objectives should also be small and definite in number. Built in system of evaluation in supervisory programme : The programme should have built in system of evaluation. Criteria of its effectiveness should be laid down before hand. Evaluation should be done co-operatively.





24.3.4 Steps in Planning the Supervisory Programmes : Following are the steps of supervisory programme. 1. Evaluation of Educational Product : At the time of policy making and before 218

launching the educational programme, aims and objectives in terms of pupil growth and achievement should be formulated. Generally, accepted outcomes of education are knowledge, understanding, skills, abilities, interests, attitudes appreciation values, application and transference of learning and experiences. 2. Analysis and Appraisal of Teaching-Learning Situation : To understand the teaching-learning situation, teachers curriculum and socio-physical environment should be studied. Those conditions should be studied which help or hinder the learners development and growth. In light of these facts a tentative programme should be formulated for improving the situation. Improvement of the Situation : The study of situation should be supplemented by new ideas and experiments in educational theory and practice. List of improvements that can be introduced should be made. Selection of Problems Requiring Attention : Those needs, difficulties and problems which require attention should be selected through group discussion. Development of a Programme of Action : A programme of activities should be launched to improve the conditions and product of learning. The activities should be cooperatively planned under supervisoryleadership. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Supervisory Programme : The supervisory programme is of value to the extent of its effectiveness in achieving its own accepted objectives. This should be judged through standard methods of appraisal to determine the degree and direction of the success of the programme.


4. 5.


24.3.5 Organizing the Supervisory Programme Organization refers to the responsibilities and relationships allocated to the various executive and supervisory positions in a field of employment. Need for organizing the supervisory programmes : 1. To meet the ever-increasing demands of the educational enterprise : The school has to perform multifarious duties, for which it has to set up an appropriate machinery and offer an ever-increasing number of services to children and community. Due to complexities of demands, the school system has to be divided into 2 departments. One dealing with the services and the other with subjects and 219

curriculum. Organisation is needed separately for each of these departments and also collectively to coordinate these activities. 2. Organization is needed to combine various youth services : The various school services should be coordinated with similar other outside agencies, such as child guidance clinics, public health and recreation agencies, boy scouts, museums, zoos, public libraries etc. A move should be made to combine both school and community into one department which may be named the department of youth welfare. To integrate the academic activities of the school : More and more subjects arc being added to school studies due to growing complexity of life. These should be integrated in order to produce a better total effect. The services of nonprofessional personnel, teachers, supervisors, administrators must be pooled off. To realize the goals of supervision and education : The main purpose for establishing an organizational patterns is to clarify functions and relationships between various persons involved in organizational operation. The aims of education can be realized only when the workers know what others are doing and when they put together their talent and efforts.



24.3.6 Types of Organization Organization of Supervisory Programmes can be of two types : 1. Autocratic or Authoritarian Organization : This is traditional type of organization. The authority is centralized in the key person or head. He does everything according to his whims and desires. He runs the institution, and the policies and techniques including instruction are directed by him. There is a hierarchy of positions defined by seniority, determined by the sweet will of the administrator and not by superiority of knowledge, skill or capacity. This type of organization results into conflicts and friction. All headache of carrying on the work is one mans show and is wholly his responsibility. In his absence, there is likely to be no work and no mans responsibility. Democratic Organization : In this type of organization, authority is based on superiority of knowledge, skills, and capacity. Authority instead of being centralized 220


in one person is shared by all. Channels of communication are kept wide open. There is maximum participation of all workers in determining policies, procedures and final evaluation. There is no hierarchy of positions. Equality is practiced in all matters. It is basically leadership-oriented. It is able to achieve better production and higher satisfaction and morale of the workers. 24.3.7 Principles of Democratic Organisation 1. Participation of all : Democratic head of a supervisory programme makes the whole show a common platform of all concerned where each and every teacher, administrator, headmistress and students can participate in every bodys advice, suggestion, ideas, are respected and are taken up in a common pool on the basis of which the supervisory programme is made to function. Democratic leadership : Leaders should encourage initiative in leading authority is derived by person from the situation. Here the responsibility does not lie with the central figure rather it is shared by all those who occupy position of leadership at various levels. Rotation in leadership : Continued exercise of authority brings deterioration in the administrators behaviour. It is, therefore, better when leadership is shared by many on the basis of rotation. Principle of rotation involves transfer from one place to another, both of administrators and teachers. Leadership can be much improved if administration is carried on by a committee instead of a single individual. Principle of Co-operation and Co-ordination : Co-operation is to be given and co-operation is to be taken for the success of supervisory programmes. It needs combination of many heads and hands. In every organization, there are a large number of functions, duties, services, policy matters, decision making, planning procedures etc. All these, need coordination which is to be initiated and materialized by the Head or the chief co-ordinator. Principle of Flexibility : Democratic organization is dynamic and flexible. The supervisory organization should be adaptable to the teaching-learning situation which is continuously changing. It should provide for co-ordination and integration of plans, procedures and outcomes.







Principle of Group discussion : Democratic organization, relies on the formulation of policies and plans and their implementation through group discussion. First of all, a problem arises, then it is stated and solutions are considered. A machinery is set up and discussion is held and the decision is tried out. Finally, re-discussion takes place.

Check Your Progress (NOTE : Please put at an appropriate alternative) 1. Supervision provides leadership 2. Supervision aims at improving teaching-learning situation. 3. Supervisor creates fear in the institution. 4. Supervisors destroy relationship of educational personnel. 5. Traditional type of organization is authoritarian organization. 6. In authoritarian organization, authority is shared by all. 7. Democratic Organization is modern type of Organization. 8. Democratic Organization is dynamic and flexible. (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No)

9. Supervisory programmes are organized to meet ever increasing demands of educational enterprise. (Yes/No) 10. Supervisory Programmes are planned to analyze needs and resources. 24.4 LET US SUM UP Supervision has several functions to perform. It provides leadership, formulates policies, studies teaching-learning situation and improves the same. It improves the educational personnel, human relations, group interaction and product of education. It improves the morale of teachers and creates congenial learning environment. Supervision programmes should be properly planned and organized on democratic principles. It needs to be planned to unify and integrate educational efforts, to improve knowledge and skills of teachers, to incorporate new trends and promote goods relations. Theprogramme should be formulated cooperatively and it should be flexible. It should be 222 (Yes/No)

derived from the situation. It needs to be organized to meet the ever increasing demands of the educational enterprise, to combine various youth services, to integrate academic activities, to realize the goals of supervision and education. Organization of supervisory programme is of 2 types. (1) Autocratic organization in which authority is centralized in one person. Democratic organization in which authority is based on superiority of knowledge, skills and capacity and authority is shared by all. 24.5 UNIT END EXERCISES

Long Questions : Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 Discuss Functions of Supervision in Detail. What is the Need of Planning and Organizing Supervisory Programme? Discuss Principles & Objectives of Planning Supervisory Programme. What are the Steps followed in Planning the Supervisory Programme? Discuss types of Organization of Supervisory Programme and its Democratic Principles.

Short Questions : Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 24.6 Discuss types of Organization of Supervisory Programme. Briefly discuss Principles of Planning Supervisory Programme. Briefly discuss Objectives of Planning Supervisory Programme. Discuss Democratic Principles of Organising Supervisory Programme. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1. Aggarwal, Y. P., Sachdeva, M.S., Kaur, Manjeet : Education Management 2. Dr. Bhatnagar, R.P., Dr. Agarwal, Vidya : Educational Administration 3. Mrs. Shukla, S.P. : Educational Administration 4. Sh. Vashist : Principles of Educational Supervision Key Check Your Progress Answers : (1) Yes (2) Yes (3) No (4) Yes (5) Yes (6) No (7) Yes (8) Yes (9) Yes (10) Yes





25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Types of Supervision 25.3.1 Drawbacks in Present Supervision 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.1 Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

Supervision is an expert technical service primarily concerned with studying and improving the conditions that surround learning and pupil growth. Supervision is leadership and the development of leadership within groups. Supervision has become objective and experimental in its methods. This stems from the scientific movement in education. But supervision has many different types. It is not same in all kinds. Different types of supervision has different objectives and different advantages. Types of supervision can be given as follows. 25.2 OBJECTIVES To Introduce the students with Supervision. To give them knowledge of types of supervision its advantages and objectives. To give them knowledge of drawbacks in present supervision. 224

25.3 1.

TYPES OF SUPERVISION Following are the types of Supervision : Corrective Type : In this type of supervision, the supervisor is always trying to find fault with different things. He makes a record of the drawbacks of the teacher, classroom situation, institution etc. He is ever-ready in the preparation of list of drawbacks and then he brings them to the notice of the higher authorities. He rarely gives any suggestion for improvement. Fault-finding is another name for this type of supervision. This type of supervision does not serve any useful purpose. It makes improvement neither in the teacher nor in the teaching-learning situation or curriculum which is the ultimate aim of all supervision. Objectives : To find fault with the system, with the personnel, administrators, teachers, students, ministerial staff and class four servants. To bring to light the various drawbacks. To find fault with the administrative programme of the institution. To find fault with the institution.

Advantages : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. It makes teachers and students more regular and punctual because they know that they will be corrected by the supervisor. Everybody in the institution comes well prepared. They remain conscious of their shortcomings and try to cover up their deficiency. There will be no scope for any type of learners or lethargy on the part of different personnel. Overall climate of the institution will remain toned up. There will be less chances for the growth and development of serious type of problems because every evil will be nipped in the bud. Disadvantages : 1. 2. It is not healthy type of supervision. It discourages the teachers. 225

3. 4. 5. 2

It created atmosphere of fear due to which justice cant be done with the work. Teachers develop negative attitude which is harmful in teaching-learning situation. Due to lack of academic climate there is lack of growth of teachers and learners and they will fail to do their duties with zeal and vigour. Preventive Type : This type of supervision helps the teachers and the head of the institution to prevent themselves from any problem. It leads the teachers to anticipate new situations and find appropriate ways and means to remove deficiencies. The supervisor is an experienced person who can foresee, problems of all types in the functioning of the schools. This type of supervision is helpful to the teachers and the head of the institution. But the problem is that the persons who can provide leadership for this type of supervision are rarely seen. It is better than corrective type of supervision.

Objectives : 1. 2. To formulate dos and donts for the prevention of mistakes which can be committed in the running of the educational institutions. To check the carrying out of institutions already sent for the smooth running of educational institutions. 3. 4. To improve the teaching-learning programme. To make the institution develop without any problem.

Advantages : 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. Solutions of the problems are thought beforehand therefore, Jobs of teachers and of the head becomes carefree. It develops good qualities in teachers like imagination and forecasting, proper planning and finding out solutions etc. It makes the process of teaching/learning more effective. There is no scope of spread of any type of illness in the institutions. Teachers have more workload and they have to think a lot about the problems and their possible solutions before teaching and during the process of teaching. 226

Disadvantages :

2. 3. 3

Due to thinking about future their present suffers. It makes teachers problem ridden and they may fail to become creative. Creative Type : In this type of supervision, supervisor comes down tothe level of the teachers. He appreciates teachers who initiates new things and experiments in the field of education. Its impact on the features is very sound and healthy. It encourages teachers to feel free, to think for themselves in matters pertaining to objectives, curriculum, organization and content, methods of teaching and methods of evaluation.

Objectives : (1) To inspire the administrators, the teacher and the students to work more and more. (2) (3) (4) (5) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To show true leadership to the teaching personnels. To encourage all types of research in the institution. To free the teaching personnel from set traditional procedures of working. To make the institution develop. It makes teachers creative. Teachers become independent and work freely. It makes teachers research-minded. It reduces the problems of the institution. It provides healthy social climate in the institution.

Advantages :

Disadvantages : 1. There is possibility of misuse of freedom.

25.3.1 Drawbacks in present supervision Following are the drawbacks in present supervision. 1. Unsuitable supervisors : The supervisors are generally much below the expected standards. A number of them dont have experience of school education. So they dont understand problem of teachers and the schools. 227


An eyewash : The inspection is nothing better than an eyewash. For supervision the school authorities make preparation for many days. The day of inspection is really the day of pomp and show. The whole show is on as long as the supervisor is there. The moment the inspection is over, everything reduces to the daily routine without any speciality about it. Centralization of Policies : The plans and policies of supervision are fully centralized. The whole, planning and formulating of policies is done by the higher authorities. Teachers who are the actual workers in the field, are not taken into confidence. More concerned with administrative work : Supervisors are busy in checking of registers, office work etc. They dont have much time for academic work. Sometimes supervisors are not even introduced to the teachers. Lack of subject experts : One supervisor cant do full justice to his duties unless supported by a team of supervisors. It is expected from one inspector that he should inspect the work of each teacher in the school. This tradition is educationally backward because he can be an expert of one subject and can guide the teaching of those particular subjects only. Autocratic Position of the Supervisor : The present system of supervision has put the supervisor as an authoritative officer instead of a friend and a cooperative leader. He neither gives a chance to the teachers to talk to him about their problems nor provides them an opportunity to put forward their idea for the improvement of the school. Excess of Workload : The supervisors are over burdened with work. There are a large number of schools under the charge of each supervisor. Moreover the work assigned to a supervisor is of such a varied nature that he has to take more care of that work where he has to put down his signatures. Interference by private, management : There is a lot of interference by the managing committees. Head cannot implement the suggestions given by supervisors due to the domination of managing committee. Incomplete Supervision : Ideally the supervisor of schools should include all aspects of school like teaching / learning activities, students, participation in games, 228








medical creating of students, Moveable medical aid etc. but he finds that all these things are not examined at the time of inspection. 10. Distrust between the supervisory staff and the school staff : The inspecting team visits the school with suspicion and disbelief in there mind. It becomes harassment of the school staff. Instead of being creative and helpful, they are unsympathetic and destructive. They conduct the supervision with a view to criticize and find defects. After the inspection, they prepare a long list of short-comings and submit a report to the government thats why their visit becomes an occasion of fear rather than that of pleasure. Thus we see that prevailing system of supervision has many loopholes which should be removed to make it effective and really beneficial. Check Your Progress (NOTE : Please put at an appropriate alternative) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 25.4 Corrective type of supervision is best form of supervision. Fault finding is another name of corrective type of supervision. (Yes/No) (Yes/No)

Preventive type of supervision helps the teachers to prevent themselves from any problem. (Yes/No) Preventive supervision aims at formulating dos & dont for the prevention of mistakes . (Yes/No) Creative supervision is modem type of supervision. (Yes/No) In creative supervision, supervisor comes down to the level of teacher. (Yes/No) Generally, supervision in schools is nothing more than an eyewash. (Yes/No) All supervisors are subject experts. Supervisors are generally in autocratic position. Supervisors have a lot of workload. LET US SUM UP Supervision is of different kinds corrective, preventive and creative type. Different 229 (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No)

types of supervision has different objectives and different advantages. In corrective supervision, supervisor is always trying to find fault with different things and it discourages teachers. Preventive type of supervision helps the teachers and the head of the institution to prevent themselves from any problem. This kind of supervision helps in improving the teaching learning situation but in this type of supervision, teachers have more workload. In creative type of supervision, supervisor comes down to the level of the teachers, he appreciates teachers who begin new things and experiments in the field of education. This kind of supervision makes teachers independent and creative, but modern supervision has some drawbacks also. Supervisors are generally below the expected standards. Supervision is merely an eye-wash. Plans are centralized. Supervision is more concerned with administrative work instead of academic work. Supervisors are not subject experts and their position is autocratic. They have a lot of work load. Private managements interfere a lot in their work and there is lack of trust between supervisors and school staff. 25.5 Q.1 Q.2 Q.3 Q.4 Q.5 25.6 UNIT END EXERCISES What is supervision ? Give types of supervision. What is supervision ? What are the types of supervision and their objectives. Discuss different types of supervision with their objectives, advantages and disadvantages. Discuss drawbacks of modem supervision. What are the different types of supervision. Discuss any one type in detail. SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1. Aggarwal, Y.P, Sachdeva, M.S., Kaur, Manjeet : Educational Management, Planning and Administration 2. Dr. Bhatnagar, R.P, Dr. Aggarwal, Vidya : Educational Administration 3. Mrs. Shukla, S.P : Educational Administration 4. Vashist, S.R : Principles of Educational Supervision Key Check Your Progress Answers : (l) No (2) Yes (3) Yes (4) Yes (5) Yes (6) Yes (7) Yes (8) No (9) Yes (10) Yes





26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Problems of Financing Education in India 26.3.1 26.3.2 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.1 Resources of Education Expenditure of Education.

Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

The field of educational finance is as broad and wide as education itself. Every country spends a sizeable portion of her gross national income on education. The annual expenditure on education across the countries of the world varies from 6 to 25% of public budget. The rate of growth of educational budget makes financing of education a complex problem faced by policy makers. This calls for careful consideration of hard realities of financial resources and financing methods, such considerations constitute what is, now known as educational financing. Educational finance is a means and not an end. It has its own problems and purposes. Expanding educational needs, rising costs and many other difficulties make the problem of educational finance very complex. Problems of education finance can be enumerated as under :



OBJECTIVES To give Knowledge of Problems of Educational Finance to the Students. To give them Knowledge of Resources of Education to the Students. To tell them about Expenditure of Education.


PROBLEM OF FINANCING EDUCATION IN INDIA Problems of educational finance can be of two types. A. Internal problems. B. External Problems.

A. 1.

Internal Problems Maintenance of Normal Services : Education can discharge its responsibility only when it is provided with its basic minimum needs. It needs building, equipment and other material facilities. These constitute the initial expenditure. Then there is need for funds for recurring expenditure for the upkeep of material facilities and the maintenance of the teaching and other staff. Expansion of Educational Facilities : Due to freedom & democracy, pupils from all strata of society have entered the schools and colleges, demanding more and more widely spread educational facilities, both physical and personal. This requires more & more funds. Expansion of educational services : Todays school cant rest contented with instructors alone. There is demand of more services like psychological service, guidance & counselling, work experience, vocational & technical education, education of the gifted & handicapped reduction in class size, individualization as well as socialization etc. All this require increased financial investment in education. Removal of disparities in Educational Opportunities : Democracy demands equality of education. Good educational practice exists in schools which spend more money per pupil. Liberal funds are spent on the education of children of rich communities who have better cultural - intellectual status and higher living standards while meager support is provided for the education of children of poor communities. In a democracy, education should eradicate social stratification, class, regional and other distinctions. Thus he needs more finance. 232





Priorities : With limited availability of funds some kind of priorities have to be decided. It means that expenditure on primary & secondary education is more important than that on higher education. Financial discipline requires funds to be allocated in order of relative importance. Efficient Utilization of Funds : Due to scarcity of funds, (the question of efficient utilization of available funds arises. Efficiency can be improved if there is a longterm planning and planning should include educational objectives, orderly expansion and improvement of the programmes and the activities. All resources should be pooled together. External Problems : Unemployment of Youth : Due to lack of opportunities of gainful employment youth proceeds to the secondary schools and the colleges. It is, therefore, responsibility of both the central & state government to provide funds for meaningful educational facilities. Population Mobility : There is a large scale movement of young people from the villages to the big cities so more funds for education have to be found for the growing population of cities. To solve this problem, government has to adopt appropriate measures both at the economic and educational levels. Educational facilities related to employment possibilities have to be expanded in the villages. Age Distribution of Population : Due to an increase in the span of life and the population explosion there is an increase in the number of people dependent on others. Gainful employment for the retired people has to be found to reduce their burden of dependence on the young. Extension of Educational Opportunities : More schools and serviceshave to be provided for meeting the educational need of rising population. Industrial development also demands extended educational facilities. Therefore, institutions for continuing education have to be established. The purpose is to improve the people socially, culturally and professionally through increased training. But the inequalities of wealth in different areas make the problem of financing extended programmes a complex matter. A new finance structure has to be evolved to solve these problems. 233


B. 1.





Concentration of Wealth : Modern industrial development has caused economic imbalances. Educational opportunities are better in some states and localities and poor in others. Democracy demands these inequalities and it must be corrected. Level of National Income : Maintenance of a higher level of national income is essential for better financing of education. For this a higher level of economic achievement & production is necessary. Financial Control : The control of finance is very important problem. The layman has little knowledge of finance and profession, with his specialized knowledge he may easily attain a position of dominance and may misuse the power so his authority should be limited to keeping the fiscal accounts and records, preparing the technical budget and non public revenue auditing. Centre-state Local Relationship : There are 3 main agencies financing education in India viz. the central government, the state government and the local bodies. These 3 are unequal partners. The resources of centre are very wide, states have limited resources and local bodies have still less means for supporting education. Local and state enterprise have been hesitant to secure more central aid for education for fear of losing their autonomy. Educational opportunity should expand to meet the growing and changing demands of modern society. Whenever local resources are insufficient for this purpose, the centre must step in and provide necessary funds. Educational Personnel : The main part of the educational machinery is the teacher. The number and quality of teachers, administrators and other workers, their qualifications, preparation, adjustment, devotion to work etc. are fundamentally important for success of the educational enterprise. Teachers have to be benefitted from the salary revisions and their emoluments deserve utmost consideration. Research in Educational Finance : Research is needed in the field of educational finance because it is a dynamic, complex and a broad field which keeps changing. Some profitable areas are the type of personnel needed, their preparation and professional growth, salaryschedules central-state, local fiscal relations etc. 234






26.3.1 Resources of Education : Resources are of two kinds : A) Human resources B) Physical resources Human resources include skilled manpower and qualified personnel required for various purposes. Physical resources include material resources and capital resources. Material resources refer to building, equipment, classrooms and furniture, playgrounds, laboratories, text-books, teaching aids etc. capital resources are the finances. Money received from the capital resources is called receipts as opposed to expenditure which simply means the financial charges incurred in organizing education. Receipt refer to cash received or made available including grants, allotments, fees, donations and cash value of property received as gifts. Revenue includes government grants, allotments of local bodies, education fee, tuition and other fees, income from school funds endownments, gifts and bequests from private persons & organizations proceeds from rent and sale of school property. Capital resources or the finances for education are acquired in several ways. They can be classified as public & private sources. A. Public Funds : Public funds are also known as government funds. These include the amounts of money received from central government; state government, UGC & NCERT. The central government may give grants either directly or through their autonomous bodies such as U.G.C., N.C.E.R.T. etc. These grants are always shown separately in budget. Public funds also include local bodies funds. Local bodies include municipal boards and corporations, district boards, cantonment boards notified area committees, zila parishads and panchayat samities. The money received from these bodies out of their general funds or special taxes served by them for education are known as local body funds. Their source of income is a cess or a tax levied in the local area. The source of finance in case of municipalities is called municipal funds. In case of district boards, zila parishads, gram panchayat and panchayat samities is called district board funds or local funds. The allocation made by these bodies are known as allotment or grants. 235

B. (1)

Private Funds : Fee : Fee includes all kinds of money collected from the students. The various kinds of fee charged are tuition fee, magazine fee, games fee, laboratory fee, library fee, reading room fee, building fee etc. The govt. lays down that a few students of different categories may be exempted from charging fee. The government herself reimburse this amount. Fee charged on the account of board of education, or the university examination and registration, fee etc. do not come under this source. Similarly special fee charged for specific purposes such as bus fee, mid-day meal fee are excluded from deposits of this source. Refundable fee like caution money, hostel mess, laboratory fee, library caution money etc. are not included in this.


Endownments and Land Grants : This practice of financing education prevailed in ancient India & also in medieval times. It is prevalent in India even today. These can be utilized for meeting the recurring and non-recurring expenditure and also for specific purposes such as scholarship to the poor and deserving students and maintaining special teachers. The advantage of this method of securing finances are the permanence of institution is assured and they enjoy great autonomy, making expansion and improvement easily possible. The disadvantages are that financial help from endownments depend on the whims of rulers and feudal lords who make no systematic attempts for financing education. Endownments are sums of money, the principals of which are to be maintained intact and only the income from the interest on the principal amount may be consumed. Other Sources : Other sources include donations, gifts, subscriptions, bequests, fines, sale proceeds, interests on bank balances and securities, rent from buildings and loans etc. Raising donations from public has certain advantages. The advantages of this method are that it makes the donors take keen interest in the well being of the institutions and their cooperation is secured. But it has some disadvantages also. Donors may misuse the institutions for personal benefit. External Sources : These various forms of finance can spring from international organizations such as IBRD, IFC, IDA, UN and its agencies such as UNESCO, UNICEF, regional organizations such as OECD, EEC, non-governmental 236


organizations such as Rock-feller Foundations. The Carnegie Foundations, Peace Corps or private panics of the foreign countries. The role of external aid educational bills of the developing economies is quite significant. Throughout the world aid accounts for 8% of total educational bills. 26.3.2 Expenditure of Education 1. Appropriation of Funds : The total amount of money which is received by the central Government out of which expenditure on various items of different fields is to be met is known as the consolidated funds. Funds are appropriated for various items in the budget from this consolidated fund for this purpose a budget is prepared which is placed before the parliament in the form of a money or financial bill. The budget is prepared yearly. It contains a detailed description of the needs of coming year. Appropriation act permits withdrawal of money from the consolidated funds of India for expenditure on different items. The act has two types of grants : (1) Voted (2) Non-voted Non-voted grants or items include such expenditures as salaries of the President, Speaker, deputy speaker & the Judges of supreme court. Supplementary grants are also considered voted and passed by the Parliament in a similar manner. Supplementary grants are those which are proposed by the Departments when the amount already sanctioned in the appropriation Act falls short of the requirements of the Departments & they propose to have more funds. 2. The Expenditure : Nature & Types : Expenditure includes all financial charges incurred by or on behalf of schools for goods & services. Expenditure are of various types. 1. Current or recurring expenditure Gross or capital expenditure Debt Charges.

Current or recurring expenditure : Means expenditure on the current ongoing programmes and activities. This includes all payments made in respect of the 237

operation and maintenance of the school plant, general administration and control, salaries of the staff, library, yearly supplies for teaching and other services. These expenditures are incurred every year. 2. Gross or Capital Expenditure : refers to charges on acquiring fixed assets or addition to fixed assets. These are also known as capital out- rays and include all expenditure incurred on acquiring sites, buildings, equipment, play ground, hostels, canteen, cooperative store etc. These expenditures are also known as non-recurring expenditures because they are not incurred every year. Debt Service or Charges : Usually include payment of principal & interest on that taken as loan. It is of 2 kinds: Current or recurring Carried over


When the loan is paid back in the same financial year it is termed as current or recurring. When it is extended beyond that to the following years it is termed as carried over debt charges. 4. A. B. C. D. 5. Public & Private Expenditure : Public expenditure is that charge which is met out of the government funds. Private Expenditure is that which is met out of private endownments, donations, fees and other contributions. Both of these expenditures can be further divided as. Public Expenditure on Private Education : It is found in the form of subsidies, aids. grants etc. to private schools & colleges. Private Expenditure on public education Private Expenditure on private education. Direct & Indirect Expenditures : Expenditures incurred directly for running the institutions and which can be identified with specific activities such as salaries, allowances, contribution to provident fund, badges, prizes, recurring contingencies, excursions, examination, extra curricular activities, extension programmes, scouting NCC, games & sports etc. maintenance of school plant involving expenditure on 238

library, laboratories, furniture, repair of building etc. are in the category of direct expenditure. The indirect Expenditure : include expenditure on items like inspection building, scholarships, hostel, canteens, furniture and other miscellaneous items. These are known as indirect expenditure as they are not directly connected with the running and maintenance of the main activities. There cant be a rigid distinction between these 2 types of expenditures. It is a matter of policy and philosophy that determines whether the item of expenditure should be considered direct or indirect expenditure. 6. Expenditures are also classified on the basis of purpose and the type of education. They are known as expenditure by purpose & expenditure by level & type of education. Educational Expenditure by Purpose (Public & Private) Recurring expenditure : For instruction-for salaries, text-books, other instructional expenditure. B Other Recurring Expenditure : Scholarships & grants for studies in the country and abroad, welfare services such as canteens, transport, boarding and sport, maintenance of building/equipment, operations of building, light, water, gas etc. 2. Capital Expenditure : Purchase & development of Land, school building, classrooms, laboratories and fixed equipments, other durable instructional equipment tools, microscopes, televisions etc. welfare facilities, residence halls, sport installations etc. B Expenditure by level and type of education : Public & Private. Debt Services : Level & type of Education : Pre-primary, primary, secondary, general, vocational, teacher training, higher education, university, non-university, other special (for the handicapped, gifted, maladjusted etc). Adult, administration etc.

1. A


Check Your Progress (NOTE : Please put at an appropriate alternative) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Problems of Educational Finance are of 2 types Centre - State relationship is related to External Problems of Finance. Resources of Education are of 2 kinds. Human Resources refer to building, equipment, furniture etc. Capital Resources are the Finances. Public Funds is the amount of money received from Central Govt, State Govt. UGC, NCERT, etc. Fee, Land grants, Endowments etc. are Private Funds. UNESCO, UNICEF etc. are domestic sources of finance (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No) (Yes/No)

9. Current Expenditure is also known as recurring expenditure 10. Expenditure Incurred directly for running the institution is Direct Expenditure 26.4 LET US SUM UP

Problems of educational finance are of 2 types :- Internal and External problems. Maintenance of normal services, expansion of educational facilities, expansion of educational services, removal of disparities in educational services and efficient utilization of funds etc. are some of the internal problems. Unemployment of youth population mobility, age distribution of population, level of national income, financial control, centre-state relationship etc. are some of the external problems. Resources of education are of 2 kinds. Human resources and physical resources. Skilled manpower and qualified personnel are considered human resources. Physical resources include material and capital resources. Public or govt funds and private funds like fee, endowments, land grants etc. come under capital resources. IBRD, IFC, IDA, UNESCO, UNICEF etc. are external sources of finance. Expenditure is of 3 types current or recurring expenditure means expenditure on current 240

activities. Gross expenditure refers to charges on acquiring fixed assets, Debt service include payments of principal and interest on that taken as loan. Other types of expenditure are public and private expenditure, direct and indirect expenditure etc. 26.5 UNIT END EXERCISES : (Long Questions) Q.1 Discuss Problems of Educational Finance in detail. Q.2 Explain Resources of Education in detail. Q.3 Discuss, Expenditure of Education in detail. Short Questions : Q.1 Discuss Internal Problems of Educational Finance. Q.2 What are the External Problems of Finance? Q.3 Briefly Discuss Resources of Education. Q.4 Which are the Private Funds? Q.5 What is the Expenditure of Education ? Q.6 Differentiate between Public and Private Expenditure. Q.7 Differentiate between Direct and Indirect Expenditure. 26.6 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS

1. Dr. Bhatnagar, R.P, Dr. Agarwal, Vidya : Educational Administration 2. Dr. Bhatnagar, R.P, Dr. Agarwal, Vidya : Educational Administration 3. Mrs. Shukla, S.P : Educational Administration 4. Vashist, S.R : Principles of Educational Supervision. Key Check Your Progress Answers : (l) Yes (2) Yes (3) Yes (4) No (5) Yes (6) Yes (7) Yes (8) No (9) Yes (10) Yes





27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7 27.1 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Concept of Modern Management Techniques Monitoring and Evaluation as the Techniques of Modern Management Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings INTRODUCTION

Within 60 years of independence, India, witnessed unprecedented expansion of educational system, followed by phenomenal rise in number of students and subsequent rise in teachers; but no major change has been brought about in administration of educational institutions. The administration has become extremely complex and is required not only to undertake arduous and challenging work, but is exposed to various types of hazardous situations. Therefore, administrators are now required to face more problems of varied nature involving greater imagination, courage, creativity and leadership than ever before. Time has come when it is urgently required to transform the existing administrative methods into modern management techniques. Dear students, through this present lesson you will come to know about concept of the modern Management techniques and its relevance to Indian settings. The comprehensive reading of this lesson will also help you in analyzing the role of monitoring and evaluation as a modern management technique with specific implications to Indian situations. 242


OBJECTIVES After having studied this lesson you will be able to: Understand the concept of modern management technique. Analyze the significance of modern management technique with specific reference to Indian setting. Analyse the role of monitoring and evaluation as the modern management technique.



The educational systems all over the World are growing in size and scope as well as in complexity. Education is fast becoming a major national endeavour. The traditional administration, handed down from a colonial past in most of the countries in the Asia Region, following the age-old routine, is dilatory and time consuming. It is largely oriented towards controlling. A mere quantitative increase in the system will not be able to meet the needs of the new challenges. Time has come when it is urgently necessary to transform the present maintenance administration into developmental administration and to make greater use of the modern management techniques which have proved so successful in business and industry, in defence and military complexes and in a wide variety of other situations. All human beings in the educative process- students, teachers, administrators and supervisors-are individuals with unique talents and capacities. In the modern management techniques the basic purpose is to give due recognition to their potential to make it fully utilized. It can be defined as a set of techniques requiring the use of intellectual faculty, imagination, foresight and sound judgment. It involves problem solving and decision making in the field of educational management. Most of decisions should be taken on the basis of the results drawn from evaluation and monitoring of educational activities at different levels. 27.4 MONITORING AND EVALUATION AS THE TECHNIQUES OF MODERN MANAGEMENT

Educational administrators are now required to face more problems of varied nature involving greater imagination, courage, creativity and leadership than ever before. The present system, sensitive to futuristic planning will have to be evolved, as the present administration system is too much hierarchical, inflexible and conservative in its approach. The processes and procedures in administration have become ineffective, antiquated, 243

complicated overly burdened with bureaucracy and time consuming. Anyone looking closely at administration procedure will realize that almost all activities taking place on the campus involve a high degree of interdependence and that these cannot be carried out within a mutually supportive framework, without a well designed and efficient system of monitoring and management of information functioning under the auspices of an effective system of planning. The administration, in most cases, is carried on by people, who have neither any training nor any insight into the diversity of managerial functions involved in running institutions. The prevailing administrative setup in the field of education is in a state of crisis. Our experience during the last 58 years has demonstrated that the developments, plans, policies have not been satisfactorily implemented because of lack of proper identification and use of evaluation and monitoring as the modern management techniques. Following purposes of monitoring and evaluation may be summarized : Identification of weaknesses and strengths of various programmes and activities being planned and organised in educational institutions at different levels ; Assessment of requirement of the resources (both human and material) for the smooth conduct of day-to-day activities in educational institutions at various levels; Formulation of need-based policies and programmes essential for the realization of pre-established goals and objectives at local and block/state levels; Provision of better facilities for the welfare of students and the teachers so that they can work more efficiently and effectively in the whole process of education ; Proper utilization of all the available and likely to be available resources for resolving various issues of day-to-day classroom activities and other institutional programmes. Check Your Progress (NOTE : Please put at an appropriate alternative) 1. 2. Education is fast becoming a major national endeavour (T/F) Purpose of monitoring and evaluation is the formulation of need based policies and programmes essential for the realization of pre-established goals and objectives at local and state levels. (T / F) Our experience during the last 58 years has demonstrated that the developments, plans and policies have been satisfactorily implemented. (T / F). 244


27.5 LET US SUM UP So, students from the forgoing discussion we can infer that modern management techniques especially evaluation and monitoring are very effective and result -oriented if planned and adopted properly by the persons involved in educational administration. In modern times these techniques are being effectively used and satisfactory results have been noted. 27.6 1. 2. UNIT END EXERCISES Give a brief illustration of the modern management techniques. Describe significance of evaluation and monitoring the modern techniques of management in the field of education. Aggarwal, J.C.(2002): Educational Administration, Supervision and School Organisation, Arya Book Depot, Karol Bagh, New Delhi. Aggarwal, S.P. (1992) : Educational Planning in India with a slant to Educational Financing and Administration, Concept Publishers, New Delhi. Bhatnagar, R.P. (1996) : Educational Administration, Anupurna, New Delhi. Gakhar, S.C.(2006): Educational Management, N.M. Publication, Panipat. Goel, S.L.& Goel, Aruna (1994) : Educational Policy and Administration, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. Mohanty, Jagannath (2005) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Management, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. Sears, J.B. (1950) : The Nature of Administrative Process, Mc Graw Hill Book Co., New York. Sharma, R.A. (2005) : School Management & Pedagogics of Education, R Lall Book Depot, Meerut. Sidhu, K.S. (2002) : School Organisation and Administration, Sterling Publishers Private Ltd., New Delhi. Shukla, S.P. (1982) : Educational Administration ,Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra.

27.7 SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Key ToCheck Your Progress (1) True, (2) True, (3) False 245




28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 28.8 STRUCTURE Introduction Objectives Concept of Manpower Surveys Significance of Manpower Surveys in Educational Planning Procedures in Manpower Surveys as a Technique of Modern Management Let Us Sum Up Unit End Exercises Suggested Further Readings

28.1 INTRODUCTION Economic development stands for the technological transformation of an economy to the complex modern structure; it means that its productive structure will be more interwined than it is at lower levels of economic achievements. This will greatly depend on the quality of labour force available at different levels. The requirements of the system to come out with maximum efficiency will certainly depend on quantity and quality of human resources employed in various routes and paths of success. This undoubtedly needs a comprehensive manpower survey with a purpose to make a justified balance between demand and supply. Dear learners, in this lesson you will be made aware about concept of manpower survey and its significance. You will also come to know about some procedures which are generally adopted in manpower requirement situations. 246


OBJECTIVES After having studied this lesson you will be able to: Understand the Concept of Manpower Survey Describe the Significance of Manpower Survey in Educational Planning Explain the Procedure in Manpower Survey as the Modern Management Technique



Planning is nothing but using the available assets for the effective implementation of the production plans. After preparing the plans, people are grouped together to achieve organizational objectives. Planning in education is concerned with coordinating, motivating and controlling of the various activities within the organization. Time required for acquiring the material, capital and machinery should be taken into account. Educational manager has to reasonably predict future events and plan out the production. Educational manager has to guess the future business and to take timely and correct decisions in respect of company objectives, policies and cost performances. The plans need to be supported by all the members of the institution. Planning is making a decision in advance what is to be done. It is the willpower of course of action to achieve the desired results. It is a kind of future picture where events are sketched. It can be defined as a mental process requiring the use of intellectual faculty, imagination, foresight and sound judgment. It involves problem solving and decision making. Management has to prepare for short term strategy and measure the achievements, while the long term plans are prepared to develop the better and new products, services, expansion to keep the interest of the owners. For meeting requirements of manpower, advance planning of education is inevitable, but the link between the economic and educational planning is forged through manpower requirements for realizing the targets of economic development. If the future pattern of manpower requirements guide today's educational decisions, the approach is called the manpower requirements approach to educational planning, Educational planning in this sense, is scheduling the inputs of students into various educational processes and out into the economy as output of various kinds of manpower in right numbers and of right types. 247

Manpower survey is an integral part of educational planning, but the need for manpower survey arises because Economic development often occurs as a result of technological improvements in production techniques which are brought about generally by the substitution of capital for labour and the systematic improvements in the existing capital equipment. The introduction of new techniques of production and their proper exploitation requires labour force having mastered the new technology. Efforts are made to place medium term plans in the long run perspective so that the structure of the economy, and hence of labour force, can be influenced. Decisions of individuals about the future courses and careers are likely to become much more realistic if the requirements of the educated manpower to meet the needs of the economy could be known in advance. 28.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF MANPOWER SURVEYS IN EDUCATIONAL PLANNING

Manpower survey is one of most significant aspects of educational planning. Its significance may be described as under : It is assumed that the future structure of labour force can be estimated from the projected growth and structure of the gross output or final demand. It is further assumed that the educational system can be adapted to bring about the requisite changes in labour supply with a comprehensive manpower survey. If the manpower requirements change slowly and smoothly, decisions can be taken in the light of the choices of the students and there will be no need for detailed man-power projections to guide educational expansion. It is, therefore, assumed that the manpower requirements change rapidly and irregularly and that critical educational decisions have to be taken which entail large amounts of investments that are both indivisible and specialized in their educational uses. 248

It is assumed that long lead time is required to provide facilities in plant and personnel for training the manpower. Besides, the process of training itself is a long term job. The future obsolescence is also assumed. The Co-efficients of production of each type of manpower are assumed to be fixed. It is, in a way, an extension of the assumption of fixed manpower requirements and inelastic demand for skills without substitution possibilities. This simply implies that there is no chance of substituting teacher of one category by that of another and there is no chance of substitution between teaching and other economic activities. It also implies inflexible students-Teacher ratios, laboratory and class room space per student, and other equipment per student, etc. However, it is often difficult to expand education, particularly in developing countries, without making allowance for adjustments in the use of such inputs, at least in the short run. Manpower surveys also project the current market imperfections into the future. Due to paucities or surpluses of various types of manpower, actual qualificational pattern that obtains in occupations of various sectors generally deviates from the pattern desired by the employers. Check Your Progress Q. 1. Describe the concept of manpower survey with examples.

Ans._______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Q. 2. Explain the significance of Manpower survey in educational planning.

Ans._______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 28.5 PROCEDURES IN MANPOWER SURVEYS AS A TECHNIQUE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT There is no single and universally accepted method of projecting manpower 249

requirements. Most of the exercises have been concerned mainly with the projections of specific high level manpower such as engineers, doctors, scientists etc., and numerous methods have been used in deriving such projections. These methods include asking employers to estimate their prospective requirements, assuming all the firms of an industry to reach the level of utilization of high level manpower that has already been attained by the best firms of the industry, intercountry comparisons, extrapolation of the past trends into the future, and correlating the number of employees in the occupation with total employment, population, per capita or total national income or such other variables, using regression equations thus derived to estimate the total stock of the specified category of manpower. But educational planning, in principle, should cover the entire educational system and should be related to the needs of the entire economy. Therefore, special projections are of limited use for educational planning. For projecting the requirements of manpower of all types for the entire economy, the first step is to determine the target for national income and its sectoral distribution. Sectoral distribution can be made directly or can be derived from the estimates (or targets) of the pattern of final demand. Then total employment and its occupational structure can be projected in any of the three ways: Employment for the entire economy is estimated first and then its sectoral distribution is determined. Employment in each sector is then distributed among various occupational/educational categories; Future level of employment in each sector is directly determined first then its occupational/ educational composition is estimated. Summation over occupations and sectors will yield the total employment and its occupational structure for the entire economy ; Employment by occupational/educational groups is estimated directly for each sector separately. Summation over occupations and sectors will give global employment and its structure. Manpower requirements could be projected in any of the three above ways by using anyone of the alternative techniques which have been used 250

in various studies. Manpower survey has now become very essential to maintain a balance demand and supply of desirable human resources required at different levels of education. This also helps for making some objective policy of educational restructuring and modification. This should be used as an important tool for devising some result oriented educational planning. 28.6 LET US SUM UP

So from above discussion, you might have learnt about concept and need of man power survey as a modern management technique with special reference to developing countries. Through this lesson you also came to know about basic procedures we generally adopt in manpower survey as a significant component of educational planning in Indian context. I hope this discussion will make you well versed with the related concepts of manpower survey. 28.7 1. 2. UNIT END EXERCISES Give a brief description of the concept of manpower survey. Describe significance of manpower survey with specific mention of its relevance to Indian settings. Discuss main procedures of manpower survey by highlighting the major assumptions as a modern technique of educational management . SUGGESTED FURTHER READINGS Aggarwal, J.C (2002) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Organisation, Arya Book Depot, Karol Bagh, New Delhi. Aggarwal, S.P (1992) : Educational Planning in India with a slant to Educational Financing and Administration, Concept, New Delhi. Bhatnagar, R.P (1996) : Educational Administration, Anupurna, New Delhi. Gakhar, S.C (2006) : Educational Management, N.M. Publication, Panipat. Goel, S.L. & Goel, Aruna (1994) : Educational Policy and Administration, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. 251


28.8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


Mohanty, Jagannath (2005) : Educational Administration, Supervision and School Management, Deep and Deep Publications, New Delhi. Sears, J.B (1950) : The Nature of Administrative Process, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York. Sharma, R.A (2005) : School Management & Pedogogics of Education, R. Lall Book Depot, Meerut. Sidhu, K.S (2002) : School Organisation and Administration, Sterling Publishers Private Ltd., New Delhi. Shukla, S.P (1982) : Educational Administration, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra.






Directorate of Distance Education



Class : B. Ed.

Lesson No. 1-28
Dr. Darshana P. Sharma
Course Co-ordinator

All copyright privileges of the material is reserved by the Directorate of Distance Education, University of Jammu, JAMMU-180 006