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The OSI reference model

OSI (Open System Interconnection) (Linking of heterogeneous computer systems, located any where in the world, to communicate with each other.) separate set of protocols Actual implementation 1-3 layers are likely to be in h/w 4-5 layers for operating system 6(presentation layer) in library sub routines in users address space. 7(application layer) in users program 1 PHYSICAL LAYER Responsible for transmitting raw bit stream (from two nodes). It converts sequence of binary digits in to electric signals, light signals, or electromagnetic signals. Electrical details (how many volts (0, 1), how many bits can be sent per sec). Transmission mode (half duplex, simplex, full duplex). Size & shapes of connecting plugs, no of pins in plugs, and function of each pin. RS232-C is a popular physical layer standard for serial communication lines.

2- DATA LINK LAYER This layer is responsible for detecting and correcting any error in transmitted data. It partitions the raw bit in to frames.

Error detection and correction can be performed independently for each frame. It also performs flow control of frames b/w two sites. (Flood data sending rate shouldnt be faster). 3- NETWORK LAYER It sets up a logical path between two nodes for communication. It encapsulates frames in to packets (high level add & transmitting (routing scheme)). Routing is the primary job of network layer, (routing algo forms the main part of network layer protocols). Two popular network layer protocol-X.25, internet protocol.

4- TRANSPORT LAYER * Transport layer accepts msgs, segments them in to packets, submits them them to network layer for transmission, & finally reassembles packets at destination. * It assigns a sequence number to each packet, (lost of data can be easily tackled). * Protocols TCP (transmission control protocol) and UDP (User data gram protocol). 5- SESSION LAYER Token mgmt, synchronization i.e. for ensuring long transmission. It deals with session & connection co-ordination.


It is a part of an O.S which converts incoming & outgoing data from one presentation format to another. It is called syntax layer too. 7- APPLICATION LAYER This layer has a variety of protocols that is commonly needed by users. HTTP (HYPER TEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL). Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level.