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REVISTA CONSTRUCIA DE MAINI

Anul 60, Nr. 3 - 4/ 2008











































Din sumar



TEHNOLOGII INOVATIVE
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

MODELARE & SIMULARE
MODELLING & SIMULATION

CAD & CAM & CAE

TRANSFER TEHNOLOGIC
I INOVARE
TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFER
AND INNOVATION

MANAGEMENT.
DEZVOLTARE DE PRODUS
MANAGEMENT. PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENT

INGINERIE CHIMIC
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING






ISSN 0573 7419

EDITOR: ICTCM CITAf - OID.ICM

041303 Bucuresti
os. Olteniei nr. 103, sector 4, O.P. 8
Tel: 332.37.70/234
Fax: 332.07.75; sau 332.31.95
E-mail: ictcm@ictcm.ro, oid@ictcm.ro



Responsabil editor: Irina Rdulescu


Responsabil marketing: Mariana
Craciunoiu


INFORMAII, ABONAMENTE:
Abonamentele se fac direct, prin dispoziie de
plat sau mandat potal, trimis pe adresa
revistei.

CONT ICTCM:
nr. RO14 RNCB 5040 0000 0031 0001;
BCR sector 4
TIPAR: OID.ICM

COPYRIGHT 2003
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sunt rezervate OID.ICM. Nu este permis
reproducerea integral sau parial a
articolelor din revista Tehnologia Inovativ
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Opiniile exprimate n revist aparin
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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

ANUL 60 / 2008 NR. 3 - 4

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV

REVISTA CONSTRUCIA DE MAINI

COLEGIUL DE REDACIE
Octavian BOLOGA - Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu
Olivier BONNEAU Universitatea din Poitiers, Frana
Ion BOSTAN Universitatea Tehnic a Moldovei
K.D. BOUZAKIS Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki, Grecia
Doug BRANHAM - Lubrication Systems Company, Houston, Texas, USA
Dan BRNDAU - Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu
Mircea CIOBANU - Universitatea tefan cel Mare din Suceava
Valeriu DULGHERU Universitatea Tehnic a Moldovei
Dan FILIPOIU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Michel FILLON Universitatea din Poitiers, Frana
Mohamed HAJJAM Universitatea din Poitiers, Frana
Tudor ICLNZAN - Universitatea Politehnica din Timioara
Nicolae Valentin IVAN - Universitatea TRANSILVANIA din Braov
Gheorghe MOGAN Universitatea TRANSILVANIA din Braov
Ilie MUSC - Universitatea tefan cel Mare din Suceava
Nicolae OANCEA - Universitatea Dunrea de Jos din Galai
Dumitru OLARU - Universitatea Tehnic Gheorghe Asachi din Iai
Juozas PADGURSKAS Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Lithuania
Tudor PRISCARU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Vasile PUIU - Universitatea din Bacu
Stanisaw PYTKO - University of Science and Technology, Krakw, Poland
Alexandru RDULESCU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Minodora RP - Universitatea Dunrea de Jos din Galai
Lucian TUDOSE - Universitatea din Cluj
Thami ZEGHLOUL Universitatea din Poitiers, Frana






TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

COMITET ONORIFIC

Gheorghe AMZA - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Niculae Napoleon ANTONESCU Universitatea Petrol i Gaze din Ploieti
Traian AURITE - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Gavril CALEFARIU - Universitatea TRANSILVANIA din Braov
Mircea COZMNC - Universitatea Tehnic Gheorghe Asachi din Iai
Emanuel DIACONESCU Universitatea tefan cel Mare din Suceava
Marian GHEORGHE - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Constantin ISPAS - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Valeriu JINESCU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Aurel JULA - Universitatea TRANSILVANIA din Braov
Constantin MINCIU - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Eugen PAY - Universitatea de Nord din Baia Mare
Iulian POPESCU - Universitatea din Craiova
Aurelian VLASE - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti
Ioan VOICA - Universitatea POLITEHNICA din Bucureti

EDITOR
Oficiul de Informare Documentar pentru Industrie, Cercetare, Management
din cadrul
Centrului Incubator Tehnologic de Afaceri
S.C. ICTCM S.A. BUCURETI

RESPONSABIL EDITOR
Irina Rdulescu

REDACTOR
Irina Rdulescu








TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

ABSTRACTS INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY 3 - 4 / 2008

COMPARATIVE STUDY
REGARDING THE TAMPING MACHINE

Sorin George Badea, Cristinel Beleag,
Monica Stancu

S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti

The modern technological process for building,
maintenance and reparation of the railway, besides to
other technical operations, must include some of the
most important technical operations like tamping,
leveling and directing of a railway. All these
technical operation by tamping, leveling and
directing of a railway are made in present by a single
railway machine, which is known like tamping
machine. In the world are many producers by
tamping machine, some of the most important of them
being in Romania through their types of tamping
machines.

COMPARATIVE STUDY
REGARDING THE TAMPING TOOLS

Sorin George Badea, Cristinel Beleag

S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti

The exploitation of tamping tools is done so that each
tamping tool can be mounted on a single tamping
machine type, the interchangeability degree being
limited mainly due to the size and different dimensions of
the tamping tools grip, also due to the different way of
grip, and fixing on the port tool. Managing different
types of tamping tools, specific to each tamping
machine, imply a lot of obstacles and costs.

ABRASIVES RHEOPECTICS MATERIALS
FOR NANOFINISHING
BY STRENGTH ABRASIVES

Valeriu Avramescu
1
, Maria Fiti
2
, Norvegia Elena
Avramescu
3
, Nicolae Ionescu
4
, Aurelian Vian
4
,
Roxana Grejdanescu
1
, Gheorghe Orsanu
1
, Nicolae
Dumitru
3
, Marian Burcescu
3
, Ion Bdoi
3
,
Loredana Theodora Pun
1
, Ctlin Horia Oranu
1

1
SC Institutul de Cercetare si Proiectare Tehnologica
pentru Constructii Masini ICTCM SA Bucureti,
ROMANIA,
2
FITPOL SRL Bucureti, ROMANIA,
3

SC Institutul de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Sectoare
Calde INTEC SA Bucureti, ROMANIA,
4
Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti UPB-CAMIS
Bucureti, ROMANIA

This paper presents an introduction to the field of
nanofinishing with abrasives. This is an unconventional
technology, a very effective method in terms of
ecological process known as the Strength Abrasives
Process (AFM). Equipment designed by ICTCM is an
universal machine tool, which is composed by two
cylinders, in order to extrude the abrasive environment
through passages crossing (channels) and finishing
areas and edges. Extrusion pressure is in the range 700
- 22,000 kPa, with the flow rate of more than 380 l /
min. There is also a system of control of process
parameters, parameters such as temperature, viscosity,
flow rate of abrasive environment, etc.
The abrasive environment is a great importance
reopectic medium, for the obtaining of an efficient
nanofinishing technology. That one has two main
components: a viscous fluid, which contains several
components such as lubricants, anti-corrosive agents
and emulsions, and an abrasive substance. The
nature, the viscosity, particle sizes and concentration
of abrasive material are essential for the final result
of technology. The mixture of all these chemicals and
materials allow a broader range of compositions of
abrasive material. Many tests have already been
prepared at the laboratory, using safe materials and
ecological ones and preliminary results are very
promising.

SPECIFIC ISSUES ON EQUIPMENT AND
PARAMETERS PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGY
FOR FRICTION WELDING WITH SWIRL
ELEMENT (FSW)

Cristian Birtu, Valeriu Avramescu , Gheorghe Marin
ICTCM Bucureti

This paper presents constructive and functional
characteristics of specific equipment used in the newest
technology of welding: Friction Welding with active
rotating - element FSW ( "Friction Stir Welding"). In the
first part of the paper is submitted the process of friction
welding, the specific technological parameters and their
usual values, which are published in the literature.
There are detailed the constructive characteristics of
specific equipments of FSW technology, for the series
production and for tests prosecution, produced by
international specialized companies. In the second part
of the paper are presented the results obtained from the
implementation and operational and technological
testing, considering the cynematic and dynamic
parameters of the process. The end of the paper presents
the conclusions reffering on the construction and on the
equipment working conditions, as well as on the process
of welding FSW.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

TECHNICAL PERFORMANCES
AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS
OF MACHINE TOOLS
AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS

Constantin ISPAS
1
, Ecaterina Camelia POCRIS
2

1
POLITECHNICA University from Bucharest,
Bucharest, ROMANIA,
2
SC ICTCM SA, Bucharest, ROMANIA

The paper presents current national and international
trends in the development of machine tools and
integrated systems of machining. It is a common
place that ecological aspects related to machine tools
operation have always been and will be an issue of
great concern. Reaching higher speed limits has
always been the general desideratum of specialists
working in all industrial domains. The article gives
detailed specifications in this domain, when applied
to the particular cases or machine tools and
integrated systems.

FRAGMENTATION EQUIPMENT OF THE
TIMBER IN ORDER TO OBTAIN VEGETAL
ECOLOGICAL COMPOST

Leonard Mihescu
1
, Octavian Gabriel Grigore
2
,
Corneliu Cristescu
3


1
S.C. ICTCM-SA, Bucureti, ROMNIA,
2
S.C. ICTCM-SA, Bucureti, ROMNIA,
3
INCD-INOE 2000-IHP, Bucureti, ROMNIA

The paper presents the research-development
activities in order to realize an equipment for
breaking-up and crumbling which processes
mechanized the wood scraps, resulted of the
cleaning/cutting of trees and bushes from the forest
areal and parks, in order to obtain the vegetal
compost used to develop an ecological agriculture
with good (positive) effects on environment, but also
used to obtain biomass, which is necessary to
produce regenerable fuel, as an unconventional
energy resource. This equipment is a bio-shredder
used in shredding organic and vegetable waste, with
a single feed opening and a single chipping system
with grid refining and centrifugal blower for
evacuation the products. The fineness of the ground
material can be adjusted through a riddle by request.
This equipment is an absolute novelty for Romania
and it responds to EU requirements concerning the
environment protection.



TESTING OF THE FRAGMENTATION
EQUIPMENT OF THE TIMBER

Corneliu Cristescu
1
, Leonard Mihescu
2
, Aurel
Zapciu
3
, Constantin Clinoiu
4
, Adrian Mirea
5
,
Petric Krevey
6
, Bogdan Lupu
6
, Alexandra Vian
6

1
INOE 2000-IHP Bucureti, ROMNIA,
2
S.C. ICTCM-SA Bucureti, ROMNIA,
3
INCDMF Bucureti, ROMNIA,
4
S UPB-CCEPM Bucureti, ROMNIA,
5
S.C. ROMFLUID SA, Bucureti, ROMNIA,
6
INOE 2000-IHP Bucureti, ROMNIA

The article presents the experimental research
developed after the physical realization of the
equipment for breaking-up and crumbling which
processes mechanized the wood scraps, in order to
check the technical and technological performance to it.
Testing equipment was made by using a modern
instrumentation, with monitoring and the acquisition of
main functional parameters. It shows the technical
solutions for the implementation of sensors and
transducers on equipment for taking the evolution of the
mechanical and hydraulic parameters. It is presented a
system for measuring and recording the main functional
parameters of the equipment. Finally, it is showed some
variation of graphics functional parameters of the
equipment, produced in the testing phase of the
equipment in the operation conditions.

EQUIPMENT FOR MONITORING WATER
QUALITY

Constantin Nicolescu
1
, Luminia Cruceanu
2
,
Carmen Marin
3
, Codru Darie
4
, Gheorghe ovial
1
,
Teodor- Costinel Popescu
1

1
The National Research and Development Institute
for Optoelectronics 2000 - Branch: The Hydraulics
and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000 IHP,
Bucharest, ROMNIA
2
The Centre for Scientific Equipment (CAST)
Bucharest, ROMNIA
3
National Administration of Land Reclamation
(ANIF), Bucharest, ROMNIA
4
The National Research and Development Institute
for Fine Mechanics (INCDMF), Bucharest,
ROMNIA

In Romania the irrigated surface with high economic
efficiency it is estimated at 3.5 mil. ha. On national
scale there is no integrated approach of the quantity
and quality values of the irrigation water, and
resource, as well as an equipping of the pumping
station. On international scale, in the developed

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

countries the pumping stations are provided with
equipment for monitoring, on real time, the quality or
the pumped water and for warning about critical
situations (emergencies).
The technical solution consists of an equipment which
monitors the following parametres: turbidity, pH, CE
at 25
0
C, Na
+
, Cl
-
. The lapse of time for monitoring is
of 10 60 min. The main components are the
following: the prelevation pump (submersible) the
monitoring board, the repression pipe of the analysed
water. There are made warnings about tue exceeding
of the programmed level for each monitored
parameter, about tue fact that the pump and agitator
dont work or about any other source of damage.
The testing of the equipment in the ground was made
at the base pumping station Manta, from the Danube
Meadow, Giurgiu county.
The water is from the Danube and it is in most of the
cases mixed with the water originating from drainage
mixed with the drainage water.

RESEARCHES ON USE OF RENEWABLE
ENERGY SOURCES IN THE MACHINE
BUILDING INDUSTRY

Florentina-Cristina Ivacu
*
, Alexandru Rdulescu
**
*Global Energy Services, Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
**Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucuresti,
ROMANIA

The purpose of analysis for this paper is to support
renewable energy sources through the collection of
industrial and municipal waste and biogas recovery
of such product. Renewable energy sources are the
oldest sources of energy used, in various ways. At
present the use of renewable energy sources is
realized through the application of modern
technologies. In this context, the paper proposes a
technical-economic analysis for the installation of a
group of cogeneration operation with the biogas,
needed for the production of electricity and heat.

MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF
RADIOACTIVE DECONTAMINATION OF
METAL MATERIALS RESULTING FROM
THE DECOMMISSIONING OR
REPLACEMENT OF THE EQUIPMENT IN
NUCLEAR FIELD

Dumitru Buca
1
,Valentin Barbu, Dumitru Mihaila
2
,
Constantin Stan
2
1-SC ICTCM SA , Bucureti, ROMANIA,
2- INCD-MRR , Bucureti, ROMANIA

In the following article is presented a new technology
for decontamination the metallic materials which
come from used radioactive mining facilities. It is
presented the main installation for decontamination,
using the impact with abrasive and also, the
advantages of this technology.

NEW CONCEPT OF NET-SHAPE COVERING
FOR REVOLUTION METALIC PARTS
OBTAINED BY ROTATING FORGING

V. chiopu
1
, D. Luca
2
, I. Asandei
1
, C.Gentoiu
3

1
S.C. PRESUM PROIECT S.A. Iai,

2
U.T. Gh. Asachi Iai,
3
S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucureti.

This new concept is related to the development of a
modern technology for net-shape coating of the
axisymmetrical metallic parts (spindle and bush type)
by cold rotary swaging. The new technology have the
purpose to realize parts with basic structure made
from cheap materials with high fatigue strength, on
which is applied, in that areas where different
characteristics (low friction coefficient, high
hardness etc.) are required, a layer of expensive
materials which provides this characteristics.

THE BIOMASS - A CLEAN AND RENEWABLE
FUEL FOR THE ENERGY PRODUCTION
IN THE MODERN GASES PLANTS

*Elena Laslu, *Gabriel Laslu, **Gheorghe Badea,
**Gheorghe Sarbu

*AIM Bucuresti ,**S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucuresti,
ROMANIA

Biomass gasification is a complete conversion of
biomass in a gas fuell by heating in an optimum
medium, air, oxsygen, or steam promise to become a
basic sourse of electric energy.Gasification of
biomass is a real process for obtine of electric energy
in boilers steam turbine, heat engins, gas turbine and
argumentatif of harmony for many fuell cells.

MODULAR SYSTEMS
FOR MACHINES BUILDINGS

Marin Gheorghe, Raluca Magdalena Ni

SC. ICTCM SA, Bucharest, ROMANIA

The paper refers to the modular systems in the
machine tools design in the purpose of modulisation
improvement of the components and new
characteristics development and new functions in
order to adapt at new fabrication possibilities, taking
in consideration the productivity and quality
production improvement.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

ELECTRIC ARC THERMAL SPRAYING
OF CuAl9Fe3 AND CuSn6P ALLOYS,
AN EFFICIENT SOLUTION
TO OBTAIN REQUIRED COATINGS FOR
SLIDER BEARINGS

Valentin Mihailescu, Gheorghe Badea, Leonard
Teodoru
Fundatia Profesor Constantin Popovici, Bucureti,
ROMANIA

The article contains a synthesis of the results from
tests on the mentioned alloy. Performed tests are
grouped into two categories, namely:
a) tests that are specific to thermal spray
deposition comprising optimal parameters for
spraying depending on the pursued aim;
b) tests that are specific to the deposition wear
behaviour, respectively tribological tests.
The synthesis of these tests defines the behavior during
service of mentioned alloy, therefore its fields of use.

METHODS AND TOOLS
FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES
AND ECO-DESIGN

Alexandru Radulescu
*
,

Mihaela Alina Aron
*

*
Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucuresti,
ROMANIA

Innovation in the spirit of eco-efficiency may consist of
incremental improvements in processes or products, but
also a more radical leap to a new technology. Eco-
efficiency (EE), often superimposed the term eco-
innovation, is an integral part of the Strategy for
Sustainable Development (SDD), targeting mainly the
economy, the environment and highlight the inter-
relationships between them. But is directly related to the
social component in the consumer demands of society.

3D DIMENSIONAL CHAINS

tefan Tudorel Crciunoiu*, Cristian Nicolau*, Ana-
Maria Constantinescu*, Valeriu Avramescu*, Serban
Petrescu**, Laurentiu Bucur**, Paul Flondor**,
Adrian Ghionea***, Irina Marcu****

* ICTCM , ROMANIA,
** SCNeuron Group SRL ROMANIA,
*** University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest
CNCPST OPTIMUM, ROMANIA,
**** ASRO, ROMANIA

This project aims to elaborate a methodology to
establish spatial dimension chains, with a vectorial
and statistic approach. This methodology will be set
in an algorithm in order to issue a software product.
A calculation method for dimensional chains treated
statistically as vectors, along with a software structure
for calculation, will be developed, and the program will
be experimented on well-known modules in mechanical
engineering-technical drawing and assembly parts as
well as on other technologies-tolerances and machine
manufacturing.Regarding the application of the method
in technology, the starting point is the well known fact
that the processing on specific machine translates in the
change of the reference system of the semi-fabricate
from the functionalconstructive reference system to the
reference system of the processing automated tool.

MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION
FOR THE DEVELOPMENT
OF THE EQUIPMENTS
FOR PROCESSING MODULATION

Gheorghe Marin
1
, Valeriu Avramescu
2
,
Aurel Costea
3
, Nicoleta Rachieru
4


1,2
S.C. ICTCM Mechanical Engineering and Research
Institute S.A., Bucharest, ROMANIA,
3,4
S.C. AL PLAST CONF, Campulung, ROMANIA

The modernization of the fabrication process of the
machine construction domain enforce o
reconsideration of the priorities regarding the
evolution of the technological system. The
elaboration and the utilization of some calculation
methods, mathematical models and optimization
algorithms have permitted us to develop new modular
structures with characteristics and superior
performances regarding the precision, productivity
and the flexibility of the devices, equipments and
other mechanical systems.

SIMULATION AND EVALUATION METHODS
FOR THE ACCIDENTS DONE
BY THE IGNITION OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS
IN CONTACT WITH WARM SURFACES

Buzoianu Dragos
1)
, Stancu Rodica
1)
, Deleanu
Lorena
2)
, Ripa Minodora
2)

1)
S.C. ICTCM S.A., Bucuresti, ROMANIA
2)
Universitatea DUNAREA DE JOS, Galati,
ROMANIA

The paper presents a study on the causes of fires
caused by accidental ignitions of various combustible
materials, as well as measures taken to avoid such
accidents. Are presented methods of simulation and
evaluation of accidents caused by the ignition of
hydraulic fluid in contact with hot surfaces and
installation done to determine the fluids
inflammability in contact with hot surfaces.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

DETERMINATION
OF THE PARAMETERS CORRELATION
FOR THE PROCESS OF ROTATING FORGING
OF TUBULAR PARTS,
USING NUMERICAL MODELLING

V. Schiopu
1
, D. Luca
2
, I. Asandei
1
, C.Gentoiu
3

1
S.C. PRESUM PROIECT S.A. Iai,
2
U.T. Gh. Asachi Iai;
3
S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucureti, ROMANIA

Although rotary swaging process is used from some time,
the correlation between its main parameters remain
unknown, the development of applications being done
mainly through experimental ways. Experimental
researches have the disadvantage of not being able to
provide information about significant parameters, such as
stresses and strains. In contrast, numerical calculations,
like finite element analysis (FEA), provide the opportunity
to determine all relevant parameters at moderate cost.

ASPECTS AND RESULTS
OF THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION
OF THE DEEP-DRAWING OF BUTT-WELDED
PARTS

M. Tera, O. Bologa

, V. Oleksik

Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Sibiu, ROMANIA

Butt-welded metal sheets have many advantages, such as
decreasing the parts weight, reducing the manufacturing
costs and an increased dimensional precision. In order to
benefit from these advantages, a detailed knowledge of
this kind of sheet's behaviour during deep-drawing is
necessary. The current paper aims to analyse the
analytical model of deep-drawing a blank realized
through the butt-welding of two metal sheets. A
comparison between the deep-drawing of such kind of
blank and the deep-drawing of a conventional blank is
also discussed.

STATIC BEHAVIOUR OF AN ADVANCED
ULTRA-LIGHT SANDWICH COMPOSITE
STRUCTURE FOR A WHEEL CHAIR

Florin Teodorescu, Condurache Dumitru, Grigore
Stanca, Valeriu Avramescu, Raluca Magdalena Nita

Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute
SC ICTCM SA Bucharest, ROMANIA

A theoretical approach of an ultra lightweight sandwich
composite structure with extreme rigidity is presented.
The structure features two carbon/epoxy skins
reinforced with twill weave fabric, and an expanded
polystyrene (EPS) core. The structure is subjected to a
biaxial field of normal loads combined with a shear
load. An equivalent model of this structure is presented.
It has been accomplished a comparison between this
structure and a similar one with glass/epoxy skins
reinforced with EWR-300 fabric. Sandwich structures
strains, stresses, skins plies strains and a comparison
between the rigidities of the structures components are
presented. A theoretical approach regarding the
bending of the structure is also shown.

ON THE PRE-TENSIONING TECHNIQUE
OF PMC-TUBES FOR A ULTRALIGHT
WHEEL CHAIR WITH APPLICATIONS
IN THE MEDICAL TECHNIQUE

* Grigore Stanca, * Florin Teodorescu,
* Dumitru Condurache, ** Horatiu Teodorescu,
* Stefan Craciunoiu

* Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute
SC ICTCM SA Bucharest, ROMANIA
** Transilvania University of Brasov, ROMANIA

The paper presents an original method to increase the
loading capability of PMC (polymer matrix composite)
tubes used for ultralight wheel chair for persons with
locomotors disabilities. The method involves the
introduction of supplementary internal stresses in thin-
walls cylinders with only a few wound layers. An
original device has been developed to attain this end.
Various tube specimens with different disposal of
reinforced material were carried out. The specimens
have been heated at a proper temperature and then an
elastic material was pressed at the inner of the tubes.
While keeping the internal pressure, the specimens were
cooled and then discharged. Then, the pre-tensioned
specimens were subjected to internal pressure until
weeping occurs. Using this method of pre-tension, the
loading capability of PMC-tubes is increased up to
43%. A theoretical approach regarding the cross-ply
and balanced angle-ply composite tubes is presented.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

THE SIMULATION OF THE LOADINGS
APPEARED IN THE TIME
OF PROCESSING THROUGH
THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
FOR SOME OF THE COMPONENTS
OF AN ADJUSTABLE MODULAR
SYSTEM OF TOOLS GUIDANCE

Gheorghe Marin, Valeriu Avramescu, Grigore
Stanca, Raluca Magdalena Nita

Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute,
Bucharest, ROMANIA

The modular elements devices are more and more
used within flexible production. The use of simulation
by the finite element method allows settling the
processing accuracy of such equipments since the
designing level. This paper presents the main stages
in simulating the behaviour of an adjustable modular
system of tools guidance in processing holes and the
influence of the system configuration, of the
processed material and of the diameter of the hole
over the strain of the slip bushing. The limits of the
processing accuracy are shown, ensured by two
configuration of the guiding unit of the tool.

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
AND ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL STRESS
IN FILMS BONDED BY TERMICAL
SPRAYING, USING THE FINITE ELEMENT
METHOD AND ALGOR SOFTWARE
PACKAGE FACILITIES

Leonard Teodoru
1
, Valentin Mihailescu
2
,
Gheorghe Badea
3
, Alexandru Ionescu
4

1
Fundatia Prof. Constantin Popovici, Bucuresti,
ROMANIA,
2
Fundatia Prof. Constantin Popovici Bucuresti,
ROMANIA,
3
SC ICTCM SA Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
4
Fundatia Prof. Constantin Popovici Bucuresti,
ROMANIA

The topic that the project aims to achieve is an
original approach regarding the remanent tensions
in the coatings obtained by thermal spraying, at the
level of the sprayed particle, using the finite element
method and the facilities of the program package
ALGOR for mathematical modelling.
ASSURANCE IN FINANCIAL REPORTING,
NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR A BETTER
INFORMED MANAGER

Monica Buga, Sorin George Badea,
Cristinel Beleag


S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, ROMANIA

This paper aims to improve the quality of managers
decisions due to better financial reporting, to find
tools to enhance financial reporting and assurance
processes, in order to reduce skepticism of all range
of financial data users. The paper describes some of
the benefits and opportunities in relation to the use of
XBRL, as it exists today and suggests extension under
Romanian accounting low.

TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES
IN ROMANIAN OIL MARKET

Mihai Dimian, Gina Cristina Dimian (Bnic)


Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest,
ROMANIA

This paper aims to define the place of a bio-refinery
into the Romanian economic system, presenting both
the industrial crops considered by the authors to be
the most recommended to obtain biofuels, and,
synthetically the technology used in this area.
Also, by estimating the potential market in this field
there is pointed out the possibility to develop a new
competitive advantage for certain regions of
Romania, if the integration of the new products is
undertaken according to marketing and quality
concepts.

MODERN APPROACHES
ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SIZE
COMPANIES AND THE CONTENT
OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Ana-Maria Grigore*, Mitulescu Aurelia-Mihaela**

* Universitatea Hyperion, Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
** Fundaia Profesor Constantin Popovici,
Bucuresti, ROMANIA


Thoroughful and systemic approach upon MRU in
SMEs its a relatively new phenomena. Research and
studies carried in SMEs point to the fact that the firm
size, the informality of the structure and of the
processes on one side, and the atitude and values of
the owner-manager, have a significant impact upon
the ways to adopt RU practices.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

CLUSTERS - PROSPERITY GENERATOR
UNITS IN ROMANIAN MANUFACTURING

R. Stancu, G. Diacov

S. C. ICTCM Institutul de Cercetare si Proiectare
Tehnologica pentru Constructii Masini S. A.,
Bucuresti, ROMANIA

This article plans to offer a methodological and
pragmatic base for those interested to establish clusters
in all regions of Romania. It is addressed mainly: SMEs,
local public administration, research community
(research institutes, universities), financial institutions,
institutions of cooperation (chambers of commerce,
organizations of business, etc.).

INNOVATION ROMANIACENTERS
NETWORK. NATIONAL NETWORK
OF INFORMING CENTERS AND ASSISTANCE
IN RESEARCH -DEVELOPMENT -
INNOVATION AND TECHNICAL TRANSFER
INFOAS" PROJECT PNCDI/Modul 1

Catalin SFETCU

Fundatia Profesor Constantin Popovici, Bucureti,
ROMANIA

Since 1992 (PHARE Program for Restructuring the
System Science and Technology in Romania-phase 1)
and continuing 1996 (PHARE Program for
Restructuring the System Science and Technology in
Romania-phase 2) and the framework programs, the
European Commission has made efforts to Romania in
implementing a system for Research Development -
Innovation and TT consistent and compatible with the
European system.
The European Commission has succeeded in co-
financed projects to support the construction of the
system only to a certain level. Non-finality of this system
has led a Romanian non- efficiency of the Romanian
research, in particular and a low efficiency of
Romanian economic system, in general.
Efforts in recent years of the National Authority for
Scientific Research Program, using
INFRATECProgram, have not managed to solve the
problem of the system definitization, only supplement it.
We believe that all the steps and achievements of the
European Commission and the National Authority for
Scientific Research have been correct and necessary, but
something is missing the interested parts of the system,
which are directly interested in Romanias achievement
of a sustainable economy, based on knowledge, of an
economy based on development.


ECONOMICS CONCEPTS APPLIED
IN THE COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS
DEVELOPMENT

Ioan Dan Filipoiu
*
,. Cristian Alionte
*
,
Stephan Mller
**
, Alexandra Mller
***


*
Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucureti,
ROMNIA,
**
EMC2 Computer Systems AG Zrich, ELVEIA,
***
Credit Suisse Zrich, ELVEIA

The goals of this paper are, on the one hand,
supporting the operator in making a selection
between various and on other hand for manufacturers
provides a methodical framework for the development
of innovative configurations of production equipment
against the background of life cycle costs calculation.
This paper is presents the costs basics regarding the
technical decisions of products innovations. In the
efficient selling of new innovative products, the main
issue is marketing of innovation. The economical
fundaments of the technical decisions must be a part
of the product development cycle and represents the
key of success when the product is promoted and sold
on the market. Therefore, this is possible using the
analysis of added value method applied on product
development. This analysis aims for design and costs
of product functions to be done with minimal effort
but they must fulfil the clients needs and must have a
low ecological impact.

LIFE CYCLE BETWEEN PRODUCT
AND ITS IMPACT OVER ENVIRONMENT
AGENTS

Ana Maria Onu, Ioan Piturescu, Emilia Stanescu

Institutul National pentru Intreprinderi Mici si
Mijlocii, Bucuresti, ROMANIA

In the activity of a firm, the environment plays an
essential role in defining its strategies, using the
development opportunities, forming the realizing
support objectives for economic increasement,
profitability or only surviving.
In the opinion of Phillip Kotler, the product, named
global can be defined as being the assembly of
the external enterprises forces and factors that are
able to affect the products development manner.
The PRODUCT is the material result within a system
concept, addressed to satisfy a need and represents a
sum of material and immaterial components and
independent features that form a total unit.
The product brought on the market has to be tackeled
within a system concept, that englobes the goods
material substance and also an ourside component, it

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 - 4 / 2008

has to be tackled from different points of view,
framing the following conceptions:
1. The integrating conception towards the product
concerns the product as a complex system of
material and immaterial components.
2. The valuable conception
3. The functional conception
4. The conception that regards the changing status
on the market.

RESEARCHES CONCERNING APPLICATION
OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
TO PROCESS INDUSTRY PRODUCTS

Irina Rdulescu

S.C. ICTCM S.A., Bucharest, ROMANIA

The paper presents the concept of lifecycle product
and considerations about Life Cycle Assesment.
The author emphasizes some applications of life cycle
assessment to process industry products.
Todays market prompts customers, decision makers
and investors to become more and more interested in
environment protection, in sustainability - to assure
a good impact of the business on the environment.
BIO-CHEM DECONTAMINANTS
BASED ON THE OXIDANT COMPOUNDS
AND AMMONIUM QUATERNARY SALTS

Stefan T.Craciunoiu
1
, Emilia Barbulescu
1
,.
Carmen Raducanu
1
, Viorel Ordeanu
2
,
Marius Necsulescu
2

1
- Institutul de Cercetare si Proiectare Tehnologica
pentru Constructia de Masini ICTCM
2
- Centrul De Cercetari Stiintifice Medico-Militare
CCSMM

A series of substances recommended as biological
and chemical decontamination agents and new
synthetized substances were tested. The substances
are characterized by a high chemical stability.
The products are soluble in water and in different
organic solvents. It is a universal biocide with
bactericide, fungicide effects with multiple uses.
These substances are characterized through a low
toxicity for mammals and human subjects.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 -4 / 2008 5
CUPRINS


TEHNOLOGII INOVATIVE / INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

1. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE TAMPING MACHINE pag. 9
Sorin George Badea, Cristinel Beleag, Monica Stancu

S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, ROMANIA

2. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE TAMPING TOOLS pag. 15
Sorin George Badea, Cristinel Beleag

S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, ROMANIA

3. MATERIALE REOPECTICE ABRAZIVE PENTRU NANOFINISAREA pag. 21
PRIN CURGERE ABRAZIV
Valeriu Avramescu
1
, Maria Fiti
2
, Norvegia Elena Avramescu
3
, Nicolae Ionescu
4
, Aurelian Vian
4
,
Roxana Grejdanescu
1
, Gheorghe Orsanu
1
, Nicolae Dumitru
3
, Marian Burcescu
3
, Ion Bdoi
3
,
Loredana Theodora Pun
1
, Ctlin Horia Oranu
1
1
SC Institutul de Cercetare si Proiectare Tehnologica pentru Constructii Masini ICTCM SA Bucureti, ROMANIA
2
FITPOL SRL Bucureti, ROMANIA,
3
SC Institutul de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Sectoare Calde INTEC SA
Bucureti, ROMANIA,
4
Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti UPB-CAMIS Bucureti, ROMANIA

4. ASPECTE SPECIFICE PRIVIND ECHIPAMENTELE SI PARAMETRII DE PROCES pag. 25
AI TEHNOLOGIEI DE SUDARE PRIN FRECARE CU ELEMENT ROTITOR (FSW)
Cristian Mircea Birtu, Valeriu Avramescu , Gheorghe Marin
ICTCM Bucureti, ROMANIA

5. TECHNICAL PERFORMANCES AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MACHINE TOOLS pag. 33
AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS
Constantin ISPAS
1
, Ecaterina Camelia POCRIS
2
1
POLITECHNICA University from Bucharest, ROMANIA,
2
SC ICTCM SA, Bucharest, ROMANIA

6. ECHIPAMENT DE FRAGMENTARE-MRUNIRE MATERIAL LEMNOS pag. 39
N SCOPUL OBINERII COMPOSTULUI ECOLOGIC VEGETAL
Leonard Mihescu
1
, Octavian Gabriel Grigore
1
, Corneliu Cristescu
2
1
S.C. ICTCM-SA, Bucureti, ROMNIA,
2
INCD-INOE 2000-IHP, Bucureti, ROMNIA

7. TESTAREA ECHIPAMENTULUI DE FRAGMENTARE-MRUNIRE MATERIAL LEMNOS pag. 45
Corneliu Cristescu
1
, Leonard Mihescu
2
, Aurel Zapciu
3
, Constantin Clinoiu
4
, Adrian Mirea
5
,
Petric Krevey
6
, Bogdan Lupu
6
, Alexandra Vian
6
1
INOE 2000-IHP Bucureti, ROMNIA,
2
S.C. ICTCM-SA Bucureti, ROMNIA,
3
INCDMF Bucureti,
ROMNIA,
4
S UPB-CCEPM Bucureti, ROMNIA,
5
S.C. ROMFLUID SA, Bucureti, ROMNIA,
6
INOE 2000-IHP Bucureti, ROMNIA

8. EQUIPMENT FOR MONITORING WATER QUALITY pag. 51
Constantin Nicolescu
1
, Luminia Cruceanu
2
, Carmen Marin
3
, Codru Darie
4
,Gheorghe ovial
1
,
Teodor- Costinel Popescu
1

1
The National Research and Development Institute for Optoelectronics 2000 - Branch: The Hydraulics
and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000 IHP, Bucharest, ROMANIA
2
The Centre for Scientific Equipment (CAST) Bucharest, ROMANIA
3
National Administration of Land Reclamation (ANIF), Bucharest, ROMANIA
4
The National Research and Development Institute for Fine Mechanics (INCDMF), Bucharest, ROMANIA

9. CERCETRI PRIVIND UTILIZAREA SURSELOR REGENERABILE DE ENERGIE pag. 57
N INDUSTRIA CONSTRUCTOARE DE MAINI
Florentina-Cristina Ivacu
*
, Alexandru Rdulescu
**

Global Energy Services, Bucuresti, ROMANIA, **Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucuresti, ROMANIA

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 -4 / 2008 6
10. TEHNOLOGIE MODERN DE DECONTAMINARE RADIOACTIV pag. 61
A DEEURILOR METALICE REZULTATE N URMA DEZAFECTRII
SAU NLOCUIRII ECHIPAMENTELOR DIN DOMENIUL NUCLEAR
Dumitru Buca
1
,Valentin Barbu, Dumitru Mihaila
2
, Constantin Stan
2
1-SC ICTCM SA , Bucureti, ROMANIA, 2- INCD-MRR, Bucureti, ROMANIA

11. NOU CONCEPT DE PLACARE NET-SHAPE A PIESELOR METALICE DE REVOLUIE pag. 67
PRIN FORJARE ROTATIV
V. chiopu
1
, D. Luca
2
, I. Asandei
1
, C.Gentoiu
3
1
S.C. PRESUM PROIECT S.A. Iai ,
2
U.T. Gh. Asachi Iai;
3
S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucureti, ROMANIA

12. BIOMASA, UN COMBUSTIBIL CURAT I REGENERABIL pag. 71
PENTRU PRODUCEREA DE ENERGIE IN INSTALAII MODERNE DE GAZEIFICARE
Elena Laslu, Gabriel Laslu, Gheorghe Badea,. Gheorghe Sarbu
AIM Bucuresti , S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucuresti, ROMANIA

13. SISTEME MODULARE PENTRU CONSTRUCTIA DE MASINI pag. 75
Marin Gheorghe, Raluca Magdalena Nita
SC. ICTCM SA, Bucharest, ROMANIA

14. ELECTRIC ARC THERMAL SPRAYING OF CuAl9Fe3 AND CuSn6P ALLOYS, pag. 79
AN EFFICIENT SOLUTION TO OBTAIN REQUIRED COATINGS FOR SLIDER BEARINGS
Valentin Mihailescu, Gheorghe Badea, Leonard Teodoru
Fundatia Profesor Constantin Popovici, Bucureti, ROMANIA

15. METODE I INSTRUMENTE PENTRU TEHNOLOGII ECOLOGICE SI ECO-PROIECTARE pag. 83
Alexandru Radulescu,

Mihaela Alina Aron
Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucuresti, ROMANIA

MODELARE & SIMULARE / MODELLING & SIMULATION

16. 3D DIMENSIONAL CHAINS pag. 89
tefan Tudorel Crciunoiu*, Cristian Nicolau*, Ana-Maria Constantinescu*, Valeriu Avramescu*,
Serban Petrescu**, Laurentiu Bucur**, Paul Flondor**, Adrian Ghionea***, Irina Marcu****
* ICTCM - Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute Bucharest, ROMANIA,
** SCNeuron Group SRL,*** University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest CNCPST OPTIMUM,
ROMANIA, **** ASRO, ROMANIA

17. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EQUIPMENTS pag. 97
FOR PROCESSING MODULATION
Gheorghe Marin
1
, Valeriu Avramescu
2
, Aurel Costea
3
, Nicoleta Rachieru
4

1,2
S.C. ICTCM Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute S.A., Bucharest, ROMANIA,
3,4
S.C. AL PLAST CONF, Campulung, ROMANIA

18. METODE DE SIMULARE SI EVALUARE A ACCIDENTELOR PRODUSE pag. 101
PRIN APRINDEREA FLUIDELOR HIDRAULICE IN CONTACT CU SUPRAFETE CALDE
Buzoianu Dragos
1)
, Stancu Rodica
1)
, Deleanu Lorena
2)
, Ripa Minodora
2)
1)
S.C. ICTCM S.A., Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
2)
Universitatea DUNAREA DE JOS, Galati, ROMANIA

19. DETERMINAREA CORELATIEI PARAMETRILOR PROCESULUI pag. 105
DE FORJARE ROTATIV A PIESELOR TUBULARE PRIN MODELARE NUMERIC
V. Schiopu
1
, D. Luca
2
, I. Asandei
1
, C.Gentoiu
3
1
S.C. PRESUM PROIECT S.A. Iai,
2
U.T. Gh. Asachi Iai;
3
S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucureti, ROMANIA





TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 -4 / 2008 7


CAD & CAM & CAE

20. ASPECTS AND RESULTS OF THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE DEEP-DRAWING pag. 113
OF BUTT-WELDED PARTS
M. Tera, O. Bologa, V. Oleksik
Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Sibiu, ROMANIA

21. STATIC BEHAVIOUR OF AN ADVANCED ULTRA-LIGHT SANDWICH pag. 117
COMPOSITE STRUCTURE FOR A WHEEL CHAIR
Florin Teodorescu, Condurache Dumitru, Grigore Stanca, Valeriu Avramescu, Raluca Magdalena Nita
Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute SC ICTCM SA Bucharest, ROMANIA

22. ON THE PRE-TENSIONING TECHNIQUE OF PMC-TUBES FOR A ULTRALIGHT pag. 123
WHEEL CHAIR WITH APPLICATIONS IN THE MEDICAL TECHNIQUE
* Grigore Stanca, * Florin Teodorescu, * Dumitru Condurache, ** Horatiu Teodorescu, * Stefan Craciunoiu
* Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute SC ICTCM SA Bucharest, ROMANIA,
** Transilvania University of Brasov, ROMANIA

23. THE SIMULATION OF THE LOADINGS APPEARED IN THE TIME OF PROCESSING pag. 127
THROUGH THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SOME OF THE COMPONENTS
OF AN ADJUSTABLE MODULAR SYSTEM OF TOOLS GUIDANCE
Gheorghe Marin, Valeriu Avramescu, Grigore Stanca, Raluca Magdalena Nita
Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute, Bucharest, ROMANIA

24. MODELAREA MATEMATICA SI ANALIZA TENSIUNILOR REZIDUALE pag. 133
IN STRATURILE DEPUSE PRIN PULVERIZARE TERMICA, UTILIZAND
METODA ELEMENTULUI FINIT SI FACILITATI ALE PACHETULUI DE PROGRAME ALGOR
Leonard Teodoru
1
, Valentin Mihailescu
2
, Gheorghe Badea
3
, Alexandru Ionescu
4
1
Fundatia Prof. Constantin Popovici, Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
2
Fundatia Prof. Constantin Popovici
Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
3
SC ICTCM SA Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
4
Fundatia Prof. Constantin Popovici
Bucuresti, ROMANIA

MANAGEMENT. TRANSFER TEHNOLOGIC I INOVARE /
MANAGEMENT. TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFER AND INNOVATION

25. ASSURANCE IN FINANCIAL REPORTING, NEW INSTRUMENTS pag. 139
FOR A BETTER INFORMED MANAGER
Monica Buga, Sorin George Badea, Cristinel Beleag

S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, ROMANIA

26. TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN ROMANIAN OIL MARKET pag. 143
Mihai Dimian, Gina Cristina Dimian (Bnic)

Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, ROMANIA

27. ABORDARI MODERNE PRIVIND RELATIA DINTRE MARIMEA FIRMEI pag. 149
SI CONTINUTUL MANAGEMENTULUI RESURSELOR UMANE
Ana-Maria Grigore*, Mitulescu Aurelia-Mihaela**
* Universitatea Hyperion, Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
** Fundaia Profesor Constantin Popovici, Bucuresti, ROMANIA

28. CLUSTERELE GENERATORI DE PROSPERITATE pag. 155
IN INDUSTRIA PRELUCRATOARE DIN ROMANIA
R. Stancu, G. Diacov
S. C. ICTCM S. A., Bucuresti, ROMANIA

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3 -4 / 2008 8

29. RETEAUA CENTRELOR INNOVATION ROMANIA. RETEAUA NATIONALA pag. 161
A CENTRELOR DE INFORMARE SI ASISTENTA IN C-D -I SI TT.
Proiectul INFOAS" PNCDI/Modul 1
Catalin Sfetcu
Fundatia Profesor Constantin Popovici, Bucureti, ROMANIA

DEZVOLTARE DE PRODUS / PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

30. CONCEPTE ECONOMICE APLICATE pag. 171
N DEZVOLTAREA DE PRODUSE COMPETITIVE
Ioan Dan Filipoiu
*
, Cristian Alionte
*
, Stephan Mller
**
, Alexandra Mller
***

*
Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucureti, ROMNIA,
**
EMC2 Computer Systems AG Zrich,
ELVEIA,
***
Credit Suisse Zrich, ELVEIA

31. CICLUL DE VIA NTRE PRODUS I IMPACTUL SU pag. 179
ASUPRA FACTORILOR DE MEDIU
Ana Maria Onu, Ioan Piturescu, Emilia Stanescu
Institutul National pentru Intreprinderi Mici si Mijlocii, Bucuresti, ROMANIA

32. RESEARCHES CONCERNING APPLICATION OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT pag. 185
TO PROCESS INDUSTRY PRODUCTS
Irina Rdulescu
S.C. ICTCM S.A., Bucharest, ROMANIA

INGINERIE CHIMIC / CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

33. DECONTAMINANTI BIO-CHEM PE BAZA DE COMPUSI OXIDANTI pag. 191
SI SARURI CUATERNARE DE AMONIU
Stefan T.Craciunoiu
1
, Emilia Barbulescu
1
, Carmen Raducanu
1
, Viorel Ordeanu
2
, Marius Necsulescu
2
1
- Institutul de Cercetare si Proiectare Tehnologica pentru Constructia de Masini ICTCM, ROMANIA
2
- Centrul De Cercetari Stiintifice Medico-Militare CCSMM, ROMANIA
















Aceste articole reprezint o selecie din lucrrile simpozioanelor:
Evoluia dezvoltrii economice a organizaiilor n contextul abordrii globale Ediia a V-a, 1617 octombrie
2008, organizat de departamentul DSEP ICTCM Bucureti,
Ciclul de via - ntre produs i impactul su asupra factorilor de mediu - Ediia a VI-a, 20-21 octombrie 2008,
organizat de Fundaia Prof. Ctin. Popovici,
Tehnologii inovative n dezvoltarea de produs, Ediia a III-a, 30 31 octombrie 2008, organizat de
departamentul CITAf ICTCM Bucureti,
Dezvoltarea durabil n construcia de maini de la concept la implementare Ediia a VIII-a" 6 - 7
noiembrie 2008, organizat de departamentul DSEP ICTCM Bucureti.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

9



COMPARATIVE STUDY
REGARDING THE TAMPING MACHINE


Sorin George Badea
1
, Cristinel Beleag
1
, Monica Stancu
1

1
S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, cristibesleaga@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT
The modern technological process for building, maintenance and reparation of
the railway, besides to other technical operations, must include some of the most
important technical operations like tamping, leveling and directing of a railway.
All these technical operation by tamping, leveling and directing of a railway are
made in present by a single railway machine, which is known like tamping
machine. In the world are many producers by tamping machine, some of the most
important of them being in Romania through their types of tamping machines.

KEYWORDS: tamping, leveling, directing, railway, machines


1. INTRODUCTION

The railway has in his structure/ making [1]
the following important elements (Fig. 1):
1 rail which is made by steel; 2 sleeper which is
made by wood, reinforced concrete, steel,
composite material; 3 broken stone; 4 ballast
and sand; 5 platform / soil/ ground of a railway.




Fig.1. The structure of a railway

For making the geometry of a railway in
space (in the longitudinal, horizontal and
transversal plane) are necessary technical
operations by tamping, leveling and directing of a
railway. All these technical operation by tamping,
leveling and directing of a railway are made in
present by a single railway machine, which is
known like tamping machine.

2. MECHANIZED TAMPING OF
RAILWAY

The technical process for building and
maintenance of the railways contain many
technical operations, one of them being the
tamping operation [2], which represent a very
important operation, because the tamping have that
the main purpose to assure a specific geometry and
resistance of the railway (Fig.2).



Fig.2. Tamping operation


In generally, mechanized tamping is being
executed with two tamping mechanism, which are
disposed on the both sides of the railway (on the both
rail), on a tamping machine.
Tamping is being executed [3] with the help of
the tamping tools (Fig. 3).

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

10


a b

Fig.3. The tamping tool
P&T 09-32 CSM curved a,
P&T 08-275 UM b, for the mechanized tamping.

The constructive elements of a tamping tool
are: 1-active part tine; 2-body of the tool; 3-the
part of the tamping tool which is attach to the port
tool; 4-part of the tamping tool which prevent the
rotate of the tamping tool into the port tool; 5-
special part of tool for drawing out the tool from
the port tool
Mechanized tamping consists [4] in the
vibration (oscillation) and squeeze of the ballast
under the inferior part of the sleeper, at frequencies
by 35 Hz, amplitude of the oscillation is 35 mm
and the force is 10 KN Fig.2.
In the world are known a few types of
tamping: synchrony tamping, asynchrony tamping,
elliptic tamping and combination of these. The
different among these tamping types is done by the
different movements of the tamping tool or the pair
of tamping tools which work together. These
tamping types are particular/specific to each
producer/manufacturer [5, 6].

2.1. The syncrony mechanized tamping

The synchrony tamping (Fig. 4) is meeting in
the case of tamping mechanism (Fig. 4, 5) from
BNRI-85 tamping machine (Fig. 6) which is made
by Marub Romania or a few types of Matisa
Switzerland tamping machines.
Characteristic for this type of tamping
mechanism is the fact that the squeeze movement
b is synchronic for all tamping tools, indifferent by
the resistance of the ballast for each tool. This fact
is a disadvantage for quality of the tamping
operation, because it can happened that one
tamping tool can meet a high resistance and lead to
maximum squeezing force and stop the squeeze
movement for all tamping tools, even if the others
tamping tools dont reach/ obtain the necessary
squeezing force and movement, for the
compression of the ballast.



Fig.4. Schema of synchrony tamping operation

1- axle with eccentric for vibration movement-c;
2 connecting rod for transmission of vibration
movement-c;
3- port tool;
4 - screw mechanism for squeeze movement- b;
5 - mechanism for basing and squeezing of tamping
tool into port tool;
6 - tamping tool; a ascending and descending
movement of tamping mechanism for penetrating of
tamping tool into the ballast.



Fig.5. Synchrony tamping mechanism BNRI-85



Fig.6. BNRI-85 tamping machine



TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

11
2.2. The asyncrony mechanized tamping

The asynchrony tamping (Fig. 7) is meeting
in the case of tamping mechanism (Fig. 7, 8, 9)
from Plasser & Theurer - Austria, Matisa
Switzerland new tamping machines.
Characteristic for this type of tamping
mechanism is the fact that the squeeze movement
b is asynchrony/ independent for each tamping
tools, indifferent by the resistance of the ballast for
each tool. This fact is a advantage for quality of the
tamping operation, because if one tamping tool can
meet a high resistance and lead to maximum
squeezing force and stop the squeeze movement for
this tool, the others tamping tools continues the
independent squeeze movements for each tool,
until to the maximum force and motion/ ride.



Fig.7. Schema of asynchrony tamping operation

1- axle with eccentric for vibration movement-c;
2 connecting rod for transmission of vibration
movement-c;
3 - port tool;
4 - hydraulic cylinder for squeeze movement - b;
5 - mechanism for basing and squeezing of tamping
tool into port tool;
6 - tamping tool; a ascending and descending
movement of tamping mechanism for penetrating
of tamping tool into the ballast.



Fig.8. Asynchrony tamping mechanism
Plasser&Theurer 08-275 UM



Fig.9. Plasser&Theurer 08-275 UM
tamping machine



Fig.10. Tamping mechanism:

1 - tamping tool;
2 - port tool;
3 - hydraulic cylinder for squeeze movement;
4 - mechanical limitation for squeeze movement;
5 - pneumatic cylinder for mechanical limitation
movement;
6 - axle with eccentric for vibration movement;
7 - guiding for vertical movement of the tamping
mechanism;
8,9 - joints;
10 - chassis of the tamping mechanism.



Fig.11. Asynchrony tamping mechanism
Plasser&Theurer 09-32 CSM


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Fig.12. Plasser&Theurer 09-32 CSM
tamping machine



Fig.13. Asynchrony tamping mechanism
Plasser&Theurer 08-16



Fig.14. Plasser&Theurer 08-16 tamping machine












Fig.15. Asynchrony tamping mechanism
Plasser&Theurer 08-475 UM 4S



Fig.16. Plasser&Theurer 08-475 UM 4S
tamping machine



Fig.17. Asynchrony tamping mechanism
Plasser&Theurer 07-275
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Fig.18. Asynchrony tamping mechanism
Plasser&Theurer 08-275 SP



Fig.19. Plasser&Theurer 08- 275 SP tamping
machine

3. THE COSTS EVALUATION

An important element in construction and
maintenance of the railway cost analysis is the cost
implied by the tamping operations. Increasing the
productivity of the tamping operation leads to
reduction of the unit costs of these operations.
For comparison at SIMC Buzau, this is a
subsidiary of SC IMCF SA Bucharest, which is
specialized enterprise for mechanized maintenance
of railway, we having in view tamping operation
activities in 2002, 2006 and 2007.
SIMC Buzau has following tamping machine:
In 2002: 14 BNRI 85 tamping machine, 1
Plasser& Theurer 09-32 CSM tamping machine
and 1 Plasser& Theurer 08-275 UM tamping
machine;
In 2006, 2007: 12 BNRI 85 tamping
machine, 1 Plasser& Theurer 09-32 CSM tamping
machine and 1 Plasser& Theurer 08-275 UM tamping
machine.

For evaluation the cost of tamping machines we
have in view three costs part: costs with reparation of
machine, costs with exploitation of machine and the
total costs. These costs were reported at the quantities
of tamping operation for each year.
For evaluation of costs we have in view the
following elements of costs: auxiliary materials for
exploitation, spare parts, materials, fuel, oil and cost
with manual labor, indirect costs, utilities costs, taxes
and duties.

0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
RON
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
1 - 12 BNRI, 13 - P&T 09-32 CSM, 14 - P&T 08-275 UM
The cost 2006 for BNRI-85 and P & T
Reparation costs
Exploitation costs
Total costs

Fig.20. The comparison cost for tamping machine
in 2006

0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
RON
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
1 - 12 BNRI-85, 13 - P&T 09-32 CSM, 14 - P&T 08-
275 UM
The costs 2007 for BNRI-85 and P & T
Reparation costs
Exploitation costs
Total costs

Fig.21. The comparison costs for tamping machines
in 2007

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

14
The cost EUR/km for 2002, 2006, 2007
0.00
500.00
1,000.00
1,500.00
2,000.00
2,500.00
3,000.00
3,500.00
4,000.00
4,500.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
BNRI - 85
EUR/Km
2002
2006
2007

Fig.22. The comparison costs for BNRI 85 tamping
machine for 2002, 2006, 2007
The cost EUR/Km 2002, 2006, 2007
0.00
100.00
200.00
300.00
400.00
2002 2006 2007
EUR/Km
P&T 09-
32 CSM
P&T 08-
275 UM

Fig.23. The comparison costs for P&T 09-32 CSM
and P&T 08-275 UM tamping machine for 2002,
2006, 2007
The cost EUR/km for 2002, 2006, 2007
0.00
500.00
1,000.00
1,500.00
2,000.00
2,500.00
3,000.00
3,500.00
4,000.00
4,500.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1 - 14 BNRI - 85, 15 - P&T 09-32 CSM, 16 - P&T 08-275 UM
EUR/Km
2002
2006
2007


Fig.24. The comparison costs for BNRI-85, P&T 09-
32 CSM and P&T 08-275 UM tamping machine for
2002, 2006, 2007

4. CONCLUSIONS

The tamping machine BNRI-85, which were
produced between years 1970 1990 are an olds
tamping machine and these machine must to be changes
in the following years, because theirs cost will increase.
Even so are many cases when these machines are very
utilizations (when these machines work after the
cleaning machines or the quantity of tamping operation
isnt big). Also the quality of tamping operation which
is made with this machine is less than Plasser & Theurer
tamping machines.
The costs for all tamping machines are increasing
year to year, owing to weariness of these.
The productivity of tamping machine BNRI-85 is
155 ml/hour which is less than the productivity of
Plasser & Theurer 09- 32 CSM which is 500 600
ml/hour or & Theurer 08- 275 UM which is 200 300
ml/hour.
Even if the costs of tamping machines Plasser &
Theurer are to 2 3 times more than costs of tamping
machines BNRI-85, the specific costs/ km of tamping
machines Plasser & Theurer are to 2 3 times less than
costs of tamping machines BNRI-85 because of the
different productivities.

REFERENCES

1. Titus Burtan, s.a., Suprastructura caii ferate, Ministerul Cailor
Ferate, Centrul de Documentare si Publicatii Tehnice, Bucuresti, 1965
2. ***Plasser&Theurer, Tamping depth control SDA-03/2-23,
Adjusting instruction, Plasser&Theurer, Linz, 1994
3. ***Plasser&Theurer, Stopfpickel service vorschrift, ein-u,
Ausbau, Regenerierung, S19-01, Plasser&Theurer, Linz, 1994
4. ***Instructiuni privind executarea lucrarilor de buraj, ridicarea caii
la nivel longitudinal si tranversal si riparea caii cu masinile grele de
cale tip BNRI sau BMNRI nr. 465/277-1973, Departamentul cailor
ferate/Directia Linii si Instalatii, Bucuresti, 1980
5. Cristinel Besleaga, Contributii privind marirea durabilitatii sculelor
de burare, Teza de doctorat, Bucuresti, 2006
6. Constantin Turcanu, Masini de cale, Editura Matrix Rom

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

15



COMPARATIVE STUDY
REGARDING THE TAMPING TOOLS


Sorin George Badea
1
, Cristinel Beleag
1

1
S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, cristibesleaga@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT
The exploitation of tamping tools is done so that each tamping tool can be
mounted on a single tamping machine type, the interchangeability degree being
limited mainly due to the size and different dimensions of the tamping tools grip,
also due to the different way of grip, and fixing on the port tool. Managing
different types of tamping tools, specific to each tamping machine, imply a lot of
obstacles and costs.

KEYWORDS: tamping tools, lastingness, cost, wear.


1. INTRODUCTION

The technical process for building and
maintenance of the railways contain many
technical operations, one of them being the
tamping operation [1], which represent a very
important operation, because the tamping have that
the main purpose to assure a specific geometry and
resistance of the railway (Fig.1).



Fig.1. Tamping operation

Tamping is being executed [2] with the help of the
tamping tools (Fig.2).


a b

Fig.2. The tamping tool
P&T 09-32 CSM curved a,
P&T 08-275 UM b,
for the mechanized tamping.

The constructive elements of a tamping tool are:
1-active part tine; 2-body of the tool; 3-the part of
the tamping tool which is attach to the port tool; 4-
part of the tamping tool which prevent the rotate of
the tamping tool into the port tool; 5- special part of
tool for drawing out the tool from the port tool
Mechanized tamping consists [3] in the
vibration (oscillation) and squeeze of the ballast
under the inferior part of the sleeper, at frequencies
by 35 Hz, amplitude of the oscillation is 35 mm and
the force is 10 KN Fig.1.
An important element in construction and
maintenance of the railway cost analysis is the cost
implied by the tamping operations. Increasing the
productivity of the tamping operation leads to reduction
of the unit costs (lei/ml) of these operations. For
obtaining these improvements it is necessary to use the
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

16
tamping tools with high durability, which is permitted
to increase the productivity and the costs of research,
design, construction and use of such tools being
quickly amortized and the profit being guaranteed.

2. TAMPING TOOLS TYPE

In the current stage, the tamping tools
exploitation is done so that each tamping tool can
be mounted on a single tamping machine type, the
interchangeability degree being limited mainly due
to the size and different dimensions of the
tamping tools grip, also due to the different way of
grip, and fixing on the port tool. Even in the case of
same manufacturer the tamping tools differ from
one machine to another. Few are the cases when
the interchangeability of tamping tools is allowed
from one machine to another.
Tamping tools users are obliged to manage
different types of tools, specific to each type of
tamping tool machine used. A positive fact that
simplifies the exploitation of tools is that the
tamping tool remains the same no matter the type
of tamping operation done with the same type of
tamping machine. This fact eliminates auxiliary
operations-referring to the replacement and
calibration of tools depending on the operation
being executed, the transport, manipulation, storage
and reconditioning, auxiliary operations which
generally reduce the productivity and the utilization
coefficient associated to the tamping machine.
Now in Romania it used many types of tamping
tools which are presented in the following pictures:



Fig.3. Tamping tool P&T 09-32 CSM straight
form 1



Fig.4. Tamping tool P&T 09-32 CSM straight
form 2


Fig. 5. Tamping tool P&T 09-32 CSM straight form 3



Fig. 6. Tamping tool P&T 09-32 CSM curved form 1



Fig. 7. Tamping tool P&T 09-32 CSM curved form 4



Fig. 8. Tamping tool P&T 08-275 UM



Fig. 9. Tamping tool P&T 08-475-4S
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

17


Fig. 10. Tamping tools P&T 08-16



Fig. 11. Tamping tool P&T 08 275 SP



Fig. 12. Tamping tool P&T 07 275 PLM



Fig. 13. Tamping tool BNRI -85

3. TAMPING TOOLS EVALUATION

Having in view the different types of the
tamping tools which are used, we made a
quantitative research, for entire enterprise from
Romania SC IMCF SA, which is specialized in
mechanized tamping with tamping machine. This
enterprise has 8 point of work which is named
SIMC (Bucharest, Buzau, Brasov, Craiova,
Constanta, Cluj, Iasi, and Timisoara).
We have established that are 7 types of
tamping machine, which have made in
average/year (having in view the years 2005, 2006
and 2007) the following quantities of tamping
operation in equivalent km:


Table nr.1
Nr.
Crt
Type of
Tamping
machine
Nr.
Tamping
machine/
Entire
enterprise

The average of
Quantity of
tamping
operation / year
[Equivalent km*]
1 Plasser&Theurer
09-32 CSM
8/8 1891,5
2 Plasser&Theurer
08-275 UM
1/1 166,8
3 Plasser&Theurer
08-475-4S
6/6 664,56
4 Plasser&Theurer
08-16
3/3 554,17
5 Plasser&Theurer
08-275 SP
2/2 283,42
6 Plasser&Theurer
07-275
1/1 28,11
7 BNRI - 85 60/83 3711,66
TOTAL = 7300,22

* Equivalent km = 1 km of tamping operation of
directly or current railways or 0.14 km of tamping
operation for each switch rail.
** This machine can make both tamping operation
(railway tamping and switch rail tamping).
In column 2 of table 1: in the first side the tamping
machine which are in function; in the second side all
tamping machine, inclusively those which are with
defections and its can be fixed.
We have showed in Fig. 14 the quantity
evaluation of tamping tools, for the entire tamping
machines which are used at SC IMCF SA.

1
2
3
4
5
P&T09-
32
CSM.l.
d.s.1
P&T09-
32
CSM.l.
d.a.2
P&T09-
32
CSM.l.
d.a.3
P&T09-
32
CSM.l.
c.s.1
P&T09-
32
CSM.l.
c.a.4
P&T
08-275
UM
P&T08-
475
4S.l.d.
s.1.i
P&T08-
475
4S.l.d.
s.2.e
P&T08-
16
l.d.s.1
P&T08-
16
l.d.a.2
P&T08-
16
l.d.a.3
P&T08-
275
SP
P&T07-
275
BNRI-
85
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
Nr.by
tamping
tool
Type of
tamping tool
THE EVALUATION OF TAMPING TOOLS AT SC IMCF SA
Fig.14. The evaluation of tamping tools

In Fig. 14 are showed the followings:
1- The quantity of the tamping tools for each type of
tamping tools which is needed for a good exploitation
of the tamping machine which are in function;
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

18
2- The quantity of the tamping tools for each type of
tamping tools which is needed for a good exploitation
for all tamping machine (tamping machine which are
in function and tamping machine which have
defections and its can be fixed);
3- The quantity of tamping tools which are in
function or for reserve.

4. THE COSTS EVALUATION

Managing (organizing the exploitation
activity) different types of tamping tools, specific
to each tamping machine, imply a lot of obstacles
[4].
Starting from the tamping tools exploitation
cycle which includes: the supply and transportation
of the tamping tools from the manufacturer or pre-
made parts in order to be put together; the storage
of new tools or pre-made parts as required;
introducing in manufacturing cycle and
manufacturing of new tamping tools; the transport
of new tools to place where tamping machine
operates; the replacement of used and defected
tamping tools; the assemblage and replacement of
new tools; the commissioning of new tamping tool
on the machine; the exploitation of tamping tool
under normal condition within the limits of
admissible weariness; the disassembling of the
defective tamping tools; the transportation of
tamping tools from the work site to the
reconditioning.
During this period accidental defections
occur, that require the dismantling of defective
tamping tools and their transportation to
specialized workshops for reconditioning; the
application of reconditioning technologies
depending on the available materials and the
technological capabilities; the transportation of
reconditioned tamping tools to tamping machines,
the assemblage and calibration of tools on the
machine for a new exploitation cycle.
The cycle is repeated until a serious
malfunction occurs, which leads to the
impossibility to use the tamping tool.
These serious malfunctions refer only to the
tamping tools body: to the grip part, the breakage
of maximum strain zone; in body deforming zone -
the breakage of the curves area; in other areas
between the grip and the passage area from the
body of the tool to its active part.
During the life of tamping tool these suffer a
number (n) of reconditioning operations but only
related to the active part, as presented above.
The reconditioning of tamping tools is
presently done depending on weariness or defects
of the active part as follows:

the reconstruction of dimensions, position and
quality of the active part's surfaces through
welding operations using wear resistant materials
and if needed mechanical finishing in order to
correct dimensions, forms and finishing.
in the case of wear over the admissible limits or
when material loses or malfunctions occur new
material will be added to the active part; later
wear resistant materials will be applied and
mechanically finished in order to correct form,
dimension and finishing.
the complete replacement of the active part, the
assemblage with the body of the tamping tool
being made using electric arc welding procedure
with covered metallic electrode; later wear
resistant materials will be applied and
mechanically finished in order to correct form,
dimension and finishing.

Another element that should be taken into
account is the tamping tools cost including the
exploitation and the (n) times reconditioning of these,
assembling and disassembling operations, calibration,
transportation, port tools and tamping mechanisms
weariness, etc, compared to high durability tamping
tools.
For an annual evaluation of tamping tools costs
several elements will be taken into account:
-the average quantity of tamping work annually
executed is showed in table 1.
This average quantity of tamping operations is
executed using more types of tamping machines and
include all categories of mechanized tamping
operations (Bi,BI,BII,BIII,BG,B etc.).

For annual tamping operations the following are
being used:
- 8 pcs. type Plasser&Theurer 09-32 CSM tamping
machines with 32 pcs. P&T 09-32CSM tamping tools
for each machine
- 1 pcs. type Plasser&Theurer 08-275 UM tamping
machine with 8 pcs. P&T 08-275 UM tamping tools
for each machine
- 6 pcs. type Plasser&Theurer 08-475-4S tamping
machines with 16 pcs. P&T 08-475-4S tamping tools
for each machine
- 3 pcs. type Plasser&Theurer 08-16 tamping
machines with 16 pcs. P&T 08-16 tamping tools for
each machine
- 2 pcs. type Plasser&Theurer 08-275-SP tamping
machines with 8 pcs. P&T 08-275-SP tamping tools
for each machine
- 1 pcs. type Plasser&Theurer 07-275 tamping
machine with 8 pcs. P&T 07-275 tamping tools for
each machine
- 60 pcs. type BNRI-85 tamping machines each with
8 pcs. BNRI-85 tamping tools for each machine.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

19
Having in view the amount of tamping tools
that are required, for each type of tamping
machines (see Fig. 14), it can be evaluated the costs
for each type of tamping tools.
1. The optimum amount of tamping tools type
P&T 09-32 CSM is 896 pcs. The cost of these
tools is 896 pcs. x 133 /pcs. = 119.168
2. The optimum amount of tamping tools type
P&T 08-275 UM is 28 pcs. The cost of these
tools is 28 pcs. x 240 /pcs. = 6.720
3. The optimum amount of tamping tools type
P&T 08-475-4S is 336 pcs. The cost of these
tools is 336 pcs. x 240 /pcs. = 80.640
4. The optimum amount of tamping tools type
P&T 08 - 16 is 120 pcs. The cost of these tools
is 120 pcs. x 240 /pcs. = 28.800
5. The optimum amount of tamping tools type
P&T 08 275 - SP is 56 pcs. The cost of these
tools is 56 pcs. x 240 /pcs. = 13.440
6. The optimum amount of tamping tools type
P&T 07-275 is 28 pcs. The cost of these tools
is 28 pcs. x 240 /pcs. = 6.720
7. The optimum amount of tamping tools type
BNRI - 85 is 1220 pcs. The cost of these tools
is 1220 pcs. x 140 /pcs. = 170.800
Total cost with all types of tamping tools is
about 426.288 .

The service life of various tamping tines is
estimated at 15 km for conventional materials
which are used for reconditioning of tamping tools
and for protection of the active part at the abrasive
wear stress. This fact means that for each 15 km of
tamping operation it must necessary to recondition
1 set of each type of tamping tools.

The average cost of reconditioning and for
protection of the active part at the abrasive wear
stress through welding operation for various
tamping tool is about 15 %.
1. The cost regarding to reconditioning
through welding operation, for tamping
tools type P&T 09-32 CSM is:
1891,5 km/year : 15 km/1 recond.-1 set=
126,1 ~ 126 reconditioning-1 set/year
126 reconditioning-1 set/year x 32 pcs/set
x 133 /pcs x 15%/recond./pcs. = 80.438
/year
2. The costs regarding to reconditioning
through welding operation, for tamping
tools type P&T 08-275 UM is:
166,8 km/year : 15 km/1 recond.-1 set=
11,12 ~ 11 reconditioning-1 set/year
11 reconditioning-1 set/year x 8 pcs/set x
240 /pcs x 15%/recond./pcs. = 3.168
/year
3. The costs regarding to reconditioning
through welding operation, for tamping tools
type P&T 08 -475-4S is:
664,56 km/year : 15 km/1 recond.-1 set=
44,3 ~ 44 reconditioning-1 set/year
44 reconditioning-1 set/year x 16 pcs/set x
240 /pcs x 15%/recond./pcs. = 25.344
/year
4. The costs regarding to reconditioning through
welding operation, for tamping tools type
P&T 08 16 is:
554,17 km/year : 15 km/1 recond.-1 set=
36,9 ~ 40 reconditioning-1 set/year
40 reconditioning-1 set/year x 16 pcs/set x
240 /pcs x 15%/recond./pcs. = 23.040
/year
5. The costs regarding to reconditioning through
welding operation, for tamping tools type
P&T 08 275 SP is:
283,42 km/year : 15 km/1 recond.-1 set= 18,9
~ 19 reconditioning-1 set/year
19 reconditioning-1 set/year x 8 pcs/set x 240
/pcs x 15%/recond./pcs. = 5.472 /year
6. The costs regarding to reconditioning through
welding operation, for tamping tools type
P&T 07-275 is:
28,11 km/year : 15 km/1 recond.-1 set= 1,9 ~
2 reconditioning-1 set/year
2 reconditioning-1 set/year x 8 pcs/set x 240
/pcs x 15%/recond./pcs. = 576 /year
7. The costs regarding to reconditioning through
welding operation, for tamping tools type
BNRI 85 is:
3711,66 km/year : 15 km/1 recond.-1 set=
247,4 ~ 247 reconditioning-1 set/year
247 reconditioning-1 set/year x 8 pcs/set x
140 /pcs x 15%/recond./pcs. = 41.496
/year.
Total cost regarding to reconditioning through
welding operation/year, for all types of tamping tools
is about 179.534 /year.

The service life of various tamping tools is
estimated at 100 km for conventional materials which
are used for manufacturing of these. This fact means
that for each 100 km of tamping operation it must
necessary to change/replace 1 set of each type of
tamping tools.
1. The cost regarding to change/replace, for
tamping tools type P&T 09-32 CSM is:
1891,5 km/year : 200 km/1 set = 9,4 ~ 9
set/year
9 set/year x 32 pcs/set x 133 /pcs =
38.304 /year
2. The cost regarding to change/replace, for
tamping tools type P&T 08-275 UM is:
166,8 km/year : 200 km/1 set = 0,83 ~ 1
set/year
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

20
1 set/year x 8 pcs/set x 240 /pcs =
1.920 /year
3. The cost regarding to change/replace,
for tamping tools type P&T 08 -475-4S
is:
664,56 km/year : 200 km/set= 3,32 ~ 3
set/year
3 set/year x 16 pcs/set x 240 /pcs. =
11.520 /year
4. The cost regarding to change/replace,
for tamping tools type P&T 08 16 is:
554,17 km/year : 200 km/1 set= 2,8 ~ 3
set/year
3 set/year x 16 pcs/set x 240 /pcs =
11.520 /year
5. The cost regarding to change/replace,
for tamping tools type P&T 08 275
SP is:
283,42 km/year : 200 km/1 set = 1,4 ~ 2
set/year
2 set/year x 8 pcs/set x 240 /pcs =
3.840 /year
6. The cost regarding to change/replace,
for tamping tools type P&T 07-275 is:
28,11 km/year : 200 km/set= 0,14 ~ 0,2
set/year
0,2 set/year x 8 pcs/set x 240 /pcs =
384 /year
7. The cost regarding to change/replace,
for tamping tools type BNRI 85 is:
3711,66 km/year : 200 km/set= 18,6 ~
19 set/year
19 set/year x 8 pcs/set x 140 /pcs =
21.280 /year.

Total cost regarding to change/replace, for all
types of tamping tools/year is about 88.768 /year.
Total cost regarding to reconditioning
through welding operation/year and to
change/replace, for all types of tamping tools/year
is about 268.302 /year.

5. CONCLUSIONS

SC IMCF SA as the most important
enterprise for mechanized maintenance of the
railway in Romania has many types of tamping
machine which use many types of tamping tools.
These tamping tools can be grouping in two big
categories: tamping tools for Plasser & Theurer
tamping machines and tamping tools for BNRI
85 tamping machines.
These two categories of tamping machine use
14 different types of tamping tools, each type has
some subtypes. Theoretical and experimental
researches are need to make for to reduce/
decreasing the types number of tamping tools.
In the present stage of the tamping activity,
BNRI-85 tamping machine are very important
because they realize more than 50 % from quantity of
tamping (see table 1), represent about 66 % tamping
machine from all types tamping machine and the
quantity of tamping tools type BNRI-85 represent
45,5 % from entire quantity of the tamping tools
which is needed for a good exploitation of all tamping
machine which are in function.
It is very important to know and evaluate the all
costs which appear during the service life of the
tamping tools. In this paper, we have showed the
element/factors which influenced the cost of a
tamping tool, during his service life and the value
evaluation for the types of the tamping tools which
are used at SC IMCF SA.
Using high durability tamping tools (more than
20 km for tamping tines and 200 km for the body of
the tamping tools) justifies from an economic point of
view the necessity to study and achieve high
durability tamping tools.
The world wide using of some materials and
technologies to increase the lastingness of active part
of the tamping tools is less known and wide spread,
an example in this way is using metallic carbide like
the tungsten carbide.
Internal matter doesnt are achievements in this
area, this problem is ignored because the information
is less and there are a lot of difficulties at technical
level.

We have achieved so, for the first time in
Romania, the first tamping tools having the active
part (tine) plated with plates of metallic carbide
through brazing.

REFERENCES

1. ***Plasser&Theurer, Tamping depth control SDA-03/2-23,
Adjusting instruction, Plasser&Theurer, Linz, 1994
2. ***Plasser&Theurer, Stopfpickel service vorschrift, ein-u,
Ausbau, Regenerierung, S19-01, Plasser&Theurer, Linz, 1994
3. ***Instructiuni privind executarea lucrarilor de buraj, ridicarea
caii la nivel longitudinal si tranversal si riparea caii cu masinile
grele de cale tip BNRI sau BMNRI nr. 465/277-1973,
Departamentul cailor ferate/Directia Linii si Instalatii, Bucuresti,
1980
4. Cristinel Besleaga,, Contributii privind marirea durabilitatii
sculelor de burare, Teza de doctorat, Bucuresti, 2006


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

21



MATERIALE REOPECTICE ABRAZIVE
PENTRU NANOFINISAREA PRIN CURGERE ABRAZIV


Valeriu Avramescu
1
, Maria Fiti
2
, Norvegia Elena Avramescu
3
, Nicolae Ionescu
4
, Aurelian Vian
4
,
Roxana Grejdanescu
1
, Gheorghe Orsanu
1
, Nicolae Dumitru
3
, Marian Burcescu
3
, Ion Bdoi
3
,
Loredana Theodora Pun
1
, Ctlin Horia Oranu
1

1
SC Institutul de Cercetare si Proiectare Tehnologica pentru Constructii Masini ICTCM SA Bucureti, ROMANIA
2
FITPOL SRL Bucureti, ROMANIA, e-mail: vavramescu@ictcm.ro
3
SC Institutul de Cercetare Dezvoltare pentru Sectoare Calde INTEC SA Bucureti, ROMANIA
4
Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti UPB-CAMIS Bucureti, ROMANIA


REZUMAT
Aceast lucrare reprezint o introducere n domeniul complex al nanofinisrii cu materiale
abrazive. Aceasta este o tehnologie neconvenional, un procedeu foarte eficient din punct de
vedere ecologic, procedeu cunoscut sub numele de Prelucrare prin Curgere Abraziv (AFM).
Echipamentul proiectat de ICTCM este o main unealt universal ce const n doi cilindrii opui,
n vederea extrudrii mediului abraziv prin pasajele de trecere (canale) i a finisrii de suprafee i
muchii. Presiunea de extrudere este cuprins n intervalul 700 - 22000 kPa cu rate de curgere mai
mari de 380 l/min. De asemenea exist un sistem de control al parametrilor procesului, parametrii
precum temperatura, vscozitatea, viteza de curgere a mediului abraziv etc.
Mediul abraziv este un mediu reopectic de o mare importan n obinerea unei tehnologii de nanofinisare
eficient.Acesta are dou componente principale: un fluid vcos care conine cteva componente precum
lubrifiani, emulsii i ageni anticorozivi, i un abraziv.
Natura, vscozitatea, dimensiunile particulelor i concentraia materialului abraziv sunt eseniale pentru
rezultatul final al tehnologiei. Amestecul tuturor acestor chimicale i materiale permit o plaj larg de
compoziii ale materialului abraziv. Multe probe au fost pregtite deja la nivel de laborator, utiliznd
materiale sigure i ecologige i rezultatele preliminare sunt foarte promitoare.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents an introduction to the field of nanofinishing with abrasives. This is an
unconventional technology, a very effective method in terms of ecological process known as the
Strength Abrasives Process (AFM). Equipment designed by ICTCM is an universal machine tool,
which is composed by two cylinders, in order to extrude the abrasive environment through passages
crossing (channels) and finishing areas and edges. Extrusion pressure is in the range 700 - 22,000
kPa, with the flow rate of more than 380 l / min. There is also a system of control of process
parameters, parameters such as temperature, viscosity, flow rate of abrasive environment, etc..
The abrasive environment is a great importance reopectic medium, for the obtaining of an efficient
nanofinishing technology. That one has two main components: a viscous fluid, which contains
several components such as lubricants, anti-corrosive agents and emulsions, and an abrasive
substance. The nature, the viscosity, particle sizes and concentration of abrasive material are
essential for the final result of technology. The mixture of all these chemicals and materials allow a
broader range of compositions of abrasive material. Many tests have already been prepared at the
laboratory, using safe materials and ecological ones and preliminary results are very promising.

CUVINTE CHEIE: abraziv, mediu reopectic, proces de nanofinisare

KEYWORDS: abrasive, reopectic environment, nanofinishing process

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

22
1. INTRODUCERE
Printre preocuprile din prezent n vederea
dezvoltrii tehnologiilor neconvenionale, un
procedeu ecologic de o mare eficien este
Prelucarea prin Curgere Abraziv (AFM).
AFM finiseaz suprafee i muchii prin
extrudarea unui mediu abraziv vscos prin, sau pe
piesa de lucru. Abraziunea are loc numai acolo unde
curgerea este restricionat, celelalte suprafee
rmnnd neafectate.
Studiile privind prelucrarea prin curgere
abraziv, au artat c prin aceast procedeu este
posibil s se realizeze operaii precum polizarea,
tierea i rotunjirea muchiilor pentru piese dintr-o
gam larg de dimensiuni i pot fi realizate prelucrri
n locuri greu de accesat.
Utiliznd aceast procedeu se pot finisa orificii
de peste 0.15 mm diametru, caviti i suprafee
complexe cu variate dimensiuni.
Rezultatele finisrii pot fi atinse prin
modificarea parametrilor procesului i de asemenea
prin alegerea unui fluid abraziv potrivit, acest lucru
fiind important.

2. EXPERIMENTRI
2.1 Elementele tehnologice ale sistemului AFM
Procedeul AFM utilizeaz doi cilindrii opui
pentru a extrude mediul abraziv semisolid prin
pasajele formate de pies i de unealt.



Fig. 1. Maina AFM
1 batiu, 2-cilindru, 3-masa mobil, 4- bac de lucru,
5- cilindru superior, 6- montant, 7- cap de lucru,
8- dispozitiv de lucru, 9- suport




















Fig. 2. Maina AFM - vedere
Prin extruderi repetate, mediul dintr-un cilindru
trece n cellalt cilindru i aciunea abraziv se produce
cnd mediul abraziv intr n pasajul restrictiv i circul
prin, sau pe piesa de lucru.
Aciunea de prelucrare este similar cu
operaia de grunduire sau de lepuire ntruct mediul
abraziv finiseaz usor suprafeele sau muchiile.
Cnd este forat s curg prin pasajul restrictiv,
polimerul purttor din mediu i crete temporar
vscozitatea.
Acest lucru ine rigid i n suspensie particulele
de abraziv i rectific suprafaa dorit numai cnd
fluidul abraziv are o vscozitate ridicat.

2.2 Materialele fluidelor abrazive
n aceast lucrare, unul dintre scopurile principale este
obinerea unor fluide convenabile utiliznd materiale
eficiente, sigure i ecologice. Utiliznd acest criteriu, s-
au folosit urmtoarele chimicale i materiale.
a) Componentele fluidului:
O olein, conine n principal acid oleic cu
formula: CH
3
(CH
2
)
7
CH=CH(CH
2
)COOH;
ODT diethanolamida de acid oleic, coninnd
aproximativ 20% TEA
triethanolamina N(C
2
H
5
OH)
3
cu
OD amid, rezultnd din reacia de
condensare a
D - dietanholaminei HN(C
2
H
5
)
2
cu acidul
oleic, cu eliminare de ap:
(C
2
H
5
OH)
2
NH + HOOC(CH
2
)
7
CH=CH(CH
2
)
7
CH
3

(C
2
H
5
OH)
2
NCO(CH
2
)
7
CH=CH(CH
2
)
7
CH
3
+ H
2
O
Produsul ODT atribuie multe proprieti
folositoare pentru fluidele abrazive precum: creterea
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

23
vscozitii, impiedicarea coroziunii emulsiei i
lubrifierea.
O-PPG i O-MPG sunt doi esteri ai acidului
oleic cu glicol polipropilen - PPG, un scurt lan
polimeric al monopropilenei MPG cu formula:
CH
3
-CHOH-CH
2
OH.
H
2
0 ap, n anumite circumstane este
folosit pentru creterea vscozitii i a
proprietiilor reopectice ale fluidului.
n afar de aceste componente principale pot
fi folosii i ali aditivi secundari.
Materialele abrazive utilizate n
eantioanele preliminare ale curgerii
abrazive sunt pentru nceput numai trei:
9 Alumina, oxidul de aluminiu Al
2
O
3
, cu
particulele de 3 - 70m;
9 Carbura de siliciu SiC, cu particulele
de 6 - 63m;
9 Silica, dioxidul de siliciu SiO
2
, cu
particulele de 48m;
Duritatea pulberilor abrazive utilizate este foarte
mare pe scara Mosh: Al
2
O
3
9, SiC 9 si SiO
2
7.
Cea mai mare valoare pe aceast scar este de 10, cea
a diamantului.
n urmtoarele cercetri intenionm s
utilizm i alte materiale abrazive pentru a mbunti
valoarea nanofinisrii.
3. REZULTATE I COMENTARII

3.1 Compoziia eantioanelor curgerii
abrazive
Utiliznd substanele chimice de baz, aditivii
i materialele abrazive prezentate mai sus, am ncercat s
obinem cteva fluide abrazive pentru metoda de
prelucrare prin curgere abraziv.

Tabelul 1 Fluid Abraziv (FA), pe baz de ODT
Componeta/
eantion
ODT
(%)
O
(%)
Abraziv
(%)
H
2
O
(%)
PPG
(%)

i
(poise)
Natura
abrazivului
1a 25 25 10 40 - ~ 16 1:1
SiC / Silice
1a

40 10 10 40 - ~ 25 1:1
SiC / Silice
1b 20 22 8 46 4 ~ 14 1:1
Silice / Al
2
O
3

1b

20 24 8 46 2 ~ 20 1:1
Silice / Al
2
O
3

1c 40 30 10 - 20 ~ 12 Al
2
O
3

1c

40 40 10 - 10 ~ 16 Al
2
O
3


Tabelul 2 - Fluid abraziv (FA), pe baz de O-PPG
Componeta/
eantion
O- PPG
(%)
O
(%)
Abraziv
(%)
H
2
O
(%)
TEA
(%)

i

(poise)
Natura
abrazivului
2a 35 20 10 25 10 ~ 12 1:1
SiC/ Silice
2a

35 30 10 15 10 ~ 20 1:1
SiC/ Silice
2b 30 20 10 30 10 ~ 10
1:1
Silice / Al
2
O
3

2b

40 25 10 10 15 ~ 25 1:1
Silice / Al
2
O
3

2c 25 35 10 20 10 ~ 10 Al
2
O
3

2c

30 35 10 15 10 ~ 15 Al
2
O
3

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

24
Mixtura acestor componente, n raii diferite,
este obinut agitnd bine.
Cel mai important efect este proprietatea de
reopecticitate a fluidului rezultat.
Aceast proprietate este crucial pentru
nanofinisare, pentru c presupune creterea
vscozitii fluidului cnd asupra lui acioneaz fore
mecanice; particulele abrazive acioneaz numai n
stare vscoas, cnd sunt inute rigid i n suspensie.
Vscozitatea fluidului revine la starea
iniial la ieirea din pasajul restrictiv.
Fluidele abrazive obinute, considernd
principiile expuse mai sus, sunt prezentate n
urmtoarele dou tabele.
n tabelul 1 a fost folosit ca principal
componenta carboxyamida OD cu TEA
triethanolamina ODT i n tabelul 2 a fost folosit, ca
principal component, esterul O-PPG.
Urmtoarele eantioane ale fluidelor abrazive
prezint o compoziie diferit pentru c ambele
componente de baz, ODT i O-PPG au fost folosite n
toate eantioanele cu un singur abraziv; alumina
calcinat cu particule fine de 2.9 - 3.1 m.
Aceste eantioane sunt prezentate n tabelul 3.
Trebuie observat c esterul O-MPG (glicol
monopropilen este foarte similar cu O-PPG-ul anterior
(glicolul polipropilena) utilizat n eantioanele din
tabelele 1 si 2 i este mai uor de obinut o structur
chimic reproductibil.




3.2 Caracteristica fluidelor abrazive (FA)
Datorit complexitii eantioanelor de fluid
abraziv, caracterizarea lor este foarte dificil, la fel i
corelarea compoziiei cu eficiena de nanofinisare.
n acest stadiu preliminar, caracteristicile de
baz ale eantioanelor au fost determinate ca fiind:
Stabilitatea i omogenitatea
Stabilitatea este bun n timp, de la cteva
sptmni pn la cteva luni, cnd eantionul nu
prezint separarea fazelor. Dup separare, eantionul
revine la starea iniial. Omogenitatea este bun la
observarea vizual, dar n viitor, o mai bun analiz
microscopic a structurilor va fi corelat cu procesul
de nanofinisare.
Vscozitatea
Vscozitatea este de asemenea un parametru
dificil de determinat pentru c, aa cum a fost
explicat mai nainte, este variabil n timpul
omogenizrii datorit proprietii de reopecticitate.
Valorile date n tabelele 1 - 3 pentru vscozitatea
iniiala sunt aproximative.
Dependena vscozitii de
temperatur
Dependena vscozitii de temperatur este
de asemenea important. Majoritatea eantioanelor
sunt stabile la creterea temperaturii pn la 70
0
C -
cnd acestea devin mai fluide, dar revin la valorile
iniiale odat cu micorarea temperaturii.

Reopecticitatea
Reopecticitatea presupune creterea vscozitii
fluidului la aciunea unor presiuni mecanice i depinde
n principal de parametrii mecanici ai mainii AFM, n
acest fel, putnd fi fcut o evaluare cantitativ a
procesului de nanofinisare.

4. CONCLUZII
n ciuda caracterului preliminar al acestor
rezultate, acestea ofer multe posibiliti de
formulare ale compoziiilor de fluid abraziv.
Aceasta va permite alegerea celui mai potrivit
fluid n funcie de fiecare aplicaie n parte.
Baza pentru dezvoltarea viitoare a metodei
nonconvenionale de nanofinisare este asigurat de
aceste fluide abrazive obinute.

4. BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Cercetare privind realizarea mediilor de lucru la
nanofinisarea prin curgere abraziv cu medii reopectice.
Cap. 5 Contract CEEX -REOFIN 296/2006, ICTCM;
2. Miller et all., Patent USA Nr. 5363603, 15 Nov. 1994;
3. R.E. Smith et all., Patent USA nr. 4952240, 28 Aug. 1990;
4. W.B. Perry et all., Patent USA nr. 6132484, 17 Oct. 2000;
5. L. J. Rhoodes et all., patent USA Nr. 5679058, 2 Oct. 1997;
6. C. Hase et all., Brevet german nr. WO/17774, 30 Apr. 1998

Tabelul 3 - Fluid abraziv (FA), pe baz de ODT i MPG
Componeta/
eantion
ODT
(%)
O
(%)
Alumina
(%)
PPG
(%)
O-MPG
(%)

i

(poise)
F1 30 30 5 10 25 15
F2

25 35 10 5 25 12
F3 25 45 5 - 25 10
F4

25 35 10 - 30 14

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25



ASPECTE SPECIFICE PRIVIND ECHIPAMENTELE
SI PARAMETRII DE PROCES
AI TEHNOLOGIEI DE SUDARE PRIN FRECARE
CU ELEMENT ROTITOR (FSW)


Cristian Mircea Birtu, Valeriu Avramescu , Gheorghe Marin

ICTCM Bucureti,e-mail: vavramescu@ictcm.ro


REZUMAT
Lucrarea prezinta caracteristicile constructive i funcionale specifice echipamentelor
utilizate in cadrul celei mai noi tehnologii de sudare: sudarea prin frecare cu element
activ rotitor FSW (Friction Stir Welding). In prima parte a lucrrii este prezentat
procedeul de sudare prin frecare, parametrii tehnologici specifici acestuia precum i
valori uzuale ale acestora publicate in literatura de specialitate. Sunt detaliate, apoi,
caracteristicile constructive ale echipamentelor specifice tehnologiei FSW, att pentru
producia de serie ct i pentru efectuarea de teste, produse de companii specializate la
nivel mondial. In cea de-a doua parte a lucrrii sunt prezentate rezultatele obinute n
urma execuiei i a testelor funcionale i tehnologice efectuate, att n ceea ce privete
parametrii dinamici ct i cei cinematici ai procesului. In final sunt prezentate
concluziile referitoare la caracteristicile constructive i funcionale ale unui astfel de
echipament ct i asupra procesului de sudare FSW.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents constructive and functional characteristics of specific equipment
used in the newest technology of welding: Friction Welding with active rotating - element
FSW ( "Friction Stir Welding"). In the first part of the paper is submitted the process of
friction welding, the specific technological parameters and their usual values, which are
published in the literature. There are detailed the constructive characteristics of specific
equipments of FSW technology, for the series production and for tests prosecution,
produced by international specialized companies. In the second part of the paper are
presented the results obtained from the implementation and operational and
technological testing, considering the cynematic and dynamic parameters of the process.
The end of the paper presents the conclusions reffering on the construction and on the
equipment working conditions, as well as on the process of welding FSW.

CUVINTE CHEIE: sudare prin frecare cu element activ rotitor, echipament, proces

KEYWORDS: Friction Stir Welding, equipment, process


1. INTRODUCERE.
DESPRE TEHNOLOGIA I
ECHIPAMENTELE SPECIFICE
SUDRII CU ELEMENT ACTIV
ROTITOR (FSW)

1.1. Procedeul de sudare prin frecare
cu element rotitor
Procedeul de sudare prin frecare cu
element rotitor (Friction Stir Welding) a fost pentru
prima dat decoperit i brevetat de Institutul de
cercetare pentru tehnologii de sudare TWI
(The Welding Institute) din Anglia, n anul 1991.
Principiul de lucru este urmtorul (The Welding
Institute TWI, Anglia -v. fig.1): scula de sudare avnd
o form cilimdric cu un umr n partea superioar,
este introdus ntre dou plci de material fixate
mpreun. Datorit friciunii care ia natere n timpul
rotirii i avansului de ptrundere a sculei, apare o
nclzire a materialelor la o temperatur mai mic dect
cea de topire, acestea nmuindu-se i permind
deplasarea ulterioara a sculei. Scula avanseaz
avanseaz apoi, cu o vitez constant, printre cele dou
plci de material, materialul plastificat datorit
nclzirii fiind transferat, de-a lungul liniei de contact,
din faa n spatele sculei, formndu-se n spatele
acesteia o zon de amestec n stare solid, legnd astfel
printr-o sudur la rece cele dou buci de material.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

26


Fig.1. Procedeul FSW principiul de lucru [TWI]

Etapele tehnologice de sudare prin acest
procedeu sunt urmtoarele:
1. Ptrunderea/plonjarea sculei, n micare de
rotaie, n interstiiul dintre cele dou
buci de material pn ce umrul ia
contact cu materialul - amorsarea (se
formeaz aa numita gaur de cheie);
2. Avansul sculei, n micare de rotaie,
printre cele dou buci de material
sudarea propriu-zis;
3. Retragerea sculei rmne n material
gaura de cheie.

1.2. Materiale sudate prin procedeul
FSW [TWI]

Cele mai multe utilizri industriale sunt, n
special, pentru aluminiu i aliajele acestuia.
Grosimea de sudare a acestuia, ntr-o singur trecere,
depinde de puterea utilajului, dar au fost sudate i
grosimi de pn la 50 mm (uzual 1,5 ... 25 mm).
Alte materiale pentru care se aplic procedeul
sunt: cuprul i aliajele acestuia (pn la 50 mm,
uzual 0,8 ... 20 mm), plumb, titaniu i aliajele sale,
magneziu i aliajele acestuia, zinc, materiale
plastice, oel moale, oel inoxidabil (austenitic,
martensitic), aliaje de nichel.

1.3. Parametrii tehnologici specifci
procedeului FSW

Parametrii tehnologici specifci procedeului FSW se
pot clasifica n mrimi cinematice i mrimi dinamice.
n figura 2 sunt prezentai parametrii principali,
studiai n prezenta lucrare.


Forta verticala de
presiune si creare a
temperaturii de
sudare
Umar de frecare pentru
crearea temperaturii si
presiunii de sudare
Directia
avansului /
de sudare
Umar
Pin de frictiune
Scula de
sudare
Umar de
frictiune
Pin
F
v
F
s
M
s
, n
S
S
L

S
V
Scula de sudare
Fig.2. Parametrii tehnologici principali ai procedeului FSW
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

27
Parametrii cinematici sunt urmtorii:
- turaia pinului de sudare: n
s
[rot/min];
- viteza de sudare: s
L
[mm/min];
- viteza de avans vertical: s
v
[mm/min];
- adncimea de ptrundere n material (dependent
de grosimea materialului);
- timpul de oprire a avansului vertical (de nclzire
a materialului);
Parametrii dinamici sunt urmatorii:
- fora vertical (de ptrundere): F
v
[kN];
- fora axial (de avans longitudinal): Fs [ kN];
- momentul de torsiune a pinului la sudarea
longitudinal: Mt [N m].

1.4. Valorile uzuale ale parametrilor
tehnologici

Valorile uzuale ale parametrilor
tehnologici, utilizate n cazul sudrii diferitelor
tipuri de materiale sunt: [TWI]:
- turaia pinului: n
s
= 300 ... 1450 rot/min;
- momentul necesar sudrii: M
t
= 14 ... 16 N m.
- viteza de sudare: s
L
= 60 .... 480 mm/min;
- fora longitudinal de sudare: Fs = 9 ... 12 kN;
- avansul vertical: s
v
= 40 ... 290 mm/min ;
- fora vertical: Fv = 6 ... 200 kN;

1.5. Echipamentele specifice acestei
tehnologii

Echipamentele specifice acestei tehnologii
sunt dezvoltate de firme liceniate de ctre TWI
pentru utilizarea acestei tehnologii.
Dintre cei mai importani productori la
nivel mondial fac parte: ESAB AB Suedia,
CRAWFORD SWIFT Anglia, FRICTION
STIR LINK, GENERAL TOOL CO, MTS
SYSTEMS, CORPORATION, NOVA-TECH
ENGINEERING SUA; HITACHI Japonia;
CRIQ Canada. Gama de puteri instalate este de
3kW-100kW.
Dup domeniul de aplicare, au fost
construite urmtoarele tipuri de echipamente:
echipamente modulate pentru aplicatii
universale (ex. sistemul LEGIO produs de
ESAB);
echipamente dedicate laboratoarelor de
incercare si dezvoltare tehnologica (ex
sistemul SUPER STIR produs de ESAB);
echipamente dedicate unor aplicatii
industriale specifice, cerute de client.
Soluiile constructive utilizate la nivel
mondial au comune urmtoarele caracteristici de
baz (incluse n construcia utilajelor i n funcie
de domeniul de aplicare):
n peste 80% din cazuri este deplasat
unealta de sudare;
atenia deosebit pentru tehnica de
poziionare/fixare a componentelor.
strngerea pieselor n vederea sudrii se
realizeaz mecanic, pneumatic sau hidraulic;
micarea vertical a capului de sudare se
realizeaz n general hidraulic
micrile longitudinal i transversal sunt
realizate cu motoare electrice ce antreneaz o
transmisie pinion-cremalier
ghidajele longitudinale, sunt, de preferin,
de rostogolire, utiliznd ghidaje cu role/bile
conducerea/monitorizarea procesului de
sudare, urmrirea liniei de mbinare se
realizeaz cu CNC, camere video, software
de prelucrare i stocare date;
sistem de rcire cu ap a sculei.

2. ECHIPAMENT DE SUDARE FSW.
CARACTERISTICI, REZULTATE,
TESTE TEHNOLOGICE

2.1. Echipament de sudare prin
frecare FSW-4-10

In cadrul unui program de Cercetare-
Dezvoltare, la solicitarea Institutului de Sudur
ISIM Timioara, a fost proiectat i executat un
echipament de sudare prin frecare destinat testelor
de laborator i microproducie, cu urmtoarele
caracteristici tehnice:
puterea motorului sculei: 4 kW;
forta maxima verticala: 10 kN;
cursa vertical maxim: 190 mm;
cursa longitudinal maxim: 1000 mm;
turatia sculei: 300 ... 1450 rot/min;
viteza de avans longitudinal:
60 ... 500 mm/min;
viteza de avans vertical:
30...190 mm/min;
dimensiunile mesei (LxB):
1000x510 mm.
Caracteristicile functionale ale echipamentului sunt:
turatia sculei reglabila continuu in limitele
domeniului, cu mentinerea constanta a
puterii;
vitezele de avans longitudinal si vertical
reglabile continuu in limitele domeniului, cu
mentinerea constanta a puterii;
avansul vertical continuu si/sau in
impulsuri cu limita de timp;
doua regimuri de comanda: manual (pentru
reglaje) si automat (de lucru) pentru avansul
longitudinal si vertical;
capetele de cursa asigurate cu limitatori de
decuplare a miscarii;
avansul vertical prevazut cu limitare la
pozitie (pentru patrunderea in material).
Echipamentul de sudare prin frecare cu cap
rotitor FSW-4-10, se compune din urmtoarele
subansambluri (figura 3):
1. Capul de sudare prin friciune;
2. Montant;
3. Batiu;
4. Masa longitudinal
5. Instalaia electric de comand.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

28



Fig.3. Echipament de sudare prin frecare cuelement activ rotitor (FSW-4-10)

2.2 Sudarea FSW a aluminiului
i cuprului. Rezultate.

Au fost executate suduri prin procedeul
FSW, utiliznd utilajul mai sus i montajul
prezentat n figura 4. Scula de sudare utilizat
prezint n partea inferioar un schimbtor de
cldur pentru rcire cu aer pentru a proteja axul
principal de cldura degajat n timpul procesului.





Au fost fcute teste pe urmtoarele tipuri
de materiale (sub form de plac):
aluminiu Al 99,9, cu grosimi de 4, 5 i 10 mm;
aliaj de cupru (CuCr1) cu grosimea de 5mm.
Regimurile tehnologice utilizate, precum i
rezultatele obinute din punct de vedere al
stabilitii dinamice a regimului n timpul sudrii
sunt prezentate n tabelul 1.












Fig.4. Montaj pentru sudarea FSW a Al 99,9, # 5mm (1 ax principal, 2-radiator, 3-scul)

1
3
5
2
4
1
2
3
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

29
Tabelul 1 Rezultate obinute la sudarea FSW
Parametri regim tehnologic Nr.
Crt
Material Grosime
Turaie scul Avans
vertical
Viteza sudare
Observaii
asupra regimului
- - [mm] [rot/min] [mm/min] [mm/min] -
1 Al 99, 9 4 1100 19 150 - regim stabil ;
2 Al 99, 9 5 1100 19 150 - regim stabil ;
3 Al 99, 9 5 1100 19 220 - regim stabil ;
4 Al 99, 9 5 1200 19 220 - regim instabil;
5 Al 99, 9 10 1450 19 60 - regim stabil
6 Cu Cr1 5 1000 19 50 - regim stabil

Regimul stabil se manifest printr-un avans fr
vibraii a sculei n timpul sudrii, n timp ce
regimul instabil se manifest prin vibraii cu
amplitudine mare n timpul sudrii.
Din punct de vedere al calitii sudurii
obinute, n funcie de stabilitatea regimului de
sudare, n figurile 5 i 6 se observ diferenele pe
faa pe care scula a intrat n material (aflat n
contact cu gulerul n timpul procesului).


Fig.5. Al 99,9, grosime 5 mm, sudat FSW
n regim stabil



Fig.6. Al 99,9, grosime 5 mm, sudat FSW
n regim instabil

2.3 Parametrii dinamici
ai procedeului de sudare FSW

Parametrii dinamici care au fost msurai (indirect)
n timpul procesului de sudare FSW sunt urmtorii:
puterea consumat la axul sculei n timpul
sudrii (P
s
);
momentul de torsiune la axul sculei n
timpul sudrii (M
t
);
fora longitudinal de sudare (F
s
).
Puterea consumata la axul sculei la sudarea FSW a aluminiului
269,85 269,85
431,77
1241,33
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
4 5 5 10
Grosimea [mm]
P
u
t
e
r
e
a

c
o
n
s
u
m
a
t
a


[
W
]
Regim
instabil
Fig.7.
Puterea
consumat
la axul
sculei la
sudarea
FSW
a Al 99,9

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

30
Mrimile prezentate sunt rezultatul
msurtorilor indirecte, mrimea msurat n timp real
fiind curectul consumat n timpul prelucrrii pentru
motorul de acionare al fiecrei micri (n A).
n diagrama din figura 7 se observ
variaia puterii consummate la sudarea aluminiului
n funcie de grosimea acestuia. Se observ c,
pentru aceeai grosime de material (5 mm), dac
regimul devine instabil puterea consumat crete cu
pn la 60 %.
Se observ, de asemenea, c valoarea puterii
nu difer n cazul mririi grosimii materialului de la 4
mm la 5 mm n cazul regimului stabil.
La grosimi mari de material, puterea
consumat are valori sensibil mai mari.
Aceeai tendin se manifest i n cazul
momentului prezentat n figura 8.


Momentul la axul sculei la sudarea FSW a aluminiului
2,343 2,343
3,436
8,175
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4 5 5 10
Grosimea [mm]
M
o
m
e
n
t
u
l

[
N

m
]

Fig.8. Momentul la axul sculei la sudarea FSW a Al 99,9

Forta de avans la sudarea FSW a aluminiului
40,965
65,544
44,689
55,862
204,826
150 150
220 220
60
0
50
100
150
200
250
4 5 5 5 10
Grosimea [mm]
[
N
]

/

[
m
m
/
m
i
n
]
Forta de avans Viteza de sudare

Fig.9. Fora de avans longitudinal n funcie de grosime i viteza de avans la sudarea FSW a Al 99,9

Regim
instabil
Regim
instabil
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

31
In figura 9 este prezentat variaia forei
msurat la sudarea FSW.
Spre deosebire de momentul la axul sculei,
valoarea forei de avans este mult mai sensibili la
variaia grosimii materialului, dup cum se observ
n figura de mai sus.
Se observ, de asemenea i variaia uzual
a vitezei n funcie de grosimea materialului.
Regimul instabil nu influeneaz semnificativ
valoarea forei de avans.

O alt caracteristic important a
tehnologiei de sudare FSW este faptul c avansul
vertical, de ptrundere a pinului n material, nu
este constant, pn la atingerea adncimii maxime,
ci este variabil.
Variaia acestuia, pentru valoarea medie
utilizat n tabelul 1, este dat n figura 10.
Motivul pentru care acesta are o asemenea
variaie este ca materialul s acumuleze cantitatea
necesar de cldur care s-l nmoaie, permind
astfel amorsarea unei suduri de calitate i continue.


Fig.10. Variaia avansului vertical cu adncimea de ptrundere n material

3. CONCLUZII

Din cele prezentate se pot desprinde
concluzii referitoare la echipamentele i tehnologia
de sudare FSW . Dintre cele mai importante sunt
urmtoarele:
Procedeul de sudare prin frecare FSW
prezint avantaje importante, precum:
eliminarea total a noxelor din zona
de prelucrare, viteze tehnologice mari,
calitate bun a mbinrii;
Procedeul FSW are o aplicabilitate
deosebit, n special pentru aluminiu,
cupru i aliajele acestora;
Echipamentele FSW sunt dotate cu
funcii specializate, care s poat
ndeplini sarcini precum: variaia
continu a parametrilor de lucru,
disiparea cldurii rezultate n timpul
procesului, poziionarea corect a
semifabricatelor, asigurarea unor
strngeri mari ale acestora mpreun etc;






Procesul de sudare FSW are un optim
(regim stabil), pentru care solicitrile
dinamice i calitatea prelucrrii sunt
optime;
Valorile parametrilor dinamici sunt
direct proporionale cu propriectile
fizice ale materialelor (ex. pentru
cupru valorile sunt de 2 ori mai mari
dect n cazul aluminiului)
Avansul vertical, care este o mrime
variabil n timp, n scopul
transferului de cldur la material n
vederea nmuierii acestuia.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

[1]. * * * , Manualul Inginerului. Fundamente, HUTTE, Ed.
Tehnic, Buc.,1995
[2]. * * * , Friction Stir Welding - principle, TWI - The Welding
Institute, UK, 2008









Adancimea de
patrundere [%]
Avans
vertical [%]
100% 95% 85% 80%
100 %
60 %
50 %
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

32
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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

33



TECHNICAL PERFORMANCES
AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MACHINE TOOLS
AND INTEGRATED SYSTEMS


Constantin ISPAS
1
, Ecaterina Camelia POCRIS
2

1
POLITECHNICA University from Bucharest, Bucharest, ROMANIA,
e-mail:ispas@leo_optimum.pub.ro
2
SC ICTCM SA, Bucharest, ROMANIA, cpocris@ictcm.ro


REZUMAT: Articolul prezinta tendintele actuale nationale si internationale n dezvoltarea de maini unelte i
sisteme integrate de prelucrare. Este comun faptul c aspectele ecologice legate de exploatarea de maini
unelte au fost ntotdeauna i vor fi o problem de mare ngrijorare. Atingerea limitelor de vitez mai mare a fost
ntotdeauna, n general deziderat de specialiti care lucreaz n toate domeniile si mai ales in particular in
cazul masinilor unelte si sistemelor integrate.

ABSTRACT: The paper presents current national and international trends in the development of machine tools
and integrated systems of machining. It is a common place that ecological aspects related to machine tools
operation have always been and will be an issue of great concern. Reaching higher speed limits has always
been the general desideratum of specialists working in all industrial domains. The article gives detailed
specifications in this domain, when applied to the particular cases or machine tools and integrated systems.

CUVINTE CHEIE: performante, masini-unelte, viteza, prelucrare, ecologic

KEYWORDS: performances, machine-tools, speed, machining, ecological


1. INTRODUCTION

Machine tools are the most important industrial
production equipment, because they are constantly
used in the manufacturing of TV sets, computers,
cars, planes, etc.
Japanese speak of machine-tools as the mother-
machines that generate other machines and equipment.
Production of machine-tools must be regarded as a
strategic industry, a leader among other industrial
branches.
The machine tools industry, the permanent buyer
of new technologies, plays an important part in the
industrial productivity.
That is why, its continuous development depends
on the variety of tools, machines and manufacturing
technologies. The machine building industry plays a
double part:
1. to develop and improve the latest result of
scientific and technologic research
2. it is the main centre of new performance transfer
from the machine-tools sector to other economic
sectors.
Machine-tools have a special importance in
industrial production; that is why industrial
production development is based on both the
development and up-grading of machine-tools, and
up-grading of production technologies.
At present, the machining sector has at its
disposal: machine-tools, cutting tools and
microelectronics
Computer technologies, microprocessors and
minicomputers have become the first agents of the
spectacular changes in the machine-tools industry.
The main objective of engineers today is
computerised control of machine-tools and
machining. Machine-tools industry combines
mechanical engineering and electronics and therefore
it has been placed with mecatronics lately.
Besides, the impact of new materials will lead to
the replacement of steel in mechanical engineering.
The result will be the emergence of new actors
in industries. From the traditional point of view, the
machine-tools industry was a small-scale industry but
with s long life history.
Producers gained their reputation through a
certain model product and maintained their position
on the market through its continuous improvement.
In the last decade this market segment was
characterised by: the highest rhythm of machine-tools
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

34
production increase registered in Japan;
consolidation of international market positions held
by Western European countries, Germany in
particular (European countries hold the highest
market share of machine-tools); continuous
weakening of American contractors position in this
domain. It has become evident in the last years that
ecological aspects of machine-tools must be also
taken into account .
To render machines and equipment more ecological
means to set up harmless manufacturing methods, dry
cutting (elimination and reduction of lubricants).
Expenses on cooling agents and lubricants used in
cutting are several times higher than those for tools.
Users are facing problems concerning the
requirements of environmental protection legislation
and high expenses for discharge of dry emulsions.
In order to avoid these problems, dry cutting has
been adopted as a solution lately.
This cannot be achieved by simply cutting down
the supply of cooling and greasing agents, even
though a positive effect is obtained in some cases.
Rational and efficient dry machining requires first
an analysis of limit conditions, as well as the
appraisal of complex interdependencies between
process, cutting edge material, part and machine-tool.
Fig. 1 shows the distribution of heat in the part,
chip and tool at steel cutting.




Fig. 1. Distribution of heat in the part, chip and tool
at steel cutting. 1. part; 2. chip; 3. tool.
The primary functions of these agents are
annulled: greasing, cooling and rinsing.
As far as the cutting process is concerned, the
results are: higher friction and adhesion between tool
and material; some of the heat accumulated in the
points of energy conversion and discharge through
chips, tool and part is no longer undertaken by the
greasing and cooling agent.

Fig. 2. Conditions of dry cutting

The social effect of machine -tools changes
resides in lower total manufacturing expenses, more
efficient utilisation of the capital through higher rank
machines used, in order to make the best of the
enterprises and companies capacity.
Beneficent effects are thus brought about by rapid
development of production and high quality of
products. Automation flexibility is now the best rule
that must be applied in industry.
It was marked down that there is not a specific
market of machine-tools, but several sectors
organised according to the following criteria:
- degree of specialisation of the machine (e. g.
a conventional lathe has universal
applications but there are also machines for
one application only)
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

35
- production volume (e. g. a machining centre
is better adapted to the small-series
production of different products; transfer
machines are used for a large volume of
products)
- down market potential.
The table below presents the main competitivity
factors for the principal segments of the machine-
tools industry, as well as the main sales markets.

Table 1. The main sales markets
Conventional
machine-tools
NC machine-
tools,
machining
centres
Specialised
machine-
tools
Main
competitivit
y factor
cost Cost/
technology
Technology
Main
suppliers
Countries in
Eastern Asia
and Eastern
Europe
Japan Germany
% of the
world
market
16% 36% 48%
Growth on
medium
term
Lower Higher Higher

The main deciding factors for the machine user
are the absolute investment costs for the machine and
the costs per manufactured workpiece which can be
achieved.
The purchase price of the machine is of special
importance, because it represents a direct criterion
for the customer to evaluate different offers and
because purchase decision often take place within
narrow budgetary constrains.
The buyer simultaneously assumes high reliability
and process flexibility of the machine.
|On the other hand, the German manufacturer is in
direct world-wide competition with foreign machine
tool manufacturers.
Owing to unfavourable exchange rates, high wage
and wage-related costs and shorter effective working
hours, he suffers local financial disadvantages which
he cannot recoup through high market prices.
It is also impossible to compensate for these local
disadvantages solely by reducing costs in the
production and organisation of the company.
German manufacturer will be able to ensure their
long-term market presence only if they can develop
new, effective machine concepts which also match
the customersprice expectations and are technically
superior to competing machines.
Development potentials for product innovation
are to be found both in the realm of new machine
concepts for conventional machining and in the
application and implementation of innovative
technologies like high-speed and dry cutting or hard
machining. Increasing miniatuzation of components
will also create a significantly increased demand for
microengineering machines.
The most recent developments in the USA also
indicate that altered machine kinematics, based, for
example, on Stewart platforms, make it possible to
realise machine tools without the usual rectangular
configuration on the machine axes.
The yields a number of advantages for machine
design, and solutions of this type should be taken into
consideration in future new developments.

2. INCREASING COST EFFECTIVENESS

The cost pressure on machine tool manufacture
referred to above is compelling machine
manufacturers to reduce the manufacturing costs for
their products.
Apart from cost reductions through optimisation
of company organisation and production and of
design processes, together with reduction of
production depth, substantial cost savings can be
made by redesigning of the products themselves.
Modular construction has already proved its value
as an effective instrument for reducing production
costs. The RatioLine modular lathe concept presented
by the Index Co. is a good example for the
systematic application of a modular philosophy.
The modular machine concept is based on the
machine bed, which is produced in three different
lengths, from 400 mm to 1145 mm, providing a
corresponding number of different machine lengths.
Depending on his requirements, the customer can
equip the machine with a main and counter-spindle or
tailstock, and with up to three turrets.
A milling unit with y-axis and swivel head is also
available. In combination with the NC-controlled B-
axis of the main spindle, this allows complex 5-axis
milling operations, turning the machine into a turning
and milling centre for complete machining processes.
A tool magazine with 6 tool positions for
automatic tool-changing is also available for
complete machining. Finally, it is also possible to use
NC-controlled steadies, to ensure a stable process
with projecting workpieces.
Both the main spindle and the counterspindle are
designed as hollow shaft asynchronous motor
spindles, equally suitable for chucking and bar work.
The spindles are identical and are offered in a
range of diameters and drive powers.
A systematic modular philosophy offers the
customer the advantage of putting together his own
solution from the variants available.
He can adapt a machine for a specific
manufacturing task while retaining the same user
interface, greatly reducing the training effort for
operators and maintenance staff.
The modular principle also has the great
advantage of large batch sizes for production and
assembly of the modules by the machines
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

36
manufacturer, leading to significant reductions in
manufacturing costs.
A further potential for savings exists in
engineering design and outsourced parts.
These advantage also benefit the purchaser, since
the machine manufacturer can market the machine
belonging to this series on most favourable terms,
while the costs for spare part inventories are reduced
when a number of machines are used.
Alongside the market price of a machine, the
manufacturing costs per workpiece are of interest to
the user.
These piece costs are, however, dependent not
only on the depreciation of the machine, which is
determined by its purchase price, but to a great extent
on the productive and non-productive times, set-up
times, availability and operating effort of the
machine.
These cost components can be influenced
significantly by the design and concept of the
machines.

Fig. 3 shows the machine concept for a vertical
lathe with two working spindles.
Due to the vertical configuration of de spindle on
the left, Spindle 1, chips fall directly on to the chip
conveyor by force of gravity and are transported out
of machine immediately.
This reduces negative effects on the machine structure
through heat transferred from the hot chips and
diminishes the risk of machine down times due to chip
jams.
Loading and unloading workpieces for the machine
is an important criterion for series production.
Additional handling units in the form of robots or
gantry loaders are frequently used to transport the
workpiece to or from a work station or between work
stations. These additional handling system greatly
increase the cost of the manufacturing plant.
They also significantly reduce plant availability,
since disturbances frequently occur in the workpiece
handling area [4]. On the machine shown in Fig. 3, part
handling is integrated in the machine concept. The
chuck of the suspended spindle (Spindle 1) grips the
workpiece on a simple, horizontal transfer belt or roller
conveyor, and then traverses to the working position.
Once the front of the workpiece has been
machined, it is transferred from the suspended
spindle to the standing spindle (Spindle 2) and the
rear side is machined.
After this operation has been completed, a simple
part gripper fitted to the tool slide of Turret 2 picks
up the workpiece and again places it on a conveyor
belt or roller. Spindle 1 can be machining the next
workpiece while Spindle 2 is still working or
unloading the previous job.
The advantages of this machine concept will be
apparent. The complete front and rear side machining
of large chucked parts can take place on a single
machine, while the vertical spindle arrangement
ensures optimum chip removal.
Because the working units Spindle 1 and Tool
Slide take on the job of part handling, non-productive
times for part changing are greatly reduced.
Availability of the plant is increased by
elimination of complicated handling devices, and the
risk of collision between handling units and the
machine axes is virtually excluded.
Integrated manufacturing systems for part machining
are frequently used in series production.
Rigid integration in the form of transfer lines
involves a high planning risk for the user due to ever
shorter product life-cycles, but investment and
manufacturing costs for flexibly-integrated machining
centres are higher than those for the transfer line
solution.
This is due to the increased effort for the
integrating systems, longer non-productive times for
part changing and lower plant availability because
integrating systems are susceptible to disturbances.
Especially with synchronous motors, permanent
magnetisation of the secondary element adds to the
difficulties of assembly and chip removal.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

37
These typical properties of direct linear drives
result in a series of requirements for a machine tool
fitted with linear motors (Fig. 4).




Slide weights and other moving masses must be
kept small but stiff, making lightweight construction
advisable.
The resonant mechanical frequencies of the
structure must be above the bandwidth of the drive,
to stop the drive exciting vibrations in the machine
structure. The bandwidth of the drive still amounts to
70% of the desired response.
Because the bandwidth of a linear motor is higher
than that of a conventional electro-mechanical drive,
much tougher demands are imposed on the structural
design. Cooling and insulation, brakes and-for
vertical axes-counterweight have to be provided.
Guides are usually antifriction slideways. A high-
resolution position sensor and digital control system
are necessary to enhance control performance.
Like rotating motors, linear motors can be
constructed as synchronous or asynchronous types. In
asynchronous linear motors, short-circuit bars are
fitted in the secondary winding; in synchronous
types, the secondary is fitted with permanent
magnets.
The forces of magnetic attraction present in
synchronous motors even when the currant is
switched off make assembly and chip removal
difficult. Chips stick to the secondary and penetrate
the air gap between the secondary and the primary.
This is difficult to prevent by using covers.
A knowledge of the polarity of the secondary
element is necessary to control the synchronous
motor. This can be done with a Hall probe or by
using absolute displacement measuring systems.
The main advantages of synchronous as compared
to asynchronous motors are the much higher
sustained feed forces which can be achieved and the
absence of electrical losses in the secondary winding.
Synchronous motors appear more interesting for
use as feed drives in machine-tools (Fig. 5)


Fig. 5. Comparison between synchronous and
asynchronous linear motors
Together with reliable chip protection, effective
cooling is the primary factor for linear motor
application in machine tools. Cooling should firstly
dissipate heat from the motor windings themselves,
permitting higher sustained feed forces.
Fig. 6 shows a FlexiLine flexibly-integrated
multi-machine system (Chiron Co.) used to machine
small parts. The machine system uses a new form of
workpiece fixture and an innovative method of
integrating the individual units. The production
system consists of standard machines in the FZ 12S
series, configured in-line.



Fig. 6. FlexLine flexible interlinked multi-machine
system (Source: Chiron)

The workpieces are clamped on part-specific
carriers. Clamping is carried out on a
loading/unloading station next to the production line.
In this station, the parts are placed on the pallets
manually (by a machine operator) or automatically
(by a loading unit) and then tightened in position by a
pneumatic screwdriver with controlled torque.
The part pallets are picked up by the double
gripper, which resembles a conventional tool-
changer, and either conveyed directly to one of the
work stations or stored in an interim buffer station.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

38
All part pallets have a standardised version B
HSK interface, with which they can be clamped
either in the machining centres or in the loading and
unloading station.
Using the HSK interface to connect the part pallet
to the machine ensures a very rigid part fixture with
the greatest possible accuracy of changing.
The part pallets are changed by a newly-
developed, completely enclosed transport system
placed beneath the machining space.
When the part is changed, a hatch opens in the
machine workspace, allowing the part-changing
gripper to enter, remove the finished part and insert
the new part.

3. CONCLUSIONS

As compared to conventional integrating
equipment, this form of part handling has the
advantage of keeping the affected machine accessible
when there are disturbances in the workspace.
This means that the remaining machines can
continue to process their full work-load while the
necessary repairs are carried out, with no danger to
the maintenance staff.

REFERENCES

[1] (2001) American Machinist, Nr. 1.
[2] Technological Perspectives in the Machine Tool Industry and
their Implication for Developing Countries, UNIDO
[3] Technology, Manufactured Exports and Competitiveness,
UNIDO
[4] (2001) Industrial Ecology Revue Nr. IV, Bucharest.

Quick Info

AVANMAT: Material Technologies on
the Horizon Seminar, 19 November, 2008,
Cambridge, UK.
This one day symposium will look at some of the
current leading-edge research which has transformed
civilisation and both advanced and limited our
technical reach. From transport, defence, security,
information and communications technology, to
advanced manufacturing, this event will look at
materials which are fundamental to a host of cutting-
edge and basic technologies used in our daily lives
now and in the future.

AVANMAT: Report: Nanotechnology in
Europe 2008.
It is a report on whos doing what in nanotechnology
from all EU. Billions of euros are now being invested
across the EU, privately, scores of products,
processes are impacting the market. This 295 page
provides an analysis of companies, researchers,
government bodies, networks, funding initiatives.
Contents Include:
- Funding to 2010 and beyond
- Key technologies and markets
- Market structure and business models
- Main manufacturers and suppliers
- Market size for last 3 years, forecasted to 2013
- Market trends and drivers; National initiatives
- Key research groups and centres
- Nanotechnology SMEs, large companies.

Nanotechnology in Eastern Europe 2007

Nanotechnology in Eastern Europe describes latest
research in activity in Russia, Poland, Czech
Republic, Hungary, Estonia, Romania, Latvia,
LIithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria.

Nanotechnology in Europe 2008

Nanotechnology in Europe 2008 is a new report on
whos doing what in nanotechnology from the
Netherlands to Norway, the United Kingdom to the
Ukraine. Billions of euros are euros are now being
invested across the continent, publicly and privately,
and scores of products and processes are impacting
the market. This 295 page provides an in-depth
analysis of companies, researchers, government
bodies, networks and funding initiatives.

Contents Include:

- Funding to 2010 and beyond
- Key technologies and markets
- Market structure and business models
- Main manufacturers and suppliers
- Market size for last 3 years and forecasted to 2013
- Market trends and drivers
- National initiatives
- Key research groups and centres
- Nanotechnology SMEs and large companies with
nano activities.

(http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?
report_id=662369)
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

39



ECHIPAMENT DE FRAGMENTARE-MRUNIRE
MATERIAL LEMNOS N SCOPUL OBINERII
COMPOSTULUI ECOLOGIC VEGETAL


Leonard Mihescu
1
, Octavian Gabriel Grigore
2
, Corneliu Cristescu
3

1
S.C. ICTCM-SA, Bucureti, ROMNIA, mihaescu@ictcm.ro
2
S.C. ICTCM-SA, Bucureti, ROMNIA, cth@ictcm.ro
3
INCD-INOE 2000-IHP, Bucureti, ROMNIA, corneliu_cristescu@yahoo.com


REZUMAT: Lucrarea prezint activitile de cercetare-dezvoltare care se
desfoar pentru realizarea unui echipament mobil de fragmentare-mrunire care
s proceseze mecanizat deeurile vegetale, lemnoase, rezultate n urma activitilor
de toaletare/tundere a arborilor i arbutilor din arealele agricole, pomicole i
silvice, n scopul obinerii compostului ecologic vegetal, utilizat pentru dezvoltarea
unei agriculturi ecologice, cu efecte favorabile asupra mediului, dar i pentru
realizarea biomasei, necesare pentru producerea de combustibil regenerabil, ca
surs neconvenional de energie. Echipamentul mobil realizat este de tipul bio-
shredder utiliznd pentru fragmentarea i mrunirea deurilor vegetale/lemnoase
un buncar de alimentare, o moar cu ciocane i grtar precum i un mecanism de
evacuare cu ventilator centrifugal. Acest echipament constituie noutate pentru
Romnia i rspunde cerinelor UE privind protecia mediului.

ABSTRACT: The paper presents the research-development activities in order to
realize an equipment for breaking-up and crumbling which processes mechanized
the wood scraps, resulted of the cleaning/cutting of trees and bushes from the forest
areal and parks, in order to obtain the vegetal compost used to develop an
ecological agriculture with good (positive) effects on environment, but also used to
obtain biomass, which is necessary to produce regenerable fuel, as an
unconventional energy resource. This equipment is a bio-shredder used in
shredding organic and vegetable waste, with a single feed opening and a single
chipping system with grid refining and centrifugal blower for evacuation the
products. The fineness of the ground material can be adjusted through a riddle by
request. This equipment is an absolute novelty for Romania and it responds to EU
requirements concerning the environment protection.

CUVINTE CHEIE: echipament mecanizat, fragmentare/mrunire, deeu lemnos,
compost ecologic

KEY WORDS: mechanized equipment, breaking-up and crumbling, wood scraps,
ecological compost


1. INTRODUCERE

n ultimii ani, s-a dezvoltat o agricultur ecologic
prin eliminarea utilizrii, pe ct posibil, a
ngrmintelor chimice, sintetice. n scopul
creterii fertilitii solului, se utilizeaz, din ce n ce
mai mult, ngrminte naturale, biodegradabile.
Utilizarea unui compost obinut din deeuri
provenite din arealele agricole, silvice i din
industria de prelucrare a lemnului conduce la
fertilizarea solului, conservarea, protecia i
ameliorarea acestuia. Utilizarea unui compost pe
baz de material lemnos, are rolul de a asigura
protecia i reabilitarea terenurilor degradate, n
concordan cu principiile dezvoltrii unei
agriculturi durabile. Numai n acest fel, producerea
de bunuri alimentare se va realiza conform
cerinelor stipulate n standardele romne CEE nr.
2092/91, aliniate deja la cerinele Uniunii
Europene.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

40
Pentru atingerea acestui obiectiv complex
colectivul elaborator i-a propus proiectarea i
realizarea unui echipament de fragmentare i
mrunire a deeurilor de material lemnos, rezultate
la toaletarea/tunderea arborilor din parcuri, alei i
areale silvice. Acest echipament reprezint o
necesitate pentru economia romneasc, care va
trebui, n timp scurt, s se alinieze la cerinele
europene n materie i s produc ntreaga sistem
de maini necesar pentru utilizarea tehnologiilor
de mediu moderne.


2. DESCRIEREA MODELULUI
FUNCIONAL DE ECHIPAMENT
DE FRAGMENTARE-MRUNIRE

Pe baza unei documentri ample asupra realizrilor
din domeniu, partenerii din consoriu au analizat
diferite soluii de realizare a unor echipamente de
fragmentare i mrunire a deeurilor de material
lemnos, prezentate n literatura de specialitate.
Ca urmare a analizei efectuate, partenerii din
consoriu au proiectat un model funcional de
echipament de fragmentare/mrunire material
lemnos, soluia constructiv adoptat avnd n
vedere un echipament tractat, montat pe asiul unei
remorci cu o singur punte; puterea instalat a
echipamentului este de circa 20 kW i utilizeaz ca
surs de energie mecanic un motor termic propriu
tip Diesel Euro 4, care ofer, n principiu,
posibilitatea unei autonomii de utilizare, indiferent
de existena sau nu a unui tractor pentru tractarea
echipamentului.
Echipamentul (a se vedea schema cinematic din
figura 1) se compune dintr-un asiu/platform
amplasat pe o punte cu dou roi, prevzut cu un
proap pentru tractarea de ctre un tractor. De
asemenea, pe asiu este amplasat batiul n care sunt
montate mecanismele de lucru ale echipamentului:
mecanismul de avans al materialului
lemnos;
mecanismul de fragmentare-mrunire
a materialului lemnos;
mecanismul de evacuare n exterior a
produsului mrunit.
Mecanismele de mrunire i de evacuare sunt
acionate direct de la motorul termic propriu prin
intermediul unei transmisii comune cu curele
trapezoidale, cu rapoarte de transmitere subunitare
care permit scderea uoar a turaiei i o cretere
corespunztoare de moment.


Fig. 1. Schema cinematic a echipamentului de
fragmentare-mrunire

BATIUL este un subansamblu complex n
construcie sudat alctuit din table de oel i care
permite montarea celorlalte subansamble ale
echipamentului de fragmentare-mrunire material
lemnos. n principal el este alctuit din doi perei
laterali sudai pe o placa de baz i nchis la partea
superioar cu mai multe panouri i placa de
suinere a motorului termic de acionare a
mecanismelor de fragmentare-mrunire i de
evacuare a materialului lemnos fragmentat. De
asemenea, batiul susine buncrul de alimentare cu
materialul lemnos supus fragmentrii, hornul de
evacuare a materialului fragmentat, mecanismul
inversor precum i instalaia hidraulic de acionare
a mecanismului de avans.
Pereii laterali ai batiului sunt prevzui cu guri de
trecere n care sunt sudate corpuri de lagr pentru
suinerea arborilor mecanismelor de lucru ai
echipamentului. n figurile 2 ... 4 sunt prezentate
aspecte din diferite stadii de prelucrare ale
subansamblului batiu.


Fig. 2 . Subansamblu batiu sudat pe placa de baz
(vedere frontal)
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

41

Fig. 3 . Subansamblu batiu sudat pe placa de baz
(vedere lateral)



Fig. 4. Subansamblu batiu (sudat plci superioare
+ plac susinere motor termic)

MECANISMUL DE AVANS (figura 5) este de
tipul cilindru, care antreneaz materialul lemnos
prin intermediul unor platbande dinate sudate pe
mantaua cilindrului. Mecanismul este acionat
hidrostatic de la un motor hidraulic de turaie
redus tip MHD 160 (3050 rot/min) i moment
mare, energia hidraulic fiind furnizat de o pomp
montat direct pe motorul termic.
Mecanismul realizeaz funciunea de avans a
materialului lemnos ctre mecanismul de
fragmentare-mrunire, cu posibilitatea de variaie
a vitezei de avans i de schimbare a sensului de
rotaie, pentru evitarea blocrii cu material lemnos
a mecanismului de mrunire.
Cilindrul este lgruit pe rulmeni radiali cu bile,
cele dou lagre fiind montate n doua prghii
articulate pe o tij fixat axial i lagruit pe dou
lagre de alunecare tip buc, fixate de batiu.
Funcie de grosimea materialului lemnos supus
mrunirii prghiile de sprijin ale cilindrului pot
efectua o micare de rotaie oscilant (circa 60
0
)
controlat prin intermediul unui arc elicoidal fixat
de prghie respectiv de batiu.
Motorul hidraulic de acionare este fixat pe una din
prghii, micarea de rotaie fiind transmis de la
arborele motorului la arborele condus prin
intermediul unui cuplaj manon.


Fig. 5. Mecanism de avans
(vedere dinspre gura de alimentare)



Fig. 6. Acionarea cu motor hidraulic a
mecanismului de avans i amenajarea tensometric
pentru msurarea turaiei i momentului

MECANISMUL DE MRUNIRE (figura 7)
este de tipul moar cu ciocane fiind acionat de la
motorul termic propriu prin intermediul unei
transmisii cu curele trapezoidale nguste, la turaia
de20002500 rot/min.
Mecanismul realizeaz funcia de fragmentare/
mrunire a materialului lemnos, cu posibilitatea
variaiei turaiei de lucru, dar i cu posibilitatea
meninerii constant a acesteia.
Mecanismul este alctuit dintr-un arbore lgruit pe
doi rulmeni radiali cu bile amplasai n casete
sudate fiecare pe cte un capac. Fiecare capac este
de tip flan cu umr de centrare i se fixez de
batiu prin uruburi. Pe arborele morii sunt sudate 4
discuri de rigidizare care susin 4 tije pe care sunt
montate ciocanele (constituite din eclise de lan)
decalate, prin intermediul unor inele distaniere,
astfel nct arborele morii s fie echilibrat static.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

42
Tijele sunt fixate axial la ambele capete cu piulie
crenelate joase asigurate cu plinturi.



Fig. 7. Subansamblu mecanism de mrunire

MECANISMUL DE EVACUARE este de tipul
ventilator centrifugal cu palete dispuse tangenial
pe un arbore tubular antrenat direct de la motorul
termic propriu, prin intermediu unei transmisii cu
curele trapezoidale, la turaia de 2000 3000
rot/min . Sub aciunea forei centrifuge materialul
mrunit este antrenat n micare iar prin
intermediul unui burlan cu cap orientabil, este
aruncat direct n remorca de recoltare.
Subansamblul rotor este constituit dintr-un arbore
tubular pe care sunt sudate tangenial patru palete,
rotorul fiind rigidizat la capete prin intermediul a
doi perei membran sudai, de asemenea pe
arborele tubular. Prin interiorul arborelui tubular
trece arborele de antrenare de tip arbore lis, lagruit
pe doi rulmeni radiali cu bile montai n casete
sudate pe cei doi perei laterali ai batiului.
Momentul de torsiune este transmis prin dou pene
paralele care asigur legtura ntre arborele lis i
arborele tubular prin intermediul unor buce sudate
pe acesta.



Fig. 8 Echipamentul de
fragmentare/mrunire n timpul experimentrilor
de laborator

PARAMETRI TEHNICO-FUNCIONALI
PRINCIPALI

Pe baza datelor i rezultatelor obinute n etapele de
experimentri partenerii implicai n realizarea
proiectului au stabilit valorile principalilor
parametri tehnicofuncionali ai echipamentului de
fragmentare-mrunire, prezentate n tabelul 1:

Tabelul 1
- Puterea instalat a
echipamentului:
cca. 20 kW
- Productivitate, exprimat n
cantitate de materie
prelucrat pe kWh:
50 60
kg / kWh;
- Cantitatea de materie
prelucrat/or:
1100 - 1300
kg/h;
- Greutatea specific a
utilajului:
cca. 30 - 35
kg/kw;
- Dimensiuni de gabarit,
inclusiv remorca (L x l x h):
cca. 2500 x
1400 x 1800
mm
- Seciunea de lucru a
camerei de tiere:
cca. 250 x400
mm
- Diametrul de tiere material
lemnos:
max. 60 mm


4...10 mm
- Gradul de mrunire al
materialului:
- pentru material uscat:
- pentru material verde: 8...16 mm
Mecanismul de avans:
- Turaia de acionare: 30 50 rot/min;
- Momentul de acionare: 5,6 9,5 daNm;
- Presiunea maxim: 100 bar;
- Debitul maxim de
alimentare:
60 l/min;
Mecanismul de mrunire:
- Turaia de acionare: 2000 2500
rot/min;
- Moment de acionare: 5,6 8,5 daNm;
- Dimensiuni de gabarit: 350 x 490 mm;
Mecanismul de evacuare:
- Turaia de acionare: 2000 3000
rot/min;
- Moment de actionare: 5,6 9,5 daNm;
- Dimensiuni de gabarit: 490 x 250 mm;
- Disponibilitatea zilnic
a utilajului:
10...16 ore






TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

43
3. CONCLUZII

3.1. Respectarea normelor ecologice i de
procesare a deeurilor (Directiva european
nr.2001-95 CE), realizarea de produse ecologice
pentru o alimentaie sntoas a populaiei, n
conformitate cu cerinele stipulate n standardele
romne CEE nr. 2092/91, aliniate deja la cerinele
Uniunii Europene, devin deziderate deosebit de
stringente i pentru ara noastr i, deci, se
ntrevede o dezvoltare vertiginoas a produciei de
compost, pentru care, la noi n ar, utilajele
necesare lipsesc.
3.2. Realizarea unor asemenea echipamente pentru
procesarea composturilor ecologice rezolv o
problem cheie, de mare complexitate, n aria
tematic 2 - Alimentaie, Agricultur,
Biotehnologii, n mod deosebit producia i
managementul durabil al resurselor biologice ale
solului i pdurilor (2.1), aria tematic 6- Mediul
ambiant, managementul durabil al resurselor (6.2)
i tehnologii de mediu (6.3). Proiectul se aliniaz la
Platforma tehnologic european PT 13 -
MANUFUTURE, platform deja lansat i n
Romnia.
3.3. Echipamentul specializat pentru fragmentarea-
mrunirea materialului lemnos, n scopul obinerii
compostului ecologic vegetal, care face obiectul
proiectului, este o noutate absolut pentru
ROMNIA i rspunde orientrilor din Uniunea
European privind protecia mediului.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

[1]. Manoliu, M., .a. Dezvoltarea durabil i protecia
mediului, Ed. Universul, Bucureti, 1998;
[2]. Radu, A., Rdulescu. V. Maini unelte pentru industria
lemnului, vol. I, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1970;
[3]. Rusu, T., Bejan, M. Deeul. Surs de venit, editura
MEDIAMIRA, Cluj-Napoca, 2006;
[4]. Rusu, T., Dolha, C. Tehnologii nepoluante i
gospodrirea deeurilor, Ed. UTPRES, Cluj-Napoca, 1998;
[5]. xxx Cod de bune practici agricole, vol. I, Minsterul
Apelor i Proteciei mediului, Bucureti, 2002.

Quick Info

ICT Call 4 now open, Deadline:
1 April 2009

The ICT theme was launched focusing on seven
strategic Challenges for the seven years of this FP7.
This Fourth call seeks proposals in nineteen areas
that are part of the following challenges :

Challenge 1 : Pervasive and trustworthy network
and service infrastructures

Challenge 2 : Cognitive systems, interaction,
robotics

Challenge 3 : Components, systems, engineering

Challenge 5 : Towards sustainable and
personalised healthcare

Challenge 6 : ICT for mobility, environmental
stability and energy efficiency

Challenge 7 : ICT for independent living ,
inclusion and governance

The call promotes research in 3 areas of Future &
Emerging Technologies:
1.Concurrent tera-device computing;
2.Quantum information foundations&technologies;
3.Biochemistry-based information technology.

The call also includes a number of Coordination &
Support actions, with emphasis on international
cooperation in ICT with partner countries overseas.
The ICT theme has committed a budget of 801m
for this call. It is expected that the first projects
funded from this action will be launched in autumn
2009. The ICT theme has also on 19th November
launched a call jointly with the ENERGY theme,
covering Novel ICT solutions for smart electricity
distribution networks. This call, budgeted with
10m from ICT and 10m from ENERGY, will
close on 31st March 2009 with project launches
also in the late autumn of 2009.
Both of these calls will be featured strongly at the
ICT 2008 Event, Lyon, 25-27 November.

ICT 2008: EUROPE'S BIGGEST
RESEARCH EVENT FOR
INFORMATION AND
COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGIES
Health-e-Child wins best exhibit at ICT 2008

Health-e-Child has won the ICT 2008 Exhibit
Grand Prize worth 10,000. This project uses grid
supercomputing technology to connect and
inform paediatrics healthcare professionals. The
HoloVizio exhibit was the runner-up and u-2010
came in third place. Congratulations to all the
winners!
FIRST PRIZE:
Health-e-Child won the ICT 2008 Exhibit Grand
Prize worth 10,000, donated by sponsors HP. This
project uses grid supercomputing technology to
connect and inform paediatrics healthcare
professionals.
SECOND PRIZE: HoloVizio, by Holografika,
won 3,000, donated by sponsors Nokia for their
pioneering 3-D display system.
THIRD PRIZE: u-2010, a system for
providingcrucial data to emergency services at
disaster sites.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

44
COMPETITION RESULTS: TOP 10
PROJECTS (in no ranking order)
C.03 Holograpfika HoloVizio - the next
generation in 3D
display (2
nd
Prize)
F 19 APOSDLE Advanced Process-
Oriented Self-Directed
Learning Environment
(one of top 10
projects)
G.03 RobotCub A child-like
Humanoid Robot
equipped with Vision,
Hearing and Touch
(one of "Top 10
projects")
H.02 wearIT@work Empowering the
Mobile Worker by
Wearable Computer
(one of "Top 10
projects")
H.06 HYDRA Hydra Middleware for
embedded Systems
(one of top 10
projects)
H.20 IPHOBAC Photonic Technologies
for Broadband
Wireless (one of top
10 projects)
I.05 CHORIST Integrating
communications for
enhanced
environmental risk
management and
citizens safety(one of
top 10 projects)
J.04 u-2010 ECD u-2010 Emergency
Communication
Demonstration (3
rd

Prize)
J21 DORII Deployment of
Remote
Instrumentation
Infrastructure (one of
top 10 projects)
L.11 Health-e-
Child
Connecting and
informing paediatrics
professionals with grid
technology (First
Prize)





CONFERENCE THEMES:
Inventing the Future: ICT technologies for the
future, featuring:
Major current research trends in information and
communication technologies (ICT) such as ICT-bio
and nano, photonics, cognition robotics and ICTs
for general science.

The 2009-2010 Work Programme for ICT
research in the EU's Seventh Framework
Programme (FP7) will be presented in detail. Other
sources of EU research funding for ICT will also be
examined, including the new Joint Technology
Initiatives (JTIs) and the Competitiveness and
Innovation Programme (CIP). These initiatives
together represent more than 2 billion in EU
support for ICT research over the next two years.

Innovative Europe: new markets, new sectors,
new players
The Conference will seek to involve new actors in
the development of next generation ICT and to
ensure the expansion of existing businesses. In the
spotlight: SMEs, new business sectors and creative
industries. The relationship between research and
successful innovation will be critically examined.
Mobilising and inspiring today's young people as
potential researchers and innovators of the future
will also receive special attention.

Impact through Policy:
Focus on effective public policies to stimulate ICT
research and innovation for growth and sustainable
development. This will include issues such as
Community and public research spending, the
creation of conditions favourable to innovation and
better coordination of the European research effort
in ICT.

(http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/events/ict/
2008/conference/index_en.htm)
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

45



TESTAREA ECHIPAMENTULUI DE
FRAGMENTARE-MRUNIRE MATERIAL
LEMNOS

Corneliu Cristescu
1
, Leonard Mihescu
2
, Aurel Zapciu
3
,
Constantin Clinoiu
4
, Adrian Mirea
5
, Petric Krevey
6
,
Bogdan Lupu
6
, Alexandra Vian
6
,
1
INOE 2000-IHP Bucureti, ROMNIA, cristescu.ihp@fluidas.ro,
2
S.C. ICTCM-SA Bucureti, ROMNIA, mihaescu@ictcm.ro,
3
INCDMF Bucureti, ROMNIA, zapciua@yahoo.com,
4
S UPB-CCEPM Bucureti, ROMNIA, calinoiu@fluid.fluid-power.pub.ro,
5
S.C. ROMFLUID SA, Bucureti, ROMNIA, adrian.mirea@generalfluid.ro
6
INOE 2000-IHP Bucureti, ROMNIA, krevey_petrica@yahoo.com


REZUMAT: n articol se prezint cercetarea experimental desfurat dup
realizarea fizic a echipamentului de fragmentare-mrunire material lemnos, n scopul
verificrii performanelor tehnice i tehnologice ale acestuia. Testarea echipamentului s-
a fcut prin utilizarea unei instrumentaii moderne, cu monitorizarea i achiziia
evoluiilor parametrilor funcionali principali. Se prezint soluiile tehnice de
implementare a traductoarelor pe echipament, pentru preluarea mrimilor mecanice i
hidraulice i se prezint un sistem de msurare i nregistrare a evoluiilor, n timp, a
parametrilor funcionali principali ai echipamentului. n final, de prezint unele
nregistrri grafice ale variaiei parametrilor funcionali ai echipamentului, obinute n
faza de experimentare n condiii de exploatare a echipamentului.

ABSTRACT: The article presents the experimental research developed after the
physical realization of the equipment for breaking-up and crumbling which processes
mechanized the wood scraps, in order to check the technical and technological
performance to it. Testing equipment was made by using a modern instrumentation, with
monitoring and the acquisition of main functional parameters. It shows the technical
solutions for the implementation of sensors and transducers on equipment for taking the
evolution of the mechanical and hydraulic parameters. It is presented a system for
measuring and recording the main functional parameters of the equipment. Finally, it is
showed some variation of graphics functional parameters of the equipment, produced in
the testing phase of the equipment in the operation conditions.

CUVINTE CHEIE: echipament mecanizat, fragmentare/mrunire, deeu lemnos,
compost ecologic

KEY WORDS: mechanized equipment, breaking-up and crumbling, wood scraps,
ecological compost.


1. INTRODUCERE

Tendina general actual este de eliminarea
total a folosirii fertilizanilor chimici, a erbicidelor
i a pesticidelor i nlocuirea acestora cu
ngrminte naturale, biodegradabile, inclusiv
utilizarea composturilor ecologice vegetale.
Pentru aceasta, este necesar s fie dezvoltat o
nou gam echipamente care s permit realizarea
noilor tehnologii de obinere a composturilor
ecologice vegetale din deeuri vegetale/lemnoase,
impuse de agricultura ecologic.
Orientarea spre prelucrarea i reciclarea
deeurilor silvice, lemnoase n general, rezultate la
toaletarea aleilor, parcurilor i arealelor silvice,
compuse din crengi, ramuri i tulpini, fr
valoare forestier, presupune fragmentarea i
mrunirea acestora n utilaje specifice bazate pe
mori de tocat deeuri din lemn, cu puteri mijlocii i
mari, n funcie de mrimea crengilor rezultate.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

46
n aceast tendin se nscrie proiectul de
cercetare-dezvoltare ECHIFRAG, realizat de un
consoriu format din INOE 2000-IHP, SC ICTCM
Bucureti, INCDMF Bucureti, Univ.
POLITEHNICA Bucureti- CCEPM i SC
ROMFLUID Bucureti, n cadrul Programului
AGRAL-CEEX-2006, i finanat de AGENIA
NAIONAL DE CERCETARE TIINIFIC
din ROMANIA
Obiectivul specific al proiectului a fost
realizarea i testarea unui echipament de
fragmentare -mrunire material lemons, rezultat n
urma toaletrii arborilor din parcuri i din alei, n
scopul valorificrii deeurilor lemnoase i utilizarea
acestora pentru realizarea unui compost natural,
utilizabil n agricultura ecologic, pentru obinerea
unor alimente sntoase.
Modelul funcional de echipamentul realizat,
figura 1, materializeaz o tehnologie de mrunire a
materialului lemnos bazat pa mecanism de mrunire
de tip moar cu ciocnele, caracterizat de turaii mari
i cupluri mici, la care mrunirea se realizeaz prin
lovire i tocare, datorit energia cinetic a
ciocnelelor, imprimat de turaiile mari folosite,
generate de motorul termic de acionare al
echipamentului. Avansarea materialului este realizat
de mecanismul de avans acionat hidraulic, iar
evacuarea este fcut de un mecanism tip ventilator.


Fig. 1. Echipamentul de fragmentare-mrunire

Caracteristicille tehnologice ale echipamentului:
Echipamentul proceseaz urmtoarelor grosimi
maxim de material lemnos:
- lemn de esen moale (salcie, plop, tei)..560 mm;
-lemn de esen tare (fag, salcm, frasin).540 mm:

Caracteristicile tehnice principale
- puterea maxim instalat 18 kW;
- turaia maxim la axul motorului 3000 rot /min;
- presiunea maxim de lucru 100 bar;
- debit de ulei hidraulic 6 l /min;
- turaia maxim de avans 40 rot/min;
- turaia maxim de mrunire 20002500 rot/min
- turaia de evacuare 20002900 rot /min
- tensiunea de alimentare 12 Vcc.
Pentru a realiza funciile menionate, cele trei
mecanisme de lucru trebuie s asigure anumite
valori pentru momente i turaii, valori care trebuie
determinate prin msurtori experimentale.
Echipamentul a fost realizat i testat pentru
verificarea performanelor tehnice i tehnologice.
Pentru testarea echipamentului de fragmentare-
mrunire s-a utilizat o instrumentaie modern, care a
permis monitorizarea, stocarea i prezentarea grafic a
evoluiilor parametrilor de interes.

2. INSTRUMENTAIA UTILIZAT

Pentru realizarea cercetrilor experimentale,
s-a proiecta i s-a realizat fizic un sistem de
msurare a parametrilor funcionali principali ai
echipamentului care, n esen, este un echipament
de achiziie a datelor, cu un soft special de
prelucrare a acestora, n scopul evidenierii, pe cale
grafic, a evoluiei acestor parametri, figura 2.

PANEL ACHI ZI TI EDATE - PAD
GRAFI CE
TABELE
MEDI I DE
STOCARE
DATE
PC
SOFTWAR
EDE
ACHI ZI TI E
SI
PRELUCR
AREDATE
DAQ
PLACA
DE
ACHI ZI TI E
CONVERTOR
ANALOG TTL
CONVERTOR
ANALOG TTL
CONVERTOR
ANALOG TTL
TD
T
M
T
ANALOGM
TTL T
T
M
T ANALOGM
TTLT
T
M
T TTL T
ANALOG M
TP
C
C
C
ANSAMBLU
TRADUCTOARE -AT
SI STEM DECALCUL - SC


Fig.2. Sistemul de msurare a parametrilor

Sistemul de msurare parametri
funcionali ai echipamentului de fragmentare-
mrunire se compune din urmtoarele pri
principale:
1. panelul de achiziie date (PAD), care conine:
placa de achiziie (DAQ) cu intrri analogice,
convertoarele TTL-ANALOG pentru convertirea
semnalului TTL de la cele 3 traductoare de moment
i turaie, corespunztoare celor 3 mecanisme de
lucru., precum i consolele locale de afiare a
turaiei pe capacul panelului; figura 3.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

47


Fig. 3. Panelul de schiziie date

2. sistemul de calcul (SC), de tip PC sau LAP
TOP, la care se cupleaz panelul de achiziie, care
stocheaz fiierele cu datele achiziionate pentru
fiecare msurtoare efectuat, iar pe baza unui soft
dedicae aplicaiei, furnizeaz datele prelucrate sub
form de tabele sau de grafice de evoluie a
mrimilor de interes



Fig. 4. Sistemul de calcul

3. ansamblul traductoare (AT), compus din cele
trei traductoare de moment i turaie (TMT) , de
tip LORENZ, livrat de SYSCOM 18, figurra 5
pentru mecanismul de mrunire, figura 6 pentru
mecanismul de evacuare i figura 7 pentru
mecanismul de avans, precum i traductorul de
presiune (TP), figura 8 i 1 traductorul de debit
(TD) din figura 9., cu afiare local, tip
HONSBERG , livrat de ROM DEVICES.
4. ansamblul cablurilor de legtur (ACL),
compus din cablurile specifice fiecrui tip de
traductor i cablul de legtur dintre panelul de
achiziie i sistemul de calcul.
Pentru racordarea mecanic i hidraulic a
traductoarele, au fost identificate soluii
constructive speciale, care se implemenbteaz pe
echipament numai n timpul msurri
experimentale, n mod normal acesta lucreaz fr
traductoare montate.



Fig. 5. Traductor de moment i turaie moar



Fig. 6. Traductor de moment i turaie ventilator



Fig. 7. Traductor de moment i turaie avans

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

48


Fig. 8. Traductor de presiune



Fig. 9. Traductorul de debit


3. REZULTATE EXPERIMENTALE

Pentru realizarea cercetrii experimentale n
condiii de exploatare, s-a amenajat un complex de
demonstrare format din modelul funcional de
echipament de fregmentare-mrunire i sistemul
de msurare a parametrilor, prezentate mai sus.
S-au utilizat 7 categorii de materiale lemnoase,
de dimensiuni i esene diferite, pentru 3 turaii
diferite ale motorului termic i s-au realizat, n
total 16 fiiere de msurtori i nregistrri.
Msurtorile experimentale realizate cu
sistemul realizat, au evideniat valori normale
pentru parametri de interes i au atestat o
comportare experimental bun a echipamentului,
n concordan cu documentaia de realizare i cu
datele cunoscute pe plan mondial, sistemul de
msurare dovedindu-se util i necesar pentru
asemenea cercetri experimentale.
Pentru exemplificare, se prezint, n cele ce
urmeaz, dou grafice, figura 10 i 11, rezultate n
urma achiziiei de date i prelucrarea pe calculator.

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0
.
0
1
0
.
4
1
0
.
8
1
1
.
2
1
1
.
6
1
2
.
0
1
2
.
4
1
2
.
8
1
3
.
2
1
3
.
6
1
4
.
0
1
4
.
4
1
4
.
8
1
5
.
2
1
5
.
6
1
6
.
0
1
6
.
4
1
6
.
8
1
7
.
2
1
7
.
6
1
8
.
0
1
8
.
4
1
8
.
8
1
9
.
2
1
9
.
6
1
1
0
1
0
.
4
1
0
.
8
1
1
.
2
1
1
.
6
1
2
1
2
.
4
1
2
.
8
1
3
.
2
1
3
.
6
1
4
1
4
.
4
1
4
.
8
1
5
.
2
1
5
.
6
1
6
1
6
.
4
Timp [s]
P
r
e
s
i
u
n
e

[
b
a
r
]

Fig. 10. Diagrama de variaie a presiunii la mecanismul de avans

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
0
.
0
1
0
.
4
2
0
.
8
3
1
.
2
4
1
.
6
5
2
.
0
6
2
.
4
7
2
.
8
8
3
.
2
9
3
.
7
4
.
1
1
4
.
5
2
4
.
9
3
5
.
3
4
5
.
7
5
6
.
1
6
6
.
5
7
6
.
9
8
7
.
3
9
7
.
8
8
.
2
1
8
.
6
2
9
.
0
3
9
.
4
4
9
.
8
5
1
0
.
3
1
0
.
7
1
1
.
1
1
1
.
5
1
1
.
9
1
2
.
3
1
2
.
7
1
3
.
1
1
3
.
5
1
4
1
4
.
4
1
4
.
8
1
5
.
2
1
5
.
6
1
6
1
6
.
4
Timp [s]
C
u
p
l
u

[
N
m
]

Fig. 11. Diagrama de variaie a momentului la mecanismul de avans
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

49

4. CONCLUZII

Funcionarea echipamentului este n
concordan cu schema de funcionare i cu
necesitile tehnologice, lucru confirmat prin
msurtorile efectuate n condiii reale.
Valorile parametrilor msurai i nregistrai
s-au incadrat in limite normale prevazute de
documentatia de baza si literatura de specialitate.
Finalizarea n bune condiii a proiectului va
da posibilitatea prelurii rezultatelor de ctre
beneficiari poteniali i se creaz posibilitatea
obinerii unei noi game de echipamente necesare
economiei naionale.
Echipamentul a fost prezentat la SALONUL
CERCETRII I INVENTICII de la TIB-2008,
unde a obinut PREMIUL II la domeniul prioritae
Agricultur, Siguran i Securitate Alimentar

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Manoliu, M., .a Dezvoltarea durabil i protecia
mediului, Ed. Universul, Bucureti, 1998;
2. Radu, A., Rdulescu. V. Maini unelte pentru industria
lemnului, vol. I, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1970;
3. Rusu, T., Bejan, M. Deeul. Surs de venit, editura
MEDIAMIRA, Cluj-Napoca, 2006;
4. Rusu, T., Dolha, C. Tehnologii nepoluante i
gospodrirea deeurilor, Ed. UTPRES, Cluj-Napoca, 1998;
5. xxx Cod de bune practici agricole, vol. I, Minsterul Apelor
i Proteciei mediului, Bucureti, 2002.

Quick Info
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and Renovation Meetingpoint'
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CHEMIKA is a complex event, which consists of:
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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

51



EQUIPMENT FOR MONITORING WATER QUALITY

Constantin Nicolescu
1
, Luminia Cruceanu
2
, Carmen Marin
3
, Codru Darie
4
,
Gheorghe ovial
1
, Teodor- Costinel Popescu
1


1
The National Research and Development Institute for Optoelectronics 2000 - Branch: The Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research
Institute INOE 2000 IHP, Bucharest, ROMNIA, ihp@fluidas.ro
2
The Centre for Scientific Equipment (CAST) Bucharest, ROMNIA, cast@pcnet.ro
3
National Administration of Land Reclamation (ANIF), Bucharest, ROMNIA, carmen_vasilica2004@yahoo.com
4
The National Research and Development Institute for Fine Mechanics (INCDMF), Bucharest, ROMNIA,
codrut.darie@cefin.ro


ABSTRACT
In Romania the irrigated surface with high economic efficiency it is estimated at 3.5 mil. ha. On national scale
there is no integrated approach of the quantity and quality values of the irrigation water, and resource, as well
as an equipping of the pumping station. On international scale, in the developed countries the pumping stations
are provided with equipment for monitoring, on real time, the quality or the pumped water and for warning
about critical situations (emergencies).
The technical solution consists of an equipment which monitors the following parametres: turbidity, pH, CE at
25
0
C, Na
+
, Cl
-
. The lapse of time for monitoring is of 10 60 min. The main components are the following: the
prelevation pump (submersible) the monitoring board, the repression pipe of the analysed water. There are
made warnings about tue exceeding of the programmed level for each monitored parameter, about tue fact that
the pump and agitator dont work or about any other source of damage.
The testing of the equipment in the ground was made at the base pumping station Manta, from the Danube
Meadow, Giurgiu county.
The water is from the Danube and it is in most of the cases mixed with the water originating from drainage
mixed with the drainage water.

KEYWORDS: irrigation, pumping station, monitoring, quality, equipment


1. INTRODUCTION

Although has been recorded a significant progress
in the field, the agricultural processes still remain
exposed to the unfavourable action of the natural
agents whose apparition,duration and extent in
space cannot be prevented or eliminated
completely.
According to the European vision,agriculture
represents an important water user which will be
economically efficient and competitive on
international scale.
For harmonizing with a susteinable development
and as a result of the predicted climatic
changes,agriculture will be increasingly demanding
new technologies and equipment for a more
efficient use of the irrigation water, will very
probably give a better use to the unconventional
water resources and will obey the requirements of
the quality management.
The approached issue integrates in the
technological platform (PT)25, at the sector
WSSTP TWG 4 = Water in agriculture and
subsector A.1 Irrigated agriculture.
In the same time the studied issue answers to the
thematic area 6.3 Environmental technologies in
the form of Environmental technologies for
monitoring,preventing,diminishing,adjusting and
restoring the natural and artificial environmental
agents, for the anthropic agent represented by the
irrigation water.
The problem of a qualitative and quantitative water
monitoring became more accute after 2000,when
by the Framework Directive 2000/60/EC was
provided by law the transition to a new stage of
development in the field of a susteinable water
management,involving the qualitative and
quantitative control of the resources.


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

52

2. MATERIAL AND METHOD

Any field of activity especially the technical one,
in which can be included the hydroameliorations as
a hydrotechnical system can be easily
modernized (solutions, materials, equipment,
technologies etc), according to the new
requirements, generated mainly by the
technological progress.For modernizing the
arrangement, can be done the following 4 things:
rehabilitate the infrastructure, provide modern
equipment,know the interrelation water-soil-
phenophases-environment-professional training.
The technical solution consists of an equipment
which seizes the critical situations at the pumped
water by realizing the monitoring of the irrigation
water quality. [2,4,6,8]. When reached a critical
situation,the pumping of water is stopped till the
situation gets back to normal.
By using only water which corresponds physically
and chemically it is realised the protection of the
components of the arrangement,of the soil,of the
underground water,of the crops,contributing to the
quantitative and qualitative increase of production.
The monitoring equipment includes 3 functional
blocks fig.1-3,the prelevation system of the water
samples,the hydraulic circuit of measurements,the
automatic board.
The prelevation system provides the bringing and
the samples passing through the measurement
circuit. This is composed of a submersible
centrifugal pump EASY (fig.1),type SUB 700/SUB
700A (with a maximum flow of 15.000l/hour and
the discharge dyameter of 1 ) and tubulature of
adduction and discharge.
The hydraulic circuit of measurement is placed on
a board which integrates the sensors,the devices for
connecting to the circuit, water catchment basin
with discharge tube,filtration system, bleeder,
fittings and valve gates.
The automatic board (fig.3) is the functional block
which monitors the selected parameters for
describing the quality of the irrigation water,being
provided with the facility to be interconnected to
specialized systems for a remote control of the
measured parameters.





Fig 1. The electropump Easy


Fig 2. The board with sensors of the equipment
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

53


Fig 3. The monitoring encasement

The monitored parameters are: turbidity, pH, CE la
25
0
C, Na
+
, Cl
-
. These can be listed at the thermal
printer.(fig. 4).






3. OBTAINED RESULTS

The system has the possibility of setting
the upper limit of the field which generates the
signals for sight and sound warning. (fig.5). The
washing of the sensors is made manually,at certain
fixed intervals, or anytime the systems of automatic
testing of the transmitters of the sensors requires
their decalibration.


Fig 4. Bulletin with results listed on the printer

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

54

Fig 5. Overvalue of the pH indicator and the set going of the warning device

The sensors are purchased together with the
afferent transmitters. These are integrated within a
hydraulic circuit through which the water which
must be monitored is pushed by the submersible
prelevation pump.At the exit from the coupling of
the turbidity transducer,the water passes through a
mechanical filter.
Technical constructive characteristics of the
equipment:
- monitoring board: dimensions: 760 x 600 x 210
mm; weight: de 35 kg;
- gauge sizes of the transducers board: 1000 x 600
mm, (without thermostatic bath and prelevation
pump) ;
- transducers board weight: de 30 kg. ;
- the supply voltage of the monitoring board : 220V
+15%/-20%, 50Hz;
Functional characteristics of the equipment:
- the measurement field for turbidity : 0-3 g/l ;
- the measurement resolution for turbidity : 0,1 g/l ;
- the measurement error for turbidity : +/- 2% from
the masured value +/- 1 digit ;
- the pH measurement field : 0-14 pH ;
- pH measurement resolution : 0,1 pH ;
- pH the measurement error : +/- 0,2 pH +/- 1 digit ;
- the measurement field for conductivity : gama 1:
0- 5mS ; gama 2: 0-5000S ;
- the measurement resolution for conductivity :
0,01 mS pt. gama 1 ; 0,1 S pt. gama 2;
- the measurement field of the Na
+
:ions
concentration 0-1000ppm ;
- the measurement resolution of the Na
+
:ions
concentration Na
+
: 1ppm ;
- the measurement field of the Cl
-
ions
concentration : 0-1000ppm ;
- the measurement resolution of the Cl
-
ions
concentration : 1ppm ;
- list the measurement bulletins on the thermal
miniprinter.
The testing of the solution was made at the
pumping station from the research station (SPB)
Manta at the local irrigation arrangement from
Giurgiu county, belonging to the National Land
Improvement Administration Bucharest (fig. 6,7).
The water supply is from the Danube river.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

55


Fig 6. The main pumping station Manta

Fig 7. The main collector of SPB Manta

4. CONCLUSIONS

The economic-ecological effects recorded
after using the equipment are the following:
- the reduction of the total content of soluble
salts from soil,with a positive effect of 100 1000
/ ha, which represents the cost for the
amelioration of a solinized soil ha ;
- eliminate the negative impact upon the
crops,estimated at the production decrease with 10
25%;
- the reduction of the degree of mudding of the
arrangement with 600 1200 kg/ha and with 1
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

56
2% of the energetic consumption required for
pumping;
- the increase of the economic efficiency of the
irrigation, by including the water quality in the
delivery price.
Are interested the following users:
The National Administration for Land
Improvement (ANIF), as specialised body of the
Ministry of Agriculture,Forests and Rural
Development in strategies of arrangements.
The National Society of Land
Improvements (SNIF) S.A. Bucharest, for
exploting the arrangements and the pumping
stations for putting under pressure which supply the
irrigation arrangements belonging to the land
owners, united in Associations of irrigation water
users.(AUAI).
Agricultural Companies,firms,farmers
(land owners).

REFERENCES

1. Doneen L.D., 1999 - Quality of water irrigation, Proc.
Conference on Quality of Water for Irrigation, University of
California, Water Resources Centre Contribution.
2. Nicolescu C., - 1998 The reduction of suspensions in the
water pumped at irrigation, in: Inventica si economie, nr. 7 8
( 19 20 ), an II, published by de S. C. Tribuna economica -
S.A., ISSN 1224 7278, Bucuresti, p. 11 13,.
3. Nicolescu C., Condruz R., Ioanovici N-E, 2000
Irrigation arrangements main factor for having a susteinable
economy (case study for Giurgiu county), in Buletinul AGIR
nr. 3, published by AGIR, ISSN 1224-7928, Bucureti, p. 8-13,
4. Nicolescu C., Condruz R., Cruceanu Luminita, 2002 -
Equipment for monitoring the quality of irrigation water at source
in: The University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
Bucharest :1852 2002: The Faculty of Land Improvements and
Environments Engineering (a XXX-a aniversare): The Transactions
of the Scientific Session 17 18 mai 2002, Editura Bren, ISBN 973
- 648 020 8, Bucuresti, p. 63 - 68,.
5. Nicolescu C., Popescu T.C., 2005 - ,,Aspects regarding
the equipping with watering installations in big irrigation
systems, in: ,,Scientific papers, seria Agronomy, vol 48, ISSN
1459 7414, The international symposium ,,Agriculture and
environment present and perspective, Didactic and
Pedagogic Publishing House with the support of the Ministry of
Education and Research, Ion Ionescu de la Brad Publishing
House Iasi, 11 p., CD,.
6. Nicolescu C., 2005 - ,,Considerations concerning
the rational use of irrigation water, in: ,,Scientific Papers,
Agronomy, vol 48, ISSN 14597414, The international
symposium ,,Agriculture and environment-present and
perspective, published with the support of The Ministry of
Education and Research, Ion Ionescu de la Brad Publishing
House Iai, 8 p., CD,.
7. Nicolescu C., Ilie Ioana., 2005 - ,,Equipping the
irrigation arrangements in the context of the technological
progress, in : ,,Technological Progress, result of research,
Buletinul AGIR, nr.3, Bucuresti, ISSN 12247928, p.19-23,.
8. STAS 9450/88 The water for the irrigation of
agricultural crops.

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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

57



CERCETRI PRIVIND UTILIZAREA SURSELOR
REGENERABILE DE ENERGIE N INDUSTRIA
CONSTRUCTOARE DE MAINI

Florentina-Cristina Ivacu
*
, Alexandru Rdulescu
**

* Global Energy Services, Bucuresti, ROMANIA, e-mail: cristina.ivascu@yahoo.com
**Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucuresti, ROMANIA, e-mail: sandu@meca.omtr.pub.ro


REZUMAT
Domeniul de analiz al acestei lucrri este acela de valorificare a surselor
regenerabile de energie, prin colectarea deeurilor urbane i industriale precum i
valorificarea biogazului astfel produs. Sursele regenerabile de energie reprezint
cele mai vechi surse de energie utilizate, sub diferite forme. La ora actual utilizarea
surselor regenerabile de energie se face prin aplicarea celor mai moderne
tehnologii. n acest context, lucrarea propune o analiz tehnico-economic privind
instalarea unui grup de cogenerare cu funcionare pe biogaz, necesar producerii de
energie electric i termic.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of analysis for this paper is to support renewable energy sources
through the collection of industrial and municipal waste and biogas recovery of
such product. Renewable energy sources are the oldest sources of energy used, in
various ways. At present the use of renewable energy sources is realized through the
application of modern technologies. In this context, the paper proposes a technical-
economic analysis for the installation of a group of cogeneration operation with the
biogas, needed for the production of electricity and heat.

CUVINTE CHEIE: Surse regenerabile, Ecologie, Tehnologie, Cost.

KEYWORDS: Renewable sources, Ecology, Technology, Cost.



1. INTRODUCERE

Studiile oamenilor de tiin au devenit n ultimii ani
din ce n ce mai unanime n a aprecia c o cretere
puternic a emisiilor mondiale de gaze cu efect de
ser va conduce la o nclzire global a atmosferei
terestre de 2-6
0
C, pn la sfritul acestui secol, cu
efecte dezastroase.
Utilizarea resurselor regenerabile de energie este un
procedeu efectiv de reducere a emisiei de gaze cu
efect de ser, ceea ce contribuie la diminuarea
impactului asupra mediului nconjurtor.
Sursele regenerabile de energie mai sunt denumite i
surse neconvenionale, prin comparaie cu sursele
clasice sau convenionale, sunt considerate practic
inepuizabile i nu n ultimul rnd, mult mai curate, fiind
deloc, sau cu mult mai puin poluante dect cele clasice.
n aceast categorie sunt uzual incluse: energia solar,
energia hidraulic (ape curgtoare, valuri, maree,
curenii marini), energia vntului (eolian), biomasa
i energia geotermal, [1].
Energia solar constituie principala surs de
energie a pmntului, depind cu mult orice alt
surs de energie cunoscut pn n prezent; un
avantaj extraordinar este faptul c gradul de
disponibilitate al energiei solare este foarte mare,
ns aceasta depinde i de ciclul zi noapte, de
latitudinea locului unde este captat, de
anotimpuri i de ptura noroas.
Energia hidraulic este una dintre sursele naturale
regenerabile de cea mai mare importan att
pentru ri dezvoltate, puternic industrializate, ct
i pentru arile mai srace, resursa de ap fiind
una dintre bogaiile vitale pentru dezvoltarea
economic i social a oricrei ri.
Energia eolian este energia mecanic a maselor
de aer aflate n micare n atmosfer. Vntul este,
de fapt, o consecin a iluminrii atmosferei de
ctre soare.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

58
Biomasa este sursa regenerabil predominant n
Romnia, att ca rspndire ct i ca importan
cantitativ i calitativ i reprezint 95% din
aportul total al surselor regenerabile. Romnia, n
condiiile date ale mediului geografic n care se
situeaz, dispune de un potenial important de
biomas, estimat n termeni energetici la circa 8
milioane tep/an (figura 1.), ceea ce reprezint
circa 19% din consumul total de resurse primare
al rii, la nivelul anului 2000.


Fig.1. Harta resurselor de biomas din Romnia

Energia geotermal reprezint cldura natural a
pmntului, nmagazinat n primii 10 km ai
scoarei terestre. Criza energetic mondial a
determinat cutarea unor noi surse de energie. n
acest context, energia geotermal constituie un
potenial energetic a crui valoare este, n
prezent, n atenia cercettorilor din domeniu.

Romnia, odat cu intrarea n Uniunea European are
i ea de fcut eforturi n acest sens i de ndeplinit
cteva angajamente clare n domeniul energiilor
regenerabile (figura 2).

0.33
0.35
0.38
30%
31%
32%
33%
34%
35%
36%
37%
38%
P
r
o
c
e
n
t
u
l
2010 2015 2020
Anul

Fig.2. Angajamentele Romniei n materie de energii
regenerabile

Astfel, ara noastr s-a angajat ca:
pn n anul 2010, energia electric provenit din
surse verzi s reprezinte 33% din consumul
naional,
pn n anul 2015, procentul s creasc la 35 %,
pn n anul 2020 s ajung la 38 %.

2. ASPECTE TEHNICE

Biogazul este un gaz produs din fermentarea anaerob a
anumitor substraturi organice care se obine relativ uor,
fiind un rezultat direct al activitii umane, mai precis
obinndu-se din resturile menajere din gropile de gunoi,
nmolul de canalizare de la staiile de decantare sau alte
resturi biologice de la cresctoriile de animale (figura 3).


Fig.3. Schema general de obinere i valorificare a
biogazului

Studiul are ca obiect analiza soluiei tehnice pentru
valorificarea potenialului energetic al depozitului de
deeurilor industriale i urbane din Municipiul Roman,
prin instalarea unui grup de cogenerare cu funcionare pe
biogaz, cu producere de energie electric i termic.
Prin implementarea proiectului se dorete includerea
deeurilor industriale i urbane aflate n oraul Roman,
ntr-un circuit energetic, n scopul:
furnizrii de electricitate ctre Sistemul Energetic
Naional.
reducerii nivelului de poluare, att a aerului ct i
vizual.
Cogenerarea sau combinarea cldurii i a energiei, este
producerea a dou tipuri de energie - de obicei energie
electric i termic - dintr-o singur surs de
combustibil. De cele mai multe ori cogenerarea
nlocuiete metoda tradiional de asigurare a mai multor
forme de energie cum ar fi furnizarea electricitii din
reeaua electric i separat, arderea gazului natural sau a
petrolului n cazane pentru producerea cldurii sau a
aburului, [4], [5].
Cogenerarea cu motoare termice la scar mic i medie
reprezint unele dintre modalitile cele mai utilizate de
producere a energiei electrice i termice pe plan local, n
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

59
ntreaga Europa. Principala caracteristic a tehnologiei
de cogenerare este reprezentat de eficiena energetic i
de economia de combustibil spre deosebire de
producerea separat a formelor de energie, de aici
rezult avantaje ecologice i economice ale produciei.
Dac se utilizeaz biogazul, atunci unitile de
cogenerare sunt potrivite pentru staiile de tratare a
apelor uzate, industria agricol , depozite de gunoi, etc.
Principalul mod de valorificare a biogazului este combustia
sa n motoare, existnd dou posibiliti (figura 4), [2]:
Combustia ntr-un motor cu aprindere prin scnteie:
n acest caz, modificrile cauzate de utilizarea
biogazului sunt fcute la nivelul reglajului (creterea
avansului la aprindere). Amestecul aer-biogaz este
aprins de la o scnteie produs de bujie.
Combustia ntr-un motor dual-fuel: motoarele dual-
fuel provin din motoarele Diesel care sunt modificate
pentru a funciona cu doi combustibili. Ideea de baz
este folosirea unui amestec biogaz-aer ntr-un motor
Diesel. Practic, ele nu sunt aproape deloc modificate;
trebuie doar adugat o camer special pentru a
realiza amestecul aer-biogaz. Combustibilul pilot
(lichid) se auto-aprinde ndat ce este introdus n
camera de ardere.


Fig. 4. Principiul de funionare al motoarelor cu
aprindere prin scnteie, respectiv dual-fuel, pe biogaz

Grupul este amplasat ct mai aproape de sursa de
biogaz, avndu-se n vedere eliminarea posibilitilor
de apariie a zonelor cu pericol de explozie, care
impun echipamente speciale i creterea costurilor
investiiei. Productorul garanteaz un nivel sczut al
emisiilor din gazele de ardere respectiv:
NO
x
< 500 mg/Nm
3

CO < 650 mg/Nm
3


3. ANALIZA ECONOMIC

Lucrarea de fa vine n ntmpinarea acestei tendine,
punnd la dispoziia tuturor celor implicai n acest
domeniu un instrument de analiz tehnico-economic a
proiectelor de valorificare a biogazului prin cogenerare.
n baza indicatorilor tehnici de operare se calculeaz i
analizeaz performanele investiiei ntr-o perioad dat,
respectiv ntr-un anumit context. Soluia tehnic aleas
trebuie justificat economic prin:
Identificarea i evaluarea costurilor i veniturilor
corespunztoare instalrii unui grup de cogenerare
cu funcionare pe biogaz, n scopul valorificrii
surselor regenerabile de energie n perimetrul
municipiului Roman;
Compararea costurilor i veniturilor pentru
soluia propus;
Analiza de sensibilitate a principalilor indicatori de
performan la variaii ale datelor de intrare.
Analiza economic presupune calculul indicatorilor
economici ai proiectului. Criteriile (metodele) de
evaluare a performanelor proiectului sunt prezentate n
tabelul 1, [3].

Tabelul 1. Criterii de evaluare a performanelor
proiectului
Venitul net actualizat (VNA);

=
+
=
n
t
t
t
a
A
VNA
1
) 1 (

Rata intern de rentabilitate
(RIR);

0
) 1 (
1
=
+

=
n
t
t
t
RIR
A
Perioada actualizat de
recuperare a capitalului investit
(Ta, sau TRA).

0
) 1 (
1
=
+

=
a
T
t
t
t
a
A


Livrarea energiei electrice, obinut din surse
regenerabile, este avantajat de posibilitatea
tranzacionrii certificatelor verzi. Certificatul Verde
atest o cantitate de 1 MWh de energie electric produs
din surse regenerabile de energie i poate fi vndut
separat de energia electric, pe Piaa de Certificate
Verzi. Preul Certificatelor Vezi este stabilit prin HG
443/2003 privind promovarea produciei de energie
electric din surse regenerabile de energie. Pentru
perioada 20052012 intervalul de tranzacionare a
preurilor certificatelor verzi este limitat la 42
Euro/certificat. Conversia n RON se face la cursul de
schimb stabilit de Banca Naional a Romniei, pentru
ultima zi lucrtoare a lunii decembrie din anul precedent.
n calculul indicatorilor economici s-a luat n
considerare faptul c tariful de tranzacionare a energiei
electrice livrate este constant pe toat perioada de
analiz. Avnd n vedere faptul c tariful la biogaz nu
este reglementat prin lege se propune ca tariful
biogazului s fie de 100 Euro/10
3
m
3
.
n tabelul 2 sunt enumerate producia de electricitate,
consumurile aferente acesteia, respectiv valoarea i
costurile asociate.

Tabelul 2. Indicatorii tehnico economici ai investiiei
Indicatori Valoare UM
Valoare investiie: 700.000 Euro
Capaciti instalate:
Puterea electric instalat 625 kWe
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

60
Puterea termic instalat 680
kWt

Producia anual de
energie electric
5.000
MWh/an
Consumul anual de
combustibil
2.50010
3
Nm
3
/an
Tarif:
Tarif energie electric
livrat
70
Euro/MWh
Tarif combustibil (biogaz) 100
Euro/10
3

m
3

Tarif Certificate Verzi 42 Euro/CV
Cheltuieli totale anuale,
din care:
370.000
Euro/an
Combustibil (biogaz) 250.000 Euro/an
Utiliti 50.000 Euro/an
ntreinere 50.000 Euro/an
Personal 20.000 Euro/an
Venituri totale anuale, din
care:
560.000
Euro/an
Vnzare energie electric 350.000 Euro/an
Tranzactionare Certificate
Verzi 210.000
Euro/an
Venituri nete: 190.000 Euro/an

Conform tabelului 3, indicatorii economici calculai
ating valori care permit realizarea investiiei n condiii
de siguran din punct de vedere al recuperrii
capitalului investit (VNA = 373.542 EURO, RIR = 24
%, TRA = 5,16 ani, IP = 53 %).

Tabelul 3. Valorile obinute pentru indicatorii de
analiz economic
Elemente U.M. Valori
VNA Euro 373.542
RIR % 24
IP % 0,53
TRA ani 5,16

Aa cum se observ n reprezentarea grafic
prezentat n figura 5, curba de evoluie a venitului
net actualizat (VNA) trece prin zero la momentul 5,16
ani adic perioada n care se estimeaz a fi recuperat
investiia, ceea ce nseamn c se estimeaz i profit.
Alte beneficii asociate proiectului sunt economiile
timide realizate de ctre Autoritatea Local, prin
reducerea achiziiilor din SEN (sistemul energetic
naional). Cheltuielile cu utilitile i cu ntreinerea i
reparaiile au fost repartizate anual, n mod uniform.
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
mii Euro
VNA
Fig. 5. Evoluia veniturilor nete actualizate n
perioada analizat

Analiza de sensibilitate a demonstrat faptul c soluia
analizat este considerabil sensibil la creterea tarifului
biogazului, ca urmare, trebuie negociat foarte bine tariful
de valorificare a biogazului, pentru a avea un proiect de
succes.

4. CONCLUZII

n concluzie, proiectul este extrem de sensibil la
creterea tarifului la biogaz.
Totui, n domeniul valorificrii resurselor
regenerabile de energie exist mai multe stimulente
dect constrngeri.
Avantajele folosirii resurselor regenerabile, prin
tehnologii curate sunt date de urmtoarele aspecte:
Nu sunt un factor poluant;
Costuri de operare reduse;
Costuri pentru revizii i ntreinere mici;
Tehnologiile de producere a energiei electrice i
termice n cogenerare sunt sigure i au ajuns la
maturitate;
Costurile privind piesele de schimb sunt ntr-o
continu scdere.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Jula, A., Mogan, Gh., Bostan, I., Dulgheru, V. Ecomeca ,
Editura Universitii Transilvania, Braov, 2006.
2. Bitir-Istrate, I., Minciuc, E. Valorificarea biogazului
pentru producerea energiei electrice i termice, Editura
Cartea Universitar, Bucureti , 2003.
3. Leca, A., Muatescu, V. Managementul energiei, Editura
AGIR, Bucureti, 2006.
4. *** www.ge-energy.com.
5. *** www.bteam.ro.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008


61



TEHNOLOGIE MODERN
DE DECONTAMINARE RADIOACTIV
A DEEURILOR METALICE REZULTATE N URMA
DEZAFECTRII SAU NLOCUIRII ECHIPAMENTELOR
DIN DOMENIUL NUCLEAR

Dumitru Buca
1
,Valentin Barbu, Dumitru Mihaila
2
, Constantin Stan
2

1-SC ICTCM SA , Bucureti, ROMANIA, 2- INCD-MRR , Bucureti, ROMANIA
E-mail: dumitru buca @yahoo.com;icpmrr@iodes.ro


REZUMAT
Articolul prezint o tehnologie nou, modern, de decontaminare radioactiv a
deeurilor metalice rezultate n urma dezafectrii sau nlocuirii echipamentelor
din domeniul nuclear.Este prezentat instalaia principal, de decontaminare
prin impact cu jet abraziv, precum i avantajele folosirii acestei tehnologii.

ABSTRACT
In the following article is presented a new technology for decontamination the
metallic materials which come from used radioactive mining facilities. It is
presented the main installation for decontamination, using the impact with
abrasive and also, the advantages of this technology.

CUVINTE CHEIE: tehnologie, decontaminare radioactiv, deeuri metalice

KEYWORDS: technology, decontamination, metallic waste materials

1. INTRODUCERE

Problemele legate de procesul de
decontaminare si de izolarea deseurilor contaminate
radioactiv exista de mai mult timp, astazi ele ocupa
mult mai multa atentie in politicile legate de
protectia mediului, avand in vedere gravele
problem de mediu care pot apare in urma
depozitarii defectuoase.
Materialele metalice rezultate in urma
dezafectarii sau a uzurii excesive,a echipamentelor
care au operat in zonele de exploatare a
minereurilor cu continut radioactive sau care au
intrat in componenta echipamentelor miniere si de
prelucrare a materialelor radioactive pun probleme
deosebite la stocare si depozitare.
Exista o tendinta clara de a se trece la
extinderea utilizarii energiei nucleare, ca o sursa
temporara de energie alternative.
Deseurile metalice care sunt contaminate radiactiv
trebuie depozitate in spatii speciale si cu
respectarea unor conditii stricte, care sa asigure
protectia personalului si a mediului inconjurator.
Legislatia europeana in domeniul protectiei
mediului impune conditii stricte privitoare la
modul de depozitare in conditii siguranta a deseurilor
metalice contaminate radioactiv.
Pentru a se evita supradimensionarea volumului
spatiului de depozitare si totodata pierderea unei
cantitati mari de metal, s-a propus initierea in
ROMANIA a cercetarilor necesare pentru realizarea
unei tehnologii novative destinata dezafectarii unor
echipamente metalice industriale contaminate
radioactiv, pentru ca sa se permita reducerea importanta
a volumului de metal care trebuie depozitat in conditii
speciale.
Aceasta tehnologie tine cont de faptul ca procentul
de contaminare se reduce prin trecerea de la suprafetele
exterioare ale reperelor metalice catre interior.
De asemenea procesul tehnologic tine seama de
infuenta benefica pe care o are tratamentul initial de
spalare a metalului contaminat. In functie de gradul de
contaminare a materialului se recomanda repetarea
spalarii , odata sau de doua ori.
Noua tehnologie propusa se desfasoara conform cu
urmatoarea schema principiala.


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008


62








































Figura 1. Schema principiala a tehnologiei

Cercetarile si experimentarile destinate gasirii
unei noi noua tehnologii pentru decontaminare s-
au avut in vedere mai multe cerinte:

- Siguranta procesului. Procesul de
decontaminare se va realiza in conditii care sa
asigure protectia mediului si siguranta
operatorilor si protectia impotriva inhalarii de
praf contaminat radioactiv sau a emanarii
emisiilor radioactive catre exterior.

-Reducerea la minim a volumului de deseuri.
Un alt deziderat al tehnologiei a fost acela ca in
urma procedeului de decontaminare sa rezulte
ocantitate minima de deseuri contaminate radioactiv;
in acest fel costurile aferente depozitarii si
conservarii acestor desuri sa fie reduse la minim.

-Costuri minime pentru procesul de
decontaminare.Avand in vedere importanta
desfasurarii procesului in conditii de siguranta si
eficienta maxima , un factor important l-a constituit
costul procesului tehnologic care indeobste atinge
valori ridicate.




INDEPARTARE SUCCESIVA STRATURILOR
DE METAL CONTAMINAT PRIN
BOMBARDARE CU PARTICULE ABRAZIVE
Control nivel de
radiatii remanente

USCARE
Spalare finala
SPALARE CU APA
REPERE METALICE SUPUSE LA .
DECONTAMINARE
REZIDUU METALIC
CONTAMINAT
RADIOACTIV
DEPOZIT SPECIAL IZOLAT
SI PROTEJAT
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008


63
2. DESCRIEREA TEHNOLOGIEI

Tehnologia de decontaminare propusa se
realizeaza folosind echipamente componente de
baza ale sistemelor de prelucrare a suprafetelor prin
impact (sablare) si altele complementare (sortare,
desprafuire). Noutatea consta in faptul ca prin
aceasta tehnologie se poate decoji metalul
contaminat , in straturi mici (2-5) pana cand se
elimina intregul volum contaminat, scurtand pe cat
posibil procesul si reducand la maxim cantitatea de
metal care se depoziteaza in conditii de siguranta
sporita, realizand implicit si o influenta nociva mult
mai redusa asupra mediului.
Stratul superficial este eliminat, deseurile
metalice se inscriu in nivelele normale de
radioactivitate si pot fi reintroduse in circuitul
economic prin retopire.
Din punct de vedere al modului de realizare a
decontaminarii avem:
decontaminare prin antrenare si transport
intr-un curent de fluid,ex. aerul, in cazul
bombardarii cu particule abrazive.
decontaminarea prin blocare, metoda care
presupune legare chimica a particulelor
radioactive prin intermediul reactivilor
specifici.
Conform studiilor si analizelor efectuate pe
diferite tipuri de deseuri metalice rezultate din
dezafectare utilajelor existente in procesarea
minereurilor uranifere au rezultat urmatoarele
observatii:
componentele utilajelor care se afla in
miscare,in solutii sau pulberi radioactive
(ex. elice de agitare, arborii agitatoarelor)
sufera fenomenul de atritie, fenomen prin
care in paralel cu coroziunea si abraziunea
mecanica se manifesta o decontaminare
prin slefuirea materialului radioactiv,
rezultand in final un nivel de
radioactivitate mai redus.


componentele realizate din oteluri obisnuite sau
putin aliate au un nivel de contaminare mai
ridicat decat cele realizat din oteluri inalt aliate,
deoarece oxizii de Fe din structura se comporta
caniste bureti, care retin particulelele
radioactive, crescand gradul de radioactivitate
la suprafetele pieselor.
gradul de contaminare masurat, al
componentelor se incadreaza in proportii de 5-
10 ori mai mari decat nivelul maxim admis.
suprafetele netede sunt mult mai putin
contaminate decat cele care au rugozitatea
ridicata.
S-a observat ca spalarea simpla cu un jet de apa
care care contine un adaos de 5-10g/l de Na
2
CO
3
, poate
reduce considerabil nivelul de contaminare initial(pana
la 40-50%).
Masuratorile efectuate au aratat ca in general
grosimea stratului contaminat este cu prinsa intre 2- 40
.
Se cunoaste ca principalele metodele de
decontaminare pot fi:
fizice; periere,slefuire
chimice: tratarea suprafetelor cu solutii
decontaminante(acizi, baze, saruri)
fizico-chimice.
mecanice: bombardarea cu particule
abrazive pentru microaschierea stratului
contaminat.
Pentru evidentiere si atestarea posibilitatilor
metodei mecanice, in ICTCM a fost realizata o
instalatie a pentru experimentari tehnologice compusa
din urmatoarele echipamente:
aparat pneumatic de alicare
echipamentde decontaminare prin bombardare
cu abraziv
filtru de exhaustare
Rezultatele experimentarilor efectuate pe instalatia
model experimental sunt prezentate in tabelul urmator:

Tabelul 1. Rezultatele experimentarilor efectuate pe
instalatia model experimental

Tip reper Corpuri de
macinare
Blindaje moara Agitator lesiere Cuptor uscare
Materialul tratat OL 70 1k T130 Mn 135 OL 50 OL50
Consum abraziv(kg/m
2
) 75 125 95 50
Val. contaminarii 1050
imp/min.cm
2
600
imp/min.cm
2
2250
imp/min.cm
2
2220
imp/min.cm
2
Grosime strat contaminat superficial superficial Profund
100
Depunere
pulbere
Suprafata indepartata
(m
2
/h)

cca.2,5
Costul estimativ pt.
agentul abraziv (/kg)

0,5


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008


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Noua tehnologie aduce mai multe avantaje
.Printre acestea se pot enumera:
o protectia sporita pentru mediul din zonele de
depozitare
o conservarea dimensiunilor
o economie mare de spatiu de depozitare
o economie de energie si de materii prime
o protectia sporita a personalului operator.

3. INSTALATIA DE
DECONTAMINARE
PRIN IMPACT CU JET ABRAZIV

In figura urmatoare se prezinta schema de
functionare pentru instalatia de decontaminare prin
impact cu jet abraziv (sablare).
Dupa cum este indeobste cunoscut procedeul de
decontaminare se poate realiza in doua variante
principial constructive:
-metoda uscata
-metoda umeda(hidrosablare).
Ambele metode ofera rezultate satisfacatoare ca
efecte ale procesului de decontaminare insa apar
anumite probleme legate de procesarea apelor
evacuate din procesul tehnologic.
Sunt prezentate in continuare cateva imagini ale
instalatiei experimentale si ale reperelor procesate.
a












Figura 3.Reper procesat

Figura 4. Instalatia experimental





Figura 5. Instalatia experimentala















Figura 6. Reper procesat


4. CONCLUZII

Tehnologia experimentala prezentata este
indicata pentru a se utiliza la scara industriala, in
cazul echipamentelor dezafectate din industria
nucleara nationala.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Antonescu N.N. s.a. Fabricarea , repararea si intretinerea
utilajului chimic si petrochimic EDP Bucuresti 1981
2. Voros A. s.a. Curatirea pieselor turnate ET - 1979
3. *** Prospecte de firma













TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008


65

Figura 2. Schema de functionare pentru instalatia de decontaminare

P
r
e
s
e
p
a
r
a
r
e
a


M
e
t
a
l

a
g
e
n
t
a


a
b
r
a
z
i
v

F
i
l
t
r
a
r
e

-
p
r
i
m
a
r
a

PROCES
TEHNOLOGIC
Aparat
pneumatic de
sablare
aer + praf
F
i
l
t
r
a
r
e

s
e
c
u
n
d
a
r
a

Abraziv + aer + praf
Centrala de filtrare




a
e
r

Abraziv
contaminat
Reziduu
metalic
contaminat
Reziduuri
contaminate
Abraziv
desprafuit



Depozit special
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008


66
Quick Info

Brokerage Event on Environment and Energy at the TerraTec / e

Event Type: Brokerage Events
Start Date: 27-Jan-2009
End Date: 28-Jan-2009
City: Leipzig
Country: Germany
Description:
TerraTec / enertec 2009 in Leipzig

Brokerage Event CONTACT of the Enterprise Europe Network

On January 27 and 28, 2009 the Enterprise Europe Network, jointly with Leipziger Messe GmbH, the Chamber
of Industry and Commerce Leipzig and the AGIL GmbH Leipzig will organise a brokerage event. This
brokerage event will combine the strengths of two fairs, TerraTec and enertec, on environmental and energy
technologies, respectively, taking place from January 27 to 29, 2009 in Leipzig, Germany.

CONTACT will provide exhibitors, trade visitors and experts a platform to present their technologies,
services, know-how and businesses as well as to meet companies, who seek for innovative technologies,
business contacts and research partnerships.

The TerraTec is one of the leading environmental trade fairs in Germany.
As a multi-segment fair, it covers the entire spectrum of environmental technologies and services, with a focus
on decentralized solutions in supply and disposal.

The enertec is the leading independent energy fair in Germany with a comprehensive offer of energy services
and energy technologies. The enertec focuses on decentralized solutions like cogeneration as well as bio energy.

CONTACT addresses to companies, research institutes, and municipalities. It will focus on the following
areas of activity:

Water/ Waste Water
Waste/ Recycling
Soil
Cleaning and Prevention
Renewable Materials/ Biogenic Residues
Fossil fuels
Exploitation of renewable energy resources
Innovative Energy storage and distribution
Rational use of energy
Energy and emission trade
Energy services
Industrial Measurement, Control and Analytics/ Process Control Engineering

Fees

Exhibitors of TerraTec and enertec: Free of charge
German Participants: EUR 150,00*
Foreign participants: EUR 50,00*

* including one free entrance ticket and one ticket for the International Night Reception on January 27, 2009
(http://www.enterprise-europe-network.ec.europa.eu/publicwebsite/bemt/home.cfm?EventID=1803)
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

67



NOU CONCEPT DE PLACARE NET-SHAPE A PIESELOR
METALICE DE REVOLUIE PRIN FORJARE ROTATIV


V. chiopu
1
, D. Luca
2
, I. Asandei
1
, C.Gentoiu
3

1
S.C. PRESUM PROIECT S.A. Iai, vasile.schiopu@gmail.com;
2
U.T. Gh. Asachi Iai;
3
S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucureti.


REZUMAT
Acest nou concept este legat dezvoltarea unei tehnologii moderne de placare net-shape (la forma
final, gata de utilizare) a pieselor metalice de revoluie (tip arbore i buc), prin forjare rotativ la
rece. Noua tehnologie este destinat realizrii de piese cu structura de baz din materiale ieftine i cu
rezisten bun la oboseal, pe care, n zonele unde se impun caracteristici diferite (coeficieni de frecare
mai mici, duritate mai mare etc.), se aplic un strat din materiale mai scumpe care asigur aceste
caracteristici.
ABSTRACT
This new concept is related to the development of a modern technology for net-shape coating of the
axisymmetrical metallic parts (spindle and bush type) by cold rotary swaging. The new technology have
the purpose to realize parts with basic structure made from cheap materials with high fatigue strength, on
which is applied, in that areas where different characteristics (low friction coefficient, high hardness etc.)
are required, a layer of expensive materials which provides this characteristics.

CUVINTE CHEIE: placare; forjare rotativ; net-shape; piese metalice de revoluie.

KEYWORDS: coating; rotary swaging; net-shape; axisymmetrical metallic parts.


1. INTRODUCERE

Orientrile actuale pe plan internaional, n
ceea ce privete tehnologiile de fabricare a pieselor
auto tip arbore i buc avnd caracteristici fizico-
mecanice ridicate, sunt ca aceste repere s fie
realizate n structur multistrat, care s mbine
urmtoarele proprieti: rezistena la uzura,
elasticitate, duritate i tenacitate (capacitate de a
prelua eforturile la care sunt solicitate).
La elaborarea acestui nou concept s-a pornit de la
ideea de a realiza piese cu structura de baz din
materiale ieftine, ce au o rezisten bun la oboseal,
pe care, n zonele unde se impun caracteristici diferite
(coeficieni de frecare mai mici, duritate mai mare
etc.), s se aplice prin deformare plastic un strat din
materiale mai scumpe, care asigur aceste
caracteristici. n acest fel se urmrete satisfacerea
cerinelor privind economia de materiale scumpe i de
energie, reducerea factorilor de risc pentru mediu,
precum i de mbuntire a productivitii i a calitii
produselor.
n sensul satisfacerii ntr-un grad ct mai nalt a
tuturor acestor cerine, a fost propus i se afl n
derulare un proiect de cercetare ce vizeaz dezvoltarea
i implementarea n mediul industrial a unor tehnologii
moderne de placare net-shape a pieselor metalice de
revoluie, prin deformare plastic de nalt precizie la
rece. Noua tehnologie se bazeaz pe procedeul de
forjare rotativ i este destinat realizrii de piese cu
structura de baz din oeluri ieftine, cu coninut redus de
carbon i cu rezisten bun la oboseal, pe care, n
zonele de contact cu reperele conjugate se aplic un strat
din materiale cu caracteristici superioare.
n afar de faptul c, pentru unele aplicaii, va
nlocui procedeele clasice de depunere prin metode
chimice, electrochimice, metalurgice (metalurgia
pulberilor, turnare centrifugal, imersie, pulverizare
etc.) care sunt poluante, complexe i nu asigur
ntotdeauna precizie i caracteristici mecanice optime,
noua tehnologie se caracterizeaz printr-o serie de
avantaje foarte importante:
prelucrare net-shape precizie n clasele IT7
IT9 i rugoziti ntre 0,11,6 m;
proprieti mecanice mbuntite structur cu
fibraj continuu i creterea rezistenei la rupere
pe toata seciunea semifabricatului deformat;
economie de materiale scumpe spre deosebire
de metodele cu ndeprtare de material, la
forjarea rotativ materialul este presat n forme;
teoretic nu exist pierderi de material;
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

68
Figura 1. Schema procesului de forjare rotativ
nu sunt restricii n privina materialului
prelucrat toate materialele metalice cu
ductibilitate suficient pot fi prelucrate prin
forjare rotativ; forjarea oelurilor carbon, a
oelurilor aliate, a oelurilor inoxidabile, a
aluminiului i a altor materiale neferoase se
face fr nici o problem.
ecruisare redus deoarece aceast deformare
incremental are loc n muli pai mruni de
prelucrare, rezult o ecruisare mult mai mic
raportat la mrimea deformrii, n comparaie cu
celelalte procese de deformare plastic.
environmentally friendly nu rezult achii, nu
necesit pregtirea suprafeelor prin splare,
decapare, nu se folosesc substane chimice i nu se
degaj noxe.

2. DESCRIEREA PROCEDEULUI
DE FORJARE ROTATIV

Forjarea rotativ, care n lucrrile de
specialitate mai este denumit i reducere sau
matriare rotativ ori forjare radial, este un proces
de deformare plastic de precizie a tuburilor, barelor
i srmelor. Aparine grupului proceselor de
prelucrare net-shape (la sau aproape de forma
final) care sunt caracterizate de faptul ca forma
final a semifabricatului prelucrat este obinut fr,
sau numai cu un minim de prelucrri de finisare.
Standardul german DIN8583 descrie forjarea
rotativ ca fiind o metod de deformare liber
pentru reducerea seciunii transversale a barelor i
tuburilor, folosind dou sau mai multe segmente de
scule care nconjoar parial sau total semifabricatul
de prelucrat, i care acioneaz simultan n direcie
radial, aflndu-se n acelai timp n rotaie relativ
fa de piesa prelucrat, Figura 1.

Mainile de forjat rotativ sunt maini pentru
deformare plastic controlat, de nalt vitez. Cursa
matrielor este realizat pe principiul camei.
Cinematica procesului este generat n inima
mainii, aa numitul cap de forjare rotativ, Figura
2. De fiecare dat cnd un set de role trece peste
setul de ciocnele, se obine un impuls n direcie
radial a acestora din urm. Micarea radial a
ciocnelelor este transmis matrielor, iar acestea
lovesc semifabricatul, deformndu-l. Cnd capurile
ciocnelelor sunt poziionate ntre role, se produce
micarea simultan de retragere a acestora mpreun
cu matriele, micare determinat de fora centrifug.


Schimbarea formei semifabricatelor prin
procedeul de reducere se desfoar astfel: asupra
semifabricatului, care avanseaz n zona de forjare,
acioneaz forele exterioare de compresiune pe ntreg
perimetrul seciunii, aplicate prin intermediul
matrielor, producnd deformaia acestuia. Astfel se
obine micorarea seciunii transversale, metalul
deplasndu-se n direcia axei semifabricatului.

3. COMBINAREA MATERIALELOR

n principiu orice material deformabil poate fi
prelucrat prin forjare rotativ. Este posibil chiar s se
realizeze comprimarea materialelor sinterizate.
Alungirea la rupere A
5
ar trebui, totui, s nu fie mai
mic de 5 10%. n producia de serie, ponderea cea
mai mare dintre materialele prelucrate prin forjare
rotativ este deinut de oeluri. Gama materialelor ce
se pot prelucra cuprinde oeluri cu coninutul redus de
carbon, oeluri cu coninut nalt de carbon, oeluri
aliate, nalt aliate i refractare.
Pot fi prelucrate fr probleme i metalele
neferoase cum sunt aluminiu, cupru, alam, bronz,
titan i aliajele acestora. Cu ajutorul acestei metode
Figura 3. Combinarea materialelor pentru
placare prin forjare rotativ
Figura 2. Schema de principiu a capului
de lucru al unei maini de forjat rotativ
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

69
pot fi prelucrate i aliaje cu plasticitate sczut din
oeluri speciale, aliaje pe baz de aluminiu, piese
din materiale metalo-ceramice i din pulberi
metalice.
Pot fi realizate diverse combinaii de materiale
(ntre materialul piesei de baz i materialul
stratului de adaos) n funcie de proprietile impuse
produsului. O parte dintre aceste posibile combinaii
sunt prezentate n diagrama din Figura 3.

4. PLACAREA ARBORILOR

Noul concept de placare a arborilor are ca scop
mbuntirea performanelor de exploatare ale
acestui tip de repere prin aplicarea unor straturi din
materiale avansate, cu caracteristici superioare,
numai pe acele tronsoane ale cror rol funcional
reclam astfel de caracteristici. Placarea se face prin
deformare plastic de nalt precizie la rece,
folosindu-se procedeul de forjare rotativ pe dorn cu
avans axial, la care piesa de baz joac rol de dorn
iar materialul de adaos pe cel de semifabricat
tubular, aa cum rezult din Figura 4 n care buca
din material de adaos este reprezentat n seciune.







Dup forjarea bucei din material de adaos pe
arbore, ntre cele dou semifabricate rezult o
strngere puternic, similar fretrii ns, pentru
fixarea suplimentar a stratului aplicat, se
prelucreaz pe arbore o degajare cu lungimea l dictat
de rolul funcional al tronsonului i cu diametru d
1
,
Figura 5.
Materialul de adaos se debiteaz dintr-un
semifabricat tubular cu un diametru interior care s
permit introducerea acestuia pe arbore pn la zona
de aplicare. Debitarea trebuie s se fac prin metoda
volumetric, astfel nct volumul bucei-semifabricat
s fie egal cu
( ) l d d
2
1
2
2
4

. (1)

Dac d
2
=d
0
, atunci volumul bucei trebuie s fie
egal cu volumul degajrii.
Succesiunea operaiilor tehnologice pentru placare
arborilor prin forjare rotativ la rece este urmtoarea:
1. Prelucrare preliminar strunjire degajare
(opional);
2. Debitare volumetric a bucei volum
semifabricat = volum degajare (volum strat de adaos);
3. Asamblare preliminar folosirea unor
dispozitive care s asigure fixarea bucei la poziia
dorit i alungirea acesteia ntr-o singur direcie;
4. Forjarea rotativ a bucei;
5. Control dimensional i structural.
Dac tronsonul placat se afl n imediata
vecintatea a unui tronson cu diametru mai mare, care
nu permite deplasarea axial a matrielor, atunci se
poate aplica procedeul de forjare rotativ cu avans
radial, la care lungimea matrielor este egal cu
lungimea l a degajrii.

5. PLACAREA BUCELOR

Placarea pieselor tubulare prin deformare
plastic de nalt precizie la rece, conform noului
concept, se face la fel ca la arbori, prin procedeul de
forjare rotativ pe dorn cu avans axial, spre deosebire
ns de placarea arborilor, n acest caz chiar se
folosete o scul cu rol de dorn. Pentru aceasta, pe
piesa tubular (de exemplu din oel), n zona ce
trebuie placat, se execut pe periferie cteva guri,
Figura 6, dup care n aceasta se introduce buca de
adaos (de exemplu din bronz), de diametru mai mic.
Piesele asamblate preliminar se forjeaz pe dorn i, n
Fig.4. Conceptul placrii arborilor prin forjare
rotativ poziionarea semifabricatelor:
a la nceputul forjrii;
b n timpul forjrii;
c la sfritul forjrii.
a)
b)
c)
Fig.5. Schema placrii arborilor prin forjare
rotativ:
1 - arbore;
2 - material de adaos;
3 - matri.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

70
acest fel, materialul bucei interioare de bronz va
ptrunde n gurile bucei de oel formnd o
asamblare rezistent.








i n acest caz debitarea materialului de adaos
trebuie s se fac prin metoda volumetric, astfel
nct volumul bucei-semifabricat s fie egal cu
volumul stratului aplicat. Cunoscndu-se diametrul
dornului (d
1
), lungimea final i grosimea final a
stratului aplicat, se poate calcula volumul acestuia.
Succesiunea operaiilor tehnologice pentru
placare pieselor tubulare prin forjare rotativ la rece
este urmtoarea:
1. Prelucrare preliminar gurire (opional);
2. Debitare volumetric a bucei;

3. Asamblare preliminar a semifabricatelor;
4. Introducerea semifabricatelor pe dorn;
5. Forjarea rotativ a bucelor asamblate;
6. Control dimensional i structural.

6. CONCLUZII

Noile tendine n proiectarea orientat spre realizarea
de componente cu caracteristici avansate sugereaz
aplicarea conceptelor de proiectare multi-material i
multistrat;
Dezvoltarea proceselor de fabricaie a pieselor multi-
material permite proiectanilor s aleag materiale
diferite pentru zone diferite ale aceleiai piese, cu
scopul de a mbunti funcionalitatea general a
produsului;
Noul concept de placare prezentat n aceast lucrare
presupune, att pentru placarea pieselor tip arbore ct
i pentru placarea pieselor tip buc, utilizarea
procesului de prelucrare prin forjare rotativ la rece,
pe dorn, cu avans axial (cu diferena c n primul caz
arborele placat joac rol de dorn);
Procesul de prelucrare este reproductibil i permite
fabricaia de piese cu abateri mici i o rugozitate a
suprafeei similar celei obinute prin rectificare;
Strngerea dintre componentele asamblrii este foarte
mare, similar celei obinute prin fretare;
Pentru unele aplicaii, noua tehnologie nlocuiete
tehnologiile clasice de placare prin metode chimice,
electrochimice, metalurgice.

MULUMIRI
Acest articol a aprut ca rezultat al Contractului de
cercetare nr. 71-085/2007 finanat de Ministerul
Educaiei i Cercetrii prin Centrul Naional de
Management Programe.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Chelu, Gh. i Bendic, V., Tehnologii neconvenionale de
matriare i forjare, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1996;
2. Popovits D. , Bimetale , Editura Facla Timioara,1982;
3. Radiucenco Iu. S., Rotaionnoe objatia , Mainostroenie,
Moskva, 1972;
4. Sonsino C. M., Light-weigh design changes using high-strength
steels, Fraunhofer-Institute for Durability and Systems
Reliability (LBF), Darmstad-Germany, 2005,
http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2005/LINK/171.pdf;
5. chiopu V. .a., Cercetri privind elaborarea unui nou
procedeu de fabricare prin deformare plastic de nalt precizie
a pieselor tubulare cu profil interior complex, S. C. PRESUM
PROIECT S.A. Iai, Contract cercetare nr. 545/2000, cod tem
B5;
6. *** Rotary swaging, HMP Maschinenfabrik & Umformtechnik,
http://www.hmp.de/sprache2/n179093/n.html;
7. *** Rotary swaging, FELSS GmbH,
http://www.felss.de/felssEnglish/siteStart.html;
8. *** Rotary swaging processes, Torrington Swager and Vaill
Inc., http://www.torrington-
machinery.com/process/rotary_swaging.html;
9. *** Rotary swaging, Metall Technik MENGES GmbH,
http://en.metalltechnik-menges.de/swaging.html;
10. *** MTM Metalizing -
http://www.mtmmetalizing.com.sg/mp.html;
11. *** Liquidmetal

Technologies, Inc. -
http://coatings.liquidmetal.com/future.applications.asp.
c)
Fig.6. Conceptul placrii pieselor tubulare prin
forjare rotativ poziionarea semifabricatelor:
a la nceputul forjrii;
b n timpul forjrii;
c la sfritul forjrii.
a)
b)
Fig.7. Schema placrii pieselor tubulare prin
forjare rotativ:
1 - dorn;
2 - piesa tubular;
3 - material de adaos;
4 - matri.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008 71



BIOMASA, UN COMBUSTIBIL CURAT I REGENERABIL
PENTRU PRODUCEREA DE ENERGIE IN INSTALAII
MODERNE DE GAZEIFICARE


Ing. Elena Laslu; ing. Gabriel Laslu; ing. Gheorghe Badea; ing. Gheorghe Sarbu

AIM Bucuresti , S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucuresti, ROMANIA, vsarbu@ictcm.ro

REZUMAT: Gazeificarea biomasei, completa conversie a biomasei ntr-un
combustibil gazos prin nclzirea ei ntr-un mediu propice, aer, oxigen, sau abur
promite s devin o surs de baz, de energie electric. Gazeificarea biomasei este
un proces demonstrat n obinerea energiei electrice via cazane i turbine cu abur,
motoare termice, turbine cu gaze i se dovedete de asemenea potrivit pentru
anumite tipuri de celule de combustibil.

ABSTRACT: Biomass gasification is a complete conversion of biomass in a gas
fuell by heating in an optimum medium, air, oxsygen, or steam promise to become a
basic sourse of electric energy.Gasification of biomass is a real process for obtine of
electric energy in boilers steam turbine, heat engins, gas turbine and argumentatif of
harmony for many fuell cells.

CUVINTE CHEIE: biomasa, gazeificare, energie regenerabila, cogenerare.

KEY WORDS: biomass. Gasication, clean energy, cogeneration.


1. INTRODUCERE

Surse primare de energie: trecut, prezent si viitor.
Biomasa, in special lemnul, este o sursa
istorica de energie pentru foc, cuptoare si sobe.
In timpul Revoluiei Industriale, carbunele a
inlocuit biomasa datorita continutului sau mai mare
de energie, dar si pentru pretul scazut. La inceputul
secolului 20, petrolul ( care a fost descoperit in
America in 1859) reprezenta doar 4% din energia
globala. Cateva decenii mai tarziu, acesta devine
cea mai importanta sursa de enrgie.
Tarile dezvoltate sunt mult mai dependente de
petrol, acesta reprezantand 96% din energia folosit
pentru transport. Avand in vedere ca cererea va
creste cu peste 40% pana in 2020, este posibil ca
gazul natural, care reprezinta 25% din cererea
globala de energie sa ia locul petrolului.
Aceasta viziune este sustinuta si de
ingrijorarea fata de incalzirea globala. Lasand
deoparte era gazului natural, carbunele ar putea fi
folosit mai mult, cu conditia eliminarii CO2.
Totusi, combustibilul fosil este pe cale de
disparitie. Este posibil ca vechiul combustibil,
biomasa, sa revina? Anual, prin fotosinteza se
stocheaza de la 5 la 8 ori mai multa energie decat
consumul unui om din toate sursele.
Biomasa, in prezent a patra cea mai mare
sursa de energie in lume, ar putea ajunge surs
principal de energie. S-au realizat mai multe scenarii
pentru viitor care prevad o crestere a consumului de
biocombustibili intre anii 2005-2050.
Gazeificarea este mai eficient dect
arderea direct a biomasei n focare, deoarece n
primul rnd pierderile de exergie (lucru mecanic
disponibil) datorit schimbului de energie termic
intern sunt mai reduse; de la 14-16% n cazul
arderii, la 5-7% n cazul gazeificrii, n timp ce
reaciile chimice sunt relativ eficente pentru ambele
procedee, iar n al doilea rnd datorit emisiilor n
mediu mai bine controlate.
Gazeificarea biomasei, completa conversie a
biomasei ntr-un combustibil gazos prin nclzirea ei
ntr-un mediu propice, aer, oxigen, sau abur promite s
devin o surs de baz, de energie electric.
Gazeificarea biomasei este un proces demonstrat n
obinerea energiei electrice via cazane i turbine cu
abur, motoare termice, turbine cu gaze i se dovedete
de asemenea potrivit pentru anumite tipuri de celule
de combustibil (fuell cells).


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008 72
2. UTILIZAREA TEHNOLOGIEI
DE CONVERSIE A BIOMASEI

Cercetrile privitoare la utilizarea tehnologiei de
conversie a biomasei, n singaz, prin gazeificare
sunt vechi, de peste 100 de ani. n epoca modern
se caut soluii pentru gsirea unor soluii de
ieftenire a instalaiei astfel ca ea s devin atractiv
i pentru puteri termice mici.
Privitor la preurile specifice practicate n anii 80-
90 n lucrarea [9], se arat c multe dintre
gazeificatoare (de ordinul de mrime 100 kW) au
un pre specific mediu de 380 $/KW
e
pentru
instalaia de gazeificare i n jur de 150 $/KW
e
,
pentru reactorul de baz.
Totui, pentru sisteme mici preurile devin extrem de
ridicate. Astfel, o instalaie de gazeificare pentru 10
kW
e
cost n jur de 840 $/KW
e
, iar gazeificatorul cost
350 $/KW
e
. De aceea aceste preuri pot s fac
gazeificatoarele neeconomice.
Aceasta explic construciile de gazeificatoare de mare
capacitate de felul celor din Filipine, Brazilia etc.
Preurile specifice practicate n prezent sunt
indicate n tabelul 1.

Tabelul 1. Costurile producerii energiei electrice
din biomas

Energia rezultat Tehnologia de conversie Cost pe kWe instalat
Electricitate Combustie (<500 kW) 2800
Electricitate Gazeificare 2000
Electricitate Abur/Gaz (Instalaii mari) 1700

Biomasa ca resurs de combustibili este vast, ea
cuprinde reziduuri de pdure, culturi energetice,
deeuri din prelucrarea lemnului, pleav de la
grne, celuloz, tulpini diverse, ierburi, reziduuri
animale (vite, porci i psri de curte) i reziduuri
de la procesarea hranei, toate putnd fi utilizate la
producerea energiei.
Biomasa are un mare potenial de a fi folosit drept un
combustibil curat i regenerabil pentru producerea de
instalaii moderne de transmitere a energiei.
Biomasa din deeuri lemnoase are o putere calorific
de 18-19,5 MJ/kg, valoare care este deabia jumtate
din cea a gazului natural sau a combustibilului din
petrol. Acest dezavantaj cuplat cu densitatea mic a
biomasei arat c biomasa are o slab densitate
energetic fa de combustibilii fosili i de aceea un
pre ridicat al transportului care constituie o barier n
cale dezvoltrii unor instalaii mari.
n prezent, n Uniunea European, 4% din necesarul
de energie este asigurat din biomas. La nivelul UE,
se estimeaz crearea a cca. 300.000 de noi locuri de
munc n mediul rural, prin exploatarea biomasei.


Fig 1. Emisia de gaze cu efect de ser

O mare preocupare privind protecia mediului este
cea privitoare la emisia de CO2 din arderea
combustibililor fosili. Cnd combustibilii fosili sunt
ari, carbonul din combustibil reacioneaz cu
oxigenul din aer pentru a produce CO2 un gaz cu
efect de ser. CO2 contribuie la efectul de ser n
proporie de 50%. Acesta este motivul pentru care
se studiaz creterea coninutului de CO2 din
atmosfer.
Unul dintre remediile pentru limitarea creterii
coninutului de CO2 n atmosfer este utilizarea
biomasei n producerea energiei. Biomasa este un
material organic, compus n principal din carbon i
hidrogen.



Fig 2. Ciclul CO2 n natur

Cnd biomasa este ars, se degaj CO2 n
atmosfer. Acesta este absorbit de plante prin
fotosintez, pstrnd acelai coninut de CO2 n
atmosfer.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008 73


Fig. 3. Achii i pelete

3. CONCLUZII

Biomasa n Romnia
n Romnia rezervele de biomas sunt n
special deeurile de lemn, deeurile agricole,
gunoiul menajer i culturile energetice. Producerea
de biomas nu reprezint doar o resurs de energie
regenerabil ci i o oportunitate semnificativ
pentru dezvoltarea rural durabil. Potenialul
energetic al biomasei este de circa 7.594 mii tep/an
(tone echivalent petrol), din care 15,5% reprezint
reziduuri din exploatri forestiere i lemn de foc,
6,4% rumegu i alte resturi din lemn, 63,2%
deeuri agricole, 7,2% deeuri menajere i 7,7%
biogaz. La aceeai categorie trebuie menionat i
potenialul pentru producerea biocombustibililor.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Mark Jan Prins; Thermodynamic analysis of biomass
gasification and torrefaction; Teza doctorat Eindhoven
University of Technology
2. Krzysztof J. Ptasinski_, Mark J. Prins, Anke Pierik;
Exergetic evaluation of biomass gasification; Department of
Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of
Technology, P.O. Box 513 (Helix, STW 1.22), 5600 MB
Eindhoven, The Netherlands; ELSEVIER 2006; online:
www.sciencedirect.com
3. Marja P. Houben, Analysis of tar removal in a partial
oxidation burner. Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit
Eindhoven, 2004. Proefschrift. . ISBN 90-386-2845-5 NUR 961
4. Baron RE, Porter SH, Hammond OH (1976). Chemical
equilibria in carbon-hydrogen-oxygen systems. Cambridge: MIT
Press.
5. Cairns EJ, Tevebaugh AD (1964). CHO gas phase
compositions in equilibrium with carbon, and carbon deposition
boundaries at one atmosphere. Journal of Chem. and Eng. Data
9(3):453-462.
6. Desrosiers R (1979). Thermodynamics of gas-char
reactions. In: Reed TB, editor. A survey of biomass gasification.
Colorado: Solar Energy Research Institute.
7. Double JM, Bridgwater AV (1985). Sensitivity of
theoretical gasifier performance to system parameters. In: Palz
W, Coombs J, Hall DO, editors. Energy from biomass, 3rd EC
conference, Venice. p. 915-919
8. A V BRIDGWATER Bio-Energy Research Group, The
future for biomass pyrolysis and gasification: status,
opportunities and policies for Europe; November 2002 :, Aston
University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
9. Gasification World Database 2007; Current Industry
Status;
10. BIOMASS GASIFICATION - Anil K. Rajvanshi Director,
Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute, PHALTAN-415523,
Maharashtra, India
11. Biomass Feasibility Study; Prepared For Ak-Chin
Indian Community December 2005 Final Technical Report;
DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14022, A000.
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SUMMIT OVERVIEW
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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

75



SISTEME MODULARE
PENTRU CONSTRUCIA DE MAINI


Marin Gheorghe, Raluca Magdalena Ni

SC. ICTCM SA, Bucharest, ROMANIA, raluca@ictcm.ro


REZUMAT
Lucrarea se refera la sistemele modulare utilizate in constructia de masini in scopul
crestererii gradului de modulizare a componentelor si dezvoltarea de noi
caracteristici si functiuni, in vederea adaptarii la noi posibilitati de fabricatie,
vizand cresterea productivitatii si a calitatii productiei.

ABSTRACT
The paper refers to the modular systems in the machine tools design in the purpose of
modulisation improvement of the components and new characteristics development
and new functions in order to adapt at new fabrication possibilities, taking in
consideration the productivity and quality production improvement.

KEYWORDS: technological system, modular system, production flexibility,
agregation, cost optimization.

CUVINTE CHEIE: sistem tehnologic, sisteme modulare, flexibilitate productie,
agregatizare, optimizare costuri


1. INTRODUCERE

Teoria sistemelor tinde sa devina o metoda
generala de gandire, comuna tuturor stiintelor, oferind
posibilitatea de a realiza legaturi intre domenii aparent
indepartate. In abordarea sistemica se acorda prioritate
ansamblului fata de elementele sale componente si, in
special, este studiata dinamica relatiilor dintre aceste
elemente care genereaza o continua transformare a
raporturilor dintre ansamblu si mediu.

2. CONDITII TEHNICE
ALE SISTEMELOR

Ca urmare a acestei abordari este prezenta o
imagine sugestiva a unui sistem, ca fiind o cutie care
inchide un numar de elemente, legate intre ele prin relatii
bine stabilite. La randul lor, relatiile dintre sistem si
mediu sunt intrarile (u) si iesirile (y); actiunile mediului
asupra sistemului fiind intrarile u iar actiunile
sistemului asupra mediului , iesirile y (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Relatiile dintre sistem si mediu
Functiunile sistemului sunt descrise de relatiile
dintre intrarile si iesirile sistemului iar structura sa
este definita de natura elementelor care il compun si
relatiile stabilite intre acestea. Integrarea elementelor
in cadrul sistemului genereaza legea conform careia
valoarea unui sistem este mai mare decat suma
valorilor partilor componente. Sistemul tehnologic
este definit ca un ansamblu structurat de mijloace de
productie, legate intre ele prin relatii bine stabilite, ale
carui functiuni sunt sarcinile de munca avute in
vedere. Notiunea de sistem tehnologic introduce in
modul de gandire tehnic un concept unitar, valabil
pentru orice proces de munca ce face sinteza intre
metodele de munca si echipamentele necesare
aplicarii lor, iar dezvoltarea acestui concept conduce
la punerea in valoarea a numeroase cai de crestere a
eficientei procesului de munca si de reducere a
cheltuielilor de investitii.
Maniera de a gandi la nivel de sistem impune
elementelor componente ale acestuia calitatea
suplimentara de interconectabilitate. Astfel fiecare din
echipamentele care functioneaza in sistem este
prevazut cu o interfata ce asigura legatura intre partea
functional-specifica a elementului si celelalte
subsisteme. Optimizarea tehnologica nu se poate obtine
decat prin adaptarea operativa a mijloacelor tehnice de
productie la aceste cerinte de innoire (fig. 2).

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

76
In acest context, si datorita progresului tehnic
accelerat, dinamismul sistemelor tehnologice impune
flexibilitatea ca o caracteristica dominanta a industriei
moderne.
Dupa legile teoriei modelarii dinamice a
sistemelor in care marimile evolueaza exponential,
ritmul de crestere a informatiilor tehnice determina o
diversificare accentuata a produselor si tehnologiilor.


Fig. 2. Conditiile optimizarii tehnologice

O consecinta a diversificarii este cresterea
cheltuielilor de introducere a noii tehnologii pentru
achizitionarea de masini, instalatii, utilaje, dispozitive,
scule si sisteme de control. Cu cat aceste echipamente
vor avea un grad de specializare mai ridicat (speciale
sau unicat), costurile de pregatire a fabricatiei vor fi
mai mari in masura gradului de diversificare (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Costurile de pregatire a fabricatiei

In aceasta situatie se impune, evident,
optimizarea, in functie de diversitate. Solutia optima
se gaseste in punctul in care suma acestor cheltuieli
este minima.
Importanta economica a optimizarii, dependenta
de evolutia dinamismului tehnologic, este cu atat mai
mare si este legata de structura costului produselor in
care ponderea cheltuielilor de cercetare-proiectare
este intr-o continua crestere.
Cheltuielile de dotare cu echipamente de
fabricatie si cele pentru exploatarea lor scad
considerabil daca acestea vor fi nediferentiate,
universale si reutilizabile, pentru ca resursele
financiare necesare reutilizarii acestora se vor imparti
la o cantitate mai mare de produse, iar timpul de
asimilare va fi mult diminuat.
Din aceste motive, consideram ca standardizarea,
unificarea si tipizarea constituie solutia pentru
rezolvarea contradictiei dintre diversificare si
unificare.

3. DESPRE SISTEMELE DE MODULE

Unificarea si tipizarea tehnologiilor, crearea
sistemelor de masini reprezinta nivelul superior al
procesului de rationalizare a diversificarii, proces care
se prelungeste pe masura dezvoltarii diferitelor
subsisteme.
Daca unificarea si tipizarea tehnologiilor urmarea
acoperirea cat mai completa a cerintelor economice cu
un sortiment cat mai redus de utilaje diferite, tipizarea
constructiva are ca obiect structura insasi a acestor
utilaje, metodele prin care configuratia acestora poate
fi mai bine adaptata cerintelor functionale, in
conditiile unei diversitati cat mai restranse.
Procesul de tipizare constructiva poate incepe in
momentul in care obiectivul unui proiect nu mai este
un unicat ci o grupa de produse care au o functiune
comuna. Trecerea de la proiectarea unui unicat la
proiectarea unui sistem reprezinta saltul calitativ in
activitatea de conceptie.
O grupa sau o familie de produse este o multime
de elemente, subansambluri sau produse inrudite care
au o functiune sau un parametru comun. Realizarea
unei familii de produse astfel incat in constructia
diferitilor membrii ai acesteia sa se regaseasca
elemente sau componente identice defineste conceptia
modulara.
Modulul este un element constructiv al unui
sistem care indeplineste o functiune bine stabilita si
formeaza un obiect fizic de-sine-statator. Conceptia
modulara, ca element de baza al unificarii
constructive, reprezinta una din caile prin care
tehnologia contemporana incearca sa dea o solutie
dilemei diversificare-unificare. O mare varietate de
constructii, din orice domeniu, se realizeaza pornind
de la un numar limitat de elemente care permit
obtinerea unor structuri complexe de masini,
dispozitive, utilaje si echipamente prin combinarea
intr-o infinitate de variante ale acelorasi componente,
denumite module.
Conceptul sistemelor de module reprezinta o
investitie anticipativa de munca, care ocupa un loc
important in efortul pe plan mondial de creatie
tehnologica.
Procedura descompunerii unui sistem tehnologic
intr-un numar de subsisteme, fiecare cu anumite
functiuni permite atribuirea calitatii de modul pentru
oricare din aceste subsisteme, ca ansamblu fizic de-
sine-statator. El este capabil sa-si indeplineasca
functiunea sa intr-o mare varietate de conditii
exterioare si astfel sistemul tehnologic este rezultatul
unei combinatii ale acestor module.
Ca orice subansamblu al unei masini, modulul
indeplineste o anumita functiune dar prezinta
urmatoarele caracteristici suplimentare:
- caracterul sau de-sine-statator care ii ofera
posibilitatea de a functiona independent si deci
de a fi testat in acest mod.
- capacitatea sa de a-si indeplini functiunea intr-o
mare varietate de conditii externe, altfel spus, de

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

77
a fi interconectat cu alte module din cadrul unei
multimi de sisteme de rang superior.
Aceste caracteristici ale conceptului modern de
modul au efecte deosebit de favorabile asupra
tehnologiei.
In toate domeniile constructiilor de masini,
utilaje, aparate, echipamente, instalatii, nave, in
constructia de locuinte, cladiri moderne, poduri, hale
industriale se utilizeaza tot mai mult componente
realizate pentru o familie de produse cu forme,
dimensiuni si caracteristici prestabilite care alcatuiesc
structuri mai mult sau mai putin complexe in functie
de scopul urmarit.

4. DETERMINAREA UNEI
STRUCTURI MODULARE

O masina-unealta de mare productivitate
conceputa pentru prelucrarea unei anumite piese (o
masina unicat) este construita din componente si
subansambluri pe care le regasim si la alte masini de
acelasi tip sau diferite ca tipodimensiuni si
caracteristici. In compunerea lor intalnim capete de
forta, mese rotative cu indexare, sanii de avans, cutii
de viteze, scule si portscule, blocuri hidraulice,
dispozitive de orientare si fixare a semifabricatelor
care pot fi realizate pe baza conceptului de
modularizare.
Aceasta idee trebuie sa stea la baza celor mai variate
si complexe structuri tehnologice, deoarece constructia
modulara constituie solutia cea mai simpla si eficienta de a
crea noul cu minimum de elemente de noutate.
Daca ne aflam in fata unei probleme de proiectare
si constructie a unui sistem tehnologic, masina, aparat
sau echipament, descrierea cea mai simpla este aceea a
unei cutii S cu intrarile u si iesirile y. Rezolvarea
problemei presupune determinarea unei structuri
modulare corespunzatoare unei anumite descompuneri in
subsistem ca cea din figura 4.
Exista posibilitatea de a defini un numar mare
de variante privind descompunerea sistemului S in
subsisteme.
Solutia optima de proiectare consta in alegerea
acelei variante care corespunde cu disponibilitatea de
a introduce un numar cat mai mare de subsisteme
cunoscute, identificate sub forma de module existente
si utilizabile

Fig. 4. Determinarea unei structuri modulare
In acest mod exista certitudinea ca sistemul va
functiona bine, poate fi realizat in timpul cel mai scurt
si are cele mai bune sanse de a fi un succes tehnico-
economic.
Ca o concluzie, se poate spune ca , orice proces
de proiectare a unui nou sistem trebuie sa parcurga
urmatoarele etape:
1. definirea sistemului prin intrarile si iesirile sale.
2. descompunerea sistemului in subsisteme prin
evidentierea variantelor.
3. identificarea subsistemelor cunoscute, disponibile
sub forma de module.
Legile dezvoltarii tuturor proceselor productiei
industriale conduc, odata cu cresterea nomenclatorului
masinilor si mecanismelor, spre o generalizare a
solutiilor constructive, tehnologiei de fabricatie,
exploatarii si reparatiei acestora.
Un sistem tehnic complex se compune din zeci
si sute de mii de elemente constructive finite, care se
regasesc, in majoritatea structurilor, deja incorporate
in mai multe produse destinate anumitor ramuri
industriale sau in constructia de masini in general.
Din analiza structurilor produselor fabricate se
desprind urmatoarele concluzii:
- cu cat gradul de separare al unui produs in
parti componente este mai mare, cu atat creste
posibilitatea de folosire a elementelor
constructive in alte constructii.
- cu cat gradul de sinteza a elementelor unei
constructii este mai ridicat, cu atat este mai
mare varietatea de combinatii constructive ce
poate fi conceputa din aceste elemente si cu
atat sunt mai mari seriile lor de fabricatie si
stabilitatea procesului de productie al acestora.
Aceste considerente conduc spre unificarea
metodelor de realizare a masinilor, solutiilor si
formelor constructive, a metodelor de exploatare si
reparare.
Incepand cu specializarea pe produse,
constructia de masini a trecut, pe baza folosirii
principiilor unificarii si agregatizarii la specializarea
pe subansambluri, agregate si componente.
Agregatizarea este organic legata de unificare,
reprezinta o dezvoltare logica a acesteia si consta in
folosirea de subansambluri (blocuri) unificate
constructiv, combinate astfel incat sa formeze variante
de echipamente tehnologice adaptate unor conditii de
lucru cat mai diverse.
Modulele sunt interschimbabile functional si
constructiv, au proprietati de convertibilitate si
reversibilitate repetata. Agregatizarea este si ea o
forma a conceptiei modulare.
Particularitatea elementelor unificate consta in
aceea ca ele capata intrebuintari multiple care, de regula,
depasesc granitele ramurii industriale unde au fost
produse, avand loc astfel o unificare a masinilor in
domeniile industriale invecinate, paralel cu unificarea
masinilor din cadrul fiecarei ramuri in parte.


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

78
Unificarea masinilor, subansamblurilor,
agregatelor si, crearea, intr-o faza superioara, a unor
familii si sisteme de masini se bazeaza pe
similitudinea cinematicii si sinteza mecanismelor
acestora, a caror analiza permite sa se constate ca
multe masini care, la prima vedere, par diferite, sunt,
de fapt, identice din punct de vedere functional.
Elementele de baza care faciliteaza tipizarea si
universalizarea echipamentelor sunt prezentate in
figura 5.



Fig. 5. Elementele de baza care faciliteaza tipizarea
si universalizarea echipamentelor

5. CONCLUZII

Progresul tehnologic accelerat si dinamismul
sistemelor tehnologice impune ca, caracteristica
dominanta a industriei moderne flexibilitatea.
Un sistem tehnic complex se compune din zeci
si sute de mii de elemente constructive finite, care se
regasesc, in majoritatea structurilor, deja incorporate
in mai multe produse destinate anumitor ramuri
industriale sau in constructia de masini in general.
Din acest motiv, cu cat gradul de separare al
unui produs in parti componente este mai mare, cu
atat creste posibilitatea de folosire a elementelor
constructive in alte constructii.
Gradul de sinteza a elementelor unei constructii
este mai ridicat, cu atat este mai mare varietatea de
combinatii constructive ce poate fi conceputa din
aceste elemente si cu atat sunt mai mari seriile lor de
fabricatie si stabilitatea procesului de productie al
acestora.
Din aceste considerente conduc unificarea
metodelor de realizare a masinilor, solutiilor si
formelor constructive, a metodelor de exploatare si
reparare contribuie in mod semnificativ la cresterea
productivitatii muncii si a calitatii productiei.
BIBLIOGRAFIE

[1] Costea A., Rachieru N., Flexibilitatea i performanele
echipamentelor de prelucrare Optimizarea proiectrii
dispozitivelor, Ed. BREN 2005.
[2] *** HALDER Vorrichtungs konstruction System 70.
[3] *** WDS Waharton Ltd. Modular Fixturing System Anglia.
[4] *** TECMA Attrezzature modulari Italia.
[5] *** PREMATEX Montages modulaires Switzerland.
[6] *** AMFO Modulares Vorrichtungssystem, Andreas Maier
GmbH & Co Germania.
[7] *** SEM 64 Dispozitive din elemente modulate, Universitatea
Politehnica Bucureti.
[8] Ungureanu I., Iordache M., Dispozitive de fabricare, Editura
Universitii din Piteti, 2002.

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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

79



ELECTRIC ARC THERMAL SPRAYING OF CuAl9Fe3
AND CuSn6P ALLOYS, AN EFFICIENT SOLUTION
TO OBTAIN REQUIRED COATINGS FOR SLIDER
BEARINGS


Valentin Mihailescu, Gheorghe Badea, Leonard Teodoru

Fundatia Profesor Constantin Popovici, Bucureti, ROMANIA, e-mail: lteodoru@gmail.com


ABSTRACT: The article contains a synthesis of the results from tests on the
mentioned alloy. Performed tests are grouped into two categories, namely:
a) tests that are specific to thermal spray deposition comprising optimal
parameters for spraying depending on the pursued aim;
b) tests that are specific to the deposition wear behaviour, respectively
tribological tests.
The synthesis of these tests defines the behavior during service of mentioned alloy,
therefore its fields of use.

KEYWORDS: thermal spraying materials, electric arc, coatings, slide bearings


1.INTRODUCTION

The tests were conducted aimed at
assimilation of internal production thermal spraying
materials and determination of the main areas of use.

2. THE PROCESS OF THERMAL
SPRAYING

The method used in the research was the
electric arc.It consists of:
- melting the added material with an electric
arc formed between two wires connected to
a rectifier poles;
- spraying the fusion in very fine particles
and transporting them to the loading area
with compressed air;
Arc wire thermal spray process is one of the
most used methods, because it allows solving a 60-
70 -% of the issues regarding filling of mechanical
parts and having the most accessible source of
energy. But compared to the flame oxigaz process,
for example, the electric arc process has the
following additional advantages:
- Lower energy consumption;
- High productivity;
- Reduced maintenance expenses;
- Increased adherence of material deposited
on the material basis;
The sprayed metal is in terms of metallurgy, a
new metal material with different physical properties
of the original metal before spraying it is generally
more callous, more breakable,more porous than the
original metal.
Because during the sprayingt the heating
temperature is controlled and does not exceed 150
0
-
200
0
the process is called "cold".
The experiments were made with an
installation of thermal spraying with electric arc
produced Romanian type Terospray E3 executed by
IPEE SA Curtea de Arges with the following
technical characteristics:
- power-rated15 KW
- spray-voltage..24-35 V
- intensity current spraying.......100-350 A
- pressure compressed air.. 4-6 bar
- compressed air-consumption .0,8 Nm3
- diameter of the wire...1,6-2,5 mm

3. THE TEST METHODOLOGY

As for a particular material deposited by
spraying the thermal characteristics depend mainly
on the parameters used for spraying, the research
laboratory has pursued on the basis of optimizing
their measurements and physical characteristics of
tribological layers deposited.
Methodology testing included the following steps:
-preparation plant and test glass;
-determination the minimum voltage
spray;
-determination of the current tension
spray;
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

80
-determination of the air pressure spray;
-determination of the distance spray;
-determination of compressed air pressure.
4. PREPARATION EQUIPMENT
AND SAMPLE TEST

For the sampling installation of thermal
spraying has been verified, the wire electrical
nozzles, were replaced and were adjusted, according
to the technical equipments book and the correct
functioning of the air regulators , was verified the
compressed air filters were washed.
Preparationof the test sample comprised two stages:
a) degreasing area for filing;
b) increasing surface roughness for filing;
The material of the test sample was OLC 45.
Degreasing surfaces was made by washing
with toluene. Increased roughness was made by the
blast corundum 125, in a absorption blast installation
at pressure of 4.5 bar. After the blast remove dust
gasp by compressed air. The same type of training
also applies to parts that are submitted through the
various layers of thermal spraying.

1. THE CHARACTERISTICS
OF INVESTIGATED MATERIALS


Table no.1. Composition chemical investigated
materials.

2. DETERMINATION OF THE
MINIMUM SPRAY VOLTAGE

Minimum spray voltage was determined using
the devices for measuring the plant, respectively
voltmeter, ampermeter and pressure gauges. For a
given current chosen at a value of 180 A the tension
at which the arch is still stable was determined. This
is the minimum voltage of the spraying.
Minimum tensions caused such spraying were
the following: 28V for bronze with aluminium
CuAl9Fe3 and 24V for bronze with tin CuSn6P.
Current was elected to the amount mentioned by
180 A taking into account the ability to continue
spraying the plant and previous experience long-lasting
stability on the operation of this type of installation.

7. RESULTS OF THE TESTS

The tests were divided into two groups,
namely: the first group for determining the specific
parameters of a maximum adherence and the second
group for determining the best characteristics of
resistance to wear.
There have been carried out series of three test
samples simultaneously cooled with compressed air
during the filling in order to maintain the
temperature in the prescribed limits.
Table no.1 show the adherence values and the
average adherence values based on CuAl9Fe3
spraying parameters.
The optimum values from maximum adherence
point of new are obtain through the variation within
certain limits of these parameters: spray voltage,
compressed air pressure and spraying distance.
The average adherence value depending on
variable parameters from our tests are indicated in
diagram no.1. It is noticeable that we get the
maximum adherence value for the following
spraying parameters: U=32V, p
a
=2,5bar, h=80mm,
using an amperage of 180A.
The adherence measurement has been conducted
using the METCO initiated machine that measures
adherence by detaching the layer through traction.
Compared to the standard method it has the
advantage of not using adhesive. The adherence
values from table no. 2 are similar to the values
determined through the standard method by
companies specialized in thermal spraying.

Table no.2. Values of the adherence for
various parameters of spraying bronze CuAl9Fe3

Parameters of spraying Adhesion for test glass
No. (N/mm2)
Adhesion
average
The name
U
(V)
I
(A)
H
(mm)
pa
(bar)
1 2 3 (N/mm
2
)
28 180 100 2,0 11,43 11,78 11,58 11,6
30 180 100 2,0 13,74 13,92 12,72 13,46
32 180 100 2,0 14,3 14,02 13,7 14,01
Determi
nation
of the
tension
spray
34 180 100 2,0 12,74 12,24 12,1 12,36
32 180 100 1,8 12,84 11,60 12,60 12,35
32 180 100 2,0 13,83 14,10 13,67 13,87
32 180 100 2,5 14,72 14,92 14,8 14,81
Determinati
on of the
pressure
compressed
air
32 180 100 3,0 12,6 11,8 11,8 12,07
32 180 60 2,5 12,24 12,30 11,92 12,21
32 180 80 2,5 15,35 14,96 15,67 15,33
32 180 100 2,5 14,60 14,71 14,85 14,72
Determinati
on of the
distance
spray
32 180 120 2,5 12,10 11,30 11,25 11,55


Composition %
Material
Al Fe Sn
P
Cu
Size Status
CuAl9Fe3 8,46 0,56 - - rest 2 loudly
CuSn6P - - 6,71 0,2 rest 2 loudly
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

81

Diagram.1. The value of adherence based on
voltage, air presure and distance for CuAl9Fe3
Table no.3 presents the adherence and average
adherence values based on CuSn6P bronze spraying
parameters. The try outs have been carried out using
the same optimization method for spraying parameters,
through succesive selections in order to obtain the
maximum adherence, as the aluminium bronze.
The values found in test were much
smaller. The test carried out until this point were
aimed at obtaining the best adherence value.

Table no. 3. Adherence values for diferent spraying
parameters for CuSn6P alloy
Spraying parameteers
Aherence value for
speciment no.
(N/mm
2
)
Average
adherence
Name
U
(V)
I
(A)
H
(mm)
pa
(bar)
1 2 3 (N/mm
2
)
24 180 100 2,0 3.45 4.12 4.00 3.86
28 180 100 2,0 4.93 5.02 4.81 4.92
30 180 100 2,0 5.29 5.17 5.17 5.21
Determinati
on of the
spraying
tension
32 180 100 2,0 4.85 4.85 4.62 4.77
30 180 100 1,8 4,80 4,20 4,12 4,37
30 180 100 2,0 5,06 5,20 5,15 5,14
30 180 100 2,5 5,24 5,35 5,12 5,24
Determinati
on of the
compressed
air presure
30 180 100 3,0 4,50 4,12 4,20 4,27
30 180 60 2,5 5,15 5,06 5,06 5,09
30 180 80 2,5 5,84 5,53 5,65 5,67
30 180 100 2,5 5,30 5,10 5,10 5,17
Determinati
on of the
sprying
distance
30 180 120 2,5 4,20 4,00 3,86 4,02

The second serie of tests was conducted aimed
at determining the parameters that provide the best
behavior on wearing for these bronze coatings.
The coatings quality was shown by testing
them on wear on a Timken stand. Since the spraying
voltage has a powerful influence on all the coating
features worsening then when its growing, we have
tested the influence from other parameters by
maintaining constant voltage level.
The minimum spraying voltage was used for
both materials. From previous tests we know that the
amperage variation causes minor changes, so the
features tested for optimization were the compressed
air pressure and the spraying distance. The following
coating parameters were measured: friction
coefficient, wear, durity and porosity.
The friction coeficient and wear have been
determined following the tests done on Timken
stand. The wear represents the lenght measured in
mm of the spota left on the specimen. The friction
coupling which have been tested on the Timken
stand were as follows: OLC45/CuAl9Fe3 (sprayed),
OLC45/CuSn6P (sprayed), OLC45/CuSn10
(laminated), OLC45/CuSn14 (laminated).
The mobile coupling was made from improved
OLC45 with a hardness of 50HRc, and the fixed
coupling were made from the studied materials.
Both the mobile specimens and the fixed ones,
have been rectified in wet conditions, with a
roughness of 1,6m. The wear, fricton coeficient,
degree of hardness and porosity, all have average
values on series of three specimens, made in similar
technical conditions.


Diagram. no. 2. The value of adherence based on
voltage, air presure and distance for CuSn6P alloy

In table no. 4, are shown the results measured for
CuAl9Fe3 alloy, and in table no. 5 for CuSn6P alloy.

Table no.4. The main features, relative to the
presure of compresed air for CuAl9Fe3 alloy

Spraying parameters
U(V) I(A) h(mm) pa
(bar)
Hardness
HV5
Porosity
(%)
Average
fricton
coeficient
Wear
(mm)
28 180 150 2,0 142 19-20 0,078 1,5
28 180 150 3,0 150 17-18 0,076 1,5
28 180 150 4,0 162 12-14 0,068 1,4
28 180 150 5,0 176 11-13 0,062 1,4
28 180 150 5,5 163 11-13 0,062 1,4

Table no.5. The main features, relative to the
presure of compresed air for CuSn6P alloy

Spraying parameters
U(V) I(A) h(mm) pa(bar)
Hardness
HV5
Porosity
(%)
Average
fricton
coeficient
Wear
(mm)
24 180 150 2,0 78 18-19 0,060 3,3
24 180 150 3,0 86 15-16 0,060 3,2
24 180 150 4,0 91 11-14 0,056 3,1
24 180 150 5,0 98 7,0-8,0 0,048 3,1
24 180 150 5,5 96 7,0-8,0 0,048 3,1

For comparing, in table no. 6 are shown the results
for the studied brass and another two clasical brass
types, obtained lamination.

Table no. 6. Comparative features
Material
Hardness
HV5
Average
fricton
coeficient
Wear
(mm)
CuAl9Fe3 (sprayed) 176 0,07 1,5
CuSn6P (sprayed) 98 0,055 2,5
CuSn10 (laminated) 100 0,078 3,2
CuSn 14(laminated) 120 0,075 3,0








TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

82

3. CONCLUSIONS

In table no. 7 are shown the specific
parameters for spraying, depending on the proposed
goal, respetivly adherence or wear layer.
Based on the research, it was shown that
the spraying parameters are not identical for the both
types of layers.
Of the two studied materials, olny one of
them has the tipical features of adherence material,
namely the CuAl9Fe3 alloy.
The adherence value of brass over tin
shows that it is deep below the tipical values of an
adherence material, and as such it can not be used by
itself, but only with an aditional intermediary layer
for adherence.

Table no. 7. The optimum spraying parameters for
CuAl9Fe3 alloy and CuSn6P alloy

CuAl9Fe3 CuSn6P
Parameter Adherence
layers
Deposit
layers
Deposit
layers
Voltage(V) 32 28 24
Amperage(A) 180 180 180
Distance(mm) 80 150 150
Pressure(bar) 2,5 5,5 5,5

1. The research aimed to study the posibilitie of
replacing clasical antifriction materials with
new materials obtained through unconventional
procedures.
2. It was studied the influence of the
technological coating parameters on the
functional features of those materials to
determine their potential use.
3. The working parameters that ensures the
specific properties required from an eficient
antifriction coating have been detemined,.
4. It was noticed that those coatings can
successfully replace clasical antifriction
materials, having similar features, or even better
when concerning resistance to wear.


REFERENCES

[1] Sulzer Metco, Thermal Spray Materials
Guide, 2006
[2] Sulzer Metco, Equipment Guide, 2007
[3] Metallisation Limited, Technical Bulletin
nr. 2.2.1.-2.2.8, 1995
[4]SR EN ISO 14921, SR EN ISO 14922-1,
SR EN ISO 14922-2




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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008


83



METODE I INSTRUMENTE
PENTRU TEHNOLOGII ECOLOGICE SI ECO-PROIECTARE


Alexandru Radulescu
*
,

Mihaela Alina Aron
*
,

*
Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
e-mail:sandu@meca.omtr.pub.ro,aron_michelle@yahoo.com


REZUMAT
Inovarea in spiritul eco-eficientei poate consta in imbunatatiri incrementale ale
proceselor sau produselor, dar si un salt mai radical catre o noua tehnologie.
Eco-Eficiena (EE), suprapus deseori termenului de eco-inovare, constituie parte
integrant a Strategiei de Dezvoltare Durabil (SDD), intind in principal
componenta economic, componenta de mediu si evidentiind inter-relaiile dintre
acestea. Este insa in mod direct legata si de componenta sociala in forma
cerintelor de consum ale societaii.

ABSTRACT
Innovation in the spirit of eco-efficiency may consist of incremental improvements in
processes or products, but also a more radical leap to a new technology.
Eco-efficiency (EE), often superimposed the term eco-innovation, is an integral part
of the Strategy for Sustainable Development (SDD), targeting mainly the economy,
the environment and highlight the inter-relationships between them. But is directly
related to the social component in the consumer demands of society.


CUVINTE CHEIE: tehnologii ecologice, inovare, Eco-Proiectare, Eco- Eficienta,
Dezvoltare Durabila

KEYWORDS: eco-technology, innovation, Eco-Design, Eco-Efficiency,
Sustainable Development


1. INTRODUCERE

Termenii legai de durabilitate
(sustainability), clarificarea acestora si stabilirea
relaiilor dintre ei constituie si in prezent subiecte
de cercetare. Lipsa unordefiniii oficiale, pe de o
parte, precum si continua apariie de noi termeni
pot crea confuzii in folosirea acestora, cu atat mai
mult cu cat sensul acestora se intersecteaza sau
difera in mod nesemnificativ.

2.PRINCIPII DE MEDIU

a) Principiul Ciclului de Viata: reprezinta
elementul esenial pentru implementarea dezvoltatii
durabile in faza de concepere a produsului.





Termenul are in vedere toate etapele ciclului de viata si
impacturile de mediu asociate lor, inclusiv procesul de
decizie si este pus in practica prin Analiza Ciclului de
Viata ACV (Life Cycle Assessment LCA).

b) Controlul Poluarii rezulta din utilizari trecute ale
termenului, cand poluarea era pur si simplu
supravegheata. Tehologiile capat de conducta
folosesc controlul poluarii in relaie cu problemele
generate de evacuari/emisii de poluani din surse
industriale. Se admite ca aceasta abordare reprezinta
doar o amanare temporara a problemelor de mediu ,
concentrandu-se pe captarea poluarii mai degraba
decat pe reducerea acesteia.


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008


84
Conform acestui principiu, poluarea este redusa
dupa ce ea a fost generata si, alaturi de tehnologiile
capat de conducta sunt incluse si investigaiile
privind natura si extinderea contaminarii . Trebuie
recunoscut ca aceasta abordare presupune resurse
si costuri suplimentare si nu este in acord cu
viziunea dezvoltarii durabile.

c) Reciclarea, Refolosirea si Regenerarea
reprezinta termeni inrudii, deseori folosii pentru
descrierea aceleiasi aciuni. Reciclarea (EPA)
reprezinta metoda de recuperare a unei resurse care
presupune colectarea si tratarea unui deseu, in
vederea folosirii lui ca materia prima pentru
obtinerea aceluiasi produs sau a unuia similar.
Strategia Europeana in domeniul deseurilor
distinge intre recirculare si refolosire: refolosirea
semnificand utilizarea deseului (proces diferit) ca
materie prima fara modificari structurale, iar
reciclarea semnificand schimbari structurale in
cadrul aceluiasi proces. Regenerarea este
activitatea de reinoire a unui material pentru a-l
reda in forma primara utilizarii in acelasi proces
sau unul diferit.

d) Minimizarea resurselor nu are inca o definiie
consacrata. Principiul s-a cladit pe constientizarea
faptului ca resursele (materii prime, purtatori de
energie, rezerve de apa) nu vor fi disponibile la
nesfarsit si este perceput drept un demers pentru
reducere aplicabil oricarei activitati consumatoare
de resurse. Aceasta ar conduce la conservarea
resurselor, imbunatairea disponibilitaii si meninerii
acestora.

e) Reducerea surselor este definita (EPA) ca fiind
practica de reducere a cantitatii de materiale care intra
in fluxul deseurilor dintr-o anumita sursa prin
regandirea produsului sau a practicilor de producie si
consum. Conform caracteristicilor definite, termenul
este ascuns (inclus) in definitia Prevenirii Poluarii
(care este totusi un concept mai larg).

3.TEHNOLOGII ECOLOGICE

Ingineria ciclului de via
Apariia conceptului de dezvoltare
durabil a condus implicit i la creterea
interesului pentru problemele ecologice (de
mediu). Dezvoltarea durabil a produselor i
proceselor presupune atingerea cerinelor
prezentului fr a compromite abilitile
generaiilor viitoare de a ntlni propriile lor
cerine (World Commission on Environment and
Development, 1987).





Ecologia industrial se ocup cu studiul
ciclurilor de via ale produselor i serviciilor, n relaie
cu o larg varietate de direcii, incluznd analiza
sistemelor de fabricaie, analiza fluxurilor materialelor,
prevenirea polurii, proiectarea ecologic, administrarea
produselor, evaluarea tehnologiilor. Ea ofer perspective
pe termen lung, ncurajnd produsele, tehnologiile i
politicile pentru utilizarea resurselor durabile i protecia
mediului pentru viitor.
Ciclul de via al unui produs (Fig.1)
considernd ca avnd ca etap de nceput preprocesarea
materialelor n subproduse de tip semifabricate sau
materiale primare, continu prin procesarea acestora n
elemente componente i apoi prin asamblarea i
ambalarea ca produs final. n urma vnzrii produsul
intr n etapa de folosire (utilizare), n vederea
satisfacerii cerinelor consumatorilor, dup care ajunge
la ultima etap, ceea a scoaterii din uz, care presupune
operaii de prelucrare a produsului uzat spre reutilizare,
reciclare, remanufacturare, procesare a deeurilor etc.
Mult timp etapa final a ciclului de via a fost
rezolvat simplist, cu precdere prin depozitarea n
structur complet, ca subansamble sau ca elemente
componente, ca deeuri, n locuri special amenajate n
mediul nconjurtor. Uneori, n cazul materialelor
inflamabile, s-au dezvoltat staii de procesare a
deeurilor prin incinerare. Aceste moduri de dezafectare
a produselor au evideniat implicaii cu nivele ridicate de
negativitate asupra mediului nconjurtor, att din punct
de vedere al apariiei materialelor incapabile de a intra n
circuitul natural fr s-l deterioreze, precum i prin
dezechilibre energetice severe. n ultima perioad de
timp, pentru diminuarea sau chiar eliminarea acestor
implicaii negative asupra mediului, se urmrete
diminuarea feedback-ului negru cu 5 ramuri de
transmitere ctre mediul nconjurtor de reziduuri
(deeuri) i noxe de la prelucrarea materialelor, de la
prelucrarea prilor, de la asamblare i ambalare, de la
folosire i dup scoaterea din uz s-au dezvoltat bucle
feedback albe de reprocesare a reziduurilor
tehnologice, de ntreinere/reparare/service, de refolosire
a unor componente sau subansamble, de reprelucrarea
unor componente i de reciclarea materialelor. Aceast
tendin se poate evidenia i prin exemplul industriei
europeane de automobile care asigur reciclabilitatea i
refolosirea a 75% din greutatea vehiculelor uzate. Acest
procent trebuie s fie pn n 2006, cel puin de 80% i
s creasc, pn n 2015, la 95%. De asemenea, n
ultima perioad de timp, s-au evideniat expertize
avansate din punct de vedere ecologic i n alte domenii
industriale (produsele electronice, produsele de uz
casnic).





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Reciclarea
Reprelucrarea
Refolosirea
FABRICAIE PRODUS

M E D I U L N C O N J U R T O R
SFRITUL VIEII
PRODUSULUI
ntreinere/reparare
FOLOSIRE
PRODUS
ASAMBLAREA
PRELUCRAREA
COMPONENTELOR
PREPROCESAREA
MATERIALELOR
Reprocesarea


Fig. 1. Ciclul de via al unui produs

Ingineria ciclului de via a unui produs
sau proces are rolul de a optimiza etapele ciclului
de via, mpreun urmrind s echilibreaze
ctigurile i pierderile legate de aspecte
energetice, de materiale, de ambalare, chimice,
biologice i de prelucrare a deeurilor. n acest sens
se evideniaz apte direcii de eco-eficien:
reducerea consumulurilor de materiale, reducerea
consumurilor energetice, reducerea materialelor
toxice, cretereea reciclabilitii materalelor,
dezvoltarea resurselor regenerabile, creterea
durabilitii produselor i serviciilor.
Modelrile matematice ale diverselor
etape ale ciclului de via a unui produs i mai ales
a ntregului ciclul de via sunt greoaie, datorit
numrului mare de factori eterogeni, cu implicaii
i efecte multiple dificil de cuantificat. Astfel,
pentru aprecierea diverselor dimensiuni ale
performanelor ecologice au fost dezvoltate un
numr mare de metode, mai puin sau mai mult
cuantificabile i algoritmizabile. De exemplu, n
ultima perioad de timp, s-au dezvoltat multe
metode cu eco-indicatori bazate pe punctaje i pe
strategii de msuri de reducere a impactului
ecologic general. Avnd la baz aceste metode, s-
au dezvoltat algoritmi i pachete software de
evaluare a performanelor ecologice introducnd
diveri termeni specifici de la eco-eficien la
ecologie industrial i design pentru mediu. Pe de
alt parte, s-au generat i ipoteze specifice folosite
pentru calcule i analize (de ex. masa materialului
are relevan asupra mediului dac este de cel puin
5%).
Evaluarea impactului unui produs,
serviciu sau proiect asupra mediului, pe ntreg
ciclul de via, incluznd fabricarea, folosirea i
postutilizarea, ca modelare, ca fundamentare
tehnic, ca formalism, ca metodologii de calcul, ca
generare de soft-uri i baze de date, a fost i este o
preocupare permanent la nivel mondial, cu precdere,
prin organizaii ca ISO (International Organization for
Standardization), SETAC, U.S. EPA etc.
Una din intele actuale ale procesului de design
const n mbuntirea produselor existente prin
realizarea adaptivitii sau a noi variante. In direcia
realizrii adaptivitii, sunt preocupri intense legate de
aspecte ecologice, pornind de la analiza punctelor slabe
ale produsului existent. Aceasta se realizeaz cu ajutorul
metodelor de evaluare a ciclului de via (LCA- Lifle
Cycle Assesment), n conformitate cu standardul ISO
14040 i mai grosierele metode de estimare ca eco-
indicatorii 99 sau cerinele energetice cumulate (CED-
Cumulated Energy Demand).
n ultima perioad de timp au fost dezvoltate un
numr impresionant de metode, instrumente i pachete
software de evaluare a impactului ecologic al
materialelor, produselor i proceselor. Aceste
instrumente sunt diverse i sunt asociate cu modele de la
nalte nivele de cuantificare pn la cele mai formale
modele calitative. Pornind de la faptul c eco-
instrumentele actuale au un caracter cvasigeneral,
acoperind grupuri de produse sau procese, problema
important a utilizatorilor (proiectani, designeri,
manageri) este de a gsi instrumentul adecvat pentru
problema specific pe care o are de rezolvat. Pe de alt
parte, innd cont de structura general i de
problematic, n viitor, este posibil s se elaboreze
instrumente specifice pentru principalele subsisteme ale
produselor (mecanice, electrice, electronice, informatice
etc.), lund n considerare i interaciunile dintre acestea.
n figura 2 se prezint o sistematizare
(Tischner, 2001) a diverselor metodologii i instrumente
folosite n cadrul ecologiei industriale pentru analiza
impactului asupra mediului, determinarea prioritilor i
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86
a direciilor principale de mbuntire a
performanelor ecologice, sprijinirea activitilor i
aciunilor de proiectare, precum i pentru corelarea
cu alte criterii de proiectare (de performane i de
eficien economic).
Abrevierile folosite n aceast
sistematizare au urmtoarele semnificaii:
LFA Life Cycle Assessment (evaluarea
ciclului de via),
CED -Cumulated Energy Demand (cerinele
energetice cumulate),
MIPS Materials Input per Service Unit
(materiale folosite pe unitate),
LiDS Life-cycle Design Strategy
(strategia proiectrii pentru ciclul de via),
MET Material Energy, Toxic emissions
(emisii de materiale, energie, noxe),




ABC classification system:
probleme severe, necesit intervenie,
B - nu sunt necesare intervenii dar ar
trebui monitorizare,
C nu sunt probleme) ,
SWOT - Strengths , Weakness,
Opportunities, Threats (puncte tari,
puncte slabe, oportuniti, ameninri),
ELADA - End of Life Design Advisor
(ghid pentru proiectarea pentru
sfritul vieii).

LiDS Wheel
SWOT-
analysis
ELADA
Eco-
indicator 99

Fig. 2. Metodologii din industria ecologic

Pentru realizarea unui instrument complet,
deci i pentru LCA, de evaluare ecologic a ciclului
de via a unui produs, proces sau activitate se impune
parcurgerea a trei etape principale
Life Cycle Inventory (inventarierea ciclului
de via)- este procesul obiectiv de cuantificare a
intrrilor i ieirilor; e genereaz baze de date
obiective care structureaz ncrcrrile asupra
mediului fluxurile energetice i de materiale,
emisiile i deeurile, pe ntreg ciclul de via.
Life Cycle Analysis (analiza ciclului de
via) este procesul tehnico-tiinific calitativ i/sau
cantitativ care sistematizeaz i analizeaz impactul
asupra ciclului de via pentru caracterizarea i
evaluarea efectelor de mediu identificate n etapa de
inventariere.
Life Cycle Strategy (strategia ciclului de
via) realizeaz studii de mbuntire a efectelor
ecologice care se sintetizeaz n strategii pentru
folosirea oportunitilor pentru a se reduce influenele
asociate asupra mediului pe ntreg ciclul de via; prin
intermediul acestor strategii, pe lng minimizarea
impactului ecologic al ciclurilor produselor i al
proceselor, se evideniaz i efecte economice
pozitive ca urmare a reducerii fluxurilor de materiale
i energetice.
Pentru aprecierea cantitativ a nivelelor de
impact asupra mediului, n cadrul etapei a doua (Life
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87
Cycle Analysis) se definesc i se implementez eco-
indicatori prin parcurgerea urmtoarelor faze:
Inventarierea presupune compilarea unei liste
cu intrri i ieiri relevante pentru identificarea
factorilor care contribuie la o problem ecoloogic.
Caracterizarea este procesul de descriere
cuantificabil a contribuiilor.
Cuantificarea presupune aprecierea
cantitativ a caracterizrilor relativ una la
alta.Instrumentul Eco-indicator 99 asigur estimri
mai rugoase a performanelor ecologice prin
intermediul unui punctaj global, care include factori
legai de materiale i/sau consumul energetic.
Pentru aprecierea calitativ a produselor
industriale durabile, sunt adecvate analizele SWOT, care
evalueaz starea curent (puncte tari i puncte slabe) i
starea viitoare (oportuniti, ameninri) privitor la
aspecte de mediu, social etice, economice (pentru
companie i pentru consumator), tehnologie, legislaie.
Instrumentul ecologic ELADA (End of Life
Advisory Design) este implementat pe INTERNET i
ajut proiectanii i productorii cu recomandri i
ghiduri privitor la strategiile legate de procesele de
scoatere din uz privind: reutilizarea, service-ul,
reprelucrarea, reciclarea, gunoaiele. ELADA este un
mediu interactiv care ofer informaii proiectanilor
pentru luarea deciziilor, precum i instruirea acestora
chiar i pe cazuri de produse specifice.
MET Matrices - Materials, Energy and Toxic
(materiale, energie, toxine) evalueaz ecologic din
punct de vedere materiale, energie i oxine emante n
etapele de fabricaie, folosire i scoatere din uz.
Pentru o implementare mult mai accesibil
utilizatorilor, s-au dezvoltat o diversitate de pachete
software asociate multor metodologii i instrumente
ecologice cu aplicabilitate concrete pentru diverse
grupuri de produse sau chiar pentru diverse subdomenii.
n corelaie cu aceste metode i instrumente, utilizate
pe durata procesului de dezvoltare, n plus, sunt
utilizate strategii, ghiduri, liste de verificare,
chestionare etc.
Strategiile ajut utilizatorii (proiectani,
designeri, manageri) asupra mbuntirii principalelor
impacturi ecologice ale unei etape a ciclului de via sau
cu implicaii generate n mai multe etape ale ciclului de
via.
Ghidurile, ca instrumente ajuttoare, mai ales
pentru diminuarea prejudiciilor asupra mediului, pot fi
structurate n diverse direcii: corecii (reutilizarea,
reducerea, reciclarea, eliminarea, substituirea,
reproiectarea, regndirea), consumuri (greutatea, masa
substanelor periculoase, energetice, masa ambalajelor),
ciclul de via (proiectarea, prelucrarea, ambalarea,
distribuia, folosirea, scoaterea din uz), chimico-
biologice (noxe, solar, ciclic, siguran, eficien).
O list de verificare pentru proiectarea unui
produs sau proces industrial se poate referi la: faza de
producie (consumuri reduse de materiale, reziduuri
tehnologice reduse, productivitate nalt, diversitatea
materialelor redus, minimizarea substanelor
emanate), faza de folosire (materiale consumabile
reduse, consum energetic redus, micorarea
dimensiunilor i volumului, uor de curat, nivel
ridicat de multifuncionalitate, oportuniti nalte de
refolosire, nivel redus de deeuri agresive, durabilitate
ridicat, rezisten ridicat la coroziune, nalte
posibiliti de ntreinere, uor de reparat, uor de
dezmembrat, robustee ridicat, puine materiale
predispuse la oboseal i uzare, construcii modulare,
adaptabilitatea nalt la progresele tehnice, opiuni de
recombinare n vederea reutilizrii), faza de reciclare
(uor de dezasamblat/separat, uor de curat,
posibiliti nalte de prelucrare a deeurilor,
continuarea utilizrii, reutilizarea/reciclarea
componentelor, utilizarea ulterioar a materialelor),
faza deeurilor (caracteristici pozitive de ardere,
consecine sczute asupra mediului). Uneori,
propoziiile din lista de verificare se pot evalua prin
aprecieri calitative: foarte bine, parial bine, ru, ne
relevant; excelent, corespunztor, necorespunztor.

Fig. 3. Instrument de evaluare (1)

Fig.4. Instrument de evaluare (2)

n figurile 3 i 4 se pot identifica i instrumente (de ex.
Life Cycle Costing, Total Costing Accounting) care
permit evaluarea i a aspectelor ecologice n corelaie cu
celelalte performane mai ales cele economice. Se
evideniaz prin intermediul figurii 4, proporia mrit a
costurilor ecologice n raport cu celelalte costuri.
Pentru identificarea cilor eficiente de
mbuntire a performanelor ecologice, s-au dezvoltat
metodologii specifice. Cele mai ntlnite n practica
industrial sunt (fig. 3): LiDS - Life Cycle Design
Strategy - wheel (Brezet and van Hemel, 1997) roata
strategiei la proiectrea pentru ciclului de via, Spider-
web diagrams (Tischner, 2001) diagrame pnz de
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88
paianjen, Strategy lists - liste cu strategii - and the
Ecocompass (Fussler and James, 1996) . Acestea sunt
generate utiliznd metodele de evaluare a impactului
asupra mediului sau a chestionarelor.
Graficele de tip roat (The LiDS wheel)
reprezint o metodologie ilustrativ, care permite
utilizatorilor (proiectani, designeri, productori,
manageri) s identifice prioritile pentru o
dezvoltare ecologic (fig. 3). Cele ase direcii
radiale au urmtoarele semnificaii:
0-dezvoltarea unui nou concept:
dematerializarea, lrgirea domeniilor de folosire ale
produsului, integrarea funciilor, optimizarea
funcional a produsului;
1 - selectarea materialelor cu impact sczut:
puritatea, regenerabilitatea, energii sczute la
procesare, reciclabilitatea;
2 - reducerea materialelor utilizate: reducerea
masei, reducerea volumului;
3 - optimizarea tehnologiilor de fabricaie tehnici de
producie alternative, numr de procese de producie
reduse, consumuri energetice sczute, deeuri reduse,
materiale tehnologice (consumabile) reduse;
4 -optimizarea sistemului de distribuie: ambalaje
mai puine i reutilizabile, sistem eficient de
distribuie, transport eficient, logistic eficient;
5 - reducerea impactului asupra mediului la
folosire: consum energetic redus, surse de energie
regenerabile, cantitatea consumabilelor redus,
consumabile ecologice, fr deeuri i consumuri
energetice auxiliare;
6 - optimizarea timpului de via iniial: fiabilitate,
durabilitate, ntreinere i reparaie uoare, structur
modular, relaie de ataament a utilizatorului de
produs;
7 - optimizarea sfritului vieii: reutilizarea
ntregului produs, remanufacturarea prilor,
stimularea reciclrii materialelor.
Pe de alt parte, pornind de la aceleai motive de
importan major asupra vieii n ansamblu, n
ultimii 10 ani au fost integrate n curriculele
universitare module, cursuri sau chiar mastere pentru
instruirea studenilor n studiul i managementul eco-
industrial.
Optimizarea i reproiectarea produselor-
filozofia celor 6 RE :
1. RE-gndii produsul i funciile lui (de exemplu,
cum poate fi folosit mai eficient produsul) ;
2. RE-ducei consumul de materiale i de energie de-a
lungul ntregului ciclu de via ;
3. RE-nlocuii substanele periculoase cu alternative
mai prietenoase pentru mediu;
4. RE-ciclare. Alegei materiale care pot fi reciclate i
gndii produsul astfel nct el s poat fi uor
dezasamblat pentru reciclare;
5. RE-folosire.Proiectai produsul astfel nct prile
lui componente s poat fi refolosite;
6. RE-parare. Gndii un produs uor de reparat, astfel
nct el s nu trebuiasc s fie nlocuit prea repede.

Evaluarea ciclului de viata presupune:
stabilirea sferei de cuprindere a ECV, a
metodologiei i a restriciilor (cum sunt
resursele, calitatea i volumul de date);
ntocmirea unui inventar al intrrilor i ieirilor
unui sistem (cuantificarea energiei i a materiilor
prime utilizate i a deeurilor evacuate n mediu)
i evaluarea acestora;
identificarea i evaluarea efectelor potenale
generate de respectivele intrri i ieiri asupra
mediului (se au n vedere efectele generate prin
folosirea resurselor, efectele generate asupra
sntii umane, asupra calitii aerului, a apei i
a terenurilor i asupra ecosistemelor);
interpretarea rezultatelor obinute n etapele de
inventariere i evaluare a efectelor prin prisma
obiectivelor studiului.

4.CONCLUZII

Pornind de la problematicile de mediu generate
de produsele moderne, precum i de tehnologiile
aferente, n ultimii zece ani, i proiectarea produselor
s-a adaptat privitor la aspectele de mediu, care
urmresc, pe lng obiectivul clasic de performane
ridicate, la costuri reduse, i ecoeficiena
cuantificabil prin efecte reduse asupra mediului
nconjurtor. n ultima decad, noile tendine, mai
ales legate de ecologia industrial, concentreaz pe
reducerea impactului asupra mediului a bunurilor i
serviciilor, innd cont de fluxurile de via ale
materialelor, serviciilor i produselor, n urmtoarele
direcii: schimbarea climei, managementul gunoielor,
impactul asupra sntii umane, folosirea mediului
nconjurtor i urbanizarea. Respectarea legislaiei
conduce la conformitate, dar implic i un anumit
grad de birocraie care reduce valoarea adugat.
Descoperirea beneficiilor asociate strategiilor unui
produs verde este primul pas spre dezvoltarea unei
strategii pro-active i depirea unei abordri pasive,
reactive.
Deoarece numrul de instrumente disponibile
pentru evaluarea ciclului de via este mrit, este
dificil pentru utilizatori s aleag cel mai potrivit
instrument pentru un caz particular de soluionat.
Instrumentele soft sunt adesea complexe, caracterizate
de opacitate privitor la ipotezele considerate i cu date
ncorporate dificil de verificat.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Mogan, G., Studii ecologice, Universitatea Transilvania
Brasov, 2001.
2. Konrad von Moltke, On clustering International
Environmental Agreements, International Institute
forSustainable Development, 2001.
3. ***, Ghid pentru dezvoltarea industriala in spiritul
ecoeficientei, 2003..
4. ***, 2005 EcoDesign Awareness Raising Campaign for
Electrical & Electronics SME.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

89



3D DIMENSIONAL CHAINS



tefan Tudorel Crciunoiu*, Cristian Nicolau*, Ana-Maria Constantinescu*, Valeriu Avramescu*,
Serban Petrescu**, Laurentiu Bucur**, Paul Flondor**, Adrian Ghionea***, Irina Marcu****

* ICTCM - Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute Bucharest, ROMANIA,
** SCNeuron Group SRL ROMANIA,
*** University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest CNCPST OPTIMUM, ROMANIA,
**** ASRO, ROMANIA
E-mail: cnicolau@ictcm.ro


ABSTRACT
This project aims to elaborate a methodology to establish spatial dimension chains,
with a vectorial and statistic approach. This methodology will be set in an algorithm
in order to issue a software product. A calculation method for dimensional chains
treated statistically as vectors, along with a software structure for calculation, will
be developed, and the program will be experimented on well-known modules in
mechanical engineering-technical drawing and assembly parts as well as on other
technologies-tolerances and machine manufacturing.
Regarding the application of the method in technology, the starting point is the well
known fact that the processing on specific machine translates in the change of the
reference system of the semi-fabricate from the functionalconstructive reference
system to the reference system of the processing automated tool.

KEYWORDS: methodology, spatial dimension chains, vectors, system, mechanical
engineering, technology


1. INTRODUCTION

Dimensional chains appeared and
developed related to the design and execution of
constructions and industrial products, where the
working dimension is the length.
Nowadays, other dimensions are used too, such as
time (see the Gant and Pert charts), or
dimensionless dimensions such as ratio of
transmission to mechanical systems, ratio of
transfer to automatic systems etc.
Thats why a new definition of the
dimensional chain has been proposed, together with
two versions to solve them. The dimensional chain
expresses the dimensional bond between the
material and non-material parts of a product.

2. VECTOR INTERPRETATION
OF THE PLANE
DIMENSIONAL CHAINS

For solving the dimensional chain, we propose the
vectorial and statistic addition of two aleatory
vectors a and b which have the tolerancesTa , Tb
respectively and the angle between them is , with
a tolerance T

.
To determine the variation of the B point in
plane, its necessary to build them in the extreme
values of the a vector, that is in the points A
0
A
a

respectively, the additions with bvector, which has
as maxim value a b
N
+ T
b
.
For the closing point B we note the indexes in
function of the aleatory variable a, b, and we obtain
a plane B
0
B
b
B
b
B
ab
B
a
B
a
B
0,
whose points satisfy the
relation:
T
+
b
+
T
+
a
= b + a = c
b N a N
(1)
To solve the vectors addition problem according
to the (1) relation, we must determine the following
elements: cN
- nominal quota of the variable vector
c , Tc - the tolerance of vector c , $

N
- nominal
value of the angle ,
$
T - the tolerance of angle .
In diagram 1, we can see that the solution of the
problem is not singular and if a value for
N C is
taken in the case of diagram
c
N B C 0 = result
certain values of
$
T, Tc respectively, which can
integrate in the variation field B
0
B
b
B
b
B
ab
B
a
B
a
B
0

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

90
The procedure for statistic resolution of the
dimensional chains must accomplish the stages
shown in fig. 2, which represent the tolerance field
B
0
B
b
B
b
B
ab
B
a
B
a
B
0
:
a) we take the reference system of
tolerances B
0
X
T
Y
T
;
b) we approximate ( fig. 1) the circle arcs
with segments, towards the initial system XOY:























Figure 1.
c) we divide Ta in an integer number p of equal
segments. We note:

p
T
= B
B
a
a 0 1
and let k be the index of the current
point, where k {0,1,...,p}.
d) we divide Ta in an integer number n of
equal segments, from left to right, such that:
L = sin | B B | = | B B |
a1 0 b b

; )
| B
B
|
| B B |
Int( = n
b b
b b
, (2) and let j be the
index of the current point, where j {0,1,...,n}.
e) we divide Tb in an integer number m of equal
segments, starting from down upwards, from point
B
0
, in the direction of increasing the tolerance Tb . To
make the calculation easier we choose m such that
the elementary surface be a square:
L = | B B | = | B B |
b b b 1 1 0
,
)
| B
B
|
|
T
|
Int( = m
b
b
0 1
(3),
and let i be the factor of the current point, where
i {0,1,...,m}.
The last three operations are equivalent with
the division of Tb , T and Ta in the cvantiles
necessary for the statistic combination of the three
aleatory tolerances, to which we can consider that the
distribution function either results from experiments,
or follows a known repartition, usually Gauss for Ta
and Tb and Rayleigh or Maxwell for T

T.
f) in the first stage, we keep Ta = 0, which
corresponds to a distribution density f
a
= fa
0
, as seen
in fig. 2


















Figure 2.

We vary Tb and T according to the distribution
functions measured or approximated by standard
distributions, achieving for each elementary surface,
either complete or not, noted as B
0
B
b
B
b
B

in the
figure, a distribution computed with the formula:

a
f f
b
f =
f o j i jio


This way we obtain the matrix which
corresponds to the variation of Tb andT, each
element of the matrix representing the distribution
function of the elementary surface, according to the
fig. 2:
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
m m mi mn
j j ji jn
i n
i n
1 2
1 2
21 22 2 2
11 12 1 1





(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(4)
where
ji jio
a = f

g) k translations are performed, where k
{0,1,...,p}, for the rectangle B
0
B
b
B
b
B

, each
corresponding to elementary displacements Ta /p.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

91
h ) The situation presented in fig. 2 is for
|3, 177|, so the square B
0
B
b1
12 will take the
position B
a1
B
b1a1
12 for an elementary translation
Ta /p.
By this translation, the distributions in the
square 1,2,3,4 will be given by a sum of three
distributions: the initial one, and two initial
distributions transferred proportionally with the ratio
of the rectangles areas relative to the area of initial
square.


1
2 1
1 ,1,4, B
1
1 1
,3 1 , B 2, 2
1 0
l
f fb fa
R
+ f fb fa
R
+ f fb fa =
c
b1a1
b1a1

22
(5)
where
2,B ,1 ,3
2,B ,1 ,3
1,2,3,4
b1a1
b1a1
R = = 1 - ctg

(6)
respectively
b1a1
b1a1
B ,1,4,1
B ,1,4,1
1,2,3,4
R = = ctg


(7)

In this case, the matrix elements will be
computed with the following formula:
( ) | | ( )
( ) | | ( )
)} ctg Frac(k
j kctg Int i
d
)] ctg Frac(k [
j kctg Int i
d fa + f fb fa =
d
k
p
1 = k
j
i 0
jik

+ +
+
+


1 , 1
1
1 ,
{
(8)
where
min

max
., and by interior we
symbolized integer and by Frac - Fractionary. For
the draft in fig. 2, the matrix will have the
following configuration:

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

d
...
d d d
...
d
... 0 0
. ... . . . ... . ... . .
d
...
d d d
...
d
...
d
0
d
...
d d d
...
d
...
d d
. ... . .
d
...
d
...
d d
d
...
d d
. ... . ... . .
. ... . .
d
...
d
...
d d
0 ... 0
d
. ... . ... . .
0 ... 0 0
d
...
d
...
d d
p + n r, - 2 + n r, - 1 + n r, - rn - rp -
p + n 1, - 2 + n 1, - 1 + n 1, - 1n - 1p - 12 -
p + n 1, 2 + n 1, 1 + n 1, 1n 1i 12 11
2n 2i 22 21
p + n r, - m 2 + n r, - m 1 + n r, - m
jn ji j2 j1
1 + n 1, - m
mn mi m2 m1
| B
B
|
Ta
= r i
b 0 1
cos
= la i=m, j=1 la j=n+p si k=o la
k=p (9). For the general case, when |90, 177|, in
the formula we take in consideration the sign of cot .
3. SPATIAL DIMENSIONAL CHAIN.
STATISTIC VECTORIAL
INTERPRETATION
The dimensional chains that have more than two
vectors, so three points, are spatial, because, even if
the third vector is attached to the chain,
theoretically its in the plane, for this forth point,
the planar deviation pl T must be added,
corresponding to the initial three points which
define two vectors.
Vector interpretation of the spatial dimensional
chains
We choose an Oxyz system in which the
vectors are represented, and another coordinating
system C
0
X
T
Y
T
Z
T
in which the tolerance field (fig.
3) is represented. For the uniformity of the
approach, we considered that the planar addition of
the vectors a and b, in the plane xOy, was
performed by preserving the prior notations and
interpretations from chapter 5.4, resulting in the
tolerance field B
0
B
a
B
a
B
ab
B
b
B
b
(fig. 2, 3 and 4).
Relative to this field, we draw a cluster of collateral
lines with the direction of vector d
N
, which is
intersects the plane X
T
C
0
Y
T
, situated at the distance
d
N
, in the points C
0
,C
a
,C
a
,C
ab
,C
b
,C
b
and a plane
parallel with X
T
C
0
Y
T
that is situated at the distance
d
N
+ T
d
in the points D
0
,D
a
,D
a
,D
ab
,D
b
,D
b
.
But, in this case, was considered the ideal
situation, in which the direction of vector d
N
is
nominal, without taking into consideration the
angular deviance of the direction of the aleatory
vectord
N
. If, we take, for example, only the angular
variation
$
T
x
relative to OX axis of the angle
$

x
,
we obtain the area D
0
D
a
D
a
D
ab
D
b
D
b
, and the
tolerance area is defined by the
body:C
0
C
a
C
a
C
ab
C
b
C
b
D
0
D
a
D
a
D
ab
D
b
D
b.

















Figure 3

F
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

92
























Figure 4

So, the problem taken in consideration in the
case of spatial dimensional chain is to determine
the frequency function of distributions in the
volume of the tolerance area, when the nominal
values and deviances are known for:
- a
N
and T
a
,
a N
V a a + =
| |
a a
T , 0 V
- b
N
and T
b
,
b N
V b b + =
| |
b b
T , 0 V

-
$
and
$
T

+ = V
| |

T , 0 V
- d
N
andT
d
,
d N
V d d + =
| |
d d
T , 0 V
(10)
V
d
is the variable part of the vector d , of nominal
value d
N
, where | | V T
d d
0, ,
-
$ $
,

xN yN
and
$

zN
are the nominal
angles of the positive direction d
N
with positive
directions of the Ox, Oy and Oz axes.
-
x
,
y
and
z
are the momentary angles
of the positive direction d
N
with positive directions
of the Ox, Oy and Oz axes.
-
$

1
,
$

2
and
$

3
are minimal angles of the
positive direction d
N
,with positive directions of the
Ox, Oy and Oz axes,
-
$
V

1
,
$
V

2
and
$
V

3
are the momentary
variable parts of the angles
$

x
,
$

y
and
$

z
.
4. STATISTIC INTERPRETATION
OF THE SPATIAL
DIMENSIONAL CHAINS

In the case of the statistical interpretation, we operate
with the distributions of probability that correspond
to the elementary cubes which than are translated,
similar to the elementary squares in the planar
addition and, in a similar way, the initial cubes will
receive a supplementary distribution, given by the
ratio between the cube volume translated which
overlaps the initial cube, reported to the initial
volume of the cube. The calculation formula of the
elementary cubes' distributions is:
( )
( )
( )


=

+
XT ZT
YT d
j 1 i
XT
3
ZT
R P
L
T
h
L
1 L
k j i w
1 i
cos cos
cos
cos
cos
, ,
, ,

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|


L
T
L
T
L 2 h L
L
T
YT d ZT d
j i XT
ZT d
cos cos
cos
cos
,

( ) ( )
(
(

+
+ XT ZT
YT d
1 j 1 i XT ZT
L
T
L h cos cos
cos
cos cos
,

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ XT
ZT d
1 j i XT
ZT d
L
T
L 2 h L
L
T
cos
cos
cos
cos
,

( )

(
(

XT ZT
YT d
L
T
L cos cos
cos
(11)
So the distribution in the cube
1 k k 1 j j 2 i 1 i
K J I
+ + + + , , ,
will be
( ) ( ) ( )
R P 1 R K J I
1 i 1 k k 1 j j 2 i 1 i
k j i w k j i w k j i w
,
, , , , , ,
, , , + + + + +
+ =
+
(
12) Where h
ij
=d
ij1
+e
ij


and eijv represents the angular
distribution due to the tolerances Tx, Ty that are planar
interrelated by the addition of the angular tolerances
projections on the plan.
The purpose of Tolerance Analysis is to
study the accumulation of the resulting dimensional
(geometric) variations. A dimensional chain is a set
of dimensions connected to each other to create a
closed circuit. By Tolerance we understand the
limit of the deviations of a dimension from its
nominal value (which results from the design
phase). Of course, dimensions and parameters may
change within different limits without affecting the
full assembly of the components. We think it is
useful to consider the following general frame for
tolerance analysis (synthesis):
Consider a monoid M (a non-empty set, together
with an associative operation having a neutral
element); in our case we shall denote the composed
of x,y by xy. If A,B M are non-empty subsets of
M, we define AB = { xy ; x A, y B }. In the

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

93
same way (due to associativity) we can define in an
obvious unique way the composition of any finite
number of elements or subsets of M. Consider a
pair (a,A) with a M and A M; we can call
this pair a tolerance element, the intuition being
that a is a nominal dimension and A the admitted
limit of deviation from the nominal dimension. So,
if we denote by (M)* the set of non-empty subsets
of M, we have that Cartesian product.
M x P(M)* represents the set of all possible
tolerance elements (in practice, we usually have
also the condition that a A). Now we extend
trivially the monoid operation to
M x P(M)* as follows: (a,A) (b,B) = (ab, AB). By
a generalized dimensional chain we mean a finite
sequence ( (a
1
, A
1
), (a
2
, A
2
) (a
n
, A
n
) ) of
elements of M x P(M)*.
We call the terms of the sequence the
partial components of the chain. Given a chain
such as the above, we define the closed component
of the chain as the composition with respect to the
described law of the elements of the sequence: (a
1
a
2
a
n,
A
1
A
2
A
n
).
More generally, one can consider that the closed
component is a more general function of the partial
components of the chain.
In our study, the situation considered was that of a
space vector (of low dimension), together with the
vector addition as basic operation. The
consideration of the vectors as representing
dimensions has the advantage that it includes the
so-called increasing or decreasing components in
the description, so some methods (as indicator etc.)
are part of the notion.
The problem of the Tolerance Synthesis can be
obviously described in the same terms, only by
considering the problem of finding acceptable
tolerance elements, given the closed component
(and the nominal of partial components). Here we
need also to consider some restrictions in the
determination of the tolerance deviations, for which
we can introduce various relations, as, for example,
tolerance relations or standard type relations.
The described context is closely connected with the
so-called Worst Case method. Unfortunately, in
practice, there are problems with the best
description of the sets
A
1,
A
2,
A
n
, in order to minimize the running time
of the algorithms. In the following sections of this
paper, some methods for describing the tolerance
sets are given, using approximation techniques.
One of the advantages of this general, abstract case
is the possibility of considering the probabilistic,
fuzzy and some other approaches, without
changing the basic intuition of composing elements
following given specific rules. Lets consider the
probabilistic approach.
In the probabilistic case, together with the
tolerance element (a,A), a probability distribution is
given on A (we won't consider any technical details
about probability fields, A being finite or not, and
so on); in general, in practice normal or binomial
distributions are used. For a given chain ( (a
1
, A
1
),
(a
2
, A
2
) (a
n
, A
n
) ) we can suppose that random
variables X
1
, X
2
.. X
n
essentially supported in A
1,

A
2,
.. A
n
are given. The composition (with respect
to the given law) of these random variables will
correspond to the probabilistic distribution of the
closed component. In the concrete situations
(vector spaces) we have the usual sum of the
random variables. We can consider independent or
dependent random variables. In the case of
independent random variables, we have good
results for the sum (for example, the sum of
normals is normal), which simplifies computation.
Maybe the case of dependent random variables
could be of some interest, at least in the Markov
type dependence. One is usually confronted with
statistical methods in Monte Carlo methods,
when the probability distributions shown above are
determined from these simulations.
We can consider also the case of fuzzy
tolerance chains. We mean that, in a tolerance
element (a, A), the set A is not a fragile set, but a
fuzzy one (described by a function
f: M -> [0,1] ), where f(x) is, so to speak, the
degree of membership, possibly conceived as a
preference or expert knowledge. We have a definite
method for computing the closed component of a
fuzzy chain (a chain with fuzzy elements), using
the following rule of composing fuzzy subsets:

If f:M -> [0,1] , g: M -> [0,1], then the product
f*g of these two functions with respect to the
operation of M is given by:

(f * g)(z)= { f(x) g(y) ; xy=z} (13)

Where , are the minimum (respective)
maximum in [0,1].
In general the fuzzy sets considered in applications
are of triangular form, so the computation of their
product is not a very difficult task.
Coming back to a general system of Tolerance
Analysis, we think it is useful to take into account
and to give mathematical models for :

- modeling the sources of the variation
of dimensions
- modeling, if possible, the assembly
conditions
- a user friendly model, compatible
with other tolerance models
- an integrated graphical user interface
compatible with CAD products.
-
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

94
5. THE UTILIZATION OF
DIMENSIONAL CHAINS IN THE
INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES
SPECIFIC TO THE HARDWARE
GENERAL PRODUCTS.

ISO9000 Standards divide the general products in
four categories: hardware consistent products
such as constructions, automobiles, electronic
instruments and computers.

The manufacturing of hardware general products
requires that the parts manufactured from different
materials and of certain geometrical dimensions
comply with the conditions of the subassembly or
assembly they are part of. To solve the problem,
the system of coordinates must be changed and the
dimensional chains must be modified as follow:
The transition from the reference system of the
assembly to the reference system of the part
which usually corresponds to the reference
technological system;
The processing of the parts requires the pieces
to be included in the reference systems of the
machine tools where the processing takes
place, the systems differing from one machine
to another;
The assembly of the parts must lead to the
fulfillment of the technical conditions needed
by the system.

Each of the described stages is solved by solving
some dimensional chains. Furthermore, by using
dimensional chains that are interpreted statistically
and vectorially, we can add aleatory vectors given by
the machine tools parameters and we can determine
the processing accuracy of the machine in function of
the real position of the machine. A virtual processing
using the real machine parameters can be
accomplished if the trajectory of the tool will range
within a fraction resulted from the intersection of the
part aura with the planes which contain the trajectory
generators. In this way, after the achievement of the
part processing plan, will result two limit parts - one
with a maximum and the other with the minimum of
material - or a piece with the minimum of material
and an aura represented by the difference between the
maximum and the minimum of material.
All parts which are within this aura are good
parts. Its important to be noticed that the aura has
also orientation and position tolerances of surfaces
which result also by dimensional chains.
As regarding the manufacturing system, its normal
that the processing of a part on a lathe will be
performed in a cylindrical reference system, while
the processing on a milling cutter is performed in a
Cartesian reference system, these two being the
simplest examples.





















Figure 5

6. CONCLUSIONS

The present project represents the work from
The National Plan for Research, Development and
Innovation of Romania, the International Society
INFOSOC.( Reference [5],[6],[7])
The final result of the paper is the elaboration of a
standard regarding the Dimensional Chains.
Regarding the abstract of the paper, please contact
us and tell us your standpoints, in order to include
them in the standard.
The measurements are accompanied by
mistakes, even if you measure a quota for
several times, this quota will have different
values. In present, there is no tolerance standard
considered from statistical point of view.
Regarding this matter it is proposed that in the
adding of quota vectors, to result a precise
standard of measurement. Namely to be
determined right away which is the probability
that the closing vector of a dimensional chain to
be found in a certain field.

REFERENCES

[1]. Ernest Baltaretu Les pompes centrifuges. 1975. Editura
tehnica, Editions Eyrolles.
[2]. Stefan Tudorel Craciunoiu, Contributii la studiul
unitatilor de lucru in sistemele flexibile de prelucrare. Teza de
doctorat. Bucuresti 1998.
[3]. K. Uehara, M. Fujise. Fuzzy inference based on families
of a-level sets. IEEE Transactions on fuzzy systems. Vol1. no
2 1993 pg. 111-124.
[4]. Z. Zou, E. Morse Statistical tolerance analysis using
GapSpace. 7
th
CIRP Seminar on Computer aided Tolerancing.
France
[5]. LANDIM Phase I report
[6]. LANDIM Phase II report
[7]. LANDIM Phase III report
[8]. Kenneth W. Chase, Spencer P.Magleby - A
Comprehensive System for Computer-Aided Tolerance Analysis
of 2-D and 3-D Mechanical Assemblies.
[9]. YNarahari, R.Sudarsan, K.W.Lyons, M. R. Duffey, R.
D.Sriram - Design for Tolerance of Electro-Mechanical
Assemblies; An Integrated Approach
(http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/335238.html)
[10] R. Sudarsan, K. Lyons, M.Pratt (Editors) Assembly
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

95
Level Tolerancing: Standards and Implementation Issues.
Workshop Handout, National Institute of Standards and
Technology, 1997.
[11] MitCalc www.mitcalc.com
[12] Moroni, G., Polini, W., (2002), Machining and Tolerances
in a Flexible and Integrated Manufacturing Context, 12
th

International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent
Manufacturing, Editor Sullivan, W., July 15-17, Dresden,
Germany, pp. 268-277.
[13] Motavalli, S., Zong, H., Falahi, B., (2002), A Linear
Approximation Technique for Evaluation of Form Tolerances,
12
th
International Conference on Flexible Automation and
Intelligent Manufacturing, Editor Sullivan, W., July 15-17,
Dresden, Germany, pp. 735-742.
[14] Zhang, G., Wang, H. P., (1992), Simultaneous
optimization of design and manufacturing Tolerances with
process (machine) selection, Annals of the CIRP, vol. 41 (1), pp.
569-572.
[15] Barlier, C., Paulet, B. (1999), Mematech, genie
mecanique. Productique mecanique, Deuxieme edition. Editions
Casteilla, Paris.
[16] Militaru, C., (1987), Fiabilitate i precizie n tehnologia
construciilor de maini. Editura Tehnic, Bucureti.
[17] Weck, M., (2001), Werkzeughmaschinen. Automatisierung
von Maschinen und Anlagen. VDI. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg,
ISBN 3-540-67713-9.
[18] ***, DIN 7186 Blatt 1, Statistische Tolerierung. Begriffe,
Anwendungsrichtlinien und Zeichnungsangaben, august 1974.
[19] ***, SR ISO 230-1:2000; SR ISO 230-2:2001 Cod de
verificare pentru maini-unelte. Partea 1 i partea 2.
[20] ***, STAS 7384-85, Abateri i tolerane geometrice.
Terminologie.


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Enterprise Europe Network partner (Steinbeis-
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Event at MEDTEC 2009 in Stuttgart on 4th March
2009. The MEDTEC Show itself takes place in
Stuttgart from 3. - 5. March 2009
(http://www.medteceurope.com/).

MEDTEC is mainland Europes only dedicated
medical device manufacturers suppliers exhibition
where design and manufacturing professionals
from the medical device industry can source new
technologies and suppliers. Over 5,000 such
professionals attended the 2005 exhibition.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

96
Steinbeis-Europa-Zentrum will organise a medical
technologies brokerage event during the MEDTEC
2009 on 4-5 March in Stuttgart, Germany.
Companies, research institutes and universities
operating in the medical devices sector who are
interested in transnational co-operation are invited
to participate in the MEDTEC 2009 brokerage
event. At the brokerage event companies and
research institutes will have the opportunity to
make contact with potential partners to discuss
business partnerships.

Topics covered at the event include:
- Contract Manufacturing & Subcontracting
- Component Fabrication
- Tubing
- Adhesives & Adhesive Products
- Electronic Components
- Production/Assembly
- Packaging Equipment & Materials
- Motors & Motion Control
- Plastics
- Testing Equipment & Services
- Hardware & IV Components
- Precision Metalworking, Tooling, and Machining

for application in the following areas:
- cardiovascular
- orthopedics
- critical and emergency care
- surgery
- personal care
- physical medicine and rehabilitation
- diagnostics as well as
(http://www.enterprise-europe-
network.ec.europa.eu/public/bemt/home.cfm?Event
ID=1790)

Nanofibers for the 3rd Millennium -
NANO FOR LIFE

Event
Type:
Brokerage Events
Start Date: 12-Mar-2009
End Date: 12-Mar-2009
City: Prague
Country: Czech Republic

Description:
The international summit of the worlds leaders
in nanofibers Nanofibers for the 3rd Millennium
- NANO FOR LIFE organized in the cooperation
of Elmarco Ltd., Technical University in Liberec,
North Carolina State University and Institute of
Experimental Medicine AS CR, will take place on
11th and 12th March 2009 in Prague, Czech
Republic.
The aim of the summit is to gather the best and
brightest minds from industry and academia and
to share the latest developments in the nanofiber
production technologies, research and
applications. Summits key topic is possible
applications of Nanofibers in important areas of
human activities - energy, water, cars, health,
environment and building.

Participants will also have an opportunity to
gather within the brokerage event organized on
12th March during the summit. Brokerage event
aims at promoting matchmaking and bilateral
meetings among research, scientific and industrial
partners from all over the world in order to
explore cooperation opportunities and facilitate
transnational technology transfer and transnational
scientific cooperation.

In addition to bilateral meetings, participants will
be given the opportunity to attend thematic
workshops dedicated to applications of Nanofibers
with possible presentation of their research
projects, results and activities.

The international brokerage event within the
summit is organized with the support of the
Enterprise Europe Network.
More information on the international summit is
available on its official website
http://www.nano3millennium.com

(http://www.enterprise-europe-
network.ec.europa.eu/publicwebsite/bemt/home.cfm
?EventID=1858)
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

97



MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION
FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EQUIPMENTS
FOR PROCESSING MODULATION


Gheorghe Marin
1
, Valeriu Avramescu
2
, Aurel Costea
3
, Nicoleta Rachieru
4


1,2
S.C. ICTCM Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute S.A., Bucharest, ROMANIA,
e-mail:
1
dtpc2@ictcm.ro,
2
vavramescu@ictcm.ro
3,4
S.C. AL PLAST CONF, Campulung, ROMANIA, e-mail:
4
nrachieru@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT: The modernization of the fabrication process of the machine
construction domain enforce o reconsideration of the priorities regarding the
evolution of the technological system. The elaboration and the utilization of some
calculation methods, mathematical models and optimization algorithms have
permitted us to develop new modular structures with characteristics and superior
performances regarding the precision, productivity and the flexibility of the devices,
equipments and other mechanical systems.

KEYWORDS: mathematical model, optimization, modular structure, equipments,
performances


1. INTRODUCTION

The principal characteristic of the modern
engineering is the systemic approaching through
the unification and the typification of the problems
attached with the processes and the equipments of
manufacture.
With out denying the important role of the
choice liberty or to exaggerate, in the other
extreme, the preoccupation for standardization, the
speciality work (1), (4), (5) consider that, the
technological progress it is conditioned by the
adaptation of solutions that will assure the
equilibrium of the two trends.
Standardization, unification, typification and
universalization does not limited the technical
progress but represent concrete solutions of the
diversification in maximal unification conditions
and determine modular conception and of
technology as system.

2. GENERAL CONDITIONS

Actual situation in the domain, on national and
international plane, enforces a reorientation of the
priorities from the big flexible fabrication systems,
that are very expensive and difficult to attend, to
the maximization of the performances in the
flexible fabrication cells through the growing of the
modularization amount of the components and the
realizations of the characteristics and new functions
of those [1].
Because of this reasons, we proposed the
development of research and industrial applications
capable to offer solutions of new modular
structures, with superior characteristics and
performances in comparison with the one we know
for the machine construction, devices, equipments
and flexible fabrication systems.

3. METHODS FOR ACCURACY
CALCULATION FOR ORIENTATION
AND POSITIONING OF THE DEVICE
ARRESTER

3.1. Assignation of the cinematic and
mathematical model for the errors
calculation of orientation and
positioning

In this paper and (2) we have proposed the
identification and the calculation of the orientation
errors in the construction of the devices arresters
(
ocs
).





TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

98

















The most used arrester is the bolts type with
different constructions in the guidance zone and at
the contact with the half finished product. In the
general case I have presented in the figure nr.1 the
cinematic model on whose base we establish the
calculation relations ships. The execution precision
(or the position precision) of the L
TL
dimension it is
influenced by the functional probabilistic game
(j
fp1
) between the bolt and the socket wear and
between the boring arrester ant the center of the
arrester in the mother board. It was used as a
notation l
c
for the length of guidance of the mobile
bolt and H
c
for the contact height of the bolts with
the half finished product [2].
The error of orientation of the construction of
the arrester for the L
TL
dimension, considering that
the mobile bolt could be displaced in both
directions:

ocs
(L)=2(e
1
+e+J
fp1
/2+HK) (1)
If you take in consideration that the
dimensions aberrations and the positioning ones are
not extreme values and could be probabilistic
added, and in AHK exists the situation from
figure 2, after calculating, the mathematic model
that describes the case could be considered by the
form:

ocs
(L) = 2[
2 2
1
e e + + J
fp1
/2 + H
c
tg
(2arcsin
2AD
DE
)] (2)
This relation it is confirmed also by the
equations of dimension chain established for the
four cases of utilization in the arrester activity and
of some similar mechanical subunits, from witch,
one of the variants is the one from figure 3.
















Another type of arrester, from the category with
mobility is the conical mobile bolt, long or short what
it is executed in constructive variance and concerned
the same orientations errors as in the case of mobile
cylindrical bolt, were we can add the positioning error
specific for the element with con.(figure 4).
Another type of arrester, from those with
mobility is the conic mobile bolt, long or short, after it
is executed in constructive variance and concerned the
same orientation errors as in case of the mobile
cylindrical bolt, were it is added the poisoning error
specific for the con element (figure 4).













e
e
1
L
T
L
A
G
D
E
C
B
F
K
J
fp1
d
1min
1max
D

H
c
l
c
H
Fig. 1. The cinematic model
Fig. 2. The calculus scheme 1
rest's bore
rest centering
in the base
plate
bolt
wear
bushing
The
reference
axis
L
I
Fig. 3. The calculus scheme 2
Axa de referinta
L
G
H
I
M
F
D
E
C B A

d
0
d
Fig. 4. The cinematic model for
the con element
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

99
In this case the final relation is:

ocs
(L) = 2[
2 2
1
e e + + J
fp1
/2 + (d-d
0
)/2
AGcos(+) - HGtg ] (3)

In a similar way we established calculation
relations ships in order to determine the orientation
positioning precision for the most types of arrester:
plane base, cylindrical bolt short or long, fixed
prism short or long [3].
For the appreciation of the precision of positioning
and working of the components elements of every
mechanical structure (equipments, machines
tackles, plants, automobiles) it will be used the
same calculations relations ships particularized at
the surface of contact analyzed.

3.2. Orientation positioning errors
dependence of the constructive variant
of the arrester type and the
specialization level of the device






















A supplementary diminution of the orientation
positioning errors of the construction that it could
be obtained when the mobile bolt is blocked (fig.6),
and has a better effect on the perpendicular
direction of the L cote for special devices (DS) and
in any direction of the modular devices (DEM) [4].

























For DS the orientation positioning error is:

max
ocs
(L)
DS
=2e
1
+J
fp
/2 (4)

and for DEM is:


max
ocs
(L)
DS
=J
fp
/2 (5)

For supplementary adjustments
ocs
(L) = 0.

4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL
FOR THE OPTIMIZATION
OF THE CONSTRUCTION
OF THE DEVICES AND
THE EQUIPMENTS FINISHING

In order to define the principal solutions and
the constructions of the devices, well technical and
economical augmented, it is propose a complex
algorithm of optimization, that could be
particularized for every equipment, machine and
mechanical system, structured on 3 stages [5]:
Stage I establishing the orientation and
optimal orientation scheme (SOF O) or the
cinematic scheme.
Stage II - constructive optimization of the
devices of orientation and fixation and of the
processing equipment used.
Stage III optimization of the equipage of the
technological process and system
For the presented case, drawing the
technological graph, figure 7, permits the
assignation and the resolving of the mathematical
model for the optimization of the equipment
construction used for processing, analyzed, were:






Eroarea de orientare a construciei
reazemului funcie de diametru i lc
(H8/h7)
0,000000
0,050000
0,100000
0,150000
0,200000
0,250000
0 20 40 60 80 100
Diametrul
E
r
o
a
r
e
a

lc=D
lc=1,2D
lc=1,5D
lc=1,8D
lc=2D
Fig. 5. The dependence of the
orientation errors in concordance with
the diameter and l
c
for H8/h7
1
2
L
J
l
Jfp /2
F
F
Fig. 6. The mobile bolt is
blocked
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

100
Min C = c
11
x
11
+ c
12
x
12
+ c
13
x
13
+ . + c
33
x
33

11
x
11
+
12
x
12
++
16
x
16

1max

p
11
x
11
+ p
12
x
12
++ p
16
x
16
p
1min

f
11
x
11
+ f
12
x
12
+ + f
16
x
16
f
1min

t
11
x
11
+ t
12
x
12
+ + t
16
x
16
t
1max

1 x
6
1 j
1j
=

=
; x
1j
= 1sau 0; j{1,2,3,4,5,6}

21
x
21
+
22
x
22
+
23
x
23

2max

p
21
x
21
+ p
22
x
22
+ p
23
x
23
p
2min

f
21
x
21
+ f
22
x
22
+ f
23
x
23
f
2min
(6)
t
21
x
21
+ t
22
x
22
+ t
23
x
23
t
2max

1 x
3
1 j
2j
=

=
; x
2j
= 1sau 0; j{1,2,3}

31
x
31
+
32
x
32
+
33
x
33

3max

p
31
x
31
+ p
32
x
32
+ p
33
x
33
p
3min

f
31
x
31
+ f
32
x
32
+ f
33
x
33
f
3min

t
31
x
31
+ t
32
x
32
+ t
33
x
33
t
3max

1 x
3
1 j
3j
=

=
; x
3j
= 1sau 0; j{1,2,3}

x
11
x
33
, constructive solutions for the equipment;

11

33
, orientation-positioning errors of the
construction;
p
11
p
33
,

the productivity;
f
11
f
33
, the flexibility;
t
11
t
33
, the times of assimilation in manufacturing;
c
11
c
33
, the cost.















5. DEVELOPING OF NEW
MODULAR STRUCTURES FOR THE
CONSTRUCTION OF PROCESSING
EQUIPMENTS

The elaboration of the mathematical models at
which we referred in the anterior chapters and the
paper (2) have permitted to develop some new
modular structures with characteristics and
superior performances which have a pronounced
character of originality.
In figure 8 it is represented one of the constructive
variance of a new type of multifunctional arrester
with self disposal and blocking, in modular
variance.











The solution presented in the figure 9,
certificate by patent (3), it is a new modular system
for guidance tool, with adjustment bidirectional, for
single ax process or multi ax, adaptable for every
type of device, equipment or universal machine,
specialized, aggregate or processing center.

6. CONCLUSIONS

Our theoretical researches bended by the
assignation of same new calculation methods,
mathematical models, optimizations algorithms and
specialized programs for the computers, that will be the
base for the development of some new modular
structures with characteristics and superior
performances. Those structures will permit the
realization of components, subsets, devices and
mechanics and mecatronics devices, with a high
level of precision, productivity and flexibility for
different domains of the machine construction.

REFERENCES

[1] Victoria Dobre, The designing methodology of the supporting
elements, Machines Building Magazine, no. 7- 8, 1997.
[2] Joon Chung and Tae-Cheol Jung, Optimization of an air
cushion vehicle bag using genetic algorithms, Aerospace
Science and Technology, April 2004
[3] Brgaru, A., Pico, C., Ivan, N.V., The technologic devices
and processes optimization, Didactic and Pedagogic Publishing,
Bucharest, 1996, ISBN 973-30-4447-4.
[4] Crian, I., The technology like a system, Scientific and
Encyclopedic Publishing, Bucharest, 1980.
[5] Ivan, N.-V., The technological processes otimization
fundamentals, Univerity Publishing from Brasov, 1983.
Fig.7. The technological graph
2
1
(7)
(15)
15
Fig. 9. The modular system for guidance tool
Fig. 8. The multifunctional
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

101



METODE DE SIMULARE I EVALUARE
A ACCIDENTELOR PRODUSE
PRIN APRINDEREA FLUIDELOR HIDRAULICE
N CONTACT CU SUPRAFEE CALDE


Buzoianu Dragos
1)
, Stancu Rodica
1)
, Deleanu Lorena
2)
, Ripa Minodora
2)

1)
S.C. ICTCM S.A., Bucuresti, ROMANIA, e-mail: dbuzoianu@ictcm.ro
2)
Universitatea DUNAREA DE JOS, Galati, ROMANIA, e-mail: minodora.ripa@ugal.ro

REZUMAT: Lucrarea prezinta un studiu privind cauzele incendiilor produse prin
aprinderi accidentale a diverse materiale combustibile, precum si masurile
intreprinse pentru evitarea acestor accidente. Sunt prezentate metodele de simulare
si evaluare a accidentelor produse prin aprinderea fluidelor hidraulice in contact cu
suprafete calde si instalatia realizata, pentru determinarea inflamabilitatii fluidelor
in contact cu suprafete calde.

ABSTRACT: The paper presents a study on the causes of fires caused by accidental
ignitions of various combustible materials, as well as measures taken to avoid such
accidents. Are presented methods of simulation and evaluation of accidents caused
by the ignition of hydraulic fluid in contact with hot surfaces and installation done to
determine the fluids inflammability in contact with hot surfaces.

CUVINTE CHEIE: simulare, incendiu, materiale combustibile, inflamabilitate

KEYWORDS: simulation, fire, combustible materials, inflammability


1. INTRODUCERE

In majoritatea ramurilor industriale sunt
expluatate diverse utilaje si agregate care folosesc
lichide hidraulice care pot deveni inflamabile in
diferite situatii. O statistica a cauzelor incendiilor
produse prin aprinderi accidentale a diverse materiale
combustibile, este cea din figura 1.
Se constata ca majoritatea incendiilor apar
din cauze electrice in general scurt circuit,
aproximativ 24 %, urmand cele produse prin
supraincalzirea unor elemente datorita frictiunii
produse intre unele elemente in miscare care nu au o
lubrifiere corespunzatoare. O proportie destul de
mare a incendiilor, aproximativ 8%, apar datorita
diverselor suprafete incinse care vin in contact cu
materiale inflamabile.
Aceasta situatie apare destul de frecvent in
cazul utilajelor si autovehiculelor cu motoare termice
care au si instalatii hidraulice sub presiune care
folosesc fluide de actionare inflamabile.


Fig.1. Surse de aprindere in majoritatea incendiilor
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

102
Sunt situatii in care pot aparea autoaprinderi
ale fluidelor lubrifiante si in cazul autoturismelor
care prezinta scurgeri de ulei din carterul cutiei de
viteze sau carterul diferentialului, datorita distrugerii
unor inele de etansare , fisuri a diferitelor racoarde.
Aceste fluide pot ajunge in contact cu suprafete
fierbinti cum ar fi colectorul sistemului de evacuare
ale gazelor de esapament, care poate ajunge la
temperaturi de 700-900C in zona motorului (fig.2.).



Fig.2. Exemplu de scurgeri de ulei in cutia de viteze ce
ajung in contact cu colectorul coloanei de evacuare.

Au fost situatii cand au aparut incendii si
chiar explozii din cauza deteriorarii unor racorduri
sau chiar ruperea acestora si refularii unor cantitati de
ulei pe componente fierbinti ale motorului utilajului ;
situatia din fig .3 cand un autotren a explodat si a ars
din aceasta cauza.



Fig.3. Autotren distrus de incendiu produs
datorita unor scurgeri hidraulice.

Aceste dezastre pot aparea si in industria
miniera unde se utilizeaza diverse echipamente hidraulice
care opereaza in spatii inchise (galerii de mina).
Situatiile in care pot aparea scurgeri de fluid
pot fi :
- Datorita temperaturilor ridicate, piesele
metalice se pot dilata diferit si isi modifica
forma si dimensiunea .
- fluide la care variaza foarte mult vascozitatea
in functie de diferenta de temperatura.
- Deteriorarea diverselor piese de legatura
(nipluri, holendere, mufe), datorita utilizarilor
repetate.
- Fisuri sau rupturi aparute la racorduri datorita
viciilor de fabricatie.
- Pierderea etanseitatii elementelor datorita
modificarilor in timp ale proprietatilor fizice si
chimice.
- Strangerea defectuoasa a cuplelor si/sau
deteriorarea sistemelor de autoblocare ale
acestor.
Pentru evitarea acestor accidente se pot lua
urmatoarele masuri :
- Proiectarea instalatiilor in asa fel incat traseul
circuitelor hidraulice sa nu se invecineze cu
subansamble care se pot incinge.
- Daca prima conditie nu se poate indeplini se
vor utiliza fluide care chiar daca accidental
ajung in contact cu suprafete incinse sa nu se
autoaprinda.
- Monitorizarea etanseitatii sistemelor hidraulice
prin folosirea garniturilor inteligente care
sesiseaza scurgerile.
- Asigurarea unei mentenantei corespunzatoare
prin inlocuirea furtunelor si garniturilor inainte
ca acestea sa se deterioreze.

2. INCERCARI DE LABORATOR
PENTRU DETERMINAREA
PUNCTULUI DE
INFLAMABILITATE

Pentru a determina punctul de
inflamabilitate se pot face unele incercari de laborator
reglementate prin doua stasuri :
unul european SR EN ISO 20823 :2003 Petrol
si produse inrudite Determinarea
caracteristicilor de inflamabilitate a fluidelor in
contact cu suprafetele calde Incercarea de
inflamabilitate pe metal cald
si unul din SUA Manifold Ignition Test
(Federal Test Method 791, Method
6053.1)[28].
Conditiile de test conform stasului european sunt:
- Structura care simuleaza piesa se incalzeste
la 700C
- Temperatura se masoara in trei puncte
- Volumul testat 10 ml
- Timp incercare 40...60s
- Distanta intre suprafata de incercare si
sistemul de dozare 300 mm
- Incinta in care este montata piesa
300x300x450 mm.
Conditiile de test conform stasului SUA sunt:
- Structura care simuleaza piesa se incalzeste
la 704C
- Temperatura se masoara intr-un punct
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

103
- Volumul testat 10 ml
- Timp incercare 40...60s
- Distanta intre suprafata de incercare si
sistemul de dozare 300 mm
- Incinta in care este montata piesa
300x300x460 mm.
Interpretarea rezultatului se face in functie
de fiecare test incluzandu-l intr-una din categoriile:
- Pentru varianta europeana:
o I(T) cand fluidul se aprinde sau arde pe
tub, dar nu continua sa arda cand este
colectat in tava de dedesubt.
o I(D) cand fluidul se aprinde si arde pe
tub, si continua sa arda cand este colectat
in tava de dedesubt.
o N cand fluidul nu se aprinde sau nu
arde in nici un moment.
- Pentru varianta SUA:
o a) se aprinde si arde pe suprafata de
incercare dar nu si cand se scurge dupa
aceasta.
o b) nu se aprinde si nu arde pe suprafata de
incercare dar arde si se aprinde cand se
scurge dupa aceasta.
o c) fluidul nu se aprinde si nu arde nici pe
suprafata nici cand se scurge dupa aceasta.

3. PREZENTAREA
FUNCTIONARII INSTALATIEI
EXPERIMENTALE

Pentru a raspunde cerintelor s-a construit o
instalatie conform SR EN ISO 20823 :2003 pentru a
realiza testul in deplina siguranta pentru operatorul
uman.(fig.4).



Fig.4. Instalatie pentru determinarea inflamabilitatii
fluidelor in contact cu suprafete calde.
Legenda:
1-manipulator
2-sistem de picurare
3-tub rezistenta

Aceasta este dotata cu geam securit si
termorezistent pentru protectia impotriva stropilor
incinsi de ulei. Pozitionarea sistemului de picurare se
face de catre un robot dedicat, astfel evitandu-se
patrunderea utilizatorului in zona periculoasa.
Datorita fumului degajat in timpul incercarilor,
instalatia este prevazuta cu sistem de ventilatie.
Controlul temperaturii tubului care reprezinta
suprafata de incercare se face prin intermediul unor
senzori si unui regulator de temperatura. Pentru
asigurarea temperaturii de maxim 700C pe suprafata
tubului s-a realizat o rezistenta electrica montata in
tuburi de cuart, rezistente la valori de peste 1200C.
Puterea sistemului de incalzire a fost dimensionata astfel
incat ca tubul sa nu depaseasca 750C ; daca aceasta este
prea mare sistemul de comanda al incalzirii (regulator
de temperatura contactor static) s-ar suprasolicita iar
reglajul temperaturii setate s-ar realiza in timp si cu o
toleranta destul de mare (fig. 5).

Fig.5. Curba de reglaj a temperaturii.

Pentru protectia mecanica a rezistentei
precum si a tubului care o protejeaza s-a ales un
regim de incalzire in rampa (20C/min), fapt care
diminueaza dilatarile puternice ale tubului si
suporului mecanic al rezistentei evitandu-se
distrugerea acestora. Daca s-ar depasi temperatura
maxima a tubului de inox, acesta s-ar deforma
ireversibil si ar distruge elementul de incalzire.
In prima faza s-a folosit un regulator de
temperatura avand setarile necesare pentrul tipul de
rezistenta folosit (fig.5.) obtinandu-se o precizie de
reglaj de 0.5C. Acuratetea reglajului a ajuns la
0.1C folosind in prealabil un regulator cu control
Fuzzy care micsoreaza amplitudinea oscilatiilor
curbei de reglaj fata de valoarea setata a temperaturii.
Sistemul Fuzzy reface reglajul intr-un timp
minim in cazul unor perturbatii, cum ar fi eliberarea
cantitatii de ulei pe tub, deschiderea usilor sau
pornirea ventilatiei standului.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

104
Pentru citirea temperaturii s-au folosit trei
termocupluri tip S cu o precizie de 2C, care vin in
contact cu suprafata exterioara a tubului de inox,
montate pe un brat retractil.
Corectitudinea masurarii s-a realizat cu un
senzor dublu montat prin sudare pe suprafata
tubului ; acesta este de tip K cu o eroare de
0.0040*[t], fiind contruit in functie de dimensiunile
tubului. Prin acest senzor s-au comparat valorile citite
de acesta cu cele masurate de senzorii mobili dand
corectia necesara celor trei senzori montati pe bratul
retractili, astfel realizandu-se masuratoarea corecta a
temperaturii la suprafata tubului.
In prima faza s-au obtinut erori destul de
mari datorita citirii punctiforme ; s-au construit
adaptoare de cupru montate pe termocuplu, avand o
fata de asezare pe suprafata tubului. Apoi s-au sudat
pe tub bucse in care intrau termocuplurile, pentru a
crea o atmosfera controlata in zona de citire. Erori de
masurare s-au obtinut si din cauza acoperii cu
funingine si cu reziduri petroliere ale tubului rezultate
in urma functionarii standului.
Sistemul de dozare al fluidului este
industrial, cu actionare pneumatica, partea de
admisie/refulare fiind total reconstruita pentru a
rezista fluxului de caldura radiat de rezistenta si
concentrat de catre incinta de inox in care este montat
acesta. Dozatorul a fost reproiectat si realizat din
dural, protejat de un scut termic racit cu apa.
Sistemul de pozitionare reprezinta un robot
de tip antropomorf cu raport de amplificare 4.
Aceasta solutie a fost ideala pentru aplicatia descrisa,
avand un gabarit adecvat, in zona cu risc termic
opereand numai bratele acestuia, celelalte
echipamente sensibile la temperatura (motoare de
actionare, senzori de pozitie, cabluri electrice) fiind
situate intr-o zona sigura. Comanda acestuia se face
cu motoare pas cu pas comandate de softul
specializat avand posibilitatea de reprogramare
simpla si rapida in cazul schimbarii procedurii de
incercare.

4. CONCLUZII

Cu aceasta instalatie se pot simula situatii
reale de accident, existand posibilitatea de a regla
temperatura tubului, astfel determinandu-se limita
superioara la care se poate folosi in siguranta acel
fluid hidraulic.
Este necesara si in faza de proiectare, inainte
de a se alege o solutie tehnica corecta, simuland cat
mai aproape de realitate eventualele vicii de
functionare sau conceptie.







BIBLIOGRAFIE

[1] ***Approval Standard for Flammability Classification of
Industrial Fluids (Class 6930), Factory Mutual Global, January
2002.
[2] Yuan, L., 2006, Ignition of hydraulic fluid sprays by open
flame and hot surfaces, Journal of Loss Prevention in Process
Industry, vol.19 (4).
[3] Deleanu, L., Rp, M., Drug, A., 2007, Flammability Testing
in Risk Assessment, Proc. of European Conference on Tribology,
ECOTRIB, Ljubljana, Slovenia.


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Deadlines:
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Enterprise Europe Network Bremen
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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

105
Fig. 1. Schema procesului de forjare
rotativ pe dorn a pieselor tubulare.

DETERMINAREA CORELATIEI PARAMETRILOR
PROCESULUI DE FORJARE ROTATIV A PIESELOR
TUBULARE PRIN MODELARE NUMERIC
V. Schiopu
1
, D. Luca
2
, I. Asandei
1
, C.Gentoiu
3
1
S.C. PRESUM PROIECT S.A. Iai, vasile.schiopu@gmail.com;
2
U.T. Gh. Asachi Iai;
3
S.C. ICTCM S.A. Bucureti.

REZUMAT
Dei procedeul de forjare rotativ este utilizat de ceva timp, corelaia dintre parametrii
si principali rmne necunoscut, punerea la punct a aplicaiilor fcndu-se mai mult
pe cale experimental. Cercetrile experimentale au dezavantajul de a nu putea asigura
informaii n privina unor parametri importani cum sunt tensiunile i deformaiile. Prin
contrast, calculul numeric i n special analiza cu elemente finite (AEF) asigur
posibilitatea de a determina toi parametrii relevani la costuri moderate.
ABSTRACT
Although rotary swaging process is used from some time, the correlation between its main
parameters remain unknown, the development of applications being done mainly through
experimental ways. Experimental researches have the disadvantage of not being able to
provide information about significant parameters, such as stresses and strains. In
contrast, numerical calculations, like finite element analysis (FEA), provide the
opportunity to determine all relevant parameters at moderate cost.

CUVINTE CHEIE: forjare rotativ, modelare numeric, analiz cu elemente finite
(AEF).

KEYWORDS: rotary swaging, numerical modelling, finite element analysis (FEA).


1. INTRODUCERE

Forjarea rotativ este un proces de deformare
plastic de precizie a tuburilor, barelor i srmelor.
Aparine grupului proceselor de prelucrare net-
shape (aproape de forma final) care sunt
caracterizate de faptul ca forma final a reperului
prelucrat este obinut fr, sau numai cu un minim de
prelucrri de finisare.
Sculele de deformare ale mainii de forjat
rotativ (matriele) sunt aezate concentric n jurul
semifabricatului, Figura 1. Aceste matrie realizeaz
micri radiale de nalt frecven, cu o curs foarte
mic. Frecvena cursei este ntre 1.50010.000
curse/min, funcie de mrimea mainii, iar lungimea
total a cursei are valori ntre 0,25 mm. Micrile
radiale ale matrielor sunt, pentru majoritatea
aplicaiilor, simultane. n mod obinuit, un set de
matrie este compus din 4 astfel de segmente ns, n
funcie de aplicaie i de mrimea mainii, pot fi
folosite seturi de 2, 3 sau 6 matrie.
ntre matrie i semifabricat are loc o micare de
rotaie relativ pentru a mpiedica formarea de bavuri
longitudinale la interstiiile dintre matrie.
Semifabricatul este introdus axial prin mpingere sau
tragere n spaiul dintre matrie, pn la lungimea necesar.
Avansul axial are valori ntre 200600 mm/min.


Forjarea rotativ este un proces de deformare
plastic incremental la care forma final a piesei
prelucrate se obine n numeroi pai mruni. Unul
dintre avantajele procesului de deformare incremental
comparativ cu procesele continue este realizarea unei
deformri omogene a materialului. Forjarea rotativ
asigur grade mari de deformare ntr-o singur trecere
iar deformarea materialului este distribuit uniform pe
conturul seciunii transversale.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

106
Un alt avantaj al procesului de formare
incremental este minimizarea frecrii. Durata
contactului dintre matrie i semifabricat este foarte
scurt. n timpul contactului au loc doar mici micri
relative.
Dei procedeul de forjare rotativ este utilizat de
ceva timp, corelaia dintre parametrii si principali
rmne necunoscut, punerea la punct a aplicaiilor
fcndu-se mai mult pe cale experimental.
Cercetrile experimentale au dezavantajul de a nu
putea asigura informaii n privina unor parametri
importani cum sunt tensiunile i deformaiile. Prin
contrast, calculul numeric i n special Analiza cu
Elemente Finite asigur posibilitatea de a determina
toi parametrii relevani la costuri moderate.
De aceea, n activitile de cercetare legate de
gsirea unor noi aplicaii pentru procesul de forjare
rotativ (n spe placarea pieselor metalice de
revoluie), autorii au realizat un model numeric
tridimensional pentru forjarea rotativ a pieselor
tubulare pe dorn, urmrind determinarea corelaiei
parametrilor procesului de prelucrare: s-a avut n
vedere nelegerea elementelor de baz ale influenei
unui anumit parametru asupra curgerii materialului,
tensiunilor, deformaiilor i puterii necesare pentru
dezvoltarea forelor de deformare.
Pentru a descrie corect parametrii procesului
este necesar construirea unor modele 3D pentru
semifabricate i scule. Numai n acest fel forele de
lucru i efectele ce apar pot fi redate pe direcie
tangenial i reproduse n mod realist.
Particularitile de care trebuie s se in seama la
simularea 3D a procesului de forjare rotativ sunt:
- operaia de deformare are caracter incremental
cu frecvene ntre 1.500 i 10.000 de curse duble
pe minut;
- la fiecare ciclu are loc desprinderea sculelor;
- calculul deformaiilor mari (neliniaritate
geometric);
- plasticitate (comportament neliniar al
materialului);
- contact i frecare (condiii de limit neliniare);
- reprezentarea cinematicii complexe a sculelor.

2. MODELAREA NUMERIC
A PROCESULUI

2.1. Geometria procesului. Realizarea
modelului CAD
Aa cum s-a menionat anterior modelul numeric
construit simuleaz procesul de forjare rotativ pe
dorn, cu avans axial, a pieselor tubulare. Pentru
obinerea unei precizii de prelucrare ridicate s-a optat
pentru varianta de forjare cu 4 matrie. Deoarece cele
patru matrie sunt perfect identice, dup cum se vede
i din Figura 1, procesul prezint o simetrie axial pe
sfert, fapt care poate fi folosit pentru simplificarea
procesului de modelare i reducerea timpului de
calcul.
Dimensiunile de baz ale matrielor i cele ale
bucei-semifabricat sunt prezentate n Tabelul 1.
Tabelul 1. Parametrii geometrici ai modelului.
Diametrul exterior al semifabricatului
nainte de forjare (mm)
32
Diametrul interior al semifabricatului
nainte de forjare (mm)
24
Lungimea semifabricatului nainte de
forjare (mm)
25
Diametrul exterior al semifabricatului dup
forjare (mm)
27
Diametrul interior al semifabricatului dup
forjare = diametrul dornului (mm)
20
Numrul matrielor 4
Cursa maxim a matrielor (mm) 2,5
Unghiul conului de intrare al matrielor () 13
Lungimea zonei de calibrare (mm) 25
Dimensiunile de gabarit ale matrielor (mm) 503023

Modelele tridimensionale pentru semifabricat i
matrie au fost realizate conform dimensiunilor
prezentate anterior, ntr-un program specializat de
modelare 3D, respectiv Autodesk Inventor, modelul
matriei fiind prezentat n Figura 2.




Aceste modele au fost exportate n format
standard IGS i, n cele din urm, importate n
programul de analiz cu elemente finite prin intermediul
interfeei CAD a acestui.

2.2. Generarea reelei de elemente finite

Modulele de generare a reelei de elemente finite
(mesh generation) specifice programelor AEF sunt
utilizate pentru modelarea cu elemente finite a
semifabricatului, obinndu-se aa numita reea iniial.
Aceast reea iniial este folosit de program pn cnd
criteriile de regenerare a reelei (Remeshing Criteria)
stabilesc c este necesar s se creeze o nou reea
(actualizarea reelei). Pentru cazurile cnd se dorete
calculul tensiunilor i deformaiilor i n matrie, trebuie
ca i acestea, la rndul lor, s fie modelate cu elemente
finite, Figura 3.
Fig. 2. Modelul CAD 3D al matriei.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

107




























Caracteristicile reelei de elemente finite din Figura 3
sunt:
Numrul de noduri 2325;
Numrul de elemente 9919, din care
- line2 290;
- tria3 2076;
- quad4 380;
- tetra4 6755;
- penta6 22;
- hexa8 396.

2.3. Proprietile materialelor

Caracteristici mecanice i fizice
Materialul semifabricatului tubular este un
bronz cu staniu CuSn10, caracteristicile mecanice i
fizice ale acestuia, conform DIN EN 1982, fiind
prezentate n Tabelul 2.
Tabelul 2. Caracteristici fizico-mecanice CuSn10.
Denumire
Simbol i unitate
de msur
Valoare
Limita aparent de
elasticitate
R
p0,2
(N/mm
2
) 170
Rezistena la traciune R
m
(N/mm
2
) 280
Duritate Brinell (HB) 80
Alungirea la rupere A (%) 10
Rezistena la ncovoiere R
bw
(N/mm
2
) 100
Modulul de elasticitate
longitudinal
E (N/mm
2
) 910
10
Coeficient de dilatare (10
-6
/K) 18,5
termic
Densitate (Kg/m
3
) 8700
Coeficientul lui Poisson 0,30
Modelul numeric al comportrii materialului
n analiza cu elemente finite descris n prezenta
lucrare, s-a presupus c semifabricatul are o comportare
elasto-plastic i se supune criteriului de plasticitate
Von-Mises i regulii de curgere asociate acestuia.
Procesul de deformare a materialului elasto-plastic s-a
presupus a fi asociat cu problema valorii limit unde
soluiile cmpului de tensiuni i deformaii satisfac
ecuaiile de echilibru, ecuaiile constitutive pe domeniul
respectiv i valorile limit prescrise.
Forma simplificat a ecuaiei de echilibru,
neglijnd forele interne, este exprimat prin:

=
v
i j ij
dV 0
,
(1)
unde
j ij ,
este componenta tensorului tensiunilor,
i

este o variaie arbitrar a vitezei. Folosind teorema
divergenei i simetria tensorului tensiunilor i
impunnd condiiile de limit eseniale conform crora
0 = pe
v
S , unde
v
S este frontiera cmpului de viteze
specificat, ecuaia (1) devine:
( ) 0
2
1
, ,
= +

dS n dV
j
v S
i ij i j j i ij
F
(2)
unde
j
n este unitatea normal la suprafa iar
F
S este
suprafaa pe care acioneaz fora tangenial, adic:
i j ij
T n = pe
F
S . Prin descompunerea tensorului
tensiunilor n componenta deviatoric
'
ij
i
componenta hidrostatic
m
, ecuaia (2) devine:
Fig. 3. Generarea reelei de elemente finite pentru modelul pe sfert n pachetul de programe freeware
SALOME MECA 2008 (EDF).
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

108

= +
F
S
i i
v
v m
v
ij ij
dS T dV dV 0
'
& &
(3)
unde
ij
&
este viteza de deformaie iar
v
&
viteza de
deformaie volumetric. Ecuaia final poate fi
obinut prin nlocuirea integralei primului termen cu
tensiunea efectiv i viteza de deformaie efectiv

&
. Condiia de incompresibilitate pe cmpul de
viteze admisibile din ecuaia (3) poate fi nlocuit de o
constant K a funciei de penalizare astfel:
0 = + =

dS T dV K dV
i
S
i
v v
F


& &
&
(4)
unde
' '
2
3
ij ij
= ,
&
ij ij
& & =
3
2
iar K este o
constant pozitiv de valoare mare. Tensiunea
efectiv pentru un anumit material poate fi
determinat printr-o ncercare uniaxial de ntindere
sau de compresiune ca o funcie a deformaiei efective
i a vitezei de deformaie efective.
Ecuaia (4) reprezint forma final a ecuaiei de
baz pentru discretizarea cu element finit. Odat ce
soluia pentru cmpul de viteze care satisface ecuaia
(4) este obinut, tensiunile corespunztoare pot fi
calculate folosind regula curgerii i distribuia
cunoscut a tensiunii medii.
Von Mises a fost primul care a venit cu o
presupunere conform creia comportamentul
fundamental care definete incrementul deformaiei
plastice este legat de suprafaa de curgere:
dF
Q
h d
ij
P
ij

(5)
Se presupune c pe durata unui increment
infinitezimal al tensiunii, deformaia total poate fi
mprite n partea elastic i cea plastic, astfel:
} { } } { {
P e
d d d + = (6)
dar
} { [ ] { } d D d
e
e 1
= (7)

=
F
d d
P
(8)
n care [ ]
e
D este matricea elasticitii, este tensiunea
de ntindere iar d este o constant pozitiv de
proporionalitate, astfel c relaia (6) devine:
{ } [ ] { }


F
d d D d
e
1
(9)
Cnd apare componenta plastic, tensiunile au valori
pe suprafaa de curgere, conform funciei de curgere
(fluaj), care, atunci cnd este difereniat, devine:
{ } { } { } 0 =

= dK
K
F
d
F
dF
T

(10)
n ecuaiile (5)-(10) Q i h sunt funcii scalare ale
invariantului tensiunilor deviatorice iar F este funcia
de curgere. Q este numit potenial plastic. Din
ecuaiile (9) i (10) rezult:
{ } [ ] d D d
ep
= (11)
i:
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ]
1

=


F
D
F
H
D
F F
D D D
e
T
e
T
e e ep
(12)
unde H este modulul plastic. Matricea de elasto-
plasticitate [ ]
ep
D nlocuiete matricea de elasticite
[ ]
e
D n analiza incremental. Ecuaiile (11) i (12)
reprezint relaiile de baz ale tensiunii i deformaiei
elasto-plastice.
Pentru o suprafa de curgere Von Mises, care se
supune regulii de curgere asociate, F este dat de
urmtoarea relaie [10]:
( ) ( )
( )
y
F

+ + + +
+ +

=
2
1
2
31
2
23
2
12
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
3 3 3
2
1
2
1
2
1
(13)
unde
y
este limita de elasticitate.
n ceea ce privete comportarea materialelor
sculelor, n procesul de simulare s-a presupus c
matriele i dornul sunt corpuri solide rigide cu o
valoare foarte mare a modului de elasticitate.

2.4. Condiiile de limit

Condiiile mecanice de limit sunt urmtoarele:
avnd n vedere natura deformaiei la forjarea rotativ,
deplasrile radiale ale nodurilor situate pe axa
semifabricatului i deplasrile nodurilor de pe captul
din dreapta al acestuia (Figura 3) sunt setate la valoarea
zero. Condiiile de contact la interfaa semifabricat-
matrie i semifabricat-dorn sunt descrise n subcapitolul
urmtor.
La forjarea la rece, n mod obinuit, se presupune
c procesul se desfoar n condiii izoterme, dei n
realitate procesul nu este izoterm. Aceast presupunere
poate asigura rezultate preliminare destul de bune atunci
cnd se aplic la procese care se desfoar att de rapid
nct efectul de nclzire a matrielor este destul de
redus [1]. n majoritatea analizelor procesului de forjare
rotativ, efectul de nclzire a matrielor s-a presupus a
fi neglijabil din cauza timpului relativ scurt n care
acestea se afl n contact cu semifabricatul [3]. S-a
estimat c sculele se afl n contact cu semifabricatul
mai puin de 10-15% din fiecare ciclu de forjare.

2.5. Condiiile de contact

Frecarea dintre semifabricat i matrie joac un rol
important n determinarea valorii forei de deformare i
a distribuiei deformaiilor n piesa forjat.
De aceea, modul cum sunt tratate condiiile de
contact n MEF astfel nct s in seama de stratul de
lubrifiant dintre suprafeele semifabricatului i cele ale
sculelor, reprezint un factor cheie n asigurarea unui
model ct mai exact al procesului de deformare. Pentru
a reflecta contactul i frecarea dintre semifabricat i
matrie i dintre semifabricat i dorn, a fost stabilit o
relaie elasticitate-plasticitate ntre cele dou suprafee
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

109
de contact. Elasticitatea va reflecta o cantitate
pentru care ecuaia (14) este satisfcut:
=
s
K
n
F (14)
unde K
s
este constanta de elasticitate

iar F
n
este fora
normal la suprafaa de contact. Aceast metod de
punere n ecuaie a compatibilitii contactului este
denumit metoda penalizrii. Valoarea penetrrii sau
incompatibilitatea dintre cele dou suprafee este
dependent de rigiditatea K
s
. Frecarea dintre
suprafeele de contact a fost simulat prin fora
tangenial. Legea lui Coulomb stabilete faptul c
fora de frecare dintre dou corpuri nu poate depi o
fraciune din fora normal astfel:

n
F
s
F (15)
unde este coeficientul de frecare. Dac Fs ar fi
depit, cele dou corpuri ar aluneca unul pe altul. n
acest studiu a fost utilizat un model de frecare
conform legii lui Coulomb mpreun cu metoda de
penalizare asociat, cu un coeficient de frecare de
0,15 (bronz/oel).

2.6. Cinematica procesului

n procesul de forjare rotativ, deformaia
semifabricatului are loc ca urmare a unui numr foarte
mare de lovituri scurte, de mare vitez, pe care le
realizeaz matriele prin curse repetate pe direcie
radial. Pe mainile de forjat rotativ exist un
dispozitiv de avans axial cu mandrin de prindere a
semifabricatului. Pentru a obine forma circular i o
calitate corespunztoare a suprafeei, ntre scule i
semifabricat exista o micare de rotaie relativ (la
unele tipuri de maini se rotesc sculele antrenate de
arborele principal, la altele se rotete semifabricatul
mpreun cu mandrina dispozitivului de avans).
Tinnd seama de cele de mai sus, se face
urmtoarea ipotez simplificatoare cu scopul de a
uura programarea micrilor n modelul AEF:
realizarea micrilor relative dintre matrie i
semifabricat se face numai prin micarea sculelor.

Reprezentarea micrii sculelor
Se consider c traiectoria de micare a sculelor se
realizeaz dup o sinusoid. Obiectivul acestei ipoteze
este reducerea numrului de elemente i de
incrementri.

Parametrii reglabili ai mainii
- cursa matrielor, c=23 mm;
- frecvena de forjare f
f
=1.6202.970 forj./min

;
- viteza de rotaie a rotorului extern (intern) n
e
(n
i
)=
300550 rot/min;
- viteza de avans axial (forjare cu avans axial)
v
x
=297742 mm/min.

Factori tehnologici
- Viteza de rotaie n
i
mpreun cu frecvena de forjare
f
f
determin unghiul de rotaie la un pas
p
=66,66;
- Viteza de avans + frecvena de forjare => avansul
axial per pas (forjare) s
x,p
=0,10,25.

Avnd n vedere ipoteza c semifabricatul este
fix (captul din dreapta este considerat blocat conform
condiiilor de limit), cinematica procesului definit n
prezenta modelare este urmtoarea:
1. Pornind dintr-o poziie iniial, cele patru matrie
efectueaz cursa fix c de avans radial spre axa
semifabricatului, micarea fiind definit de o funcie
sinusoidal; la un moment dat acestea vor intra n
contact cu semifabricatul pe care l vor deforma;
2. Dup ce matriele au strbtut ntreaga cursa de
avans c, urmeaz micarea de retragere n poziia
iniial;
3. Matriele efectueaz micarea de avans axial
intermitent cu valoarea s
x,p
(avansul axial per pas),
concomitent cu micarea de avans rotativ
intermitent cu unghiul
p
(unghiul de rotaie la un
pas); poziia obinut este noua poziie iniial; se
reia ciclul ncepnd cu pct. 1 pentru urmtorul pas.

3. REZULTATELE SIMULRII

Pentru aplicaia de fa, respectiv forjare rotativ
pe dorn a pieselor tubulare, dup rularea analizei cu
elemente finite pe baza modelului numeric descris n
capitolul anterior, pentru deformarea unui semifabricat
tubular din CuSn10, s-au obinut rezultate interesante,
care se ncadreaz n limitele de eroare prognozate.
S-a pus accent n special pe determinarea
cmpurilor de tensiuni i de deformaii, Figura 4 i
Figura 5, ns analiza detaliat a tuturor rezultatelor este
prezentat n continuare: sunt analizate efectele variaiei
diverilor parametri geometrici ai matrielor i ai
semifabricatului i a parametrilor de micarea asupra
tensiunilor reziduale, presiunii normale pe matrie i pe
dorn i asupra forei necesare realizrii deformrii.

3.1. Tensiunile reziduale pe suprafeele
interioar i exterioar ale piesei prelucrate

Fig. 5. Distribuia deformaiilor efective n
semifabricatul tubular n timpul forjrii.
Fig. 4. Distribuia tensiunilor efective n
semifabricatul tubular n timpul forjrii.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

110
Figurile 6 i 7 prezint profilul tensiunilor
reziduale radiale, axiale, inelare (cele trei componente
ale tensiunii descompus n sistemul cilindric de
coordonate) i tensiunile de forfecare , n lungul
direciei axiale, pe suprafeele interioar i exterioar
ale piesei forjate, respectiv, pentru un avans axial de 2
mm/forjare. Distribuia tuturor acestor tensiuni este
aproape uniform de-a lungul piesei tubulare cu
excepia capetelor acesteia. n comparaie cu
tensiunile axiale i inelare, cele radiale i de forfecare
de pe suprafaa exterioar sunt mici i neglijabile.
Acest fapt era de ateptat deoarece, odat ndeprtate
matriele, aceast suprafa este liber i, de aceea,
tensiunile radiale ar trebui s dispar. De asemenea,
din cauza naturii simetrice a procesului i a
modelului, tensiunile reziduale tangeniale trebuie s
fie sczute. ntr-adevr, tensiunile nodale mici dar
diferite de zero obinute din AEF sunt generate din
cauz c tensiunile obinute n punctele de integrare
ale elementelor sunt calculate ca valori medii n
punctele nodale de pe suprafa.
Tensiunile reziduale axiale i inelare de pe
suprafaa interioar sunt de compresie i de aceea pot
ajuta la mpiedicarea propagrii fisurilor. Deoarece
astfel de repere, de obicei, lucreaz sub presiuni
interne mari, tensiunile reziduale compresive de pe
suprafaa intern pot mri durata de via a
produsului. Pe de alt parte, tensiunile de pe suprafaa
exterioar sunt de ntindere i de aceea pot favoriza
propagarea eventualelor fisuri i ar trebui nlturate
(detensionate) nainte de utilizare.



Variaia tensiunilor reziduale de pe suprafaa
exterioar funcie de avansul axial per forjare al
semifabricatului este prezentat n Figura 8. Se poate
observa c tensiunile radiale i de forfecare sunt mici
i nu se schimb cu creterea avansului axial. Totui,
tensiunile axiale i inelare cresc aproape liniar cu
creterea avansului axial per forjare. n consecin
tensiunile mari sunt afectate semnificativ de variaia
avansului axial.

3.2. Presiunea pe matrie i fora de forjare
n aceast seciune sunt analizate efectele formei
semifabricatului i ale geometriei matrielor asupra
presiunii pe matrie i asupra forei de deformare
necesare. Pentru a studia efectele grosimii peretelui
semifabricatului, geometria final a piesei i diametrul
interior al semifabricatului sunt meninute constante i

numai valoarea diametrului exterior al semifabricatului
este variat.


Variaia presiunii medii pe suprafeele active ale

matrielor cu grosimea peretelui semifabricatului tubular
este prezentat n Figura 9. Presiunea pe zona cilindric
a canalului activ este mai mare dect cea din zona
conului de intrare, iar ambele presiuni se mresc odat
cu creterea grosimii peretelui semifabricatului, ns
Fig. 7. Distribuia tensiunilor axiale, inelare,
radiale i de forfecare pe suprafaa exterioar ,pe
lungimea piesei tubulare.
Fig. 9. Variaia presiunii pe suprafeele active ale
matrielor cu grosimea peretelui semifabricatului.
Fig. 10. Variaia presiunii pe matrie cu unghiul
conului de intrare al matrielor.
Fig. 6. Distribuia tensiunilor axiale, inelare,
radiale i de forfecare pe suprafaa interioar, pe
lungimea piesei tubulare.
Fig. 8. Variaia tensiunilor reziduale radiale, axiale,
inelare i de forfecare cu avansul axial per forjare,
pe suprafaa exterioar a piesei tubulare forjate.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

111
presiunea pe zona cilindric variaz cu o rat puin
mai mare. De aceea, din cauza valorii relativ mari, dar
i a variaiei n limite largi a presiunii pe zona
cilindric, aceasta reprezint un factor mult mai critic
n privina limitrii duratei de via a matrielor.
De asemenea, a fost studiat efectul modificrii
unghiului conului de intrare asupra presiunii pe
matrie. Figura 10 arat variaia presiunii pe zona
cilindric i pe conul de intrare pe msur ce unghiul
conului de intrare crete. Se observ c unghiuri mai
mari ale conului de intrare determin presiuni mai
mici att n zona conului ct i n zona cilindric,
respectiv se obine o reducere cu 50% a presiunii
cnd unghiul conului crete de la 4 la 10. n
consecin creterea unghiului conului de intrare poate
fi folosit pentru mrirea duratei de via a matrielor.
Aa cum s-a menionat la nceputul seciunii, au
fost luate n considerare i efectele parametrilor de
forjare asupra forei maxime de forjare. Pentru a
calcula fora maxim de forjare, presiunea medie pe
matrie obinut din analiz este nmulit cu suprafaa
zonei de contact dintre matri i semifabricat la
sfritul unei lovituri.
Variaiile forei de forjare funcie de lungimea
zonei cilindrice i de avansul axial pe forjare sunt
artate n Figurile 11 i 12. Relaia dintre for i
aceti parametri este aproximativ liniar iar fora
total de forjare crete cu creterea acestor parametri.


Avansul axial per forjare are cel mai mic efect
asupra forei de forjare. De aceea, se poate trage
concluzia c avansul axial afecteaz puternic
tensiunile reziduale critice, ns influena sa asupra
forei de forjare este nesemnificativ. n consecin,
pentru optimizarea procesului, trebuie alese valorile
cele mai potrivite pentru aceti parametri.



3.3. Influena avansului de rotaie
Un parametru de proces important care nu a fost analizat
n studiile anterioare este avansul de rotaie al
semifabricatului. Acest parametru nu poate fi modelat n
studiile axial simetrice 2D. Prin utilizarea modelului 3D,
este posibil studierea influenei micrii de rotaie
relative dintre semifabricat i matrie.
Avansul de rotaie al semifabricatului este
intermitent i are loc ntre dou curse ale matrielor.
Astfel, viteza de rotaie a fost aplicat ca unghi de
rotaie per forjare. Frecvena forjrilor i avansul axial al
semifabricatului a fost selectate la 800 curse/min i
respectiv 140 mm/min. Variaia tensiunilor reziduale i
principale Von Misses pe suprafaa exterioar a piesei
tubulare funcie de viteza de rotaie este prezentat n
Figura 13. Se observ n aceast figur c tensiunile
maxime i medii variaz foarte puin, n schimb
tensiunea minim descrete de la -300 MPa la -200 MPa
pentru o cretere cu 30 rot/min a vitezei de rotaie. n
consecin, creterea vitezei de rotaie determin
descreterea tensiunilor Von Misses reziduale de pe
suprafaa exterioar a piesei, care intr n contact cu
matriele. Acest fapt se poate explica printr-o mai bun
uniformizare a deformaiei pentru o vitez de rotaie mai
mare.






Variaia presiunii normale pe matrie i pe dorn
ntr-o poziie aflat la mijlocul zonei cilindrice a
canalului activ al matrielor, de la sfritul unei curse de
lucru a matrielor, este prezentat n Figura 14. Din
acest grafic rezult c presiunea pe dorn scade puin
odat cu creterea avansului de rotaie, iar presiunea pe
Fig. 11. Variaia forei totale de forjare cu
lungimea zonei cilindrice a canalului activ.
Fig. 12. Variaia forei totale de forjare cu
avansul axial per forjare.
Fig. 13. Distribuia tensiunilor pe suprafaa
exterioar a piesei tubulare funcie de viteza de
rotaie.
Fig. 14. Variaia presiunii normale pe dorn i pe
matrie funcie de viteza de rotaie.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

112
matrie arat o cretere semnificativ.

Ca urmare, n timp ce tensiunile reziduale din
piesa prelucrat i presiunea normal pe dorn nu se
modific semnificativ din acest punct de vedere,
presiunea pe matrie poate fi un factor de limitare n
privina creterii vitezei de rotaie.

6. CONCLUZII

Pe baza modelului 3D cu EF dezvoltat au
fost studiat efectele unor parametri ca avansul de
rotaie i geometria semifabricatului asupra
tensiunilor reziduale i presiunii pe dorn. n plus au
fost investigai i ali parametri cum ar fi avansul
axial per forjare, lungimea zonei cilindrice a cavitii
active, unghiul conului de intrare i grosimea peretelui
semifabricatului. Cele mai importante concluzii sunt:
Modelul dezvoltat prezint o bun concordan cu
datele experimentale publicate de ali autori [4];
Factorul care afecteaz cel mai puternic tensiunile
reziduale din piesa prelucrat este avansul axial
per forjare;
Creterea lungimii zonei cilindrice a matrielor, a
avansului axial per forjare i a grosimii peretelui
semifabricatului determin creterea presiunii pe
matrie i a forei de forjare, iar creterea
unghiului conului de intrare al matrielor are un
efect invers;
Distribuia tensiunilor reziduale pe suprafeele
interioar i exterioar, pe direcia axial a piesei
tubulare, este uniform cu excepia zonelor de
capt ale piesei;
Tensiunile reziduale de pe suprafaa interioar a
piesei sunt n mod semnificativ dependente de
geometria i dimensiunile profilului dornului. De
aceea neglijarea detaliilor geometrice ale
profilului interior conduce la subestimarea
tensiunilor maxime;
Presiunea pe matrie poate fi un factor restrictiv
pentru creterea avansului de rotaie, n timp ce
tensiunile reziduale i presiunea pe dorn sunt
foarte puin influenate de avansul de rotaie.

MULTUMIRI

Acest articol a aprut ca rezultat al Contractului
de cercetare nr. 71-085/2007 finanat de Ministerul
Educaiei i Cercetrii prin Centrul Naional de
Management Programe.
BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Altan T., Knoerr M., Application of the 2D finite element method
to simulation of cold-forging processes, J. Mater. Process. Technol.
35,1992;
2. Chelu Gh. i Bendic V., Tehnologii neconvenionale de matriare
i forjare, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1996;
3. Domblesky JP, Shivpuri R, Mohamdein MK, FEM simulation of
multiple pass radial forging of pyromet, Proceeding of the Int.
Symp. on the Metallurgy and Applications of superalloys, Pittsburg
26-29 June 1994;
4. Hoffmanner A. L., Iyer K. R., Residual stress control in precision
swaged rifle barrels, NAMRC IV (North American Manufacturing
Conference), Gainesville, FL, 1978, pg. 180;
5. Jang D.Y., Liou H.J., Study of stress development in axi-symmetric
products processed by radial forging using 3-D non-linear finite-
element method, Elsevier, 1996;
6. Lahoti G.D., Altan T., Analysis of the radial forging process for
manufacturing rods and tubes, J Eng Ind. 98, pg. 265-271, 1976;
7. Radiucenco Iu. S., Rotaionnoe objatia , Mainostroenie, Moskva,
1972;
8. chiopu V. .a., Cercetri privind elaborarea unui nou procedeu de
fabricare prin deformare plastic de nalt precizie a pieselor
tubulare cu profil interior complex, S. C. PRESUM PROIECT S.A.
Iai, Contract cercetare nr. 545/2000, cod tem B5;
9. Zienkiewicz O.C., Taylor R.L., The finite Element Method, Vol. 1
i 2, Ed. 6, Butterworth-Heinemann, USA, 2000;
10. Zienkiewicz O.C., Taylor R.L., The finite Element Method for
Solid and Structural Mechanics, Ed. 6, Elsevier, 2005;
11. Zimmerman W.B.J., Process Modelling and Simulation with
Finite Element Methods, World Scientific, 2004;
12. *** Documentaie oficial SALOME MECA, EDF France
http://www.caelinux.com/CMS/index.php?option=com_content&tas
k=view&id=41&Itemid=40;
13. ***Documentaie oficial CODE ASTER, EDF France,
http://www.code-aster.org/V2/doc/?lang=fr;
14. ***Documentaie oficial MARC, MSC Software,
http://www.mscsoftware.com;
15. *** Rotary swaging, HMP Maschinenfabrik & Umformtechnik,
http://www.hmp.de/sprache2/n179093/n.html;
16. *** Rotary swaging, FELSS GmbH,
http://www.felss.de/felssEnglish/siteStart.html;
17. *** Rotary swaging processes, Torrington Swager and Vaill Inc.,
http://www.torrington-achinery.com/process/rotary_swaging.html;
18. *** Rotary swaging, Metall Technik MENGES GmbH,
http://en.metalltechnik-menges.de/swaging.html.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

113



ASPECTS AND RESULTS
OF THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION
OF THE DEEP-DRAWING OF BUTT-WELDED PARTS


M. Tera
1
, O. Bologa
2
, V. Oleksik
3


1
Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Sibiu, ROMANIA, melania.tera@ulbsibiu.ro
2
Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Sibiu, ROMANIA, octavian.bologa@ulbsibiu.ro
3
Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Sibiu, ROMANIA, valentin.oleksik@ulbsibiu.ro


REZUMAT
Tablele sudate cap la cap prezint multitudine de avantaje printre care scderea
greutii piesei, reducerea costurilor de fabricaie i o precizie dimensional ridicat.
Pentru a beneficia de aceste avantaje este necesar o cunoatere detaliat a comportrii
tablelor de acest tip la ambutisare. Lucrarea de fa i propune s analizeze modelul
analitic al ambutisrii unui semifabricat obinut prin sudarea cap la cap a dou table
metalice. O comparaie ntre ambutisarea acestui tip de semifabricat cu ambutisarea
unui semifabricat convenional este de asemenea prezentat.

ABSTRACT
Butt-welded metal sheets have many advantages, such as decreasing the parts weight,
reducing the manufacturing costs and an increased dimensional precision. In order to
benefit from these advantages, a detailed knowledge of this kind of sheet's behaviour
during deep-drawing is necessary. The current paper aims to analyse the analytical
model of deep-drawing a blank realized through the butt-welding of two metal sheets. A
comparison between the deep-drawing of such kind of blank and the deep-drawing of a
conventional blank is also discussed.

CUVINTE CHEIE: ambutisare, table sudate, simulare numeric, deformabilitate, subierea materialului

KEYWORDS: deep-drawing, welded blanks, numerical simulation, formability, material thinning


1. INTRODUCTION

Car manufacturers are at present in a steady search
for obtaining finite products that remain competitive on
the market and this requires the appearance of
innovative manufacturing processes that are able to
bring both reductions in the costs of processing and
cars with a reduced weight [5].
The forming of metallic sheets is used on a wide
scale in the car manufacturing industry, in the car-
manufacturing industry and in other areas of
applicative engineering, due to the high productivity,
low production costs and optimal ratio between the
strength and weight achieved at the finite product.
On the other hand, the various subassemblies of
car bodies require different levels of stiffness, shock
resistance and corrosion. Car manufacturers used to
meet these requirements by introducing supplementary
reinforcing, stiffening elements and by using parts
made of stainless steels in the car body areas
demanding those requirements [4].
It is known that the car body and chassis must
provide various performances, such as higher
endurance, wear resistance, shock resistance etc., all
these at the lowest possible weight. This leads to
hundreds of smaller or larger panels forming the actual
car body, all with precise specifications regarding the
employed sheet thickness and the recommended steel
type for each part. On the other hand, the number of
parts must be kept as low as possible to improve the
precision and the productivity [7].
In order to accommodate all the conditions and
requirements mentioned before, to find a compromise
that would provide reductions in the weight of products
and finite products at the lowest possible price, but also
high values of the mechanical, technological and
corrosion properties, car manufacturers need to modify
(or even to replace completely) the classical variant of
using a conventional blank that implies numerous

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

114
processing stages and leads to an increase in processing
times and to the usage of a number of supplementary
cars and equipments and thus to high production costs.
Instead, a promising solution would be the usage
of butt-welded blanks (BWB), due to the fact that, in
the manufacturing of a car body, for example, it
becomes possible to use one single welded part instead
of using several distinct parts which would require a
large number of processing stages and then of
assembling stages. As can also be seen from figure 1,
the blanks are butt-welded before the forming process,
thus limiting the number of parts [6].
This brings about several important advantages,
such as a significant reduction of costs, structural
improvements and not least a reduction in weight for
finite products obtained in this manner [4].



Figure 1: Example of the application of butt-welded
blanks to an side-outer panel

Thus, it is necessary to gain complete information
on the various types and dimensions of parts that could
be used for such a manufacturing process, in order to
achieve its optimisation in all aspects, from the design
of tools to determining the process parameters and then
to the inspection of the finite part [2].
Elements such as car body parts can then be
obtained by using a single tailor-welded (butt-welded)
blank instead of several individual subassemblies that
would be joined after the forming process.
The uniqueness of BWB applications that have
begun to be employed in various parts of the world is
given more by differences in the application objectives
than by the possibilities offered for example by
welding equipments or by deep-drawing techniques.
Still, the exact scientific considerations for this
manufacturing procedure that would result from a
thorough study by numerical modelling and
simulations are only in their beginnings.
Starting from all these considerations, the current
paper aims to present a study of the deep-drawing process
for tailor-welded blanks by numerical simulation.

2. GENERAL ASPECTS OF THE
NUMERICAL SIMULATION

In the current study, the authors have chosen the
case of using a circular blank realised of two
hemicircular metal sheets made of the same deep-
drawing steel quality DC04 but with different
thicknesses of 1 mm and 1,5 mm, respectively, joined
by butt-welding, as shown in figure 2.



Figure 2: The butt-welded blank used for the deep-
drawing tests.

The numerical simulation that was carried out was the
same as for the realising of any deep-drawn cylindrical,
flanged part. A direct analysis method was employed,
which required the modelling of the die, of the punch and
of the blank holder, the introduction of contacts and of
frictions between the active elements and the blank.
Table 1 presents the dimensional characteristics of
the tools used for the simulation of the deep-drawing
process described in this paper. It should be also
mentioned that the allowance between the punch and
the die is of 2.2 mm on the diameter, which the friction
coefficient has a value of 0.1.

Table 1.Tthe dimensional characteristics of the tools
Deep-drawing depth 20 [mm]
Die diameter 60 [mm]
Die fillet radius 6 [mm]
Punch diameter 50 [mm]
Punch fillet radius 3 [mm]


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For this paper we used the Autoform 3.2 software.
The main solution methodology is based on explicit
time integration. Autoform has different formulations
available for the Shell element use in this numerical
simulation. The authors select in this case the
Belytschko-Tsay formulation because is fast and use
the reduced integration method [3].
The Belytschko-Tsay shell element was
implemented in Autoform as a computationally efficient
alternative to the Hughes-Liu shell element. This type of
element is based on a combined co-rotational and
velocity-strain formulation. The element's efficiency is
obtained from the mathematical simplifications that
result from these two kinematical assumptions. The co-
rotational portion of the formulation avoids the
complexities of nonlinear mechanics by embedding a
coordinate system in the element.
In the numerical simulations presented in this paper
we used an automatic surface-to-surface contact
algorithm. The main difference between the automatic and
general options is that the automatic contact algorithm
automatically determines the contact surface orientation
for shell elements. In automatic contact, checks are made
for contact on both sides of shell elements.
For material model we used an anisotropic elasto-
plastic model definition: 3 Parameter Barlat. Anisotropic
plasticity model developed by Barlat and Lian is use for
modeling material behavior in forming processes. Both
exponential and linear hardening rules are available. The
anisotropic yield criterion for plane stress is defined as:


m m m
m
Y
K c K K a K K a
2 2 1 2 1
2 2 + + + =
(1)

where
Y
is the yield stress, a and c are anisotropic
material constants, m is Barlat exponent, and K
1
and K
2

are defined by:

2
1
yy xx
h
K

=
(2)

2 2 2
1 2 xy
p K K + =
(3)

where: h and p are additional anisotropic material
constants. For the exponential hardening option, the
material yield strength is given by (3):

( )
n
p
Y
k + =
0
(4)

where: k is the strength coefficient,
0
is the initial
strain at yield,
p
is the plastic strain, and n is the
hardening coefficient.
The finite element network associated with the
parts geometry necessitates a re-discretisation because
of its exaggerated distortions. A value of the friction
coefficient of 0.1 was used.


3. ACHIEVED RESULTS

With regard to the values of the force used for the
deformation of the butt-welded blanks, it can be seen
that the values are similar, if not even identical to those
needed for the deep-drawing of a conventional blank,
which leads to the conclusion that the force is not
influenced by the choice of the butt welded blank
instead of a conventional blank. Figure 3 shows a graph
of the deep-drawing force in the studied case.



Figure 3: Forces occuring at the deep-drawing process

Further, the material's formability was analysed,
which shows the material's thickenning on two
directions perpendicular to each other, located on the
area of the flange filletting. This can be attributed to the
material's anisotropy and can be identified in both sheet
thicknesses, but is more obvious in the case of the sheet
of 1 mm thickness, as shown in figure 4. At the same
time, it is worth mentioning that no area of the part
shows excessive thinnings or even a material failure.



Figure 4: Analysis of the part's formability


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Following the analysis of plastic strain, it can be
noticed also that in most areas of the part a state of
plasticity is reached (figure 5), only the part bottom
area remaining undeformed.
From the analysis of the part's thinning, it ca be
noticed that both semicircles present thickenings of up
to 20% of the part's thickness in the filleted area
between the flange and the sidewall (figure 6) (which
corresponds to value of +0.212609), these thickenings
being marked in the figure with positive values. In the
filleted area between the sidewall and the part's bottom,
a phenomenon of thinning by up to 13% can be noticed
in both parts used. These values for the material's
thinning (13% of the part's thickness) and thickening
(20% of the part's thickness) are maximal values and
need to be taken into account for determining the finite
part's mechanical strength.



Figure 5: Analysis of the plastic strains.



Figure 6: Thinning of the deep-drawn part


Figure 7: Part thickness
Figure 7 shows the values of the part's
thickness, being emphasised the thickness
differences due to using sheets of different
thicknesses for manufacturing the initial blank.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The results show that during the deep-drawing
process, the tailor-welded blank has a similar
behaviour to that of conventional blanks, the
resulting parameters being nearly identical.
Therefore, the choice of this type of metallic
blanks as replacements for conventional ones is
fully justified, taking into account the significant
reduction achieved by using for 50% of the
blank's area a material with a smaller thickness (1
mm), resulting in the reduction of the weight by
about 20% compared to the case of a conventional
blank with a constant, larger (1.5 mm) thickness.
Following the favourable results of these
analyses, it is necessary to consider also studying
the effects of using other types and dimensions of
tailor-welded blanks. In particular, there need to
be studied problems related to material failure
criteria, design of the technological process and
its control, as well as other details related to the
deep-drawing of welded parts made of the same
material but of different thicknesses but also of
sheets made of different materials in order to
achieve, on certain part areas, for example a
higher wear resistance.

REFERENCES

[1]. Bagger, C., Gong, H., Olsen, F.O., Formability of
Stainless Steel Tailored Blanks, Formability of stainless
steel tailored blanks, Meisenbach Bamburg, 2004;
[2]. Bayraktar, E., Isac, N., Arnold, G., An experimental
study on the forming parameters of deep-drawable steel
sheets in automotive industry. Journal of Materials
Processing Technology, Vol. 162-163, 15 May 2005, p.
471-476;
[3]. Belytschko, T., Kin, J.I., Tsay, C-S., Explicits
algorithms for the nonlinear dynamic of sheels.
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and
Engineering 42(2): 225-251, 1984;
[4]. Cramer, D. R., Taggart, D. F., Design and Manufacture
of an Affordable Advanced-Composite Automotive Body
Structure, Proceedings of The 19th International
Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
Symposium & Exhibition
[5]. Kinsey, B.L., Cao, J., An analytical Model for Tailor
Welded Blank Forming, Journal of Manufacturing
Science and Engineering, Vol 125, p. 334-351, May
2003;
[6]. Miyazaki, Y., Hashimoto, K., Kuriyama, Y.,
Kobayashi, J., Welding Methods And Forming
Characteristics Of Tailored Blanks (Tbs), Nippon Steel
Technical Report No. 88 July 2003;
[7]. Uno, K., Mass Production of Tailored Blanks by Means
of Multilinear Joining Technique, Mitsubishi Motors
Technical review, No. 17, p. 50-54, 2005.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

117



STATIC BEHAVIOUR OF AN ADVANCED ULTRA-LIGHT SANDWICH
COMPOSITE STRUCTURE FOR A WHEEL CHAIR


Florin Teodorescu, Condurache Dumitru, Grigore Stanca, Valeriu Avramescu, Raluca Magdalena Nita

Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute SC ICTCM SA Bucharest, ROMANIA
E-mail: fteodorescu@ictcm.ro, vavramescu@ictcm.ro, raluca@ictcm.ro


ABSTRACT: A theoretical approach of an ultra lightweight sandwich composite
structure with extreme rigidity is presented. The structure features two carbon/epoxy
skins reinforced with twill weave fabric, and an expanded polystyrene (EPS) core. The
structure is subjected to a biaxial field of normal loads combined with a shear load. An
equivalent model of this structure is presented. It has been accomplished a comparison
between this structure and a similar one with glass/epoxy skins reinforced with EWR-300
fabric. Sandwich structures strains, stresses, skins plies strains and a comparison
between the rigidities of the structures components are presented. A theoretical
approach regarding the bending of the structure is also shown.

KEYWORDS: sandwich structure, expanded polystyrene core, carbon/epoxy skins,
twill weave fabric


1. INTRODUCTION

The structure is a sandwich with two carbon/epoxy
skins reinforced with a 300 g/m
2
twill weave fabric,
and an expanded polystyrene (EPS) 9 mm thick core
with a density of 30 kg/m
3
. The final thickness of the
structure is 10.4 mm (fig. 1).


Figure 1. The sandwich structure subjected
to a biaxial field of normal loads combined
with shear load

The carbon-fiber fabric used in this structure is a very
high rigidity one which presents a so-called twill
weave. The main feature of this weave is that the
warp and the weft threads are crossed in a
programmed order and frequency, to obtain a flat
appearance (see fig. 2). The skins were impregnated
under vacuum with epoxy resin and stacked to the
core with polyurethane adhesive.
The equivalence model of the twill weave fabric skins
is presented in fig. 3. According to this model, the
skin with t thickness, reinforced with this weave can
be equivalent to two t/2 unidirectional laminas.
Data regarding the architecture of the sandwich
structure:

Structure thickness: t
s
= 10,4 mm
Skins plies number: N = 4
Thickness of each ply: t
14
= 0,35 mm
Skins thickness: t
skin
= 1,4 mm
Core thickness: h = 9 mm
Fibers disp ang of each ply:
1,3
= 90;

2,4
= 0
Plies fibers volume fraction:
14
= 60%

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

118

Figure 2. The architecture of carbon/epoxy twill
weave fabric skins


Figure 3. The structure with an equivalence model
of the twill weave fabric skins

Data regarding the features of the sandwich structure:
Skins reinforcement: carbon fibers/glass fibers
Fabric type: twill weave/EWR-300 glass fabric
Specific weight of the fibers: 300 g/m
2

Matrix type: epoxy resin
Core type: expanded polystyrene (EPS)
Core density
core
= 30 kg/m
3

Core Youngs modulus: E
core
= 30 MPa
Core Poissons ratio:
core
= 0,35
Core shear modulus: G
core
= 11 MPa
Fiber Youngs modulus in longitudinal
direction: E
F
= 540 GPa/73 GPa for glass fibers
Fiber Youngs modulus in transverse
direction: E
F
= 27 GPa / 73 GPa for glass fibers
Fiber Poissons ratio:
F
= 0,3 / 0,35 for glass fibers
Fiber shear modulus: G
F
= 10,38 GPa / 29,2 GPa
for glass fibers
Matrix Youngs modulus: E
M
= 3,9 GPa/3,75 GPa
for glass fibers
Matrix Poissons ratio:
M
= 0,37 / 0,35 for glass
fibers
Matrix shear modulus: G
M
= 1,425 GPa/1,39 GPa
for glass fibers
Data regarding the loading of the sandwich structure:
Normal force in x-axis direction: n
xx
=100 N/mm
Normal force in y-axis direction: n
yy
=50 N/mm
Shear force: n
xy
= 25 N/mm
In case of a sandwich plate with dimensions: 10.4 x
2350 x 4070 mm subjected to bending with a bending
moment of m
x
= 5660 Nmm, the sandwich structure
bending rigidity is computed at the theoretical
approach. The structure subjected to bending is
presented in fig. 4.

Figure 4. The sandwich structure subjected
to bending

where:
represents the curvature radius;
m
x
is the bending moment applied at the x-axis of
the structure;
l
0
the length of the neutral axis;
l represents the lengthen of the structure due to the
bending.

2. THEORETICAL APPROACH

The core rigidities can be computed as follows [1-8,
14-17]:
2
core
1
core
E
22 core
r
11 core
r

= = , (1)
core
G
33 core
r ;
2
core
1
core core
E
12 core
r =


. (2)

The rigidities of the sandwich structure are [8]:

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

119
.
s
t
h
ij core
r
N
1 K skin
t
'
K
t
ijK
r
ij
r +
=

= (3)

The sandwich structure compliances are obtained
by reversing the rigidities:
.
ij
r
1
ij
c = (4)
The longitudinal stresses in x respective y directions
and the skins shear stress according to x-y axis are
[9-13]:
.
skin
t
xy
n
xy
;
skin
t
yy
n
yy
;
skin
t
xx
n
xx
= = = (5)
The stresses in skins plies are [8]:

,
K
K K
1
K
E
K
K
K K
1
K
E
K

C C
C
C
C C
C
C
,
K
K K
1
K
E
K
K K
1
K
E
K
K

C C
C
C C
C

(6)
, G
K

=
C C C


and the core stress is:

.
xx core
E
core
= (7)

The relations regarding the structures bending are:
.
l
l
;
2
l
;
2
z l
0
0

=
=
=
(8)
The curvature of the sandwich structure can be
computed as following: ,
1

= (9)
and the structures strain is:
. z = (10)
The bending rigidity of the structure is [14-17]:

12
h
E
6
t
2
a t
E
m
R
3
core
3
s
2
s
skin
x
bending
+

= =

(11)
where:

E
skin
represents the skins Young modulus;
a is the distance between the skins neutral axis;
h is the core thickness;
the curvature;
t
s
represents the sandwich thickness.
The results of the theoretical approach are presented
in tables 1 10 and in fig. 5 8.

3. RESULTS

Table 1. The basic elastic characteristics of the skins plies
Carbon-
fibers
Glass-
fibers
Youngs modulus E

[MPa] 325560 45300


Youngs modulus E

[MPa] 14100.3 15800


Poissons ratio

[-] 0.328 0.29


Poissons ratio

[-] 0.014 0.101


Shear modulus G

[-] 5212.4 5873



Table 2. The skins plies transformed rigidities
Plies
1&3
(Carbon)
Plies
2&4
(Carbon)
Plies
1&3
(Glass)
Plies
2&4
(Glass)
r
11
[MPa] 14165.3 327061.8 16276.7 46666.8
r
22
[MPa] 327061.8 14165.3 46666.8 16276.7
r
33
[MPa] 5212.4 5212.4 5873 5873
r
12
[MPa] 4646.2 4646.2 4720.2 4720.2
r
13
[MPa] 0 0 0 0
r
23
[MPa] 0 0 0 0

Table 3. Core rigidities
Value
r
core 11
[MPa] 34.18
r
core 22
[MPa] 34.18
r
core 33
[MPa] 11
r
core 12
[MPa] 11.96
r
core 13
[MPa] 0
r
core 23
[MPa] 0

Table 4. Sandwich structures rigidities
Carbon fibers Glass fibers
r
11
[MPa] 170643.12 31501.3
r
22
[MPa] 170643.12 31501.3
r
33
[MPa] 5221.9 5882.5
r
12
[MPa] 4656.5 4730.7
r
13
[MPa] 0 0
r
23
[MPa] 0 0

Table 5. Sandwich structures compliances
Carbon fibers Glass fibers
c
11
[ 10
-6
MPa
-1
] 5.86 31.7
c
22
[ 10
-6
MPa
-1
] 5.86 31.7
c
33
[ 10
-6
MPa
-1
] 191.5 169.9
c
12
[ 10
-6
MPa
-1
] 214.7 211.3
c
13
[ 10
-6
MPa
-1
] 0 0
c
23
[ 10
-6
MPa
-1
] 0 0

Table 6. Sandwich structures strains
Carbon fibers Glass fibers
Strain
xx
[-] 0.00808 0.0098
Strain
yy
[-] 0.01554 0.01622
Strain
xy
[-] 0.00341 0.00303

Table 7. Skins plies strains
Plies
1&3
(Carbon)
Plies
2&4
(Carbon)
Plies
1&3
(Glass)
Plies
2&4
(Glass)
Strain

[-]
0.01554 0.00808 0.01622 0.0098
Strain

[-]
0.00808 0.01554 0.0098 0.01622

[-] -0.00341 0.00341 -0.003 0.003


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

120
Table 8. Sandwich structures stresses
[MPa]
Plies 1&3
(Carbon)
Plies
2&4
(Carbon)
Plies
1&3
(Glass)
Plies
2&4
(Glass)

5120 2714.8 803.2 533.8

186.6 257.6 236 310.2

- 17.7 17.7 - 17.8 17.8


Core
stress
0.24 0.29

Table 9. Constructive features of the structure
subjected to bending
Value
[mm] 11443
z [mm] 5.2
[10
-6
mm
-1
] 87.38
l
0
[mm] 4070
l [mm] 1.85
a [mm] 9.7
h [mm] 9

Table 10. Structures bending properties and loading
Value
m
x
[Nmm] 5660
R
bending
[Nmm] 10741612.8

0
0,002
0,004
0,006
0,008
0,01
0,012
0,014
0,016
0,018
Twill weave carbon fabric skins
S
a
n
d
w
i
c
h

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
'
s

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[
-
]
Strain in x-axis direction
Strain in y-axis direction
Strain in x-y directions

Figure 5. Sandwich structures strains, structure
subjected to a biaxial field of normal loads combined
with a shear load

-0,005
0
0,005
0,01
0,015
0,02
P
l
i
e
s

1
,
3
P
l
i
e
s

2
,
4
S
k
i
n
s

p
l
i
e
s
'

s
t
r
a
i
n
s

[
-
]
Strain in fibers direction
Strain transverse to fibers
Strain #

Figure 6. Skins plies strains, sandwich structure
subjected to a biaxial field of normal loads combined
with a shear load

-1000
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Plies 1 & 3 Plies 2 & 4
S
a
n
d
w
i
c
h

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
'
s

s
t
r
e
s
s
e
s

[
M
P
a
]
Stress in fibers direction
Stress transverse to fibers
Shear stress

Figure 7. Sandwich structures stresses, structure
subjected to a biaxial field of normal loads combined
with a shear load




















Figure 8. A comparison between the rigidities
of the structures components


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

121
Determinations were applied during a project for the
ultra-light wheel chair structure for persons with
locomotors disabilities. The main part to sustain the
chair was executed from sandwich composites
materials. For these parts was applied the finite
element analysis method.
















Figure 9. Structure for the wheel chair
from polymeric composites materials


Figure 10. Main part to sustain the chair executed
from sandwich composites materials

4. CONCLUSIONS

The sandwich structure with two carbon/epoxy
skins reinforced with twill weave fabric, and an
expanded polystyrene (EPS) 9 mm thick core,
fulfils following special requirements: plate
dimensions: 10,4 x 2350 x 4070 mm; overall
weight: maximum 10 kg.
The sandwich structures strains with skins based
on twill weave carbon fabric reinforced epoxy resin
are comparable with those of the structure with
skins based on EWR-300 glass fabric/epoxy resin.
Stresses in fibers direction in case of the sandwich
structure with carbon fabric/epoxy resin reinforced
skins, are up to six times higher than those existent
in EWR-300 glass fabric/epoxy resin skins.




Stresses transverse to the fibers direction in case of
the sandwich structure with carbon fabric/epoxy
resin reinforced skins, are 20% lower than those
existent in EWR-300 glass fabric/epoxy resin
skins.
The shear stresses in carbon fabric/epoxy resin
reinforced skins plies are almost identical with
those existent in EWR-300 glass fabric/epoxy resin
skins plies.
Both sandwich structures core stresses are almost
negligible, the loading is taken-over exclusively by
the two structures skins.
Using a 9 mm thick expanded polystyrene core
(EPS), according to fig. 8, the rigidity of the
sandwich structure with carbon fiber reinforced
epoxy resin skins is more than ten times higher
than the skins plies rigidity.

REFERENCES

[1]. Benham, P.P., Crawford, R.J., Armstrong, C.G., Mechanics
of Engineering Materials, second edition, Longman Group Ltd.,
1996.
[2]. Cristescu, N., Mecanica materialelor compozite, vol. 1,
Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1983.
[3]. Gheorghiu, H., Hadr, A., Constantin, N., Analiza
structurilor din materiale izotrope i anizotrope, Printech,
Bucharest, 1998.
[4]. Goia, I., Teodorescu, H., Rou, D., A Model of A Rigid
Sandwich Composite Structure, The 1
st
International Conference on
Computing and Solutions in Manufacturing Engineering
CoSME04, Sinaia, p. 297, 15
th
17
th
September, 2004.
[5]. Goia, I., Teodorescu, H., Rou, D., An Ultra Lightweight and
Tough Sandwich Composite Structure. A Theoretical Approach and
A Comparison. 10
th
International Symposium on Experimental
Stress Analysis and Material Testing, Sibiu, p. 3-41, 22
nd
23
rd

October, 2004.
[6]. Mallik, P.K., Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials.
Manufacturing and design, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan, Dearborn, Michigan, Marcel Dekker Inc.,
New York, Basel, Hong Kong, 1993.
[7]. Murphy, J., Reinforced Plastics. Handbook, second edition,
Elsevier Advanced Technology, Oxford, 1998.
[8]. Puck, A., Grundlagen der Faserverbund-Konstruktion,
Vorlesungsskript, Gesamthochschule Kassel, 1988.
[9]. Rou, D., Tomescu, T., Structures from Composite Materials
in Aeronautical Constructions, Buletinul AGIR nr. 2, p. 70, 2000.
[10]. Rou, D., Tomescu, T., Constructive Elements Made From
Composite Materials For Planes, Buletinul AGIR nr. 2-3, p. 70,
2001.
[11]. Rou, D., Teodorescu, H., Goia, I., A Rigid Sandwich
Composite Structure. A Theoretical Approach and A Comparison,
Proceedings of Scientific Session Constructions-Plants CIB 2004,
Braov, p. 63, 18
th
19
th
November, 2004.
[12]. Teodorescu, H., Goia, I., Rou, D., Birtu, C., Teodorescu,
F., The increase of cracking limits of glass-fabric/polyester-resin
composite tubes, Revista de Ecologie Industrial, nr. 10-12, p. 20,
23
rd
24
th
November, 2000.
[13]. Teodorescu, H., Rou, D., Teodorescu, F., The behaviour at
temperature and humidity variations of fiber-reinforced composite
structures, Revista Construcia de Maini, 56, nr. 7-8, p. 54, 2004.
[14]. Tsai, S.W., Hahn, H.Th., Introduction to Composite
Materials, Technomic Publishing Co. Inc., Westport, 1980.
[15]. Wiedemann, J., Elastizitt und Festigkeit von Bauteilen aus
GFK. In: Ehrenstein, G.W. (editor) Glasfaserverstrkte
Kunststoffe, Grafenau: Expert, 1981.
[16]. Wiedemann, J., Leichtbau. Band 1: Elemente, Springer-
Verlag, 1986.
[17]. Wiedemann, J., Leichtbau. Band 2: Konstruktion, Springer-
Verlag, 1989.




TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

122
Quick Info

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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

123



ON THE PRE-TENSIONING TECHNIQUE OF PMC-TUBES
FOR A ULTRALIGHT WHEEL CHAIR WITH APPLICATIONS
IN THE MEDICAL TECHNIQUE


* Grigore Stanca, * Florin Teodorescu, * Dumitru Condurache, ** Horatiu Teodorescu, * Stefan Craciunoiu

* Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute SC ICTCM SA Bucharest, ROMANIA, e-mail: fteodorescu@ictcm.ro
** Transilvania University of Brasov, ROMANIA, e-mail: hteodorescu@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT: The paper presents an original method to increase the loading capability
of PMC (polymer matrix composite) tubes used for ultralight wheel chair for persons
with locomotors disabilities. The method involves the introduction of supplementary
internal stresses in thin-walls cylinders with only a few wound layers. An original device
has been developed to attain this end. Various tube specimens with different disposal of
reinforced material were carried out. The specimens have been heated at a proper
temperature and then an elastic material was pressed at the inner of the tubes. While
keeping the internal pressure, the specimens were cooled and then discharged. Then, the
pre-tensioned specimens were subjected to internal pressure until weeping occurs. Using
this method of pre-tension, the loading capability of PMC-tubes is increased up to 43%.
A theoretical approach regarding the cross-ply and balanced angle-ply composite tubes
is presented.

KEYWORDS: Pre-tensioning, Internal stresses, Loading capability, PMC-tubes,
Weeping pressure, Cross-ply composite, Balanced angle-ply composite.


1. INTRODUCTION

The purpose of pre-tensioning PMC-tubes for
ultralight wheel chair for persons with locomotors disabilities
is to introduce internal stresses in wall structure that can work
against the operational stresses. These internal stresses
increase the loading capability of PMC tubes and their
cracking limits. To attain this aim, an original device has been
designed and developed. In practice we can encounter two
special cases of tubes: the cross-ply composite tube (denoted
AC-tube) and the balanced angle-ply composite one (denoted
E-tube). The AC-tube consists from unidirectional reinforced
plies with the same basic elasticity constants. The entire
thicknesses t
1
(fibers on axial direction) and t
2
(fibers on
circumferential direction) can be different (fig. 1).
We suppose that the individual plies of cylindrical tubes are
orthotropic and the wall thickness is thin. Therefore, the
loadings of the tubes wall are:
t
r
p
C
= ,(1)
t 2
r
p
A
= , (2)
, 0
AC
= (3)
where A and C represent the axial respective the
circumferential direction of the tube.



Fig. 1. Cross-ply composite tube (AC-tube)

For the AC-tube subjected to internal pressure, the elasticity
laws for the entire wall thickness are [1, 2, 3, 4]:
(

+
+
=
(



C
A
II
'
2
'
1 II
II
'
2 II
'
1
C
A
c t c t c
c c t c t

, (4)
where
II
c ,

c and
II
c

are the elastic constants and the


relative thicknesses
'
1
t and
'
2
t can be expressed as following:
t
t
t ;
t
t
t
2
'
2
1
'
1
= = . (5)



TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

124
For the individual plies:
(

=
(



C
A
II
II II
1 C
1 A
c c
c c

, (6)
(

=
(


C
A
II II
II
2 C
2 A
c c
c c

. (7)

The tube strains are:

(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=


II
II
'
2
'
1
C
II
II II
A
2
E
E
t t
K 2

E
1


, (8)
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=


II
II
'
1
'
2
C
II
II II
C
E
E
t t 2
K 2

E
1


, (9)
0
AC
= , (10)
where:

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
II II
II
II
'
2
'
1
1 2
E
E
E
E
t t K , (11)

II
E ,

E ,
II
represent the basic elasticity constants and
C
is the stress that acts in the circumferential direction of
the composite tube. At the Poisson ratio, the first index
represents the shrinkage direction and the second one is the
loading direction that produces this shrinkage.
The stresses in each ply of the composite tube are
expressed as following:

( )
(

+ =

II II
'
2 II II
II
'
2
'
1
C
1 II
t 2
E
E
t t
K 2

,(12)
( )
(

+ =

II II
'
1 II II
II '
1
'
2
C
2 II
t )
E
E
t t ( 2
K 2

,(13)
( )
(

+ + =

II II
'
2 II II
II
'
2
'
1
C
1
t )
E
E
t t ( 2
K 2

,(14)
( )
(

+ + =

II II
'
1 II II
II
'
1
'
2
C
2
t 2
E
E
t t
K 2

.(15)

In the case of the balanced angle-ply composite tube (E-
tube), the unidirectional reinforced plies present the same
mechanical properties (fig. 2). The entire fibers quantity,
fibers that are disposed under the angles = + and , is
half the fibers quantity disposed on axial direction. In the case
of E-tube subjected to internal pressure, the elasticity laws
for the entire wall thickness are:

(

=
(

C
A
22 12
12 11
C
A
c c
c c

, (16)
For the individual plies:
(
(

(
(

=
(
(
(

0 0 c c
0 c c
0 c c
C
A
2 , 1 23 2 , 1 13
22 12
12 11
2 , 1 AC
2 , 1 C
2 , 1 A

. (17)

Fig. 2. Balanced angle-ply composite tube (E-tube)

From the concordance of the first two relations of the
elasticity laws (16) and (17), it results:

C 2 C 1 C A 2 A 1 A
; = = = = . (18)

The tube strains are:

( ) | | L 2 2 cos J H 2 sin D AF 3
N 2
1
E

2
II
C
A
+
|
.
|

\
|
=

,(19)
( ) ( ) | | L 2 cos J H 2 2 sin D AF 3
N 2
1
E

2
II
C
C
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
=

,(20)
0
AC
= , (21)

The stresses in each ply of the E-tube are:

A 2 , 1 A
= , (22)
C 2 , 1 C
= , (23)
( ) | |
C 2 , 1 AC
2 sin 2 cos AB 1 AJ 3
N 2
1
/
|
.
|

\
|
+ = ,(24)
( ) | | } 2 cos 2 sin AR 2 1 1 3 {
N 2

2
C
2 , 1 II

= , (25)
( ) | | } 2 cos 2 sin AP 2 1 1 3 {
N 2

2
C
2 , 1

+ =

, (26)
( )

2 sin 2 cos J 3 B A
N 2

/
C
2 , 1 #
+ + = , (27)

where:

II
#
E
G
A= , (28)
II
II
2 1
E
E
B

+ + = , (29)
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

II
II
2 1
E
E
2
1
D , (30)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

2
II
II
E
E
2 F , (31)
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

125
1
E
E
H
II
+ =

(32) 1
E
E
J
II
=

, (33)
II
2 L

= , (34)
( ) | | 2 sin AB 1 1 2 N
2
= ,(35)
II
1 P

+ = , (36)
II
II
E
E
R

+ = . (37)

2. THE PRE-TENSION METHOD

The pre-tension method consists in the
accomplishment of following successive steps. First, the
PMC-tube is manufactured in the fabric-winding process.
After curing, the tube is pulled-out of the mandrel. Second,
the pre-tension device is positioned and fixed vertically.
Third, at this stage, the tube is heated up to 10C above the
glass transition temperature T
G
. In this field of temperature,
the resin elasticity modules decreased quickly and the resin
matrix became highly elastic.
Fourth, the heated tube is introduced into the pre-
tension device and then the silicone rubber is pressed at the
inner of the tube. Since during the heating the matrix elasticity
moduli decrease, the inner pre-tension pressure will be taken
over by the fiber network. Fifth, while keeping the inner pre-
tension pressure, the tubes cooled at the environmental
temperature. Sixth, after cooling, the tube is discharged from
the inner pre-tension pressure. Now, the fiber network will
relax and in wall structure will remain a status of internal
stresses. After these six stages, the tube is removed from the
device and it is stored 24 hours in a controlled atmosphere
room (T = 20C and 50% relatively air humidity). This is
necessary to reduce the internal stresses relaxation.

3. MATERIAL AND METHOD

Six kinds of specimens have been used for the
experimental tests, some of them presented in tables 1 5.
The tubes material used in tests is a thermosetting compound
based on polyester resin reinforced with EWR-300 and EWR-
500 glass fabric. The tube wall structure was made in the
fabric winding process. The specimens were heated at an
average temperature T = 105C in a temperature controlled
oven. From every specimen type, two pieces were
accomplished, one of them were subjected to pre-tension. All
types of specimens were subjected to the same pre-tension
pressure of 1,37 MPa given by the pre-tension device. This
pressure has been kept at the inner of specimens for 900
seconds in an environmental temperature of about 2C.
After 24 hours from this operation, both the pre-
tensioned and non-pre-tensioned tube specimens were
subjected to internal pressure until weeping occurs. This
weeping pressure produces irreversible damages in the tube
wall structure, such as micro cracks and delamination. Finally,
the weeping pressure value of the pre-tensioned specimen is
compared with the weeping pressure value of the non-pre-
tensioned specimen.




Table 1. Characteristics of specimen type 1
(UP resin/Mat reinforcement)
Matrix UP resin
Reinforcement E-glass fiber
Tube diameter [mm] 80
+0,4

Tube length [mm] 100
Wall thickness [mm] 3,5 5
Number of plies 8
Plies thickness [mm] 0,43 0,62
Fibers volume fraction [%] 15
Pre-tension pressure [MPa] 1,37
Heating temperature [C] 105
Cooling environment Air
Pre-tension time [s] 900
Cooling environmental
temperature [C]
2

Table 2. Characteristics of specimen type 2
(UP resin/EWR-300 glass fabric reinforcement)
Matrix UP resin
Reinforcement E-glass fiber
Type of fabric EWR-300
Tube diameter [mm] 80
+0,4

Tube length [mm] 100
Wall thickness [mm] 2 2,6
Number of plies 8
Plies thickness [mm] 0,25 0,32
Strip cutting angle [] 0 (in length)
Fibers volume fraction [%] 35
Pre-tension pressure [MPa] 1,37
Heating temperature [C] 101
Cooling environment Air
Pre-tension time [s] 900
Cooling environmental
temperature [C]
2

Table 3. Characteristics of specimen type 3
Matrix UP resin
Reinforcement E-glass fiber
Type of fabric EWR-300
Tube diameter [mm] 80
+0,4

Tube length [mm] 100
Wall thickness [mm] 2,5 3,6
Number of plies 8
Plies thickness [mm] 0,31 0,45
Strip cutting angle [] 45
Fibers volume fraction [%] 35
Pre-tension pressure [MPa] 1,37
Heating temperature [C] 100
Cooling environment Air
Pre-tension time [s] 900
Cooling temperature [C] 1






TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

126
Table 4. Characteristics of specimen type 4
Matrix UP resin
Reinforcement E-glass fiber
Type of fabric EWR-500
Tube diameter [mm] 80
+0,4

Tube length [mm] 100
Wall thickness [mm] 3,4 4
Number of plies 8
Plies thickness [mm] 0,42 0,5
Strip cutting angle [] 90 (in width)
Fibers volume fraction [%] 35
Pre-tension pressure [MPa] 1,37
Heating temperature [C] 104
Cooling environment Air
Pre-tension time [s] 900
Cooling temperature [C] 2

Table 5. Characteristics of specimen type 5
Matrix UP resin
Reinforcement E-glass fiber
Type of fabric EWR-500
Tube diameter [mm] 80
+0,4

Tube length [mm] 100
Wall thickness [mm] 3,1 4
Number of plies 8
Plies thickness [mm] 0,38 0,5
Strip cutting angle [] 0 (in length)
Fibers volume fraction [%] 35
Pre-tension pressure [MPa] 1,37
Heating temperature [C] 107
Cooling environment Air
Pre-tension time [s] 900
Cooling temperature [C] 3
The high-pressure plant presents the possibility to adjust the
pre-tension pressure up to 500 MPa.

4. RESULTS

The increase of loading capability of PMC-tubes is presented
in fig. 3.

8
.
7
9
.
4
8
.
6
1
0
.
3
1
0
.
7
9
.
6
1
0
.
5
1
2
.
7
1
2
.
3
1
3
.
2
1
3
.
5
1
2
.
8
2
0
%
3
5
%
4
3
%
2
8
%
2
6
%
3
3
%
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
1 2 3 4 5 6
Types of specimens
W
e
e
p
i
n
g

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
M
P
a
]
Non-pre-tensioned
Pre-tensioned
Increase of loading capability


Fig.3. Increase of loading capability of PMC-tubes

These experimental results and also a finite element modeling
was realized for the sustain tubs for a ultra light structure from
polymeric composites.


Fig. 4. Ultralight pretension tubes used for a wheel chair
structure

5. CONCLUSIONS

Using this original method of pre-tension, the
increase of loading capability of PMC-tubes is situated
between 20% (specimen type 1) and 43% (specimen type 3).
This method emphasized a low structure endowment
with internal stresses, which suppose a reduced pre-tension
process due to a prudent choice of the pre-tension pressure.
This pressure can cause micro cracks and other damages in
the tube wall structure.

REFERENCES

[1] Schrmann, H., Gezielt eingebrachte Eigenspannungen erhhen die
Belastbarkeit von Bauteilen aus Faser-Kunststoff-Verbunden,
Kunststoffe 74, Nr. 9, 1984, pp. 520-526.
[2] Schrmann, H., Zur Erhhung der Belastbarkeit von Bauteilen aus
Faser-Kunststoff-Verbunden durch gezielt eingebrachte
Eigenspannungen, Fortsch. Bericht, VDI Reihe 1, Nr. 170, VDI Publ.,
Dsseldorf, 1989.
[3] Mallik, P.K., Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials. Manufacturing and
Design, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, Basel, Hong Kong, 1993.
[4] Tsai, S.W., Hahn, H.T., Introduction to Composite Materials,
Technomic Publishing Co., Westport, 1980.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

127



THE SIMULATION OF THE LOADINGS
APPEARED IN THE TIME OF PROCESSING
THROUGH THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
FOR SOME OF THE COMPONENTS
OF AN ADJUSTABLE MODULAR SYSTEM
OF TOOLS GUIDANCE


Gheorghe Marin, Valeriu Avramescu, Grigore Stanca, Raluca Magdalena Nita

Mechanical Engineering and Research Institute, Bucharest, ROMANIA,
e-mail: vavramescu@ictcm.ro

ABSTRACT: The modular elements devices are more and more used
within flexible production. The use of simulation by the finite element
method allows settling the processing accuracy of such equipments since
the designing level. This paper presents the main stages in simulating the
behaviour of an adjustable modular system of tools guidance in
processing holes and the influence of the system configuration, of the
processed material and of the diameter of the hole over the strain of the
slip bushing. The limits of the processing accuracy are shown, ensured by
two configuration of the guiding unit of the tool.

KEYWORDS: Simulation, MEF, Holes processing, Modular elements,
Flexible production


1. INTRODUCTION

Within the context of the appearance and
development of the flexible production systems, the
achievement of the modular elements devices
constituted a major preoccupation of technological
equipment producers. These devices have a flexible
structure which allows their adaptation to different
processing types and ensuring of high degree of
universality, within increased efficiency.

In the case of modular elements devices
for processing the holes by drilling, enlargement,
counter-boring, boring there are several functional-
constructive solutions for tools guidance. A high
performance solution is the tools guidance
AMSTG, fig. 1 [1]. The solution shown there is a
reversible construction but it can be also used for
multi-tool processing on holing ends.
The modular elements system takes the form of a
frame made up of four ledges 1 and 2 (two
longitudinal and two frontal), reciprocally
positioned by means of wedges secured with
screws. Each ledge is equipped with channels T
which allow the adjustment of the slip bushing
bridle 3, 4 and 5 in length. The bridles have a
longitudinal slot which allows adjusting the length
in console.
Computer aided design of some
components elements of the product Adjustable
Modular System of Tools Guidance has as result
them analysis through the finite element method in
order to determine the processing precision. In
order to achieve this objective it is necessary to
fallow the next steps: 3D modeling of the system;
simulation of the forces from the processing time
using finite element method; interpretation of the
results.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

128

Fig. 2. Configuration of the analised unit

As followed from existing set was
already modeled 3D the following elements: the
slid bushing, the right bushing bridle, the
stiffening element, the wedge and the longitudinal
ledge.
With this components were realized an
subassembly on which it was applied the finite
element method.

2. SIMULATION
THROUGH THE FINITE
ELEMENT METHOD

In general, through simulation it could be
verified the resistance at different solicitations of a
subassembly or an assembly and it could be
realized them dimensioning. Simulation permits to
know even from the design phase if a subassembly
or an assembly is working and if is capable to
resist at the efforts at which is tested.
The principal advantage of the simulation is
that the program of calculation once realized stays
definitively. So, different factors of the influence is
studied and could be easily replaced in the program
and it could be realized many types of scenery.
Regardless of the computation program
used, the simulation by the finite element is
achieved in three stages:
-pre-processing: preparing the model for analysis;
- processing: analysis of the model;
-post - processing: presentation of results.
Fig. 3. The preparation of the model for analysis
Pre-processing











Fig. 4. The preparation of the model for analysis
Processing



Fig. 5. The preparation of the model for analysis
Post-processing

The preparation of the model for analysis
The preparation of the model for analysis
means to assembly the component elements for
obtaining the model (the achieved unit) and to
establish the boundary conditions and the loads.
The principal stages in this phase are:
- Defining the geometry of the model
- Defining the properties o the material;
- Defining the boundary conditions;
- Discrediting the model.
The geometry of the modular elements has
been defined according to the data of execution
designs. The mechanics properties of the modular
elements material has been defined by Youngs
modulus E = 2x10 11 [N/m2], Poissons number
= 0.29 and density = 7860 [kg/m3].
Defining limit conditions: these describe
as well as possible the real conditions. Looking at
the way of loading of slid bushing it will consider
that the stiffening element is embedded at both
ends, on OX direction it is imposed a displacement
of 0.1mm, considered to be the maximum admitted
imprecision of the system.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

129

Fig. 6. Model discretisation

The discretization has influence on the
results through the fact that, if we impose very
great displacement of the elements and the forces
would not calculate correctly. This fact is because
of the fact that the deformations obtained through
simulation have the same values for a big entrance
element that did not happened in practice.
On the other hand, the amount of parts is
limited by the counting time which increases
proportional to it.
Being a 3D simulation, the discretisation
has to be performed so that the counting time will be
reasonable, but the parts amount enough to deliver
the right tension and deformation. For this reason, a
TE4 tetrahedral discretisation has been performed,
different for every part, overall 395322 parts.
The analysis of the model and the
solution of the problem it is realized in Catia V5
through the finite element method in 2 steps: in
the first step the equation it is laniaries starting
with an approximate solution and in the second it
is mineralized the number of successive iterations.
Results after the simulation
After the simulation with the help of
Catia V5 program it could be obtain: the
distribution and the deformity and also them
numerical values for every element. Distribution
of the equivalent stress Von Mises and the
distribution of the deformity on Ox direction.


Fig. 7. Von Mises distribution




Fig. 8. Ox deformation




Fig. 9. Von Mises Stress (total values)

For a imposed displacement 0,1 mm on
Ox direction (the most disadvantageous case) has
resulted a reaction of the subassembly on this
direction of 85,1 N. Results that rigidity of the
subassembly is about 850 N/mm.
The calculation error estimated is
1,34x10
6
mm, representing 0,001% from the
imposed displacement.


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

130
Fig. 10. Estimated local eror

3. INTERPRETATION
OF THE RESULTS

Using the rigidities determined for the two
units and the moments of cutting specific to
processing holes of different diameters in
representative materials, one can estimate the strain
of the frill spindle which, in the most unfavorable
case, is manifested on Ox direction:
R
F
x
x

=

(2)

the value Fx is calculated from:

m x
F F 5 , 0 = (3)

Taking into account (1) it comes that:

D
M
F
x
5 , 0 = (4)
The calculus relation for the moment of cutting at:



where: D [mm] is the diameter of the drill; s
[rot/min] is the feed; CM, xM, yM are the
coefficient and exponents of the moment; KM is
the correction coefficient.
A general calculus relation of the drill spindle
strain is obtained:


As processing representative materials, the
aluminium alloy AlMn 1, the carbon steel OLC 45
and the alloy steel 41 MoCr 11 have been used.
Dimensions of the processed holes:
4, 6, 8 and 10 (the maximum diameter
possible with existing modular elements)
The next table shows the dependence of
the strain x by holes diameter for each material
considered for the unit.

Table 1. The dependence of the strain x by holes
diameter


The dependence of the strain
x
by the
holes diameter for each material considered, are
represented in the figure bellow.
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
3 5 7 9 11
d[mm]
AlMn1 OLC45 41MoCr11
Fi g. 11. The dependence of the strain
by the holes diameter for each material

4. CONCLUSIONS

The presented way of calculation permits
the determination of the elastic deformation of
Adjustable Modular System of Tools Guidance,
from the phase of design. The elastic deformation
is determined in function of the material to be
processed, the diameter of the tool and the rigidity
of the guidance subassembly (dependent of the
system configuration).
This information brings to the appearance
of the nominal position and perpendicularity
tolerances for the augers ax, influencing in this
way the holes processing accuracy. So, knowing
the concrete processing conditions: the holes
diameter, processed material and the geometric
configuration of the subassembly, there can be
estimated these tolerances.
For the system configures, analyzed by
simulation, for the processing of holes with the
diameter between 4 and 10 mm, there were
resulted nominal position tolerances from the
holes ax as the following:
- using the unit 1 (bushing bridle right):
o 0,007 0,015 [mm] processing of AlMn 1;
o 0,013 0,069 [mm] processing of OLC 45;
o 0,014 0,075 [mm] processing of 41 MoCr 11;
Significant increases have been noticed in
the diameter of the hole, in processing holes in
steel. Usually, for diminishing the size of these
deviation, one increase the rigidity of the system,
is done by introducing modular rigidity elements
and by repositioning of the existing elements.
The re-dimensioning of the elements and
the use of new materials, of a greater coefficient of
X[mm]
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

131
elasticity are secondary methods as they lead to an
additional rise of costs.

REFERENCES

[1] Costea A., Rachieru N., Flexibilitatea i performanele
echipamentelor de prelucrare Optimizarea proiectrii
dispozitivelor, Ed. BREN 2005.
[2] *** HALDER Vorrichtungskonstruction System 70.
[3] *** WDS Waharton Ltd. Modular Fixturing System
Anglia.
[4] *** TECMA Attrezzature modulari Italia.
[5] *** PREMATEX Montages modulaires Switzerland.
[6] *** AMFO Modulares Vorrichtungssystem, Andreas Maier
GmbH & Co Germania. [7] *** SEM 64 Dispozitive
din elemente modulate, Universitatea Politehnica Bucureti.
[8] Ungureanu I., Iordache M., Dispozitive de fabricare,
Editura Universitii din Piteti, 2002.


Quick Info
Brokerage Event at the "Forum
robotic" - Germany/Bremen
Event
Type:
Brokerage Events
Start Date: 12-Feb-2009
End Date: 12-Feb-2009
City: Bremen
Country: Germany

Description:
As part of the forum robotic 2009 the European
technology transfer network Enterprise Europe
Network organises an international Brokerage
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INFACOMA 2009 - Buil ding
Materi al s Match-maki ng event

Event
Type:
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Others
Start Date: 19-Feb-2009
End Date: 22-Feb-2009
City: Thessaloniki
Country: Greece
Description:
CERECO SA and MIRTEC S.A. partners of the
Enterprise Europe Network - Hellas are very
pleased to announce an international match-
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during the 26th edition of INFACOMA 2009,
which will take place on the 19-22 February 2009,
in Thessaloniki, Greece, at the venue of the
exhibition center Helexpo.

INFACOMA is an International Exhibition for
building materials, construction, insulation, and
pre-construction technologies.
The main goal of the match-making event, during
INFACOMA 2009 is to encourage meetings
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This event is an ideal platform to:
Meet partners (especially from Balkan countries)
Talk to potential users of technologies, products
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Get informed about the latest technological
trends.
Develop trans-national business contacts.
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Participants will be able to schedule in advance
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The participation to business meetings is free of
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Important dates:
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2009
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

132
- Requesting meetings: 6 February 2009
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Information:
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nkanatsoulis@cereco.gr
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cereco@otenet.gr
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BIOMATERIAL 2009
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Start Date: 19-Feb-2009
End Date: 20-Feb-2009
City: Erfurt
Country: Germany

Description:
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the International Technology Transfer Days
BIOMATERIAL will take place for the fifth time
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Face-to-face meetings based on a catalogue with
profiles.
Exhibition and poster sessions.

A wide range of participants from more than 10
European countries is expected, especially
including those of Western Balkan Countries
(WBC) and Newly Independent States (NIS).
The biomedical aspects cover a broad spectrum of
subjects, such as bone tissue engineering, bioactive
and biomimetic coatings, in-vivo and in-vitro
testing, and quality assurance.

Scientists, engineers and institutions active in the
fields of biomaterial for medical application are
heartily welcome to take part and use this unique
platform to catch up on latest developments and
explore cooperation opportunities.

Please take your time and read carefully the
technology profiles and choose your partners for
the bilateral meetings. We will arrange your
individual meetings according to your selection.

Fees per participant: 250, 00 EUR incl. VAT
One-Day ticket: 125, 00 EUR incl. VAT
Additional exhibition Fee: 75, 00 EUR incl. VAT

**ATTENTION:
Special fees for participants from Eastern Europe
(non-EU members) = 50,00 EUR inc. VAT =
The prices include:
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Deadlines for registration:
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(http://www.enterprise-europe-
network.ec.europa.eu/public/bemt/home.cfm?Event
ID=1774)
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

133



MODELAREA MATEMATICA
SI ANALIZA TENSIUNILOR REZIDUALE
IN STRATURILE DEPUSE PRIN PULVERIZARE TERMICA,
UTILIZAND METODA ELEMENTULUI FINIT
SI FACILITATI ALE PACHETULUI DE PROGRAME ALGOR


Leonard Teodoru
1
, Valentin Mihailescu
2
, Gheorghe Badea
3
, Alexandru Ionescu
4

1
Fundatia Prof. Constantin Popovici, Bucuresti, Romania, lteodoru@gmail.com
2
Fundatia Prof. Constantin Popovici Bucuresti, Romania, mmvalentin@gmail.com
3
SC ICTCM SA Bucuresti, Romania, florinba2000@yahoo.com
4
Fundatia Prof. Constantin Popovici Bucuresti, Romania, alex4ndru@gmail.com

REZUMAT : In cadrul articolului se face o referire la analiza tensiunilor remanente
din depunerile realizate prin pulverizare termica, la nivelul particulei pulverizate,
folosind metoda elementului finit si facilitati ale pachetului de programe ALGOR pentru
modelarea matematica.

ABSTRACT: The topic that the project aims to achieve is an original approach
regarding the remanent tensions in the coatings obtained by thermal spraying, at the
level of the sprayed particle, using the finite element method and the facilities of the
program package ALGOR for mathematical modelling.

KEYWORDS: Residual tension, thermal spraying, finite element method

CUVINTE CHEIE : Tensiuni reziduale, pulverizare termica, metoda elementului finit

1. INTRODUCERE

In cadrul proiectului s-a realizat analiza tensiunilor
remanente din depunerile realizate prin pulverizare termica,
la nivelul particulei pulverizate, folosind metoda
elementului finit si facilitati ale pachetului de programe
ALGOR pentru modelarea matematica.
S-a avut in vedere analiza mecanismelor intime care
guverneaza procedeul de pulverizare termica (particula
pulverizata), studierea rolului tensiunilor remanente din
straturile depuse prin pulverizare termica.
Modelul propus a pornit de la particula pulverizata
termic, analiza efectelor hidrodinamice care insotesc
ciocnirea, deformatia si curgerea particulei in timpul
pulverizarii si legatura cu nivelul tensiunilor remanente din
depunerile realizate prin pulverizare termica (Fig.1; Fig 3).




Fig. 1. Aparitia tensiunilor remanente in particulele
pulverizare termic la racire pe substrat

Metalizarea prin pulverizare termica reprezinta
un proces cu multiple variante tehnologice, deosebit de
interesant din punct de vedere teoretic si practic si care
poate fi recomandat in scopul modificarii permanente a
caracteristicilor superficiale ale produselor metalice, sau
reconditionarii acestora (Fig.2; Fig.4).
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

134


Fig. 2. Pulverizarea termica cu arc electric

La aplicarea acoperirilor prin pulverizare termica apar tensiuni
remanente care pot avea semne diferite, pot atinge marimi
importante si se pot repartiza neuniform in stratul pulverizat si
metalul de baza (Fig.7; Fig.8).
Problemele deosebite legate de aplicarea diferitelor tehnici de
pulverizare graviteaza permanent in jurul aderentei, tensiunilor
reziduale si rezistentei la uzare a straturilor obtinute.

Fig. 3. Structura stratului obtinut prin pulverizare termica

Fig. 4. Instalatie de depunere prin pulverizare termica
cu arc electric

Pentru partea experimentala si de analiza cu element finit s-a
ales procedeul de depunere prin pulverizare termica cu arc
electric fiind cel mai raspandit la nivelul aplicatiilor
industriale.


2. PROCEDEUL DE DEPUNERE
PRIN PULVERIZARE TERMICA
CU ARC ELECTRIC

Pregatirea in vederea calcului prin Metoda Elementului
Finit a cuprins mai multe faze (Fig. 5 ; Fig.6 ; Fig. 9):

1. Alegerea unui tip de element (strat metalizat prin
pulverizare termica +strat de baza) ;
2. Precizarea caracteristicilor de material (caracteristici
elastice, marimi de caracterizare a proceselor termice
sau a proceselor de curgere etc) ;
3. Discretizare, adica obtinerea unei retele de lucru prin
divizarea domeniului (strat + substrat) in elemente ;
4. Numerotarea nodurilor si elementelor ;
5. Impunerea conditiilor la limita.




Fig.5. Determinarea tensiunilor remanente in depunerile
realizate prin pulverizare termica (epruvete tip ALMEN)



Fig. 6. Sectiune prin stratul depus prin pulverizare termica



Fig. 7. Deformatia piesei dupa pulverizare termica

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

135

Fig. 8. Desprinderea stratului pulverizat termic pentru
substraturi groase

Prin stabilirea caracteristicilor modelului matematic cu
element finit a modelului simplificat al depunerii rezulta
matricile conductibilitati, temperaturii, fluxului termic,
deplasarilor si ce a incarcarilor.


Fig. 9. Modelul simplificat al depunerii realizat cu
ajutorul elementului finit

Prin stabilirea caracteristicilor modelului matematic cu
element finit a modelului simplificat al depunerii rezulta
matricile conductibilitatii, temperaturii, fluxului termic,
deplasarilor si ce a incarcarilor.

{K=matrice rigiditatilor}{u = matricea
deplasarilor} = {F = matricea incarcarilor} (1)

Formularea elementelor limita si a sistemelor
transferului de caldura conduc la o ecuatie conform:

{Matrice conductibilii} {Matricea
temperaturii}={Matricea fluxului termic} (2)

Prin soluionarea sistememelor de ecuaii rezultate se
determin valorile mrimii caracteristice ntr-un numr finit de
puncte i respectiv coeficienii care permit definirea concret a
funciei de aproximare.
Simularea si testarea modelului s-a realizat pentru
determinarea tensiunilor remanente in stratul depus prin
pulverizare termica prin utilizarea facilititilor pachetului de
programe ALGOR de analiza cu element finit.
In cadrul programului ALGOR pentru analiza tensiunilor
remanente s-a folosit modulul Static Stress with Linear
Material Models iar pentru analiza temperaturilor modulul
Steady _State Heat Transfer.
Modelul de analiza cu element finit poate fi imbunatatit
prin abordari succesive, si coroborat cu rezultatele testelor
experimentale.
In cadrul experimentarilor s-au efectuat
urmatoarele analize:
Analiza tensiuni remanente in stratul de baza si
in stratul depus pentru doua tipuri de materiale (Al
Otel si Otel Otel);
Analiza temperaturi in stratul de baza si in
stratul depus pentru doua tipuri de materiale (Al
Otel si Otel Otel).
Pentru stratul de baza si stratul depus s-a ales ca tip
de element elementul membrana.
Pentru modelul de analiza cu element finit format
din materialde baza si material depus un numar de 66
noduri si 86 elemente.

3. REZULTATE

In Fig. 10 15 sunt prezentate diverse
vizualizari realizate in programul ALGOR pentru
modelele analizate iar in tabelele nr. 1 si 2 sunt
centralizate rezultatele obtinute pentru cele doua tipuri
de depuneri realizate in cadrul proiectului de cercetare.



Fig. 10. Vizualizarea curburii epruvetei in
programul ALGOR



Fig. 11. Variatia temperaturii (noduri retea) in
stratuldepus prin pulverizare termica program
ALGOR

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

136


Fig. 12. Tensorul Y-Y in stratul depus prin
pulverizare tremica pulverization - program de
ALGOR




Fig. 13. Tensiunile remanente (noduri retea) in
sectiunea epruvetei si a stratului depus prin
pulverizare termica program ALGOR (valori
pentru modelul primar)




Fig. 14. Tensorul X_X in stratul de baza


Fig.15. Tensorul X-Y in stratul depus

Tab. Nr 1. Depunere Al pe substrat de Otel (OLC 65 A)

Depunere Al pe substrat de
Otel (OLC 65 A)
Sum
Min Max
Min Max
Stress ALGOR
N/mm2
von Mises 0.23 2.7 5.3 62.4
Tresca 0.25 2.81 5.7 63.4
Minimum Principal -2.25
Intermediate Principal -0.41

-9.5 1.5
Maximum Principal 2.8 63
Tensor Y-Y -2.25 2.78

62.5
Tensor Z-Z -0.38 -8.6 2
TensorY-Z -0.17 0.12 -4 1.5
Aderenta la tractiune 13.76

Tab. nr. 2. Depunere Otel (40Cr 130 )pe substrat de
Otel (OLC 65 A)

Depunere Otel
(40Cr 130 )pe substrat de
Otel (OLC 65 A)
Sum
Min Max
Min Max
Stress ALGOR
N/mm2
von Mises 0.46 4.73 12.6 128
Tresca 0.5 4.79 13.7 130
Minimum Principal -4.08 -110 129
Intermediate Principal -0.58 0.12 -15.8 3.41
Maximum Principal 4.7 129
Tensor Y-Y -4.04 4.72 -109 128
Tensor Z-Z -0.57 0.15 -15.4 4.31
TensorY-Z -0.33 0.11 -9.05 3.08
Aderenta la tractiune 13.32
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

137
4. CONCLUZII

Intre cele doua metode de determinare a
tensiunilor remanente si anume metoda
experimentala si de analiza cu element finit
erorile calculate sunt sub 3%;
Metoda de simulare cu element finit a
tensiunilor remanente este folosita ca metoda
predictiva de determinare si verificare a
marimii tensiunilor remanente din straturile
depuse prin pulverizare termica functie de
grosimea de depunere ;
Procesarea si prelucrarea datelor permit
alegerea parametrilor optimi de depunere prin
pulverizare termica pentru ca nivelul
tensiunilor remanente de intindere din
straturile depuse sa fie minime;
Prin folosirea unor modele de depunere pentru
diverse materiale la diverse grosimi de strat
folosind metoda de simulare cu element finit
se scurteaza procesul de proiectare si de
alegere a solutiilor optime pentru straturile
depuse prin pulverizare termica;
Modelarea si analiza cu ajutorul elementului
finit (program ALGOR) a tensiunilor
remanente din straturile depuse prin
pulverizare termica permite calcularea , analiza
si predictia pentru un anumit material de
depunere a marimii tensiunilor remanente in
functie de grosimea realizata si implicit
optimizarea parametrilor de depunere prin
pulverizare termica.
Modelul de analiza cu element finit poate fi
imbunatatit prin abordari succesive, si
coroborat cu rezultatele testelor experimentale.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Zhi-Qiang Feang -Sur la modelisation dun
probleme multi-physique:la projection a
plasma-Laboratoire de Mecanique et
dEnergetique dEvry Val dEssonne
2. G.Gromyko, G. Zayats, A.Sherbaf
Mathematical modeling of particle impact
and solidification in thermal spray process
3. J.Mostaghimi Modelling droplet impact in
plasma spray processes
4. L. Teodoru (1997) Measurement of
remanent stress in the depositions by
thermal spraing, ICTCM, Bucharest.
5. L.Teodoru (1999) Reduction of residual
stresses in thermal sprayed coatings,
ICTCM, Bucharest.
6. Sohoran, St., Constantinescu, I.N.,
Practica modelarii si analizei cu elemente
finite, Editura Politehnica Press, Bucuresti,
2003
7. Stokes, J., - The Theory and Application of
the HVOF Thermal Spray Process.

Quick Info

ENREG ENERGIA REGENERABILA,
26. - 28.03.2009, Expo Arad International
International Trade Fair and Conference for Renewable
Energy and Energy Efficient Construction and
Renovation
Exchange Know-How and Information with the Experts
International and Romanian experts meet on ENREG
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Profile

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26th to 28th March 2009


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Arad, Romania


Opening
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Thursday, 26th March 2009
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Saturday, 28th March 2009

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Thursday, 26th March2009
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As a cross section fair ENREG ENERGIA
REGENERABILA unites all ranges of the renewable
energy and offers an optimal overview of the
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Romania contains a large unused potential for the
use of renewable energy. All renewable energy sources
(wind, sun, biomass, water and geothermal energy) are
capable of development of both power and heat
generation in buildings. At the moment the use of
biomass, geothermal and solar energy have been
constricted to the heat generation in buildings. In the
sector of energy recovery from biomass, mainly in
using of agricultural waste and wood lies a huge
potential which should not be underestimated. The
potential in wind energy and photovoltaic hasnt been
developed quite much.

Energy efficiency and renewable energy have
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like Romania. Hence market potentials for energy
technologies and services will increase enormously in
the next years. Within this market, ENREG ENERGIA
REGENERABILA will serve as a contact point for
all; visitors, participants, exhibitors and experts for
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ENREG ENERGIA REGENERABILA is the
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The event draws significant numbers of specialized
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a clear market impulse will cover the entire south-east
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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

139



ASSURANCE IN FINANCIAL REPORTING,
NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR A BETTER INFORMED
MANAGER


Monica Buga
1
, Sorin George Badea
1
, Cristinel Beleag
1

1
S.C. IMCF S.A. Bucureti, cristibesleaga@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT
This paper aims to improve the quality of managers decisions due to better
financial reporting, to find tools to enhance financial reporting and assurance
processes, in order to reduce skepticism of all range of financial data users. The
paper describes some of the benefits and opportunities in relation to the use of
XBRL, as it exists today and suggests extension under Romanian accounting low.

KEYWORDS: manager decision, assurance services, audit, financial reporting,
XBRL


1. INTRODUCTION

Managers, investors, analysts, financial
institutions decision is related to information
quality, emerging from high quality financial
reports. A good managers decision relies on high
quality for financial reports which is assured
through assurance services, such as audit services.
Because of financial reporting scandals,
investors have become increasingly skeptical of
company-released information, and studies
revealed the reporting and reviewing of financial
information is fraught with problems and
inefficiencies. Six years ago Forrester Research
revealed that: companies spent 404 billion $
paying workers to find and rekey information,
representing 11% of all wages paid in the United
States. According to the New York Post, the SEC
reviewed only 16% of the 14,000 annual corporate
filings in 2001, and it had not reviewed Enrons
annual report or corporate filings since 1997. [1]
USA found a way to increase accuracy,
transparency efficiency in financial reporting, in order
to increase usefulness for managers by using
Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) [2],
designed to easily allow the addition of new features
at a later date. So, the quality of financial reporting,
the assurance in financial reporting could be acquired
using XBRL. XBRL, a close relative of the more
generic XML (eXtensible Markup Language), is an
Internet-based technology that is rapidly emerging as
an international standard for financial reporting.
XBRL has been compared to the introduction of bar-
coding and to the introduction of the ISBN number for
books.
SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)
has taken steps toward requiring XBRL to be used in
its filings. Investors are likely to demand assurance
on the tagging process, once XBRL is required. The
PCAOB (Public Company Accounting Over side
Board) has issued guidance on attest engagements
regarding XBRL financial information furnished
under the SEC's current voluntary filer program,
which relies on the auditor agreeing a paper version
of the XBRL-related documents to the information in
the official EDGAR filing [3].

2. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ASSURANCE ESSENTIAL FOR USER
DECISION

A manager good decision is based on proper
and high quality financial information. Because of
financial reporting scandals, investors have become
increasingly skeptical of company-released
information, especially financial information.
Analysts consider as solution to the problem:
assurance services, using XBRL eventually. XBRL
permit more effective analysis of financial data for
anomalies or fraud, compliance and other forms of
audit assessments and may help auditors with some of
the more labor-intensive aspects of their job.

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

140
Enhancing financial reporting means extend
enterprise reporting transparency, comply with
governmental reporting regulations, simplify and
speed-up financial reporting. The quality of a financial
report is stated after an assurance services.

2.1. XBRL - eXtensible Business
Reporting Language

XBRL, the eXtensible Business Reporting
Language, is an open standards-based reporting
system being built to accommodate the electronic
preparation and exchange of business reports
around the world.
In Europe, XBRL International worked with the
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) to
ensure taxonomy compliance with the new
International Financial Reporting Standards. XBRL
can help managers, investors skepticism through
increased transparency in financial reporting. XBRL
has the support of an international coalition of
regulators, software companies, corporations, and the
Big Four [4]. Around the world, regulatory bodies in
the U.K., Australia, China, Denmark, Germany,
Japan, Korea, and The Netherlands are implementing
XBRL; international and national accounting
standards-setters are rapidly developing XBRL
taxonomies, Argentina, Belgium, France, Hong Kong,
India, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, and Spain are
among other countries that are also using XBRL or
have recently announced projects to introduce it.
Many major corporations are using XBRL to
publish business information, and in 2005 the
Securities and Exchange Commission adopted a
rule establishing a Voluntary Filer Program for
companies to report XBRL-based financial
information on the EDGAR system.
The introduction of XBRL tags enables
automated processing of business information by
computer software, cutting out laborious and costly
processes of manual re-entry and comparison.
Computers can treat XBRL data "intelligently":
they can recognize the information in a XBRL
document, select it, analyze it, store it, exchange it
with other computers and present it automatically
in a variety of ways for users.
XBRL relies on a simple idea. Rather than
treating financial information as a block of text (as
in a printed or standard electronic document) XBRL,
one of a family of extensible (tagged) computer
languages, allows companies to use common tags to
identify individual reporting concepts that exist in a
corporate report, thereby communicating context and
semantic meaning along with content (XBRL
International 2007a) and captures semantics
encoded by standards such as GAAP (Generally

Accepted Accounting Principles) and IFRS
(International Financial Reporting Standards) [5].
XBRL greatly increases the speed of
handling of financial data, reduces the chance of error
and permits automatic checking of information.
Companies can use XBRL to save costs and streamline
their processes for collecting and reporting financial
information. Consumers of financial data, including
investors, analysts, financial institutions and regulators,
can receive, find, compare and analyze data much
more rapidly and efficiently if it is in XBRL format.
Even if in 2002 SEC opinioned that regarding
companies that reports using XBRL it may be
premature to make concrete suggestions regarding
assurance, and the question if auditors should review
each data tag, in January 2008 Alan Rapeport found
that SEC proves relentless in promoting XBRL, and
showed that members of FASB traveled to SEC
headquarters to discuss XBRL issues, in the same
period of 2008. On 14 May 2008, SEC proposed the
use of eXtensible Business Reporting Language for
financial disclosure, beginning in 2009 for the largest
companies, and by 2011 for all public companies. This
announcement follows a series of decisions made by
regulatory bodies and financial services organizations
across the globe to standardize the way in which
financial data is distributed. Momentum around XBRL
has gathered steam over the last few years with the
Federal Reserve and Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporate (FDIC) mandating the use of XBRL for
bank call reports of 8,200 US Banks with more than a
trillion dollar in assets; the Shanghai Stock Exchange
adopting XBRL for Chinese public companies; the
banking communities in Spain, Belgium, and Japan
adopting XBRL; the adoption of XBRL by the
Committee of European Banking Supervisors using the
Common Reporting Framework (COREP); and the
Netherlands discussing the world's first full-circle
implementation of XBRL for regulatory reporting for
its federal and local government. XBRL is a freely
available XML-based standard for the electronic
communication of business and financial data is
becoming a standard means of communicating
information between businesses via the Internet and is
being developed by an international non-profit
consortium of approximately 450 major companies,
organizations and government agencies.
James Gunn, the Deputy Director for the
International Auditing and Assurance Standards
Board found that XBRL offers opportunities and
challenges in enhancing financial reporting and
assurance processes.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

141

3. ASSURANCE ON XBRL.
AMERICAN SOLUTION TO
INCREASE ASSURANCE IN
FINANCIAL REPORTING

Assurance on XBRL for financial reporting is
a much discussed matter today viewed as field for
potential research for auditing academics.
Currently the XBRL - based financial data under
the SECs voluntary and test programs are
furnished not filed; there is no requirement that
independent assurance be provided, and the current
audit guidance related to XBRL recommends that
the auditor test whether data elements in the
XBRL-related documents are appropriately tagged.
The notion of control risk in case of an XBRL
engagement pertains to the tagging process rather
than the internal control over the accounting
processes. Providing assurance on data level
information, that would add an additional tag to
the financial statement item that would include the
nature and date of the assurance and the auditors
digital signature along with other systems related
information, has been recently proposed, starting
for the need to clarify and identify the subject of
assurance under XBRL. There is also an issue
about providing assurance on the technical aspects
of XBRL, and to fairly establish what constitutes
an error, all this questions and issues are yet also
depending on academic auditing research. Auditing
academics can provide potential solutions to
technical issues associated with providing
assurance on XBRL related documents. For
example, given the machine-readable nature of
XBRL, it would seem that some form of
automation as part of the assurance process would
improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of
these engagements. One technological development
that has potential in this area, which originated in
the academic community, is Financial Reporting
and Auditing Agent with Net Knowledge
(FRAANK) [6]. Anyway continuous development
of XBRL expected, and these technological
advantages could be utilized within assurance
engagements to facilitate the process. Even when
not directly associated with assurance on XBRL-
related documents, technologies based on XBRL
could be useful in performing other audit
procedures, e.g. on the area of fraud risk
assessment, or comparison on industry data for
very specific types of measures. As a whole one
benefit of XBRL is the increased efficiency in the
audit process. If XBRL tags, in order to put
reliance on them till the end of engagement, were
examinated early in the process, providing
assurance on XBRL as part of an integrated audit
might lead to efficiencies in other aspects of the
engagement. Professors D. and M. Plumee presents in
february 2008, XBRL schematically:








Assurance have received attention as conceptual
level from datalevel assurance, continuous
assurance, or assurance on the integrity of XBRL
documents. The importance of technical knowledge
in conducticting an XBRL assurance engagement is
to be taken into account. Providers of assurance
services it seems clear to be the auditors, that will
also be required to provide assurance on XBRL tags.

CONCLUSIONS

Managers an all sorts of financial datausers are
paying attention both to quality of financial information
and informational technology security, and both of
theese aspects are emmerging and leading to the demand
of assurance. A posibil solution offered by american
specialists, worldwide expandable lately, is XBRL. The
whole technology of XBRL demands assurance from
tagging stage to technical aspects of using XBRL, as
regarding security of informational technology that has
as results reporting in XBRL format.
Using XBRL under actual international
conditions, uder the diversity of financial reporting
standards, also upon great linguistic diversity of
financial datausers and creators (the system permits
also to choose the filling/reporting language), brings
to potential investor or manager benefits only:
- greater comparability for financial information
(timely and in space)
- better managerial decision
- enhanced credibility of financial information
Corporate Financial Facts
Instance Document
Presentation tools/style sheets
Final output
XBRL specifications, an XML schema that provides the rules for valid
XBRL instance documents and taxonomies
US GAAP taxonomies
-standard elements
-standard labels
-standard calculations
-standard references
-standard
presentations
Corporate extension
taxonomies
-unique elements
-unique labels
-unique calculations
-unique references
-unique presentation
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIVA Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

142
As a whole XBRL enhance financial reporting and
assurance process, so, why not make it extedable
based on Romanian accounting low.

REFERENCES

1. Ronald F. Premuroso, University of Montana, Som
Bhattacharya, Florida Atlantic University, Do Early and
Voluntary Filers of Financial Information in Xbrl Format Signal
Superior Corporate Governance and Operating Performance?,
August 1, 2007
2. David Plumlee Professor of Accounting, Marlene Plumlee,
Associate Professor of Accounting, School of Accounting,
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Assurance on XBRL for
financial reporting, UT 84112, February, 2008
3. Automated XBRL Reporting for Financial Governance,
http://www.fujitsu.com/global/services/software/interstage/xwan
d/Automated-XBRL-Reporting.html, consulted 01.10.2008
4.Stephanie Farewell, Robert Pinsker, XBRL and Financial
Information Assurance Services, (2002),
http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/505/essentials/p68.htm
5.James Gunn, XBRL: Opportunities and Challenges in
Enhancing Financial Reporting and Assurance Processes,
Current Issues in Auditing, Volume One, 2007, Pages A36A43
6. Bovee, M., A. Kogan, K. Nelson, R. Srivastava, M.
Vasarhelyi. 2005. Financial Reporting and Auditing Agent with
Net Knowledge (FRAANK) and extensible Business Reporting
Language (XBRL) Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 19. No.
1, Spring, pp. 19-41.

Quick Info
EnergyMed 2009: Transnational Brokerage
Event on Energy
Event
Type:
Brokerage Events
Start Date: 26-Mar-2009
End Date: 27-Mar-2009
City: Napoli
Country: Italy
Description:
On the occasion of the EnergyMed 2009
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Enterprise Europe Network - BRIDGconomies
organizes a Transnational Brokerage Event on
Renewable sources of Energy and Energy
Efficiency.
At the event SMEs, Universities, Research
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of energy activities will have the opportunity to
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order to reach transnational partnerships.
In the framework of the Transnational Event the
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the premises of the Expo.

EC
Programmes:

Industrial
Sectors:
Materials technology
ENERGY
ENVIRONMENT

(http://www.enterprise-europe-
network.ec.europa.eu/publicwebsite/bemt/home.cfm?EventID=1847)
Brokerage Event during the STRATOFLIGHT
2008 European convention
Event Type: Brokerage Events
Start Date: 30-Mar-2009
End Date: 31-Mar-2009
City: Avignon, Palais des Papes
Country: France
Description: Med2Europe, the Enterprise Europe
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Area is organising a Brokerage Event during the
STRATOFLIGHT 2008 European convention.
The STRATOFLIGHT 2008 European
Convention is organized by PEGASE, the French
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This event will take place in Aix en Provence,
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Who is this convention for?
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Automation/Robotics
ENERGY

(http://www.enterprise-europe-
network.ec.europa.eu/publicwebsite/bemt/home.cfm?EventID=1817)


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

143



TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES
IN ROMANIAN OIL MARKET


Mihai Dimian
1
, Gina Cristina Dimian (Bnic)
2

1
Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, m_dimian@yahoo.co.uk
2
Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, banica_gina@yahoo.co.uk


REZUMAT
Lucrarea de fa i propune a defini locul biorafinriei n sistemul economic
romnesc, prezentnd att plantele tehnice evaluate de autori a fi cele mai pretabile
obinerii de biocombustibili, ct i, sintetic, tehnologia n domeniu.
De asemenea, prin estimarea pieei poteniale n acest domeniu se evideniaz
posibilitatea dezvoltrii unui avantaj competitiv pentru anumite regiuni ale
Romniei, n cazul n care integrarea noilor produse va fi fcut conform
conceptelor de marketing i calitate.

ABSTRACT
This paper aims to define the place of a bio-refinery into the Romanian economic
system, presenting both the industrial crops considered by the authors to be the most
recommended to obtain biofuels, and, synthetically the technology used in this area.
Also, by estimating the potential market in this field there is pointed out the
possibility to develop a new competitive advantage for certain regions of Romania, if
the integration of the new products is undertaken according to marketing and quality
concepts.

CUVINTE CHEIE: plante tehnice, tehnologie, regiuni, marketing, biorafinrie

KEYWORDS: industrial crops, technology, regions, marketing, bio-refinery



1. INTRODUCTION

One of the most important challenges for
the Romanian industry is represented, according to
the Directive 30/2003/EC by the necessity to
assimilate biofuels, until 2010, in proportion of
almost 5,75% of the fossil fuels volume, the
intermediary stages being represented by the
integration of a percentage of 2% biofuel in diesel
until 01.07.2007, this one being raised at 4% before
01.07.2008, percentage that must be also achieved
regarding the bio component for all oil derivatives
used as fuel until 01.07.2009.
It worth to be noticed that all the oil
companies present on the European market,
including Romania, reported that they have fulfilled
this legal condition.
It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that,
without having a compulsory character, by the
European Commission Green Paper Towards an
European strategy for the security of energy
supply, it is fixed a substitution objective of fossil
fuels with the bio ones in proportion of 20% until
2020, Directive 30/2003/EC being conceived in this
documents spirit. [1,2].

2. EFFECTS ON INDUSTRIAL AND
AGRICULTURAL SECTORS

For the oil traditional market, the
appearance and development of the alternative
energies presents special risks, owning to their
indirect substitute goods character. We can
appreciate that, in this period, the oil industry starts
to confront with a special form of competition,
mainly represented by the energetic raw materials
diversification, phenomena generated from the
technical progress and innovations, both being
characteristics of knowledge-based economy, while
we are the witnesses of the evolution to ecological
forms of this economic sector. [3]
This is the reason for which we consider
useful both to estimate the evolution of fuels and the
necessary industrial crops (sorghum and rape -
mainly used for obtaining biofuels) market until 2010
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

144
and, in the same time, to adapt and develop modern
management concepts in order to use profitably the
technologies from this area of activity.
As a consequence, it is necessary to make an
analyse of the Romanian technological and agricultural
potential and to conceive managerial models that can
contribute to the efficient use of the mentioned
resources in order to assure proportional regional
development in the same time with the achieving of the
major objective fixed by European documents.
Thus, according to the fact that the main
biofuels are represented by bioethanol (which will
be used blended with petrol) and biodiesel (used
for diesel) it is necessary to present shortly the
industrial crops cultivated in Romania, used as
raw materials in order to obtain the mentioned
biochemical products.
To produce bioethanol, the pedological
and climatically conditions from Romania favour
crops of: sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)
Moench ssp. saccharathum), corn (Zea mays),
inclusive sweet corn and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).
The bioethanol resulted from sweet
sorghum (both from plants stalk and seeds) has
very high quality, its octane number - 113, being
superior to the value of 93, recorded by the
Premium petrol, contains 35% oxygen, is not toxic,
easy biodegradable and replaces the benzene,
representing the best substitute for petrol. [4]
Sorghum is a plant that can be entirely
used, besides its quality of profitable renewable
source of environmental friendly fuels (the
production of 6 tone of alcohol/ha 80%
concentration offers the necessary conditions to
obtain petrol at a price close to that resulted from
oil
1
), has a high productivity (70-120 t/ha), large
content of sugar (6-7 t/ha) and starch and, also, it
records multiple auxiliary utilisations: fodders,
cellulose, sweetener, manure, etc.
In the same time, from the biological point
of view, it presents, compared to the corn, a sum of
special advantages by the fact that it has a C4
photosynthesis cycle type (assimilate a larger CO
2

quantity), self-pollination, is resistant at drought
and high humidity, it can be cultivated on variant
soils, with different acidity (PH higher than 6) or
alkalinity, preferring, because of its subtropical
origin the sandy ones (thus, it does not affects the
areas dedicated to the cereal crops used for
obtaining aliments for population) [4].
Related to sugar beet, sweet sorghum records
a higher profitability and pedo-climatic advantages as:
it does not emaciated the soil (its roots, very branched
out, rich in nutritive elements, remain in the ground
and contribute to fertilisation) and, much more, can be
cultivated on impoverished and/or arid areas. The
recommended ones for this plants crops are on the


fields from south Muntenia and Oltenia, Banat Plain
and Central Plain of Moldavia.
To obtain biodiesel from plants in
Romania is recommended to use the rape (Brassica
napus), soya (Glycine max) and sunflower
(Helianthus annus), the oils extracted from these
being used as raw material for this type of fuel.
From the quality conditions point of view,
in this case worth to be noticed that while the
cetane number for diesel in Europe is 51 (EN ISO
5165), the biodiesel records values that reach
almost 100. At this, there are added problems
related to viscosity, sulphur content, point for
inflammation, additives, etc.
Further, we are going to present rape
properties, taking account of arguments as those
already mentioned (its usage for producing
biodiesel will not affect the balance of populations
food market). Is noticed the fact that this plant has a
content of 33-49% fats, 19-20% brute protein and
17-18% not nitrated components. The seeds oil
production is almost 3,2 t/ha from which results
1,21 t biofuel and 0,112 t glycerine. [5] The rapes
groats can be used as fodders, for heating, as
manure or into the process of obtaining volatile bio
insecticides [4].
From the cultivation area point of view it
must be noticed the fact that the rape prefers both
yellow soft soils and sandy ones, involving
fertilizers, it being raised in the West Plain, Banat,
Transylvania, Romanian Plane, Moldavia.
In the technology of production bioethanol
and biodiesel are met all types of biomass
conversion processes: physical (grinding,
separation, briquette etc.), thermical
(hydrogenation, gasification, combustion,
pyrolyse), chemical or biochemical (fermentation).
Concrete, in order to obtain bioethanol from
seeds of sorghum there are successively going
through the stages of: grinding, leavening, dextrinise,
starch liquefying and saccharify, alcoholically
fermentation, distillation. From sweet sorghums
groats, resulted after the process of sweet juices
extraction by pressing plants stalks, can be obtained,
through a specific technological process - pulp, raw
material in the paper industry [4].
To produce biodiesel, the technological
process includes among its main stages: sorting,
pressing, neutralising extracted oils by sodium or
potassium hydroxide, esterification with methylic
alcohol and phases separation. The biofuel obtained
has the main weight (over 80%) from the resulted
substances [6].

3. EXPERIMENTAL
(APPLICATIVE) PHASE

By using a linear regression model having
time as exogenous variable we have determined the
evolution of Romanias car park until 2010,
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

145
considering that the petrol and diesel production
will be tightly linked to it, because the vehicles
represent, by their consume, the fuels demand,
while the producers will have to adapt to it,
inclusive on the dimension of assuring the 5,75%
bio component content.
Working on the data gathered from
Romanian Statistical Yearbook [7] for 1990-2006
years (Annex 1) and using the software E-views 4.1
has been obtained the next regression equation:
Y
t
= 316,7041 + 13,92314X
t
, t = 25,7 (1)
(2,653686) (0,541681) F = 660,67
where:
Y
t
- the car park from year t
X
t
the time factor
Using Student Test we have checked the
signification of the model parameters, working with
a threshold = 0,05 and v = n-2 degrees of
freedom, resulting that the time factor has a
significant influence on the dependent variable (t
computed> t tabular, more precisely 25,70>1,75).
In order to validate the model we have
used F Test, resulting that for a significant
threshold of 5%, v
1
=1 and v
2
=n-2 degrees of
freedom, the value of correlation report is
significantly different from zero, fact equivalent to
that the model is correctly specified, identified and
estimated (F computed>F tabular, namely
660,67>4,543). The high value of R
2
(0,977)
indicates a strong dependence between the
explanatory variable (X) and Y. [8]
The model results indicated the fact that
the total number of cars in Romania could reach,
in 2010, the amount of 4.837.831 pieces.


Figure 1. The estimated evolution of cars number until 2010
The evolution of the cars number Real/Estimated
0
1000000
2000000
3000000
4000000
5000000
6000000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
1990-2010 Years
T
h
e

n
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

c
a
r
s
Initial park
Estimated park

In order to estimate the probable quantity
of fuels necessary for this cars park we have
ignored the technical progress (which can
influence the average consume of vehicles),
because both usage of biofuels and living standard
increase will have as a consequence higher
consumes, fact that annuls its effects.
Simultaneously, we have considered that the cars
parks structure will be a comparable one.
Thus, computing related to 2005 values,
when the total production of petrol and diesel was
9498 thou tonnes, from which 4956 thou tonnes
petrol and 4542 thou tonnes diesel [7], for 2010
year we appreciate that the total fuels volume
consumed in Romania will be almost 11222,92
thou tonnes, structured as petrol 5856,0542 thou
tonnes and diesel 5366,868 thou tonnes.
Taking account of the fact that, for the
moment, the whole domestic refining capacity of
24,4 millions tones yearly is used in average only at
a half, for the next three years it is sufficient to
produce the estimated fuels quantities.
Much more, because these ones will have
to contain minimum 5,75% biofuels, which can be
assured on the domestic market, the refining effort
will be lower, from this process resulting only
5519,33108 thou tonnes of petrol, respectively
5058,273 thou tonnes diesel.
The difference for petrol, in fact almost
336,72316 thou tonnes will be represented by the
bioethanol, while for diesel, almost 308,5949 thou tonnes,
will be formed by biodiesel, reasons for the Romanian
agriculture to be prepared to assure the necessary of raw
materials and for the industry to process it.
For the case when, according to the arguments
enumerated at the introductory part, there is taken the
decision for using preponderantly these plants at biofuels
production, this equivalents with the fact according to, in
2010, in Romania, the areas cultivated with sorghum will
be of almost 56,125 thou hectares, while those with rape
of 255,037 thou hectares.



TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

146
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

From the presented data results the fact
that in Romania, for the next 3 years exists a huge
opportunity in agro-industrial sector, represented
by the development of an important market for
bioethanol and biodiesel, both products being
dedicated to the energetic field, critical area for
European Unions economy.
Practically, the quantities in which must be
produced bioethanol and biodiesel in order to
satisfy the demand from the tertiary sector auto
transport services, make evident the necessity to
build up some bio-refineries, as green field
investment or as competitive reengineering of
former sugar, respectively oil, plants. From the
point of view of agricultural potential and the
proximity to the strategic partners, in fact
petroleum refineries or petrochemical plants, we
appreciate useful to locate the new types of
industrial installations in the next Regions: South
Muntenia, West, South-West for bioethanol and in
South-East, North-East and Centre for biodiesel.
The aspects mentioned put in evidence the
fact that the investments in this field can become
profitable, offering conditions favourable to
develop new technologies of processing industrial
crops and to improve their variety, simultaneously
with the development of disfavoured regions of
Romania.
In all this investment process, but also a
knowledge accumulation one, it has to be paid
attention to quality, understood through the
dimension of total quality dynamic concept (Total
Quality Management TQM). Thus, from the
managerial point of view, there appear new
difficulties represented by the situations that can be
met in the interference areas existing between the
agriculture and the industrial sectors, with impact
on consumers, inclusive from sustainable
development point of view. [9]
The bio-refineries will represent hybrid
economical units between the primary and
secondary sectors of the economy and will have to
work into integrated system, existing interferences
at the level of some of the main firms functions
with Agricultural Research Institutes, industrial
crops producers and the big petroleum refineries.
Thus, as it can be observed from the
Model, the main interactions will be recorded
between Research&Development (R&D) and
Marketing functions. These will have a strong
cooperative character between the agricultural
sector and the bio-refinery, which will act as in
symbiosis. On the other hand, between bio-
refineries and traditional plants of petroleum
refining is going to develop, besides the supplier-
client relationship, harmonised inclusive at R&D
and Marketing functions level, a competitive side,
because of the finite products characteristics of the
two economical unit types.
On long term, the bio-refinery will win, both
because of the exhaustion of fossil resources and the
change of consumers behaviour, who will prefer
environmental friendly products, the aspects being
mentioned, without exemplification, inclusive in
Lindsay Merediths paper Scanning for market
threats, where is mentioned that the market threats
can arise from shifts in consumers attitudinal trends,
like environmentalism
2
, this thing being
characterised as belonging to the derived demand,
usually associated to a low level of risk.
The system has an open character, the feed-
back mechanism being built up on consumers
reactions and according to the shifts from the external
environment, and from this perspective, we consider
that the main competition between the new and the old
type of industry will be undertaken on Customer
Relationship Management (CRM) dimension, through
Marketing function being quantified the consumers
importance for a certain business, the market
segmentation itself being made from LifeTime Value
point of view, estimated on customers current value,
potential and loyalty. [10, 11, 12]
On the same base is developed even the
new concept of conceiving the marketing strategy,
better focused and balanced, that has as a main
objective the maximisation of the Net Marketing
Contribution (NMC). [11]
In fact, CRM itself, part of the intangible
goods, became a key-element of the companys
global strategy.
But, to assure the success, at the bio-
refineries level will be necessary to apply modern
concepts of organising, coordination and control of
the activity in order to obtain high quality finite
products (both the bioethanol and the biodiesel
presenting some disadvantages from chemical
composition and/or impurities point of view).
Quality system has to adapt to sustainable
development concept, which conditions the
performances achieving with the environmental
and social problems (inclusive regional
development) properly approach.
Also, the concept of total quality system is
substantiate at the level of internal processes of a
firm, aspect naturally valid for a bio-refinery, on
Just in Time (JIT) type of organisation, managed by
specialised software on its three dimensions:
Production-Marketing-Development. [13]








TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

147


















Model 1. The place of a bio-refinery in the agro-industrial system (own concept)

5. CONCLUSIONS

The present paper details the opportunity
created for the Romanian agriculture and industry by
the shifts from the European energetic policy and their
impacts on our countrys regional development.
Industrial crops, not so well known and cultivated,
with major advantages from the point of view of
profitability and pedo-climatic conditions that they
need to grow up, can become source of competitive
advantage for the Romanian regions ready to develop
the new agro-industrial type.
The estimation of car parks evolution
substantiate the necessity to intensify the researches
undertaken in order to conceive new catalyst for
gas emissions purification, as are those for Diesel
engines, in Romanian speciality literature being
already proved the fact that if it is used a catalyst
plated with platinum materials the efficiency of
pollutant reduction is practically equivalent to the
catalysts with platinum materials
3
in more
advantageous cost conditions.
The article also includes a management
model in which are pointed out the interactions that
are going to develop, horizontally and vertically,
when the new type of commercial enterprise, the
bio-refinery will be integrated in the economic
system, emphasising the importance of approaching
this aspect from marketing and total quality



Agricultural
Research Institute
Bio-refinery
Petroleum
refinery
Agricultural
producers
R&D
Producion
Human
resources
Finance &
Accounting
Marketing
Experimental
crops
R&D
Production
Human
resources
Finance &
Accounting
Marketing
Consumer
Bioethanol
Biodiesel
Biogas
Petrol
Diesel (5,75%)

Petrol (5,75%)
Manure
Biofuels
External environment. Factors.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

148
concepts perspective, both of them having
implications on regional development dimension.

REFERENCES

[1] Directive 30/2003/EC, Official Journal of the European
Union, L 123/42/17.05.2003;
[2] Government Decision no. 1844/2005 and Government
Decision no. 456/2007 from Official Journal no. 345/2007;
[3] Dimian, M., Dimian (Bnic) G.C., Biofuels source of
competitive advantage for Romanian economy, scientific paper
presented at the International Symposium Superior utilisation
of some renewable natural resources in order to obtain biofuels,
glycerine, and ecological solvents, ICECHIM, Bucharest, 2007;
[4] Antohe, I., Tripa, I., Sweet sorghum crops and its
completely industrialisation. A perspective for sustainable
development of Romanian agriculture, Second edition,
Chiminform Data SA Publishing, Bucharest, 2006;
[5] http://utcnrapita.wz.ro/rapita.php - site created in the grant
Rapes production utilisation as fuel for tractors in Romania
Coordinators CORDO, N., BURNETE, N.;
[6] Jianu, D., Biofuels production on industrial platforms, Oil
and Gas Journal, no. 5, 2007, p. 52-56;
[7] www.insse.ro - the electronic form of Romanian Statistical
Yearbook;
[8] Andrei, T., Statistic and Econometrics, Economical
Publishing, Bucharest, 2003;
[9] Isaksson, R., Total Quality Management for Sustainable
Development Process based system models, Business Process
Management Journal, 12, no. 5, 2006, p. 632-645, Emerald
Group Publishing Limited 1463-7154;
[10] Ryals, L., Knox, S., Measuring and managing customer
relationship risk in business markets, Industrial Marketing
Management, 36, 2007, p. 823-833, ELSEVIER Inc.;
[11] Best, R., Market Based Management, 4
th
Edition, Pearson
Prentice Hall Publishing, SUA;
[12] Kim, S.Y., Jung, T.S., Suh, E.H., Hwang, H.S., Customer
segmentation and strategy development based on customer
lifetime value: A case study, Expert Systems with Applications,
31, 2006, p. 101-107, ELSEVIER Ltd.;
[13] Amasaka, K., Applying New JIT Toyotas global
production strategy: Epoch-making innovation of the work
environment, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing,
nr. 23, 2007, p. 285-293, ELSEVIER Ltd.;
[14] Meredith, L., Scanning for market threats, Journal of
Business&Industrial Marketing, nr. 4/2007, volume 22, p. 211-
219, Emerald Group Publishing Limited;
[15] Sandu, V., Florea, D., Georgescu, L., Comnescu, M.,
Developing some catalysts in order to purify emissions gases
from Diesel engines, The Chemistry Magazine, Bucharest, 58,
no. 8, 2007, p. 760-764.









Annex 1
Years

Buses

Microbuses

Cars

Motor
bicycles
Motorcycles

Merchandise
motor vehicles
Total
Auto Park
1990 24297 3975 1292283 206202 105444 258701 1890902
1991 25199 5956 1431566 207473 108006 259566 2037766
1992 26847 8232 1593029 214019 108737 275487 2226351
1993 28085 9646 1793054 212854 113651 298318 2455608
1994 28862 11155 2020017 204496 121205 322417 2708152
1995 30365 11682 2197477 205032 122692 343064 2910312
1996 27372 12143 2326177 160073 94923 376817 2997505
1997 27426 12532 2447087 153768 96742 390181 3127736
1998 27399 12986 2594571 146725 98994 405743 3286418
1999 27317 13305 2702071 141490 101093 417780 3403056
2000 27181 13535 2777594 137103 102105 427152 3484670
2001 26965 13826 2881191 134152 103749 437968 3597851
2002 26672 14108 2973390 132955 105525 447299 3699949
2003 25829 16118 3087628 132880 102970 463099 3828524
2004 25421 17771 3225367 130193 104509 482425 3985686
2005 21976 17297 3363779 103556 93845 493821 4094274
2006 4104835*
Source: Processing on Romanian Statistical Yearbook, NIS 2006
*Official press release of MIAR, www.mai.gov.ro
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

149



ABORDRI MODERNE PRIVIND RELAIA DINTRE
MRIMEA FIRMEI
I CONINUTUL MANAGEMENTULUI
RESURSELOR UMANE


Ana-Maria Grigore*, Mitulescu Aurelia-Mihaela**

* Universitatea Hyperion, Bucuresti, ROMANIA,
** Fundaia Profesor Constantin Popovici, Bucuresti, ROMANIA
e-mail: auramiha@yahoo.com


REZUMAT
Aplecarea sistematica si profunda asupra managementului resurselor umane( MRU) in IMM-uri este un
fenomen relativ nou. Cercetarile realizate in IMM-uri indica faptul ca marimea firmei, informalitatea structurii
si a proceselor, precum, si valorile si atitudinile intreprinzatorului-manager au impact semnificativ asupra
modului in care practicile RU sunt adoptate.

ABSTRACT:
Thoroughful and systemic approach upon MRU in SMEs its a relatively new phenomena. Research and
studies carried in SMEs point to the fact that the firm size, the informality of the structure and of the processes
on one side, and the atitude and values of the owner-manager, have a significant impact upon the ways to adopt
RU practices.

CUVINTE CHEIE: managementul resurselor umane, IMM, structura, proces, manager

KEYWORDS: human resources management, structure, process, manager


1. INTRODUCERE

Aplecarea serioasa asupra MRU in IMM-
uri este un fenomen relativ recent, cercetarea in
domeniu fiind inca intr-un stadiu explorativ.
Cercetatorii au ignorat multa vreme sectorul IMM-
urilor si pentru ca, cei tentati sa investigheze
aceasta topica s-au confruntat cu acces dificil la
informatii, in primul rand pentru ca intreprinzatorii
sunt oameni foarte ocupati si privesc, probabil,
domeniul academic cu oarecare suspiciune.
Desi IMM-urile sunt considerate a avea un
rol important in economiile lumii, iar acestea sunt
constituite in mare majoritate din IMM-uri, totusi
Hendry et al.(1995) sugereaza ca multe teorii ale
managementului continua sa aiba in vedere firmele
mari, care au structuri de personal recunoscute, cu
toate ca importanta lor economica a scazut in
ultimii ani. De fapt, ei afirma ca sunt prezente doua
implicatii des intalnite in literatura care afecteaza
cercetarea in IMM-uri. Una dintre ele este ca IMM-
urile sunt mai putin importante decat firmele mari,
si a doua ca IMM-urile ar trebui sa invete de la
firmele mari.
O serie intreaga de probleme apar cand se
presupune ca firmele mici sunt la fel ca firmele
mari. Welsh si White(1981) afirma ca mentalitatea
generala a managerilor a fost ca firmele mici
trebuie conduse la fel ca firmele mari, la o scara
mai mica. Ei pun in evidenta principiul din spatele
acestui mod de gandire: ca micile companii sunt la
fel ca firmele mari, numai ca au vanzari mai mici,
mai putini angajati si active mai mici. Autorii
sublininiaza dificultatile acestei abordari:

Noi am argumenta, totusi, ca o dimensiune
redusa a unei firme creaza o conditie speciala pe
care o putem denumi saracia resurselor care le
distinge de oponentii mari si care impune o
abordare manageriala foarte diferita. Saracia
resurselor este consecinta unor conditii unice in
care se afla companiile mici.


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

150
2.CARACTERISTICI ALE MANAGEMENTULUI RESURSELOR UMANE
N IMM-URI

Este evident c natura MRU n IMM-uri variaz
foarte mult, dar tendina general este s fie
caracterizat de un numr de factori ilustrai n
figura urmtoare:


Fig.1. Managementul resurselor umane in IMM-uri

Sursa: A. Price, Human Resources Management in
a Business Context, Second Edition, Thomson,
2004, p. 220.

A. Control centralizat. O pnz de pianjen, cu
proprietarul n centru. Resursele financiare i
organizaionale limitate impun ca managementul
resurselor umane s fie o activitate de amator.
Mica afacere tinde s fie direct i informal,
caracterul ntreprinztorului determin climatul,
morala forei de munc i dac este un loc de
munc prietenos sau ostil.
Angajaii au responsabiliti slab definite i
puin autoritate. ntreprinztorul-manager
controleaz toate funciunile majore. Sarcinile de
lucru, salariile i beneficiile sunt negociate cu
acesta. ntreprinztorul-manager este cel care
angajeaz i concediaz, determin salariul i
condiiile i solicit maxim flexibilitate de la
muncitori.











Strategie. Exist puin planificare pe termen lung.
Deciziile sunt luate la apariia problemelor.
Dezvoltarea personalului i trainingul sunt adesea
neglijate. Dezvoltarea i planificarea carierei sunt
rare. Msurarea performanei este rudimentar i
arbitrar.

C.Stingerea focului sau managementul crizei.
Angajaii trebuie s fie flexibili, gata s lucreze
n salturi. Trebuie s ndeplineasc o multitudine
de sarcini fr s aib neaprat pregtirea
necesar.

D. Funciunea de personal. Firmele cu mai puin de
50 de angajai nu au de regul o funciune
distinct de resurse umane.

Alan Price propune o list cu 10 principii,
care n opinia lui sunt eseniale pentru nelegerea
MRU i evideniaz poziia IMM-urilor n relaia
cu cele 10 principii ale MRU.

Precizm c, dei sunt multe principii, n
fapt ele se refer la aspectele majore ale MRU.
Dat fiind pertinena celei mai mari pri a
elementelor cuprinse n tabelul 1, oferim exemplul
acestei abordri.


















TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

151
Tabelul 1.

Elemente de specificitate ale MRU n IMM-uri

MRU n IMM-uri Nr.
crt
.

Elementul

Scop

Punere n
practic
Specificitate Comentariu
1
Sfera de
cuprindere
Include toate
aspectele MRU

MRU trebuie
organizat, nu
lsat la voia
deciziilor ad-
hoc la nivel
local
Tot MRU este
efectuat de
ntreprinzator/ mica
echip de efi
Tendina ctre extrem:
ntelegtor i bun, sau
total ineficace.
2 Coerena
Activittile
legate de MRU
formeaz un
ntreg coerent
O legatur clar
ntre relaia
performan/
rsplat i
nevoile firmei
Dependent de
personalitatea
ntreprinztorului
Poate fi hazardat i
subiectiv
3 Control
Asigur
consisten
performanei
cu obiectivele
afacerii
Management
participativ/ cu
delegarea
modului n care
este atins un
obiectiv
Adesea complet
centralizat
Poate fi hazardat i
subiectiv

4 Comunicare
Obiective
nelese i
acceptate de
toi angajaii;
cultur
deschis fr
bariere
Strategii clare,
simple i
justificate;
proces de
comunincare n
cascad cu
feed-back ctre
vrf
Foarte diferit;
obiectivele pot fi un
mister pentru oameni
Depinznd de proprietar;
adesea o cultur deschis
cu o comunicare direct
5.





Credibilitate
Personalul are
ncredere n
managementul
de top i crede
n strategia sa
Managerii de
vrf sunt
sinceri, cinstiti
i consisteni
Foarte variabil,
angajaii tind ctre o
opinie fix fa de
proprietar
Personalitatea
proprietarului este
vizibil pentru toi

6. Dedicare
Angajaii
motivai s
ating
scopurile
organizaiei
Managerii de
vrf sunt
devotai
staffului lor
Poate fi interesant i
provocatoare, pentru
tipul potrivit de om
Oamenii care se leag
de ntreprinztor vor
rmne, ceilali nu prea.
7. Schimbare
Progres
continuu i
dezvoltare
esenial
supravieuirii
Oameni
flexibili i
sisteme de
lucru; cultura
inovrii;
dezvoltarea
abilitilor
Variaz ntre
staionare i creterea
afacerii
Schimbare mai degrab
ca reacie, dect ca
opiune strategic
8. Competen
Organizaie
competent s-
i ating
obiectivele
dependen de
competenele
individuale
Strategii pe
resurse, tehnici
de selecie i
sistem de
resurse umane
implementat
Periculos de
dependent de
abilitile i
cunotinele
ntreprinztorului i
ale unui nucleu de
angajai
Adesea ntmpltoare;
dezvoltarea
nesistematic i restrns
la civa alei
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152
9. Creativitate
Avantajul
competitiv
derivat din
strategii unicat
Sistem de a
ncuraja i
rsplti ideile
salariailor
Majoritatea IMM-
urilor i copiaz
concurena; puinele
excepii sunt
destinate succesului
ntreprinztorii creativi
i folosesc de regul
propriile idei
10.
Eficiena
costurilor
Sisteme
competitive,
recompense
corecte i
sisteme de
promovare
Managerii de
vrf sunt
retribuii pe o
baz
echivalent cu
personalul
Adesea se desfoar
pe o singur not:
oameni puini i
salarii mici
Majoritatea
ntreprinztorilor nu
folosesc, n ceea ce-i
privete, acelai sistem
de recompens ca pentru
angajai
Sursa: Adaptat dup A. Price, Human Resources Management in a Business Context, Second Edition,
Thomson, 2004, p. 79, 219.

3. LEGATURA DINTRE MARIMEA FIRMEI SI CONTINUTUL MRU

Exist o cert legtur ntre mrimea
firmei i practicarea unui management al resurselor
umane formalizat.
Spre deosebire de situaia din firmele
mari, unde practicile managementului resurselor
umane sunt formale, managementul resurselor
umane se schimb, n funcie de dimensiunea
firmei, de la practicile informale regsite cu
predilecie n microfirme, spre practicile prescrise
i mai clar formulate, specifice ntreprinderilor
mijlocii i mici spre mijlocii.
Recomandrile i instruirea n
managementul pentru IMM-uri se bazeaz n mare
msur pe prescripiile din manualele de
specialitate, care cer adoptarea practicilor
formalizate ale managementului, mai potrivite ns
firmelor mari.
Aa cum s-a artat, presupunerea c micile
organizaii ar trebui conduse la fel ca i cele mari,
dar pe o scar mai mic, duce la o blocare a
nelegerii proceselor distinctive i practicilor
specifice IMM-urilor.
Ar trebui s se ia n considerare
dimensiunea firmei, precum i implicaiile
strategice ale creterii dimensiunii, atunci cnd se
definesc nivelurile adecvate i zonele practicilor
formalizate ale managementului resurselor umane,
recomandabile fiecrei firme.
Recomandrile pentru IMM-uri care pun
accentul pe procedurile formale pot fi
contraproductive la anumite dimensiuni ale
firmelor. Astfel de recomandri pot reduce
flexibilitatea firmei i pot obstruciona rspunsul
rapid la schimbarea viziunilor strategice i
variabilelor de mediu. Practicile managementului
resurselor umane, cum ar fi sursele formale de
recrutare, testarea extensiv a candidailor i
instruirea intensiv a angajailor, nu sunt neaprat
necesare n microfirme, unde numrul angajailor
este mic i unde majoritatea provine fie din familie,
fie din rndul prietenilor, unde ntreprinztorul este
n situaia de a exercita un control direct asupra
activitilor din firm. n afar de acest aspect,
ntreprinztorii-manageri s-ar putea s nu aib
resursele necesare pentru implementarea practicilor
extensive ale managementului resurselor umane.
ntreprinztorulmanager trebuie s fie
contient de importana pstrrii unui echilibru n
practicile managementului resurselor umane care s
asigure responsabilitatea i controlul adecvate, care
s reduc riscul litigiilor, s asigure c sunt
satisfcute cerinele statutare i, n acelai timp, s
ofere flexibilitatea pentru rspunsul la strategiile n
schimbare. Echilibrul adecvat va diferi n funcie de
mrimea firmei i strategia acesteia.
Atunci cnd luarea deciziilor se limiteaz
la ntreprinztorul-manager, se reduce nevoia
pentru sisteme, proceduri i documente scrise, iar
necesitatea pentru personal specializat, care s
menin i s opereze sistemul stabilit, se
diminueaz.
La microfirme, relaia apropiat dintre
angajator i angajat nlocuiete controlul formal i
reduce nevoia de documentaie detaliat, lsnd
firma maleabil la schimbrile frecvente care
caracterizeaz managementul acestor organizaii.
La aceast dimensiune strategia firmei este de cele
mai multe ori intuitiv i orientat spre cutrile
agresive de oportuniti i spre dezvoltarea
produsului. Pe msur ce firma se dezvolt, este
nevoie de mai muli manageri pentru a-l completa
pe ntreprinztorul-manager n responsabilitatea
operaiilor zilnice ale firmei. Acest lucru este n
conformitate cu transferul responsabilitii de
instruire i evaluare la ealonul urmtor
ntreprinztorului-manager. Controlul i
procedurile administrative nlocuiesc controlul
direct exercitat de ntreprinztor.




TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

153

4. CONCLUZII

ntreprinderile mici i mijlocii sunt complexe,
variate i influenate de o gam de factori.
ntreprinderile mici i mijlocii se refer la firme de
dimensiuni diferite, cu grade variate de
complexitate n practicile managementului. Totui,
acestea sunt tratate adesea ca o entitate omogen.
Nici un sistem de organizare i de management nu
poate servi ca model pentru toate organizaiile, cu
att mai mult n ceea ce privete managementul
resurselor umane, care opereaz cu fiina uman, ce
posed caracteristici diferite, n continu
schimbare.
Exist o presiune n direcia nuanrii
managementului, i acest lucru exercit la rndul
su presiuni asupra practicilor tradiionale
universaliste de personal i asupra politicilor
respective. Are loc ndeprtarea de la un model
universal spre o abordare situaional.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

[1]. Bacon, N., Ackers P., Storey J., Its a Small World:
Managing Human resources in Small Business, The
International Journal of Human Resource Management,
7(1), 1996
[2]. Grilo I., Thurik R., Latent and actual entrepreneurship
in Europe and US: some recent developments, EIM
Business&Policy Research, January, 2006.
[3]. Heneman, R.L., Tansky, J.W, Camp, S.M., Human
resource management practices in small and medium-sized
enterprises: unanswerd question and future research
perspectives, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Fall,
25(1), 11-26, 2000.
[4]. Hendry, C., Arthur, M. B., Jones, A. M., Strategy
through People: Adaptation and Learning in the Small and
Medium Sized Enterprise, Routledge, London, 1995.
[5]. Kotey B., Slade P., Formal Human Resource
Management Practices in Small Growing Firms, Journal of
Small Business Management, January, p.16-40, 2005
[6]. Price A., Human Resource Management in a Business
Context, 2nd Edition, Thomson Learning, 2004.
[7]. Wesh, J.A, White, J.F., A small business is not a little
big business, Harvard Bisiness Review, July-August, p. 18-
32, 1981.
Quick Info

Innovact - the European forum for
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FET09: The European Future
Technologies Conference, 21-23 April
2009, Prague

The conference provide the wider future, emerging
technologies research community with the
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TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

154

A call for sessions and a call for
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abstracts and targeted at projects that can
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Welcome to "Science beyond Fiction"
The European Future Technologies
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The European Future Technologies Conference,
FET09, is a new European forum dedicated to
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FET09 is jointly organized by:
The Future and
Emerging
Technologies
research
scheme of the
European
Commission
The Academy
of Sciences of
the Czech
Republic
The Czech
Technical
University

FET09 is organised under the auspices of the
Czech Presidency of the European Union.

Target Audience

The future of ICT will rely increasingly on input
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FET09 targets open-minded scientists and thinkers
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we can look forward to in the years ahead.








You should attend FET09 if you want to:
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learn about the state-of-the-art and
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understand how our society can get the
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About the European Future & Emerging
Technologies scheme FET

FET is a unique European scheme for funding
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is an integral part of the ICT theme of the
Collaboration Programme of the 7th Framework
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FET is an incubator and a pathfinder for new ideas
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(http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/events/fet/
2009/aboutfet09/index_en.htm)




TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

155



CLUSTERELE GENERATORI DE PROSPERITATE
IN INDUSTRIA PRELUCRATOARE DIN ROMANIA


R. Stancu, G. Diacov

S. C. ICTCM Institutul de Cercetare si Proiectare Tehnologica pentru Constructii Masini S. A., Bucuresti,
ROMANIA, das@ictcm.ro


REZUMAT
Articolul de fata urmareste sa ofere o baza metodologica si pragmatica pentru cei
interesati sa infiinteze clustere in regiuni tinta din Romania. Se adreseaza cu
precadere: IMM-urilor, administratiilor publice locale, comunitatii de cercetare
(institutii de cercetare, universitati), institutiilor financiare, institutiilor de
cooperare (camere de comert, organizatii ale mediului de afaceri, etc).

ABSTRACT
This article plans to offer a methodological and pragmatic base for those interested
to establish clusters in all regions of Romania. It is addressed mainly: SMEs, local
public administration, research community (research institutes, universities),
financial institutions, institutions of cooperation (chambers of commerce,
organizations of business, etc.).

CUVINTE CHEIE: clustering, pol de competitivitate, strategie

KEYWORDS: clustering, pol of competitivity, strategy


1. INTRODUCERE

In contextul concurential al pietei unice, o
componenta importanta a eforturilor de crestere a
competitivitatii economice a Romaniei este existenta
unei infrastructuri de afaceri care sa contribuie la o
mai buna integrare a economiei nationale in cea
europeana, o crestere a atractivitatii Romaniei la
locatie pentru investitii si la o stimulare a mediului
de afaceri. Astfel de infrastructuri de afaceri de
anvergura nationala, cunoscute in unele tari europene
sub denumirea de poli de competitivitatesau
clustere, bazate pe sectoare industriale cu avantaj
competitiv sau potential cert de dezvoltare, permit o
concentrare de resurse tehnologice, umane si
financiare intr-un areal dat, care le confera atat atu-ul
efectelor sinergice cat si masa critica in vederea
operarii cu succes pe piata europeana si nu numai.
Clusterele contribuie la reducerea diferentei
intre intreprindere, cercetare si resurse, permitand
astfel intrarea pe piata a cunoasterii si inovarii.
Clusterele care reusesc favorizeaza o concurenta
intensa paralel cu cooperarea.




Ele accentueaza productivitatea, atrag
investitiile, incurajeaza cercetarea, consolideaza baza
industriala si dezvoltarea de produse sau servicii
specifice si devin un centru de dezvoltare a
competentelor.
Concentrarile economice competitive
reprezinta un efort organizat de stimulare a cresterii si
competitivitatii la nivel regional si implica foarte multi
factori din sectorul public si privat.
Experienta mondiala arata cu tarie faptul ca
aglomerarile economice au succes datorita unei
cooperari stranse intre membrii si de asemenea
datorita sprijinului puternic a actorilor implicati.
Tarile si regiunile europene au lansat o gama larga de
initiative de cluster. Unele dintre acestea au demarat
politica de clustere de mult timp-Catalonia si Tara
Bascilor in Spania, Veneto in Italia, Scotia in Marea
Britanie, Sophia Antipolis in Franta, Danemarca,
Olanda, in timp ce altele au demarat actiunea doar in
ultimii ani- un numar de regiuni din Austria,
Republica Ceha, Marea Britanie, Suedia sau le-au
dezvoltat mai departe prin initiative nationale-Franta,
Germania.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

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In baza unor analize cantitative a clusterelor
europene efectuate de European Cluster
Observatory, bazata pe o metodologie cantitativa
completa comparabila, se poate spune ca in jur de
38% din angajatii din Europa muncesc in
intreprinderi care fac parte din sectorul clusterelor.
In unele regiuni aceasta merge pana la 50%, in timp
ce in altele scade la 25%. Astfel au fost identificate
clustere in 32 de tari ( in 27 state ale UE, Irlanda,
Israel, Norvegia, Elvetia, Turcia). ca si politici de
cluster care s-au dezvoltat la nivel regional si local
in aceste tari.
Relatia intre clustere si inovare este in mod
evident complexa. O comparatie intre regiuni cu cele
mai performante regiuni de inovare din Europa arata
ca 7 din 19 regiuni au un puternic portofoliu de
clustere(European Cluster Observatory).

2. DEFINITIE; AVANTAJE;
CARACTERISTICI

Clusterele - concentrari regionale de companii
specializate si institutii legate prin conexiuni multiple
si interdependente dintr-un anumit domeniu ( serviciu,
produs, cunostinte) sau domenii interrelationate (
Michael Porter), reprezinta un mediu favorabil pentru
dezvoltarea regionala a unei tari.Regiunile care
combina cercetarea de excelenta, competentele cu
portofolii de clustere puternice au mai multe
oportunitati de a se dezvolta, in timp ce regiunile fara
clustere risca sa ramana in urma.
Clusterele sunt motorul cheie al inovarii si
prosperitatii, ajutand regiunile sa construiasca profiluri
unice de aptitudini specializate care sa le permita sa-si
consolideze rolul de parteneri activi si atractivi in
economia globala.
Clustering-ul poate reprezenta pentru Romania
o piatr de temelie pentru dialogul constructiv dintre
reprezentanii mediului de afaceri i sectorul public,
mediul educaional, societatea civil, etc, astfel fcnd
posibil creterea eficienei parteneriatelor orientate
ctre inovaie la nivel local.
Clusterele se pot dezvolta in regiuni care ofera
avantaje specifice ca locatie pentru activitatile
companiilor dintr-un anumit domeniu si pot sa permita
stabilirea de legaturi de colaborare.Clusterele ating
intregul potential economic daca sunt bine conectate la
piete si la clustere din alte locatii, ele devenind
factori cheie in atragerea capitalului, fortei de munca
si cunoasterii.
Scopul infiintarii clusterelor este crearea si
perfectionarea relatiilor de colaborare intre mai multe
firme dintr-un anumit domeniu sau domenii diferite
sub acelasi brand. Cooperarea se desfasoara in mod
intens pe mai multe planuri: managerial, productiv, de
aprovizionare, de marketing, financiar, de utilitati si
servicii logistice, etc.

In ultimii ani se observa necesitatea unei
tendinte de proliferare a clusterelor in Romania,
datorita multiplelor avantaje care le sunt proprii,
dintre care amintim:
cooperare intre firme la costuri mai reduse;
crearea de posibilitati mai mari de inovare
pentru firme si specialistii din cadrul lor;
divizarea si diminuarea costurilor si riscurilor
pentru activitatile de cercetare-dezvoltare;
realizarea unei flexibilitati tehnice, economice
si organizationale superioare;
reducerea perioadei necesare pentru fabricarea
produselor;
diminuarea timpului de comercializare a
produselor;
realizarea de costuri unitare mai reduse datorita
economiilor de scara la nivelul clusterului;
amplificarea capacitatii de patrundere pe piete
si de mentinere in cadrul acestora.
crearea unei infrastructuri de afaceri, ca o
componenta importanta a eforturilor de crestere
a competitivitatii economice a Romaniei si care
sa contribuie la o mai buna integrare a
economiei nationale in cea europeana;
cresterea atractivitatii Romaniei ca locatie
pentru investitii;
concentrarea de resurse tehnologice, umane si
financiare intr-un areal dat, care sa ofere
Romaniei, ca stat al Uniunii Europene,
oportunitati pentru accesarea instrumentelor
structurale, sprijin financiar din surse publice
( comunitare si nationale).

Este acceptat faptul ca aglomerarile
economice, clusterele, cresc competitivitatea
companiilor aflate intr-o regiune, deoarece:

a. pot transforma puncte slabe si probleme
comune ale unor IMM-uri izolate aflate in
aceeasi zona.
b. pot creste puterea de negociere a firmelor atat
pe piata interna, in operatiuni in amonte pe
lantul valoric cat si in activitati in aval pe
pietele straine;
c. permit intreprinderilor mici si micro-
intreprinderilor sa penetreze in mod colectiv
si cu succes in piete tinta unde un IMM
individual nu poate; incurajeaza
intreprinderile sa lucreze impreuna la criterii
de calitate agreate, in conformitate cu
standardele internationale;
d. ofera oportunitatea pentru transferul de
cunostinte.




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Principalii actori ai clusterului (fig.1) sunt:
IMM-uri din anumite sectoare
economice/industriale
administratii publice centrale/locale
firme de consultanta si training si furnizoare
de servicii
comunitatea de cercetare (institutii de
cercetare, universitati)
institutii financiare
institutii de cooperare (camere de comert,
asociatii profesionale, etc).

Principalele caracteristici ale unui cluster / pol de
crestere economica sunt:

a. strategia
Clusterul trebuie sa identifice amenintarile
si oportunitatile pe segmentul sau de piata si apoi
sa stabileasca modul de actiune in functie de
aceste elemente.
Acest lucru presupune, pe de o parte, sa
aiba permanent in atentie intentiile concurentei,
iar pe de alta parte, sa raspunda clientilor sai, atat
cei principali cat si cei potentiali. Mai presupune
de asemenea o supraveghere atenta a tot ce se
intampla pe piata furnizorilor, legat de concurenta,
alti cumparatori, furnizori principali, precum si
alternative posibile in ce priveste furnizorii.
Totodata, aceasta mai inseamna sa fii
constient de implicatiile pe care le au schimbarile
pe un plan mai larg cum sunt cele din domeniul
relatiilor industriale, legislativ, tendintelor
economice si noilor tehnologii si materiale.
Fiecare dintre factorii ( input-urile)
mentionati mai sus trebuie sa fie evaluati cu
acuratetea necesara in ce priveste impactul pe care
il are asupra intregii activitati a clusterului.

b. organizarea flexibila
Fiecare firma indeplineste anumite activitati
in functie de cerintele pietei si de strategia
clusterului. Pe acest plan intervin frecvente
schimbari in ceea ce priveste generarea, obtinerea,
utilizarea, stocarea, protejarea si vanzarea
cunostintelor clusterului.
Elaborarea unei strategii nu isi gaseste
utilitatea daca nu exista mijloace pentru aplicarea ei
efectiva. Organizarea clusterului trebuie sa includa
toate functiile necesare ( lista acestora poate fi
lunga) si sa le concentreze asupra scopului comun
care este satisfacerea clientilor clusterului.
Managementul trebuie sa asigure comunicarea intre
membrii clusterului astfel incat fiecare dintre
acestea sa stie ce se lucreaza in celelalte si sa se
coordoneze intre ele.
Toate functiile trebuiesc sa contribuie la
elaborarea si implementarea strategiei clusterului.
Tratarea functiilor ca fiind independente una
de alta duce la performante slabe si nu solutioneaza
decat partial problemele aparute.

c. concentrarea pe satisfacerea clientilor
Cele mai multe clustere stiu ca partea
financiara a activitatii lor trebuie sa fie in buna
regula. In primul rand, pentru ca au nevoie de
clienti.
Proiectarea unui produs inovativ si
tehnologia de producere a acestuia trebuie sa fie
dezvoltate impreuna pentru a cunoaste costurile
efective de productie. Achizitionarea materialelor
este un factor care influenteaza design-ul
produsului, iar managementul pe lantul de
aprovizionare este important pentru stabilirea
metodelor de productie si de control al proceselor.
Conceptul de calitate totalatrebuie aplicat atat
pentru produs in sine cat si pentru restul activitatilor
din cluster. La toate acestea se adauga imbunatatirea
service-ului asigurat clientului.

d. mobilitatea in stabilirea tintelor
Concurentii clusterului investesc in idei noi,
produse noi, precum si in noi procedee de a le
introduce pe piata - toate acestea urmarind
satisfacerea clientilor.
Strategia, structura de organizarea si
produsele clusterului trebuiesc permanent
imbunatatite pentru a merge cu un pas inaintea
concurentei de pe piata.

e. flexibilitate
Clusterele de succes au demonstrat ca daca
ai succes pe pietele mondiale si iti imbunatatesti
transportul si comunicatiile, succesul depinde mai
mult de flexibilitatea raspunsului la rapidele
schimbari in cererea clientilor dacat de localizarea
geografica a clusterului.

Factori favorizanti in dezvoltarea si
functionarea clusterelor sunt:
implicarea administratiei locale si centrale
(propuneri specialisti, utilizatori, finantarea
intreprinderilor etc)
resurse umane calificate
resurse de capital
infrastructura fizica, administrativa, stiintifica
si tehnologica
industrii conexe: furnizori locali.

Activitati comune desfasurate in cluster
productie in comun
construire de infrastructura si utilitati
cumparare de mijloace fixe si mobile
marketing - vanzari
training
consultanta
servicii juridice etc.
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3. METODOLOGIE DE
INFIINTARE CLUSTERE

Pentru infiintarea clusterelor in
Romania se recomanda o metodologie care sa
preia elemente din metodologii deja utilizate in
Europa.
De ce aceasta metodologie:
a. exista deosebiri de performanta si
productivitate intre sectoarele industriei
prelucratoare
b. specificitatea pietelor de desfacere
c. structura intreprinderilor pe sectoare
d. reteaua de aprovizionare diferita pentru
ramurile industriei prelucratoare
Pentru ca aceasta metodologie de
infiintare a clusterelor in Romania sa fie
aplicabila ar fi necesara:
- o colaborare stransa in interiorul grupului de
lucru interministerial ( conform schema fig.1)
bazata pe inovare conform prevederilor
Strategiei Lisabona revizuite.
- o colaborare a acestui grup de lucru
interministerial cu asociatiile profesionale si
patronatele din sectorul industrial pentru o
analiza sectoriala detaliata ( strategia sectorului)
care sa identifice necesitatea creearii de clustere.
- un schimb de documentatie de baza privind
sectorul industrial (productie, comert, forta de
munca, tendinte ale pietei, etc).
Colectivele de evaluare sectoriala vor
realiza o analiza diagnostic a sectorului industrial
cu accent pe problemele specifice ale sectorului,
puncte tari, si puncte slabe, perspective interne si
internationale, oportunitati si provocari si vor
elabora un plan de actiune privind crearea si
dezvoltarea de clustere in vederea cresterii
competitivitatii sectorului respectiv.
Totodata aceste colective datorita
componentei lor vor media formarea de
parteneriate public private potentiale privind
finantarea clusterelor sau atragerea de fonduri
structurale europene.
In vederea stabilirii indicatorilor de
performanta legati de clustere consideram ca ar
fi util un schimb de cele mai bune practici cu
alte tari europene privind o analiza de
benchmarking.

Continut metodologie

a. initiativa crearii clusterelor
Pentru industria prelucratoare din
Romania, initiativa crearii de clustere ar putea
apartine urmatoarelor organizatii si organisme:
Consiliilor judetene si pentru orasele
mari municipale, care realizeaza analize
economice ale zonei respective, adopta strategii
si aproba proiecte de dezvoltare locala, fiind
astfel in postura de a identifica necesitatea si
posibilitatea clusterului si de a elabora si finanta
partial proiecte care sa contribuie la constituirea
lor;
Agentiilor de dezvoltare regionala, care,
pe baza analizelor si strategiilor realizate, pot
identifica cu usurinta oportunitatea constituirii
de clustere
Organizatiilor de IMM si alte organizatii
patronale regionale si judetene sau filialele
locale ale patronatelor de ramura , care au ca
membrii firme din industria prelucratoare din
acelasi domeniu si din ramuri complementare,
universitati, centre de formare profesionala,
centre de cercetare, camere de comert, etc, ale
caror interese se satisfac la un nivel superior
prin participarea la un cluster.

b. crearea structurii asociative locale
Strutura asociativa locala entitate
juridica distincta, pentru fiecare pol, care va
intocmi solicitarile de proiecte de clustere si vor
cuprinde principalii parteneri industriali si
promotorii institutionali (companii, autoritati
locale, camere de comert, institute sau universitati
relevante, etc).

c. elaborarea strategiei de dezvoltare a
clusterului
Aceasta structura va elabora strategia de
dezvoltare a clusterului care va fi supusa
evaluarii de catre un grup de lucru
interministerial.

d. proiectarea sistemului managerial
al clusterului

e. elaborarea proiectelor pentru
finantare din surse publice si transmiterea
catre grupul de lucru interministerial.
Grupul de lucru interministerial( infiintat
prin Ordin al Ministrului Economiei si
Finantelor) cuprinde o echipa multidisciplinara
cu reprezentarea, alaturi de Autoritatea de
Management a POS CCE, a Directiei Generale
de Politica Industriala si Competitivitate din
MEF, a Autoritatii Nationale de Cercetare
Stiintifica, a MIMMCTPL, MDLPL, si a MIRA.
Crearea de clustere si cooperarea intre
ele poate fi finantata si stimulata prin politicile
regionale, politicile industriale, cele de sprijinire
a IMM-urilor, de atragere a investitiilor directe si
de sustinere a cercetarii, dezvoltarii si inovarii.




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4. CONCLUZII
Clusterele pot fi parti care fac o regiune
prospera, dar ele nu sunt numai o explicare pentru
avantajele competitive. Prezenta si intensitatea
clusterelor intr-o economie regionala este un aspect
de mediu de afaceri cu care companiile se confrunta
in localizare. Conditiile factor, contextul pentru
rivalitate, conditiile de cerere sunt alte aspecte care
trebuiesc luate in consideratie. Clusterele si
specializarea regionala sunt asociate empiric cu
niveluri inalte ale inovarii si prosperitatii.
In industria prelucratoare din Romania se
recomanda utilizarea clusterelor de productie,
clusterelor de export si a celor mixte. Forma care
genereaza cele mai ample performante este clusterul
mixt, care cuprinde activitati de productie si de export.
Fiind considerat un model de success la
nivel European in domeniul sprijinirii mediului de
afaceri, clusterele vor fi promovate in Romania in anii
urmatori datorita posibilitatii de a finanta integrarea
intreprinderilor romanesti in lanturi de clustere.
Lipsa unui sistem de clustering in Romania
are efecte negative asupra cresterii economice si a
competitivitatii si anume:
forta de munca se mentine ieftina,
slab calificata si valorificata sub nivelul pietei;
Densitatea firmelor mici si mijlocii din tara este
redusa in comparatie cu restul Europei.
Unele firme sunt slab dezvoltate si incapabile sa iasa
pe piata.
migrarea fortei de munca.




Cea mai buna practica recomanda pentru
perfectionarea si dezvoltarea clusterelor,
urmatoarele:
Elaborarea de sisteme care sa masoare
performanta in fiecare din domeniile cheie
ale activitatii clusterului;
Fixarea de tinte de performanta pe plan intern
si extern, in cadrul domeniilor clusterului si
in afara acestuia;
Invatarea din practica adoptata de alte
clustere;
Actiuni practice intreprinse la timp si in deplin
acord cu rezultatele masuratorii.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

[1]. Asociatia pentru studii si prognoze Economico
sociale, Avantajele competitive ale industriei
prelucratoare din Romania, vol.5, 2007,
Bucuresti,
[2]. Business clusters in the UK- a first assements,
vol 1- main report 2001
[3]. European Cluster Observatory. ISC/CSC cluster
codes1.0, dataset 2007
[4]. Proiect:sectorial Ministerul Economiei si
Finantelor-Dezvoltarea sectorului industriei
prelucratoare pe baza celor mai bune practici in
uniunea europeana ( clustere, networking-uri, spin-
off-uri ), 2007, Bucuresti.













TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

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Fig. 1. Schema structurilor implicate la infiintarea clusterelor si principalele atributii

Initiatorii clusterului
Consiliile judetene si municipale
Agentiile de dezvoltare regionala
Organizatiile de IMM si alte
organizatii
Partenerii clusterului
IMM-uri
Administratia publica( locala, central)
Comunitatea de cercetare (universitati,
centre de cercetare)
Institutii financiare
Centre de formare profesionala
Institutii de cooperare (camere de
comert, organizatii ale mediului de
afaceri)
Structuri asociative locale
Principalii parteneri industriali-IMM-uri
Promotorii institutionali (autoritati locale,
camera de comert, institute de cercetare,
universitati relevante)
Vor elabora strategia de dezvoltare a
clusterului si vor intocmi solicitarile de
proiecte de clustere/ poli de crestere
economica.
Grup de lucru interministrial
Autoritatea de Management
Directia Generala de Politica Industriala si
Competitivitate din MEF
Autoritatea Nationala de Cercetare
Stiintifica
MIMMCTPL
MDLPL
MIRA
Va evalua si selecta proiectele de
clustere/poli de crestere economica.
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RETEAUA CENTRELOR INNOVATION ROMANIA
RETEAUA NATIONALA A CENTRELOR DE INFORMARE
SI ASISTENTA IN C-D -I SI TT
Proiectul INFOAS" PNCDI/Modul 1


Catalin SFETCU

Fundatia Profesor Constantin Popovici, Bucureti, ROMANIA, e-mail: catsfetcu@yahoo.com

REZUMAT: Incepand cu anul 1992 (Programul PHARE pentru Restructurarea Sistemului Stiinta si Tehnologie in
Romania- faza 1) si continund cu 1996 (Programul PHARE pentru Restructurarea Sistemului Stiinta si Tehnologie in
Romania- faza 2) precum si prin Programele Cadru, Comisia Europeana a facut eforturi pentru implementare in
Romania a unui sistem de C-D-I si TT coerent si compatibil cu sistemul european.
Comisia European a reusit prin proiectele cofinantate sa sprijine construirea acestui sistem numai pana la un anumit
nivel. Consideram ca nefinalizarea acestui sistem a dus o neeficenta a cercetarii romanesti in particular si o eficenta
scazuta a sistemului economic romanesc in general.
Eforturile din ultimi ani ai Autoritatii Nationale pentru Cercetare Stiintifica prin Programul INFRATEC nu au reusit
sa rezolve problema definitivarii acestui sistem, ci doar completarea acestuia.
Consideram ca toate demersurile si realizarile Comisiei Europene cat si a Autoritatii Nationale pentru Cercetare
Stiintifica au fost corecte si necesare, dar mai lipseste ceva, lipsesc din acest sistem cei interesati direct in realizarea
in Romania a unei economii sustenabile bazata pe cunoastere, a unei economii bazate pe dezvoltare.

ABSTRACT: Since 1992 (PHARE Program for Restructuring the System Science and Technology in Romania-
phase 1) and continuing 1996 (PHARE Program for Restructuring the System Science and Technology in
Romania-phase 2) and the framework programs, the European Commission has made efforts to Romania in
implementing a system for Research Development - Innovation and TT consistent and compatible with the
European system.
The European Commission has succeeded in co-financed projects to support the construction of the system only
to a certain level. Non-finality of this system has led a Romanian non- efficiency of the Romanian research, in
particular and a low efficiency of Romanian economic system, in general.
Efforts in recent years of the National Authority for Scientific Research Program, using INFRATECProgram,
have not managed to solve the problem of the system definitization, only supplement it.
We believe that all the steps and achievements of the European Commission and the National Authority for
Scientific Research have been correct and necessary, but something is missing the interested parts of the
system, which are directly interested in Romanias achievement of a sustainable economy, based on knowledge,
of an economy based on development.

CUVINTE CHEIE: Cercetare Dezvoltare Inovare, Transfer Tehnologic, retea nationala, sistem

KEYWORDS: Research Development Innovation, Technological Transfer, national network, system


1. INTRODUCERE.
CADRUL GENERAL

n martie 2000, la Consiliul European de la Lisabona,
efii de stat i de guvern au stabilit pentru Uniunea
European obiectivul de perspectiv, pn n anul 2010: o
economie a cunoaterii cea mai competitiv i mai
dinamic din lume, capabil de o cretere economic
sustenabila, nsoit de o ameliorare cantitativ i calitativ
a ocuprii forei de munc, o mai profund coeziune
social si o mai buna protectie a mediului.
Doi ani mai trziu, la Consiliul European de la
Barcelona, n cadrul cruia s-au examinat progresele
realizate pe linia obiectivului Lisabona, ei au convenit
c investiiile pentru cercetarea i dezvoltarea
tehnologic (CD) din UE trebuie s creasc, tinznd s
se apropie de 3% din PIB pn n anul 2010, fa de
1,9% n anul 2000. Totodat, ei au mai propus o
cretere a finanrii din partea ntreprinderilor, pentru a
o aduce de la nivelul actual de 56% la dou treimi din
investiiile totale pentru CD, o proporie existent deja
n SUA i n unele ri europene.
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

162
Acest dublu obiectiv este ambiios dar realist: astzi,
mai multe ri europene sunt aproape de acest nivel sau l-au
depit deja. Marile direcii ale politicii economice a statelor
membre i a Comunitii pentru anul 2000 recunosc
importana acestui obiectiv i recomand ameliorarea
msurilor de ncurajare a ntreprinderilor pentru a investi n
CD, meninnd totodat un cadru sntos de politic fiscal.
Obiectivele privind CD stabilite la Barcelona rezult
din recunoaterea faptului c ntrirea sistemelor noastre
de CD i inovare este esenial pentru atingerea
obiectivului strategic de la Lisabona. Realizarea lui este
compromis de diferena important i n cretere care
separ UE de SUA n privina acestui tip de investiii.
Aceast diferen, care a atins 120 milioane euro n anul
2000, se datoreaz celor 80% investite mai puin n CD de
ntreprinderile din Europa.
Rolul CD n calitate de motor al unei economii bazate
pe cunotinele competitive i dinamice este legat de
capacitatea economiei de a transforma noile cunotine n
inovare tehnologic. Cu toate c multe ntreprinderi
recunosc importana tot mai mare a investiiilor n CD, ele
nu vor recurge la acestea dect n msura n care vor
putea exploata eficient rezultatele i vor putea estima o
recuperare satisfctoare pentru a contrabalansa riscul
inerent al acestei forme de investiii.

2. TRANSFERUL TEHNOLOGIC

Exista numeroase definitii valabile ale transferului
tehnologic, dar totusi, din punct de vedere al Retelei
CIR acesta poate fi cel mai bine descris ca o aplicare cu
succes si/sau ca o adaptare a unei tehnologii inovative
dezvoltata intr-o organizatie pentru nevoile uneia sau a
mai multor alte organizatii. Tinta pentru Reteaua CIR
este comercializarea rezultatelor inovative de la
organizatiile de cercetare la IMM-uri. Transferul de la
IMM la IMM constituie acum o parte esentiala a
ecuatiei transferului tehnologic. Trebuie specificat, de
asemenea, ca transferul tehnologic include nu numai
transferul intre organizatii, dar si intre diferitele
sectoare industriale. Transferul tehnologic este
considerat ca a dobandit o data cu acordul de licenta un
acord de societate comerciala, un acord industrial de
fabricatie si/sau un acord comercial de asistenta tehnica,
care a fost semnat.

3. SARCINILE CHEIE
ALE RETELEI CENTRELOR
INNOVATION ROMANIA

Sarcina 1: sa promoveze transferul tehnologic
transregional al tehnologiilor oricare ar fi originalitatea
lor, in concordanta cu nevoile sistemului local
industrial, economic si social.
Sarcina 2: sa promoveze diseminarea transregionala si
exploatarea rezultatelor cercetarii comunitatii..
Sarcina 3: sa stimuleze capacitatea firmelor in
adaptarea noilor tehnologii stabilind nevoile lor si
abilitatea pentru cooperare transregionala si parteneriat.
Sarcina 4: sa promoveze initiativele de inovare
transregionale comune ale regiunilor romanesti si, de
asemenea, sa sprijine finantarea inovarii, dezvoltarea
companiilor etc.
Sarcina 5: sa promoveze informatii despre actiunile
inovative ale programelor nationale si europene de
cercetare.
Sarcina 6: sa indice altor entitati din sistemul de
inovare romanesc potentialii participanti care cer
asistenta.

4. CHEIA SARCINILOR
DE TRANSFER TEHNOLOGIC

a) Promovarea inovarii prin serviciile de transfer
tehnologic: identificarea nevoilor tehnologice in
industriile locale, care ar putea sa beneficieze de
integrarea inovatiilor non-locale si de combinarea lor cu
alte tehnologii de la alte CIR-uri sau alte surse, pentru a
stimula inovarea transregionala, cooperarea si
conventiile. CIR-urile trebuie sa fie constiente de
cerintele stiintifice si tehnologice ale industriei locale
astfel incat activitatile diseminate sa poata fi indeplinite
in industria locala. CIR-urile trebuie sa identifice in
cooperare si cu alti actori importanti rezultatele si
ofertele tehnologice relevante pentru nevoile industriei
locale in contextul cerintelor de dezvoltare ale
Romaniei europene si pentru a le promova in regiunile
lor, ajutand clientii locali in integrarea noilor rezultate
si tehnologii. CIR-urile pot da de asemenea, daca este
nevoie, ajutor clientilor in procurarea serviciilor
specializate in aceste probleme, posibil in cadrul
planurilor nationale existente sau de sprijinire a
comunitatii din aceasta zona:
- Cunostinte: promovarea ajutorului prin mijloace
telematice, publicatii, seminarii sau vizite si prin
publicarea oportunitatilor tehnologiei in media.
- Contact: audite tehnologice sau intalniri ale
grupurilor sectoriale pentru identificarea
cerintelor locale. Organizarea evaenimentelor de
transfer tehnologic. Dezvoltarea bazelor de date
referitoare la cerintele companiilor locale.
- Asistenta: cautarea tehnologiilor externe pentru
a armoniza nevoile identificate prin lucrul in
retea si actiunile transregionale comune.
Asistenta in pregatirea si finalizarea acordurilor
si asistenta pentru planurile tehnologiilor care
trebuie inglobate, cautarea planurilor financiare
pentru sprijinirea transferului.
b) Promovarea inovarii in cadrul serviciilor de transfer
tehnologic exterior: identificarea tehnologiilor
exploatabile si a rezultatelor cercetarii in regiunea lor
pentru a le promova cu ajutorul retelei si pentru a
incheia acorduri referitoare la inovatiile transregionale.
CIR-urile vor ajuta acei posesori locali ai rezultatelor si
tehnologiilor C-D in promovarea exploatarii
rezultatelor C-D si in transferul de tehnologii in context
national si european. Rolul CIR ar putea fi, dupa aceea,
de a furniza sfaturi si ajutor in exploatarea si transferul
tehnologic, in rezultatele inovarii (proprietate
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intelectuala etc.) si de a ajuta clientii locali in procesul
de transfer tehnologic. Ei pot, de asemenea, daca este
necesar, sa ajute clientii in procurarea de servicii expert
suplimentare pentru aceste probleme, posibil in cadrul
planurilor nationale existente sau al planului de
sprijinire a comunitatii in aceasta zona:
- Cunostinte: promovarea ajutorului prin
intermediul mijloacelor telematice, publicatiilor,
seminariilor sau vizitelor.
- Contact: examinarea tehnologica sau intalniri
ale grupurilor sectoriale pentru identificarea
tehnologiilor exploatabile. Organizarea de
evenimente de transfer tehnologic, misiuni in alte
regiuni ale ofertantilor de tehnologii locale.
- Asistenta: diseminarea tehnologiilor-profil si ale
partenerilor in cercetare pentru exploatarea
tehnologiilor identificate cu ajutorul cooperarii
transregionala. Lucrul in retea si actiuni
transregionale comune. Asistenta in pregatirea si
finalizarea conventiilor si in exploatarea
tehnologica. Cercetarea planurilor financiare
pentru a sprijini transferul.
c) Stimularea capacitatii firmelor in adoptarea noilor
tehnologii: CIR-urile trebuie sa fie constiente si
responsabile de cerintele tehnologice si stiintifice ale
organizatiilor locale astfel incat o tehnologie ceruta sa
fie stabilita pentru ei. CIR-urile trebuie sa stabileasca
totusi abilitatea clientilor locali pentru a fi inclusi in
cooperarea transregionala si pentru a se face pasi
importanti pentru a stimula parteneriatele de cooperare.
Actiunile pot include:
- Vizitarea companiilor
Audite tehnice
Imbunatatirea bazelor de date pentru
cerintele companiilor locale
- stabilirea misiunilor comerciale si vizite
reciproce.

5. ROLUL CENTRULUI INNOVATION
ROMANIA (CIR)

Rolul CIR poate fi simplu descris ca promovare a
solutiilor inovative prin adunarea tuturor oraganizatiilor
si companiilor care au cerinte tehnologice. Comparand
aceste nevoi si oferte, sansele transferului tehnologic
pot fi marite. Desi descrierea activitatilor este simpla,
procesul si metodologiile din spatele transferului
tehnologic sunt mari consumatoare de timp si adesea
sunt complexe.

6. ELEMENTELE TRANSFERULUI
TEHNOLOGIC TRANSREGIONAL

Expeditorul: proprietarul sau sursa tehnologiei
inovative, produsului, procesului, expertizei sau a
cunostintelor. Acesta poate fi:
- o companie privata
- o organizatie de cercetare
- o universitate
- un individ
Destinatarul: organizatia sau compania care
achizitioneaza tehnologia inovativa, produsul, procesul,
expertiza sau cunostintele. Acesta poate fi:
- o companie privata
- o organizatie de cercetare
- o universitate
- un centru tehnologic
- un individ.

7. INOVATIA

Din punct de vedere al Retelei CIR, inovatia poate fi
definita in termenii urmatori:
noutate pentru Romania
noutate pentru zonele destinatare ale Romaniei
noutate pentru alt sector industrial sau
commercial; o noua utilizare pentru o
tehnologie existenta.

8. IMPACTUL ECONOMIC
AL CONVENTIEI TT

Pentru ca acordul TT sa fie valid trebuie sa existe
cateva elemente ale avantajului economic ale acordului
TT cand se completeaza Raportul Acordului TT. Aceste
avantaje pot fi definite in 3 moduri:
crearea de servicii
cresterea cifrei de afaceri a companiei
venituri generate de transferul de
cunostinte sau brevete.

9. TIPURI VALIDE DE ACORDURI TT
IN RETEAUA CIR

In majoritatea cazurilor, TT include transferul de
cunostinte, tehnologie sau expertiza de la Expeditor la
Destinatar. De exemplu, elementul transferat poate sa
descrie tehnologia din spatele unui proces care va permite
expedierea catre fiecare producator a produsului sau
implementarea unui nou proces sau sistem.
Acord de brevet
Transferul anumitor drepturi de la cel care dezvolta
tehnologia, procesele sau cunoasterea, catre destinatar
in schimbul unei recompense sau a unei parti din
dreptul de autor. O franciza industriala poate fi privita
ca un tip de acord de brevet. Acest tip de acord permite
posesorului francizei (destinatarului) sa obtina
cunoasterea francizei (expeditorului) sau expertiza cu
scopul de a fabrica un produs care va fi distribuit sub
brandul francizei intr-un domeniu dat.
Cooperare tehnica
Urmatoarele tipuri de acord de cooperare sunt
considerate valide:
intre parti pentru a adapta o tehnologie la o
noua aplicatie sau un nou sector
intre parti pentru a dezvolta o tehnologie care
sa rezolve noile cerinte ale pietei (poate duce
la joint venture)
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co-dezvoltare a unui nou produs folosind
cunostintele tehnice ale expeditorului si
avantajele de productie ale destinatarului
intre parti pentru a dezvolta o noua versiune a unui
produs existent, pentru a rezolva nevoile pietei.
Acordurile de consortiu, joint venture, si acordurile
tehnologice intre client si furnizor pot de asemenea sa
fie clasificate drept cooperare tehnica.
Joint venture. Aceste tipuri de acorduri, dovedesc forma
cea mai completa de acord intre companii. Ele implica
crearea unor legaturi corecte intre companii cu un castig
al informatiei comerciale precise pentru a permite
dezvoltarea de noi tehnologii, procese si produse.
Acorduri comerciale cu asistenta tehnica
Stipularea unui numar de servicii pentru sprijinirea unui
transfer de tehnologie:
asistenta pentru inceperea unei instaltii
sfaturi despre utilizarea unui nou proces
controlul de calitate
traininguri tehnice
intretinere si reparatii masini
Asistenta tehnica asigura inceperea efectiva si /sau
intretinerea tehnologiei transferate, dar acopera de
asemenea instalarea tehnologiei (asamblare, munca de
inginerie, testare, training).
Acordul de prelucrare (subcontractare & co-
contractare)
Aceste tipuri de acorduri sunt valabile numai daca
cuprind unele elemente ale transferului expertizei,
cunoasterii, tehnologiei si/sau trainingului.
Exista 2 exemple clare in care aceste tipuri de acord
sunt valide:
a) capacitatea de subcontractare Expeditorul
transfera o parte din cunoastere subcontractorului,
pentru a permite subcontractorului sa execute
lucrul cerut.
b) Particularitati ale subcontractarii : partea
contractanta selecteaza subcontractorul pe baza
abilitatilor, a cunostintelor tehnice pe care le
poseda pentru a dezvolta noi procese si tehnologii.

10. ALTE ELEMENTE
ALE ACTIVITATILOR CIR

Asistenta si durata pentru negociere
In aceasta faza, adesea, companiile au nevoie de sfaturi
despre cele mai bune proceduri care trebuie urmate si
de metode permise pentru a duce acordul TT catre o
concluzie favorabila. In mod normal, CIR-urilor li se
cere sa furnizeze informatia despre planurile de
finantare sau despre dreptul de proprietate intelectuala
referitor la rezultate. Cand CIR-urile nu au competenta
proprie pentru a furniza informatia ceruta, ele trebuie sa
ajute companiile in a le indruma catre actorii cei mai
indicati sa-i sprijine.
SBA
Sistemul Buletinului de Afaceri este baza de date
tehnologica a CIR-urilor care include Ofertele
Tehnologice (OT) si cerintele tehnologice (CR) si
metodele de management ale datelor raportate.
Intrari Valide in SBA
OferteleTehnologice (OT) care includ rezultatele CDI si
cerintele tehnologice (CT) inregistrate in Sistemul
Buletinului de Afaceri (SBA) de catre CIR-uri si
difuzate la toti membri Retelei CIR
Rezultate SBA
Rezultate SBA constau in: CTuri supuse interesului
clientilor Retelei CIR care cauta tehnologii si
combinate de catre companii cu tehnologia ceruta, OT
supuse interesului clientilor Retelei CIR care ofera
tehnologii, incluzand rezultatele CDI, asociate de
companii cu nevoia de tehnologii. O combinare este
creata cand un CIR care expediaza o OT/CT primeste o
confirmare a interesului de la alt CIR. Dupa primul
schimb al informatiilor de baza (detalii despre
companie etc) companiile sunt puse in contact si
negocierea poate incepe.
Evenimente de brokeraj
Evenimente de baza care permit companiilor sa se
intalneasca fata in fata pentru a discuta posibilitatea
transferului tehnologic si semnarea acordurilor. Forma
acestor evenimente este in general aceeasi, companiile
interesate in participarea la eveniment, supun profilul
companiei CIR-ului care organizeaza evenimentul.
Profilurile companiei sunt adunate in mod normal intr-
un catalog sau plasate pe un web site pentru a permite
partilor interesate sa organizeze intalniri intre companii.
Membrii Retelei CIR participa in mod normal cu
companiile la evenimente de brokeraj.
Profilul clientului
Acest profil este stabilit in mod normal urmarind o
vizita la companie sau un audit tehnologic. Profilul
contine in general urmatoarele informatii:
11. detalii despre contact
12. informatii detaliate despre activitatile
companiei, produse, procese si tehnologii
13. informatii despre tehnologiile oferite sau
tehnologiile care trebuie cercetate
14. tipul de companii cercetate
15. tipul de acord cautat
Profilul clientului poate sa faca parte din baza de date a
clientului sau pot sa fie pregatite adhoc pentru un
eveniment special. In acest exemplu, compania poate sa
fie de acord cu continutul profilului.
Rezultate contractuale
O data ce companiile s-au intalnit si au discutat o
posibila cooperare mai ramane doar rezultatul despre
cum poate fi realizata aceasta cooperare. Multe
companii nu poseda in mod necesar o expertiza interna
pentru a elabora astfel de acorduri. In acest exemplu,
rolul CIR-ului ar trebui sa fie furnizarea de informatii
despre tipul de cooperare permis si sfaturi despre
principalele probleme care trebuie luate in considerare.
Indicatori despre impactul economic
Din punct de vedere al TT, pentru CIR indicatorii sunt
definiti ca:
1. numar locurilor de munca nou create;
2. cresterea cifrei de afaceri a companiei;
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3. beneficii ca urmare a transferului de know
how sau a unui brevet
Evaluarea pre-protectie
Aceasta initiativa este luata de CIR dupa ce a primit o
confirmare de interes (CI) de la alt CIR. Inainte de
trimiterea informatiei la compania client (indicatorul de
CT sau OT), CIR va evalua validitatea si consistenta
acestui CI cu referire la CT/OT. Numai daca este
considerata relevanta pentru interesele clientilor sai,
informatia va fi trimisa la client. Pentru a indeplini
aceasta sarcina CIR trebuie sa fie constiente de tipul de
tehnologie luat in discutie. Totusi, daca este posibil,
trebuie sa se gaseasca unele forme de protectie pentru a
imbunatati calitatea informatiei care ajunge la
companie.
Buna practica
O buna practica a CIR inseamna o metoda, o tehnica
sau un procedeu inovativ care are o dovada a succesului
in aducerea unei imbunatatiri semnificative pentru cost,
bilant, calitate, performanta sau alti factori masurabili
care influenteaza bunul mers al unui CIR.
Contact initial
Acesta reprezinta numarul de clienti contactati la
telefon, seminarii, conferinte si alte evenimente ca si
vizite ale companiei.
A= contacte (apeluri telefonice, vazite ale companiei)
cu rezultat pozitiv. In acest exemplu, pozitiv, inseamna
ca clientul va utiliza in viitor serviciile Retelei CIR.
B= contacte cu rezultate negative. In acest exemplu,
negativ, inseamna faptul ca clientul nu va utiliza
serviciile Retelei CIR.
Interactiune initiala
Aceasta este faza cand companiile incep sa comunice
direct. Acest proces poate incepe cu un apel telefonic si
conduce la o intalnire fata in fata. In general, in timpul
acestor discutii, CIR-ul are rol de monitorizare numai
daca clientul lor cere includerea lui.
Tehnologie inovativa/Know-how
O tehnologie inovativa / know how reprezinta o
tehnologie care a fost dezvoltata recent de catre un
IMM sau o organizatie si care ofera o valoare
alternativa semnificativa pentru toate tehnologiile
valabile existente.
Transferul tehnologic regional
Un TO din reteaua de lucru care este asociata cu o nevoie
locala, ori o tehnologie de oriunde in reteaua de lucru care
este infiintata pentru a se combina cu un TR local
Investitie FORA
Aceasta prezinta o oportunitate pentru companiile client
de a se intalni cu companii de varf pentru a investi in
inovatie. Aceste evenimente sunt in general segmentate.
Initial, CIR identifica companiile care doresc sa
participe la forum. Companiile cele mai inovative sunt
apoi selectate de un grup de experti pentru a prezenta
produsele lor, procesele si tehnologiile investitorilor. O
data ce companiile au fost selectate, CIR-ul poate oferi
sprijin viitor oferind:
1. sfaturi despre cum treabuie intocmit un plan de
afaceri
2. sfaturi despre cum sa se prezinte un plan de
afaceri investitorilor
IPR scanarea inventiei
Pentru a da clientului detalii despre aplicatiile
brevetului, care sunt relevante pentru inventia lor ori
portofoliu de C&D. Cercetarile trebuie sa fie duse la
bun sfarsit inaintea unei cereri pentru investitie si/sau
daca inventia este considerata noutate, o cerere pentru
un brevet.
Initiative transregionale comune
Orice eveniment sau actiune organizata in comun de
catre CIR-uri cuprinzand intalniri intre companii si/sau
schimbul profilelor companiei. De exemplu evenimente
de brokeraj, misiuni ale IMM sau activitati comune
pentru a promova parteneriate sau infiintari de
companii. CIR-urile au la dispozitie metode specifice
pentru a gasi parteneri in cadrul Retelei CIR cu scopul
de a organiza aceste evenimente comune.
Analiza competitorilor pietei
Analiza competitorilor pietei identifica actorii principali
ai pietei. Analiza este importanta pentru patrunderea
companiilor in sectoare noi sau noi zone geografice.
Transfer tehnologic transregionala
Un CT pentru lucrul in retea care este strans legata de o
tehnologie locala sau un OT local care este strans legat
de nevoia tehnologica oriunde in reteaua de lucru.
Cautarea partenerilor
Cautarea activa de parteneri: un serviciu dedicat
cautarii partenerilor. Acest serviciu trebuie sa
intensifice posibilitatea de a gasi parteneri buni si sa
scurteze timpul pentru stabilirea contactului intre
potentiali parteneri. Acest serviciu asigura asistenta in
identificarea partenerilor, validarea partenerilor si
asistenta la prima intrevedere. Aceasta inseamna o
relatie comuna inchisa intre CIR si client.
Cautarea pasiva de parteneri: diseminarea unuia din
clientii proprii CIR cerceteaza profilul altor CIR-uri in
SBA sau diseminarea cautarilor de parteneri din alte
CIR-uri catre CIR-urile proprii regiunii in reteaua de
lucru existenta.
Exploatarea rezultatelor CDI
Analiza noutatilor stiintifico-tehnologice
Pentru a evalua noutatea stiintifica/valoarea unei oferte
sau a unei cereri. Este aceasta la nivelul ultimelor
aparitii in sector sau nu? Alt aspect al acestui serviciu
este sa ajute clientul in gasirea celor mai potrivite
domenii de aplicare pentru oferta lui/ei sau cel mai bun
sector pentru a dirija cererea lui/ei.
GIS Grupuri de Interes Special
GIS sunt grupuri de sectoare baza companiilor care
sunt interesate in dezvoltarea afacerilor lor in alte parti
ale Romaniei. GIS sunt create de CIR-uri si furnizeaza
o serie de servicii catre membri incluzand:
1. intalniri regulate pentru a discuta rezultatele
transregionale referitoare la un sector special
2. Accesul la reteaua CIR
3. Organizarea de misiuni de transfer tehnologic . Aceste
grupuri lucreaza in mod efectiv cand sunt legate de
grupurile tematice care reprezinta acelasi sector.

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Marimea clientilor principali ai CIR
Numar de IMM-uri/organizatii cu care lucreaza CIR
dupa un plan stabilit dezvoltand servicii speciale.
Misiunea IMM-ului
Misiunea de a organiza intalniri fata in fata
transregionale intre companii. Companiile trebuie sa
calatoreasca spre o regiune din Romania unde sunt
organizate o serie de intalniri intre companii. Aceste
misiuni reprezinta sectorul de baza. Cu astfel de
evenimente de brokeraj, companiilor care calatoresc
catre noi piete li se cere sa modereze profilul
companiei. Acestea sunt utilizate apoi de catre
proprietarul CIR pentru a fortifica companiile din
propria lor regiune si pentru a se intalni cu companiile
vizitatoare. Aceste intalniri pot sa aiba loc in directia
aranjarii de la companiile expeditor la oficiile CIR-ului
destinatar. Principalele diferente intre acest tip de
activitate si un eveniment de brokeraj sunt:
- misiunea nu este stabilita in jurul unui eveniment,
conferinta sau expozitie
- misiunea cuprinde in mod normal numai CIR-uri din 2
regiuni
- misiunea dureaza in mod normal 2-3 zile si poate de
asemenea sa cuprinda grupuri vizita la organizatii,
institutii de cercetare etc.

Indrumator
Ajuta un client sa gaseasca ajutor corespunzator de la
alte retele de lucru si sprijina organizatiile.
Marimea bazei de clienti
Numar de companii/organizatii, prezente in
aria geografica cuprinsa de CIR, care pot fi
interesate in utilizarea serviciilor de transfer
tehnologic al CIR. In general aceste companii
sunt inovative si sunt deja prezente in baza de
date a clientilor CIR.
Vizite la firme
Personalul CIR intalneste personalul managerial al
companiei la compania expeditor. Aceasta permite
CIR-ului sa obtina informatii despre companie,
structura sa, activitati, produse si procese. De
asemenea, permite companiei sa isi dea seama de
serviciile oferite de reteaua de lucru CIR. In majoritatea
cazurilor este putin probabil ca, clientul va fi pregatit sa
permita ca un audit tehnologic sa aiba loc la prima
vizita, totusi aceasta prima vizita poate fi considerata
ca o treapta catre un audit sau alte servicii CIR.
Audit tehnologic
Aceasta pentru a evalua cum utilizeaza compania
tehnologia din punct de vedere al activitatilor sale,
obiectivele si pietele. Rezultatele auditului ar putea
permite masurarea potentialului companiei si ar ajuta la
identificarea factorilor care pot limita inovatia si
abilitatea companiei de a realiza transferul tehnologic.
Acestea sunt utilizate pentru a evalua utilizarea de
catre o companie a tehnologiei din punct de vedere a
activitatilor sale, obiectivele si pietele. Rezultatele
auditului ar putea permite masurarea potentialului
companiei si ar ajuta la identificarea factorilor care pot
limita inovatia si abilitatea companiei de a realiza
transferul tehnologic.
AUDIT-urile TEHNOLOGICE POZITIVE: audite care
conduc catre un pas viitor in procesul TT (de exemplu
o companie care cauta o oferta de tehnologie care poate
fi identificata sau o cerinta tehnologica pentru a fi
inserata in baza de date SBA etc.)
AUDIT-urile TEHNOLOGICE NEGATIVE: audite
care conduc la concluzia ca:
a. compania nu are nevoie de serviciile CIR, dar are
nevoie de alte tipuri de sfaturi care sa fie
prevazute cu alt sprijin din reteaua de lucru
b. nu este nevoie de actiuni viitoare
Planul de implementare tehnologica (PIT)
Acesta este planul pentru exploatarea rezultatelor
proiectului. PIT ul se ocupa nu numai cu aspectele
tehnice ale rezultatelor proiectului, dar in special cu
potentialul exploatabil al cercetarii si cum va fi realizat
acest potential.
Grup tematic
Grup de CIR-uri care ajuta un important sector
industrial din regiunea lor sa-si concentreze activitatile.
Aceste grupe sunt foarte mult incluse in evenimente
transregionale comune.
Negociere TT
Aceasta este definita ca un dialog referitor la aspectele
detaliate financiare/proprietatii intelectuale/tehnice ale
transferului tehnologic. CIR poate acorda ajutor prin
scrierea unui acord secret, sfat despre rezultatele
relatate la IPR, finantare etc.
Grupuri de lucru
Grupuri mici ale CIR-urilor care sunt interesate sa
lucreze impreuna pentru un subiect specific pentru
imbunatatirea performantei propriului CIR.

11. OBIECTIVELE CENTRELOR
INNOVATION ROMANIA

OBIECTIV 1: Promovarea inovarii prin servicii
pentru transfer tehnologic din Romania si din tarile
UE in regiunile deservite de Centrele pentru
Informare si Asistenta in C-D-I si TT (CIR) din
Reteaua Innovation Romania.
a) Descrierea obiectivului 1: Centrele pentru
informare si asistenta in C-D-I si TT (CIR) din
Reteaua Innovation Romania vor urmari un
proces de depistare a nevoilor economice ale
industriei locale, care vor fi confruntate de CIR-uri
cu ofertele care vin de la membrii din reteaua
Innovation Romania. sau de la alte surse cum ar
fi IRC, BIC, TTI.
b) Justificare obiectivului 1: n martie 2000, la
Consiliul European de la Lisabona, efii de stat i
de guvern au stabilit pentru Uniunea European
obiectivul de perspectiv, pn n anul 2010, o
economie a cunoaterii cea mai competitiv i mai
dinamic din lume, capabil de o cretere
economic sustenabila, nsoit de o ameliorare
cantitativ i calitativ a ocuprii forei de munc i
o mai profund coeziune social.
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A construi o economie bazat pe cunoatere a
devenit un scop raional pentru orice stat. Acesta
reprezint drumul ctre competitivitate, cretere i
prosperiatate economic.

Rolul CD n calitate de motor al unei economii
bazate pe cunotinele competitive i dinamice este
legat de capacitatea economiei de a transforma
noile cunotine n inovare tehnologic. Cu toate c
multe ntreprinderi recunosc importana tot mai
mare a investiiilor n CD, ele nu vor recurge la
acestea dect n msura n care vor putea exploata
eficient rezultatele i vor putea estima o recuperare
satisfctoare pentru a contrabalansa riscul inerent
al acestei forme de investiii.

OBIECTIV 2: Promovarea inovarii prin servicii
pentru transfer tehnologic din regiunile deservite de
Centrele pentru Informare si Asistenta in C-D-I si TT
(CIR) din Reteaua Innovation Romania in intreaga
tara, precum si promovarea rezultatelor cercetarii din
regiunile deservite de CIR-uri catre retelele europene
de transfer tehnologic transnational.
a) Descrierea obiectivului 2: Centrele Retelei
Innovation Romania vor promova produse si
tehnologii inovative dezvoltate de IMM-urile
nationale, organizatiile de CDT, universitati sau
companii catre potentiali beneficiari din tara
precum si catre retelele de transfer tehnologic
transnational europene. Se va da prioritate pentru a
raspunde solicitarilor primite prin retea.
b) Justificare obiectivului 2: Spatiul European al
Cercetarii combina resursele Comunitatii, pentru a
fi coordonate mai bine cercetarea si inovarea, att
la nivelul statelor membre ct si la nivelul UE.
Acest concept a fost lansat de Comisie, avnd drept
baza ideea dezvoltarii de oportunitati cu adevarat
atractive pentru cercetatori.

n preajma noului secol, Uniunea European a
dezvoltat si lansat un concept provocator: aria
european de cercetare (the European Research
Area - ERA), introdus de Comisarul pentru
cercetare Philippe Busquin, in ianuarie 2000.

Pna in acel moment cercetarea la nivel european a
avut mai multe dezavantaje: fragmentarea
activitatilor, izolarea sistemelor de cercetare
nationale, nepotriviri intre cadrele de reglementare
si cele administrative, un nivel scazut de investitii
in cunoastere.

Prin resursele puse la dispozitie, ERA ar trebui sa
faca posibila folosirea in comun a informatiilor,
compararea rezultatelor, intreprinderea de studii
multidisciplinare, transferul si protejarea noilor
descoperiri stiintifice si usurarea accesului la
centrele de excelenta si echipamente de ultima
generatie.
O problema importanta a cercetarii romanesti il
constitue nivelul scazut de vizibilitate si o slaba
promovarea a rezultatelor cercetarii catre
potentialii beneficiari din tara si din Europa.

Obiectivul 2 deriva in principal din necesitatea
integrarii cercetarii romanesti in spatiul european
de cercetare ERA.

OBIECTIV 3: Promovarea rezultatelor exploatabile
ale CDT catre si de la furnizori nationali de
tehnologie de catre Reteaua Innovation Romania.
a) Descrierea obiectivului 3: Se va urmari o
diseminare proactiva a informatiilor catre clientii
Retelei Innovation Romania (RIR) si membrii
retelei RIR. Se va aplica o abordare in doua etape-
identificarea rezultatelor care vin in principal din
proiectele finantate de UE si promovarea
rezultatelor
b) Justificare obiectivului 3: A construi o economie
bazat pe cunoatere a devenit un scop raional pentru
orice stat. Acesta reprezint drumul ctre
competitivitate, cretere i prosperiatate economic.

ntrirea Ariei Romneti a Cercetrii, creterea
finanrii pentru cercetare, stabilirea i planificarea
prioritilor pentru cercetarea romneasc astfel
nct unitile i instituiile din Romnia s fac
fa nivelului de performan n acest domeniu
precum i cerinelor impuse de statutul de ar
membr a Uniunii Europene ncepnd cu 2007,
constituie directii prioritare in cadrul relatiei ARC
si ERA.

Pe termen scurt, racordarea la cercetarile Europene
este sloganul cel mai adecvat iar pe termen mediu,
integrarea in ERA (European Research Area).

OBIECTIV 4: Stimularea capacitatii firmelor de a
adopta noi tehnologii.
a) Descrierea obiectivului 4: Acest obiectiv va fi
atins dupa o evaluare a sectorului IMM la nivel
regional care va permite Centrelor pentru
informare si asistenta in C-D-I si TT (CIR) din
Reteaua Innovation Romania sa aibe o imagine
clara asupra sectorului, puncte tari, probleme si
tendinte de dezvoltare. In afara de asta, se va face o
evaluare directa a capacitatii IMM-urilor de a
adopta noi tehnologii prin proiecte de TT.
b) Justificare obiectivului 4: Rolul CD n calitate de
motor al unei economii bazate pe cunotinele
competitive i dinamice este legat de capacitatea
economiei de a transforma noile cunotine n inovare
tehnologic. Cu toate c multe ntreprinderi recunosc
importana tot mai mare a investiiilor n CD, ele nu
vor recurge la acestea dect n msura n care vor
putea exploata eficient rezultatele i vor putea estima
o recuperare satisfctoare pentru a contrabalansa
riscul inerent al acestei forme de investiii.
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OBIECTIV 5: Sprijinirea promovarii initiativelor
transnationale comune din domeniul inovarii ale
regiunilor europene ca si schemelor de sprijin in ariile
prioritare ale Comisiei Europene.
a) Descrierea obiectivului 5: Centrele pentru
informare si asistenta in C-D-I si TT (CIR) din
Reteaua Innovation Romania vor sprijini
initiativele eligibile pentru partenerii romani
(existente la nivel european si regional) pentru a
facilita accesul la instrumentele care sprijina
inovarea si pentru a ajuta IMM-urile sa creeze
retele transregionale.
b) Justificare obiectivului 5: Intr-o lume a
concurentei, competitivitatii, creterii i
prosperiatatii economice este impetuos necesar ca
firmele romanesti sa beneficeze de acelas sprijin ca
si firmele europene pentru o concurenta loiala.

OBIECTIV 6: Furnizarea de informatii despre
actiunile Programului Cadru 7 al Comisiei Europene
privind inovarea.
a) Descrierea obiectivului 6: Informatii asupra
programelor PC7 vor fi furnizate la cerere catre
clientii RIR. Un accent special va fi pus pe
programul de "Inovare si incurajarea participarii
IMM-urilor".
b) Justificare obiectivului 6: Programul Cadru 7
reprezinta principalul instument al Europei unite
pentru atingerea obiectivelor Lisabona, realizarea
unei economii a cunoaterii cea mai competitiv i
mai dinamic din lume, capabil de o cretere
economic sustenabila, nsoit de o ameliorare
cantitativ i calitativ a ocuprii forei de munc i
o mai profund coeziune social.

OBIECTIV 7: Orientarea catre alte servicii a acelor
potentiali participanti care solicita asistenta pentru
participare in programele tematice din Programul
Cadru 7.
a) Descrierea obiectivului 7: Centrele pentru
informare si asistenta in C-D-I si TT (CIR) din
Reteaua Innovation Romania (RIR) vor sprijini
si conlucra cu Punctele Nationale de Contact ale
PC7 pentru a sprijini si incuraja participarea la
Programul Cadru 7.
b) Justificare obiectivului 7: Programul Cadru 7
reprezinta principalul instument al Europei unite
pentru atingerea obiectivelor Lisabona, realizarea
unei economii a cunoaterii cea mai competitiv i
mai dinamic din lume, capabil de o cretere
economic sustenabila, nsoit de o ameliorare
cantitativ i calitativ a ocuprii forei de munc i
o mai profund coeziune social.

12. ACTIVITATILE CENTRELOR
INNOVATION ROMANIA

Serviciile ce vor fi furnizate sunt definite pe trei nivele,
in concordanta cu aria lor de adresabilitate:

a) Activitati de constientizare - activitati adresate unui
numar mare de clienti :
Organizarea unor prezentari generale si
conferinte - despre oportunitati de cooperare ;
Dezvoltarea si actualizarea unei paginii web;
Pregatirea si distribuirea de publicatii - tiparite
sau in forma electronica ;
Elaborarea si distribuirea de rapoarte despre
sectorul IMM, despre ofertele tehnologice ale
sectoarelor economice ;
Trimiterea de scrisori cu destinatie tinta -
despre oportunitati de cooperare, cautare de
parteneri, cereri si oferte de tehnologie ;
b) Activitati de contact - activitati adresate unui
numar limitat de clienti, raspunzand intr-un mod
mai specific anumitor nevoi specifice :
Organizarea unor prezentari de programe
specifice sau seminarii sectoriale in Bucuresti
sau regionale adresate potentialilor participanti
in programele nationale si ale Uniunii
Europene;
Organizarea de zile dedicate transferului
tehnologic si de evenimente de parteneriat -
acestea se vor realiza in cooperare cu membrii
retelei Innovation Romania;
Organizarea de vizite la companii - acestea se
vor realiza de catre conducerea;
Dezvoltarea si reactualizarea bazelor de date -
despre companii, experti, tehnologii si
programe nationale si europene.
c) Activitati de asistenta - activitati restranse la
nivelul clientului, raspunzand la o nevoie specifica,
clar definita :
Furnizarea de informatii pe profil - in functie
de nevoile specifice prin posta, e-mail sau prin
intalniri bilaterale ;
Furnizarea de asistenta la pregatirea
propunerilor de proiecte ;
Sprijin in cautarea de parteneri prin utilizarea
retelei Innovation Romania - pregatirea si
distribuirea de chestionare.

Activitatea 1: Promovarea cererilor de tehnologie.
activitatea 1.1: Identificarea nevoilor tehnologice
ale ntreprinderilor din regiunile deservite de
Centrele pentru Informare si Asistenta in C-D-I si
TT (CIR) din Reteaua Innovation Romania ,
prin audit tehnologic;
activitatea 1.2: Identificarea ofertantilor de
tehnologii pe plan national si international, prin
folosirea retelei RIR si a altor retele conexe
nationale si transnationale;
activitatea 1.3: Asistenta n derularea negocierilor
ntre ofertantul de tehnologie si ntreprinderea
partenera ;
activitatea 1.4: Asistenta n procesul de
implementare a transferului de tehnologie n
ntreprinderile romnesti ;

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Activitatea 2: Promovarea ofertelor de tehnologie.
activitatea 2.1: Identificarea tehnologiilor
romnesti care pot fi transferate catre
ntreprinderile din Romnia sau din U.E;
activitatea 2.2: Promovarea ofertelor regionale de
tehnologie, n Romania prin reteaua RIR si spre
retelele de transfer tehnologic transnational;
activitatea 2.3: Asistenta n derularea negocierilor
ntre ofertantul regional de tehnologie si
ntreprinderea partenera;
activitatea 2.4: Asistenta n procesul de
implementare a transferului tehnologic.

Activitatea 3: Asistenta si consultanta.
activitatea 3.1: Consultanta privind transferul de
tehnologie si exploatarea rezultatelor cercetarii;
activitatea 3.2: Informare si asistenta pentru
gasirea schemelor de sprijin financiar pentru
implementarea rezultatelor cercetarii;
activitatea 3.3: Informare si asistenta juridica
pentru contracte de transfer tehnologic;
activitatea 3.4: Informare privind programele de
cercetare cofinantate de autoritatea nationala de
cercetare si/sau de U.E;
activitatea 3.5: Asistenta pentru elaborarea
propunerilor de proiecte dedicate dezvoltarii IMM-
urilor prin procesul de inovare tehnologica.

13. MANUALUL DE INSTALARE
SI FUNCTIONARE
AL CENTRULUI INNOVATION
ROMANIA

Proiectul se va finaliza prin realizarea unui manual de
instalare si functionare al centrului. Manualul va
contine urmatoarele capitole:

1. Introducere:
Scop;
Necesitate;
Obiective.
2. Organizare (Instalare) centru:
Necesitati anterioare organizarii
(instalarii) centrului;
Instalare tehnica de calcul (hardware,
software);
Organizare structurala proceduri
coerente pentru derularea activitatilor
sustinute de sistemul informatic.
3. Centrul in cadrul retelei
compatibilizarea centrului cu restul retelei
I.R.
reguli si standarde





14. CONCLUZII.
CUI NE ADRESAM?

Incepand cu anul 1992 (Programul PHARE pentru
Restructurarea Sistemului Stiinta si Tehnologie in
Romania- faza 1) si continund cu 1996 (Programul
PHARE pentru Restructurarea Sistemului Stiinta si
Tehnologie in Romania- faza 2) precum si prin
Programele Cadru, Comisia Europeana a facut eforturi
pentru implementare in Romania a unui sistem de C-D-
I si TT coerent si compatibil cu sistemul european.

Comisia European a reusit prin proiectele cofinantate sa
sprijine construirea acestui sistem numai pana la un
anumit nivel. Consideram ca nefinalizarea acestui
sistem a dus o neeficenta a cercetarii romanesti in
particular si o eficenta scazuta a sistemului economic
romanesc in general.

Eforturile din ultimi ani ai Autoritatii Nationale pentru
Cercetare Stiintifica prin Programul INFRATEC nu au
reusit sa rezolve problema definitivarii acestui sistem,
ci doar completarea acestuia.

Consideram ca toate demersurile si realizarile Comisiei
Europene cat si a Autoritatii Nationale pentru Cercetare
Stiintifica au fost corecte si necesare, dar mai lipseste
ceva, lipsesc din acest sistem cei interesati direct in
realizarea in Romania a unei economii sustenabile
bazata pe cunoastere, a unei economii bazate pe
dezvoltare.

Centrele de informare si asistenta sunt proiectate in asa
fel in cat sa genereze o retea si nu invers, care sa poata
functiona fara un centru.

De ce un manul si nu un centru? Pentru ca aceste centre
trebuie infintate si controlate de actorii principali
interesati in dezvoltare din zonele deservite de aceste
centre.

Costurile pentru infintarea centrului vor fi minime.
Principalele eforturi de conceptie si financiare au fost
concentrate in cursul derularii proiectului.

Cine sunt acesti actori principali: IMM-uri, Administratia
locala, Centre de cercetare, Sucursale bancare locale,
Organizatii patronale, Intreprinderi mari (pentru ca sunt
interesate in dezvoltarea IMM-urilor), etc.

REFERINE

[1]. Sistemul de transfer tehnologic din Uniunea
Europeana;
[2]. Experienta Kansas Enterprise Corporation USA;
[3]. Proiectul: Planul de actiune 3%.



TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

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Quick Info

2nd Conference of entrepreneurship
innovation & regional development,
24-25 April 2009, Thessaloniki

ICEIRD09 aims to provide an effective channel of
communication between decision-makers (government,
ministries and state agencies), researchers (universities,
research, development centres, start-up centres,
incubators), practitioners (SME leaders, managers)
persons concerned with the latest research, scientific
development, practice on innovation, entrepreneurship
in order to discuss topics that are of currency, relevance
for national competitiveness as well as sustainable,
robust, equitable regional development. ICEIRD09
aims to:

address key factors in regional economic
development, entrepreneurial vitality, innovation
processes

raise the level of awareness about innovation,
entrepreneurship and competitive advantage

strengthen the regional, international network among
representatives from SEE and EU member states

consolidate intra-SEE networks of SMEs, Start-up
Centers and Incubators

understand cultural and national barriers of
entrepreneurship in the global economy

promote best practices in innovation research and
business development

facilitate regional partnerships and innovation
networks.



SCOPE AND AIMS

ICEIRD 2009 aims to provide an effective channel of
communication between decision-makers
(government, ministries and state agencies),
researchers (universities, research and development
centres, start-up centres and incubators), practitioners
(SME leaders and managers) and persons concerned
with the latest research, scientific development and
practice on innovation and entrepreneurship in order to
discuss topics that are of currency, relevance and
significance for national competitiveness as well as
sustainable, robust , and equitable regional
development. ICEIRD09 aims to:
address key factors in regional economic
development, entrepreneurial vitality and
innovation processes
raise the level of awareness about innovation,
entrepreneurship and competitive advantage
strengthen the regional and international
network among representatives from SEE
countries and those from EU member states
consolidate intra-SEE networks of SMEs,
Start-up Centers and Incubators
understand cultural and national barriers of
entrepreneurship in the global economy
promote best practices in innovation research
and business development
facilitate regional partnerships and innovation
networks
Target Audience:
The conference is addressed at regional and
international level and is targeted to academics,
entrepreneurs, policy-makers, researchers and students
who are involved in the latest research, scientific
development and practice on innovation and
entrepreneurship.
Organized by:
City College Affiliated Institution of the
University of Sheffield, Thessaloniki, Greece
South East European Research Centre
(SEERC), Thessaloniki, Greece

Annual TII Conference:

ICEIRD 2009 will be organized in conjunction with
the 2009 ANNUAL Technology Innovation
International (TII) Conference, hosted by SEERC,
April 23-24, 2009 in Thessaloniki, Greece.
(http://www.seerc.org/iceird2009)
TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

171




CONCEPTE ECONOMICE APLICATE
N DEZVOLTAREA DE PRODUSE COMPETITIVE

Ioan Dan Filipoiu
*
,. Cristian Alionte
*
,
Stephan Mller
**
, Alexandra Mller
***


*
Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucureti, Romnia, e-mail: filipoiu@amcsit.ro
**
EMC2 Computer Systems AG Zrich, Elveia, e-mail: mueller_stephan@emc.com
***
Credit Suisse Zrich, Elveia, e-mail: alexandra.d.mueller@credit-suisse.com



REZUMAT
Scopul acestei lucrri este pe de-o parte de a sprijini utilizatorul n selectarea variantei optime dintre mai
multe alternative, iar pe de alt parte ofer productorilor metodologii aplicabile n dezvoltarea de produs
pentru obinerea unor configuraii inovative de echipamente de producie, raportate la calculul costului ciclului
de via. n comercializarea eficient a produselor noi, inovative, o importan deosebit trebuie acordat
marketingului inovrii. Fundamentarea economic a deciziilor tehnice luate n dezvoltarea produselor
reprezint de cele mai multe ori cheia succesului lansrii i promovrii produselor pe pia. Acest lucru este
posibil prin aplicarea metodei de analiz a valorii n dezvoltarea de produs. Se urmrete astfel, ca funciile
produsului studiat s fie concepute i realizate cu cheltuieli minime, n condiiile de calitate care s satisfac
necesitile utilizatorilor i s asigure pstrarea echilibrului ecologic.

ABSTRACT
The goals of this paper are, on the one hand, supporting the operator in making a selection between
various and on other hand for manufacturers provides a methodical framework for the development of
innovative configurations of production equipment against the background of life cycle costs calculation. This
paper is presents the costs basics regarding the technical decisions of products innovations. In the efficient
selling of new innovative products, the main issue is marketing of innovation. The economical fundaments of the
technical decisions must be a part of the product development cycle and represents the key of success when the
product is promoted and sold on the market. Therefore, this is possible using the analysis of added value method
applied on product development. This analysis aims for design and costs of product functions to be done with
minimal effort but they must fulfil the clients needs and must have a low ecological impact.

KEY WORDS: Marketing; Product development; Life Cycle Costing; Manufacturer; Innovation.

1. INTRODUCERE

Promovarea cu succes a unui produs pe pia de ctre
un agent economic reprezint un proces complex.
Colectivul de lucru care dezvolt noul produs trebuie
s cunoasc, n prealabil, aspecte legate de
marketingul inovrii de produs. n consecin,
deciziile tehnice luate n etapa de cercetare
dezvoltare trebuie s conduc la optimizarea costului
pe ntreg ciclu de via al noului produs. Apare astfel,
necesitatea, ca n faza de concepie a noului produs,
echipa de lucru a proiectului s foloseasc metode
moderne de analiz morfologic a funciilor
produsului, de materializare a funciilor, de analiz a
funciilor purttoare de costuri, crora li se pot aplica
metode de optimizare (cum ar fi metoda ABC), de
analiz a valorii produsului i de estimare a costurilor
pe ntreg ciclu de via inclusiv a celor legate de
scoaterea din funcionare i dezmembrare.
2. MARKETINGUL INOVRII

Iniial conceptul de marketing, reprezenta doar
activitile de vnzare, distribuie fizic i publicitate.
n evoluia sa, acest concept, s-a orientat spre
dezvoltarea managerial a marketingului, exprimat
prin mixul de marketing, adic prin trecerea de la
concepia tradiional de marketing reflectat de
optica de producie (orientarea spre producie,
specific perioadei 1900-1930) i optica de vnzare
(orientarea cu predilecie spre desfacerea, din
perioada 1930-1950), la optica modern de marketing
a crei specificitate este orientarea spre pia.
n viziunea modern, marketingul reprezint una din
activitile eseniale ale agentului economic. Sfera sa
de cuprindere vizeaz integrarea rezultatelor
cercetrii dezvoltrii n toate fazele vieii unui
produs. ncepe cu ideea de dezvoltare a unui nou
produs i se termin cu scoaterea lui din funciune la
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ncheierea ciclului de via la consumator. Pilonii
activitii de marketing sunt: consumatorul care
trebuie s fie n centrul ateniei activitii
ntreprinderii, cu nevoile i dorinele sale; profitul net
care reprezint scopul final ce se realizeaz prin
satisfacerea nevoilor consumatorilor; organizarea de
marketing ce permite adoptarea deciziilor n funcie
de cerinele pieii.
Marketingul inovrii particularizeaz pentru procesul
de inovare principiile clasice ale marketingului.
Acesta este focalizat pe optimizarea utilizrii
resurselor i pe diminuarea riscurilor i a
incertitudinii. Dezvoltarea unei noi filozofii de
marketing aplicat procesului de inovare urmrete
procesele de cercetare dezvoltare a produselor
pentru a crea un mediu favorabil proceselor inovative.
Marketingul inovrii are ca scop comercializarea
eficient a unui produs inovativ. Ciclul de dezvoltare
a unui produs inovativ este format din etape discrete,
uor de identificat. Fiecare etap este multifuncional
n sensul c nu exist o delimitare clar ntre
procesele specifice cercetrii dezvoltrii i cele de
marketing. Prin adaptarea produselor la cerinele
clienilor, productorul va deine controlul odat cu
lansarea pe pia a noilor produse. Trebuie amintit c
exist o strns legtur ntre marketingul unui
produs existent i marketingul de lansare a unui
produs inovativ asemntor, dar cu caracteristici de
calitate net superioare. O astfel de form de
marketing se mai numete i marketing de laborator
fiind orientat spre client prin aciuni vizibile de
promovare a produsului inovativ.
Elaborarea i aplicarea planului de marketing al
inovrii de produs presupune parcurgerea
urmtoarelor etape:
Ancheta preliminar studiu preliminar de definire
a scopului proiectului. Acest proces constituie prima
decizie de a merge mai departe i de angajare iniial
a resurselor. Chiar dac aceast decizie este luat n
prima etap, dac nu se asigur o fundamentare i
rigurozitate corespunztoare, se ajunge la pierderi la
nivelul organizaiei economice. Etapa presupune
realizarea unor activiti n principiu necostisitoare: o
analiz a experienei acumulate din alte proiecte,
contacte cu utilizatori cheie, focalizare pe grupuri i
conceperea un chestionar adresat potenialilor
utilizatori.
Analiza n detaliu prin care se definete n mod
clar produsul i se verific gradul de atractivitate al
proiectului nainte de angajarea altor cheltuieli. n
aceast etap este realizat o cercetare de marketing:
studii de pia detaliate, teste, studii de poziionare
competitiv i de analiz tehnico economic.
Analiza presupune activitate n teren i interviuri cu
clienii. n acelai timp sunt definite: piaa int,
conceptul de produs, strategia, beneficiile lansrii
noului produs, caracteristicile eseniale ale produsului
i se ncheie cu elaborarea referenialului iniial
(caietul de sarcini). Etapa are trei componente
principale:
Definirea rspunsuri la ce produs i pentru
cine? constituie unul din factorii cheie ai
succesului. Produsul este definit prin: cerine,
caracteristici de proiectare, beneficii.
Justificarea rspunsurile la de ce compania ar
trebui s investeasc n acest proiect? conduc la
elaborarea planului de afaceri, a modului de
finanare, la analiza rentabilitii i la estimarea
riscurilor.
Planul de realizare a proiectului rspunsuri la
ct, cum i de ctre cine? se stabilesc: resursele
financiare, umane, de timp, materiale i
echipamentele necesare, se elaboreaz planul de
aciune, pornind de la dezvoltarea conceptual la
lansarea pe pia lund n considerare drepturile
de proprietate asupra produsului inovativ.
Analiza nevoilor utilizatorului prezint detaliat
studiul de pia cu scopul de a sonda nevoile
clientului i de a pune n practic ideea de dezvoltare
a noului produs lund n considerare: factorii de
mediu i piaa creia i este adresat produsul,
caracteristicile de performan i cerinele de design
ale acestuia, beneficiile aduse att productorului ct
i utilizatorilor. Problema esenial const n a tii ce
i dorete clientul pentu a-i satisface nevoile (acest
lucru reprezint obiectivul principal). Un produs
inovativ este acela care ofer beneficii i satisfacie
unic clienilor. Numai nelegerea relaiilor dintre
caracteristicile produsului i percepiile clientului
conduc la luarea unei decizii corecte de a concepe un
nou produs.
Analiza concurenei este necesar pentru
elaborarea un standard de comparaie a noului produs
cu produsele concurenei urmrindu-se printre altele
dou obiective. Primul este acela de a nelege
produsele concurenei, punctele tari i punctele slabe
ale acestuia, iar n al doilea rnd, intuirea modului de
comportare i de aciune a potenialilor concureni.
Astfel pot fi descoperite unele chei de succes de
diminuare a riscurilor i de evitare a eecului n
momentul lansrii pe pia a noului produs.
Analiza pieei studiile de analiz competitiv sunt
cruciale pentru cel care concepe i va realiza
produsul inovativ. Scopul analizei este de a elabora
un portret detaliat al pieei care include: mrimea
pieei, dimensiunile i perspectivele acesteia;
segmentele de pia, creteri i tendine;
comportamentul cumprtorului: cine, ce dorete,
cnd, unde i cum?; poziionarea i situaia
potenialilor concureni. Aceast analiz trebuie s
aib o component tehnic, iar soluiile alese s fie
fezabile din punct de vedere economic. O metod
frecvent utilizat este Descrierea Funciei Calitii
(Quality Function Deployment QFD) prin care se
aplic modelul celor patru domenii: cercetare
dezvoltare, inginerie, informaional (despre pia) i
de management. Conceptul QFD a fost dezvoltat n
Japonia, i introdus n SUA de ctre Ford i Xerox n
1986 [3]. Metoda ajut la traducerea nevoilor
clienilor ntr-un concept tehnic i de design.
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173
n prezent, este adoptat i aplicat, de un numr
mare de firme inovative.
Analiza financiar are drept int dimensiunea
pieei, estimrile costurilor nc din faza de concepie
care mpreun cu analiza preului de
vnzare/cumprare al noului produs, conduc la
stabilirea rentabilitii activitilor productorului, la
estimarea efectelor economice i a veniturilor
obinute prin introducerea n fabricaie. n acest sens
se folosesc tehnici detaliate de evaluare a
randamentului i de estimare a unor costuri
rezonabile, mpreun cu proiecia marjelor de profit.
Stabilirea planurilor de aciune constituie
componenta final a marketingului inovrii. De
obicei, planurile de aciune se ntocmesc n detaliu
pentru fiecare etap analizndu-se fiecare plan
secvenial al proceselor specifice managementului
proiectelor de dezvoltare de produse pornind cu
activiti precompetitive, pn la trecerea la activiti
competitive ale agentului economic i la lansarea pe
pia a produsului inovativ. Urmnd aceast logic,
planul de aciune va cuprinde:
- recomandri viitoare cu privire la derularea
proiectului;
- elaborarea, detalierea i realizarea planului de
cercetare dezvoltare;
- planuri de testare i experimentare a modelelor
experimentale i funcionale, a prototipurilor;
- protejarea drepturilor de proprietate intelectual;
- transferul tehnologic i introducerea n fabricaie
a seriei zero;
- elaborarea planurilor de operaii tehnologice, de
aprovizionare, testarea i calibrarea fabricaiei
curente, i comercializarea produselor;
- stabilirea i aplicarea planului de marketing prin
care se definesc obiectivele, strategiile de
aplicare i programele de marketing
(reprezentan, vnzri, garanii, service etc.)
dezvoltate la nivelul unitii economice.

3. DEZVOLTAREA DE PRODUS

n dezvoltarea de produs se urmrete ca funciile
noului produs s fie concepute i realizate cu
cheltuieli minime, n condiiile de calitate care s
satisfac necesitile utilizatorilor i s asigure
pstrarea echilibrului ecologic. Pentru ndeplinirea
acestor obiective, echipa de lucru, trebuie s aplice
principiile enunate n Metoda de Analiz a Valorii.
Conform normei franceze NF X 50-150 analiza
valorii este definit astfel: metod de competitivitate
organizat i creativ, viznd satisfacerea nevoilor
utilizatorului printr-un demers specific de concepie
att funcional, ct i economic i pluridisciplinar.
Standardul [8] se refer la etapele i fazele
recomandate privind aplicarea metodei de analiz a
valorii (ingineriei valorii), n dezvoltarea de produs,
n cercetarea i proiectarea de produse noi sau
modernizate aflate n producia curent a unei uniti
economice. Tehnicile i procedeele de lucru, precum
i gradul de aprofundare al etapelor i fazelor de
aplicare a analizei valorii se stabilesc de ctre echipa
de lucru, avnd n vedere complexitatea produsului
studiat, mrimea seriei de fabricaie, posibilitile
tehnice, economice i organizatorice ale agentului
economic.
Obiectul analizei valorii poate fi un produs sau pri
componente ale acestuia, care ndeplinesc una sau
mai multe funcii. Principalele caracteristici ale
metodei sunt:
- utilizeaz analiza sistemic a funciilor;
- se bazeaz pe un plan de cercetare dezvoltare
bine definit la nivelul echipei interdisciplinare de
lucru;
- membrii echipei apeleaz la metode i tehnici
analitice i intuitive, precum i la alte metode,
tehnici i procedee de lucru specifice cercetrii
dezvoltrii, ca: analiza tehnico-economic,
sondajul statistic, modelarea matematic, metode
operative i previzionale de gestiune a costurilor,
metode de organizare a produciei i a muncii etc.
Prin aplicarea analizei valorii se stabilesc n funcie
de indicatorii tehnici, economici, financiari i sociali
specifici domeniului, de natura i complexitatea
produsului studiat, o serie de obiective:
- creterea valorii de ntrebuinare a noului produs
i reducerea cheltuielilor de producie, n special
a celor materiale, astfel ca, n final, raportul
dintre valoarea de ntrebuinare i cheltuielile de
producie s fie maximizat;
- mbuntirea calitii produselor i serviciilor;
- creterea productivitii muncii;
- creterea eficienei investiiilor i a rentabilitii
generale la nivelul organizaiei.
n acest sens se definesc funciile elementare ale
produsului care confer acestuia valoarea de
ntrebuinare n raport cu utilizatorul i mediul.
Echipa de lucru elaboreaz nomenclatorul funciilor
produsului din punctul de vedere al satisfacerii
cerinelor sociale pentru care se dezvolt noul produs
lund n considerare nivelul de importan al fiecrei
funcii prin compararea aportului la realizarea valorii
de ntrebuinare generale a produsului. De asemenea,
se stabilete dimensiunea tehnic a fiecrei funcii
(unul sau mai muli parametri tehnici sau/i de alt
natur, prin care este caracterizat funcia),
dimensiunile economice ale funciilor (pri din
costul produsului aferente funciei respective, sau
costul purttor al acelei funcii).
Analiza sistemic a funciilor, ca parte a planului de
lucru, permite studiul comparativ, nivelurile de
importan, dimensiunile tehnice i economice ale
funciilor produsului. Se compar unele funcii cu
altele, cu caracteristicile unor produse cu destinaii
similare precum i cu cerinele utilizatorului. Se
stabilete costul limit (costul maxim admis pentru
realizarea unei funcii), se analizeaz i se elimin
costurile inutile (costuri aferente elementelor
componente care nu contribuie efectiv la realizarea
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174
Dezvoltarea de produs
Analiza pieei
Dezafectare/transport
Tehnologie
Producie
Susinere
Studiu de pia
Studiu de brevete
Produse existente
Cheltuieli exploatare
Materiale
Prototip
Tehnologii
Producie i distribuie
Management proiect
Logistic
Concepie
nlturare
Distribuie
Materiale
Montaj
Fabricaie
Marketing
Transport
Vnzare
Utilizare
Reciclare
Demontare produs
Sortare componente
Taxe de nlturare
Transport
Cheltuieli indirecte
ntreinere/reparaii
Dup realizare produs
Recondiionare
Costul ciclului de via
LCC
Fig. 1. Costul ciclului de via al unui echipament (Live Cycle Costing LCC)
funciilor produsului studiat, sau acele costuri care
sunt consumate n cazurile de supraevaluare).
n momentul efecturii analizei se definesc funciile
noi atribuite produsului inovativ rezultate din
cerinele utilizatorilor i funciile existente necesare
sau inutile pe care le au produsele similare. n acest
sens, prin aplicarea analizei valorii deciziile tehnice
pot fi optimizate i fundamentate economic astfel
nct costurile pe ntreg ciclu de via al produsului s
fie minim [2].

4. COSTURILE CICLULUI
DE VIA AL UNUI PRODUS

Pentru a optimiza din punct de vedere economic
echipamentele de producie, adiional costului de
achiziie, n decizia de cumprare, trebuie s se ia n
considerare acolo unde performana echipamentelor
variaz diferite costuri i venituri specifice
diverselor stadii ale ciclul de via al produsului. Pe
lng specificaile tehnice i a datelor legate de
performa, mai trebuie analizate condiile de
funcionare, precum i durata de exploatare a
acestuia. De aici rezult mai multe interdependene,
care vor fi explicate pe scurt n cele ce urmeaz.
Condiile de funcionare specifice pot fi caracterizate
prin: frecvena i intensitatea utilizrii, mediul de
lucru i condiile ambientale. Aceti factori
influeneaz fiabilitatea produsului i n mod direct
mentenaa, costurile de ntreinere, de reparaii i de
producie ale echipamentului. Costurile de
mentenan pot fi previzionate pe baza cerinelor de
mentenan specifice. Descrierea condiilor de
funcionare este de asemenea necesar pentru a
previziona costurile de operare, ca i beneficiile din
diversele stadii ale ciclului de via al produsului.
Pentru a simplifica analiza Costurilor Ciclului de
Via (Life Cycle Costing LCC) al unui echipament
se poate face ipoteza prin care condiile de
funcionare rmn constante de-a lungul duratei de
funcionare. Cu toate acestea, ele nu reprezint
condiii n sine ci doar ridic semne de ntrebare cu
privire la durata i condiiile de lucru ale
echipamentului.


Condiiile de funcionare relevante pentru mentenan
pot fi descrise n concordan cu ghidul VDI 2885.
Informaile din fia tehnic i specificaile
productorului se folosesc pentru determinarea
condiilor de funcionare. Descrierea condiilor de
funcionare trebuie privite de ctre cumprtor ca un
ndrumar preliminar, care permite productorului s
furnizeze date concrete despre mentenana produsului
(echpamentului). Durata de funcionare planificat
este principala referin legat de timp pentru o
aplicaie de analiz a LCC, i un factor decisiv cnd
vine vorba de a opta ntre diversitatea de oferte ale
productorilor. Acest factor care intervine n
planificare, determin de exemplu, dac un
echipament de producie cu un pre de achiziie mai
mare dar cu costuri mai mici de operare, ntreinere i
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175
casare, reprezint o alternativ viabil din punct de
vedere economic fa de procurarea unui echipament
la pre iniial mai redus, dar cu costuri de ntreinere
mai mari. Determinarea duratei de via planificate a
echipamentelor de producie este influenat de o
gam larg de factori, cum ar fi: prognoza legat de
marketing i vnzare, avantajele tehnologice, sau
deciziile strategice. Din aceast cauz, determinarea
duratei de funcionare trebuie acceptat ca un criteriu
de comparaie. Cum n determinarea duratei de
funcionare planificat a echipamentelor de producie,
intervin numeroi parametrii se recomand ca toi
factorii de decizie dintr-o companie s fie implicai n
estimarea duratei de funcionare planificate. n
prezent, orice productor competent, care este
orientat spre client, trebuie s furnizeze aceste date.
Necesitatea productorilor de a ine cont de costul pe
ntreg ciclu de via al echipamentului n faza de
dezvoltare de noi produse devine important,
deoarece tot mai muli clieni decid s cumpere
bazndu-se pe analiza LCC i cer informaii legate de
LCC de la productori [4], [5]. Selectarea variantei
optime dintre mai multe alternative, trebuie s se
bazeze pe metodologii aplicabile n dezvoltarea de
produs pentru obinerea unor configuraii inovative de
echipamente de producie, raportate la calculul
costului pe ntreg ciclu de via al produsului. Metoda
LCC a fost dezvoltat n SUA, n managementul
proiectelor complexe de dezvoltare de produs, pentru
calculul fezabilitii economice a unor noi produse
aflate n faza de concepie [4].
Ciclul de via al unui produs se constituie
ncepnd cu: formularea ideii i a formulrii temei de
produs, conceperea produsului realizarea i
experimentarea lui. Se continu cu instalarea la
beneficiar, cu exploatarea i ntreinerea produsului i
se ncheie cu scoaterea din funcionare i dezafectare
a acestuia. Toate aceste etape sunt incluse n ciclul de
via, ele particip la definirea caracteristicilor
tehnice i economice ale produsului [1].
O structurare a LCC, din punctul de vedere al
productorului, este prezentat n figura 1 i cuprinde:
Costurile care preced producia curent sunt
specifice unor procese ca de exemplu:
- analiza pieii, cercetarea pieii, cercetarea
brevetelor existente, analiza produselor
asemntoare executate de concureni;
- aplicarea tehnologiilor existente, dezvoltarea
unor noi tehnologii, realizarea prototipului,
materiale, pregtirea fabricaiei;
- susinere: managementul proiectelor, concepie,
logistic etc.
Costurile de producie i de distribuie cuprind:
- producia: aprovizionarea cu materiale materii
prime, fabricaie, pregtirea i ncheierea
fabricaiei, montaj, calibrare i testare;
Tabel 1. Estimarea costurilor necesare nainte de utilizarea echipamentului
Costuri nainte
de utilizarea echipamentului
Informaii
prevzute de
utilizator
Informaii
prevzute de
productor
Costul
alternativei A
[euro]
Costul
alternativei B
[euro]
Costuri de achiziie generale
Costuri de identificare a cerinelor X
Costuri de analiz a pieei X
Pre de achiziie per echipament X
Costul necesar achiziiei X
Cheltuieli pentru transport X
Costuri pentru asigurarea garaniei X
Costuri pentru modificri constructive X
Costuri de instalare X
Costuri de punere n funciune X (X)
Costuri pentu piese de schimb X
Costul echipamentelor periferice (X) X
Costul planificrii achiziiei
Costuri ulterioare achiziionrii
Costuri cu angajarea personalului X
Costuri cu personalul auxiliar X
Costuri pentru pregtirea personalului X X
Costuri pentru deplasri (X) X
Costul software-ului (X) X
Costul hardware-ului (X) X
Costuri pentru consultan X
Alte criterii de evaluare
Timpul de livrare X - -
Poziia pe pia a productorului X - -
Orientarea ctre client X - -
Garanii X - -
Costul total
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- distribuia: marketing, promovare, vnzare,
transport.
Costuri ulterioare produciei formate din:
- suportul utilizatorilor: servicii (trening personal,
colarizri, cursuri, consultan, piese de schimb etc.),
cheltuieli de exploatare (consum de energie, materii
prime, materiale), service (ntreinere, reparaii,
garanie), diverse (garanii, costuri administrative),
taxe i accize pentru protecia mediului;
- reciclare (demontare i dezmembrare produs,
sortare i valorificare componente, dezafectare /
transport recondiionare)
- costuri de nlturare a produsului ( costuri de
transport, costuri i taxe de nlturare) [1], [2].
Tabel 2. . Estimarea costurilor pe durata utilizrii echipamentului
Costuri specifice utilizrii
echipamentului
U.M.
Cerine pe
ora de
funcionare
Costuri per
unitate
[euro]
Costuri
recurente
[euro]
Costuri
singulare
[euro]
Costuri
totale
[euro]
Cstiguri
/ Profit
[euro]
Resurse i combustibili
Ap m
3

Gaz m
3

Aer m
3

Lichid hidraulic m
3

Lubrifiani m
3

Ageni de rcire m
3

Consum electric atunci cnd nu
exist activitate
kWh

Consum electric la sarcina maxim kWh
Cheltuieli de personal euro
Calificarea necesar
Costul spaiului /m
2

Costul total
Costuri cu mentenaa / piese de
schimb

Curenie
ntreinere
Verificare
Reparare
Revizie general
Costul pieselor de schimb
Costul service-ului
Garanii
Costuri cu software-ul
Costuri de protecie a mediului
Costuri datorate polurii
Date despre performan i
calitate

Capacitatea de producie
Disponibilitatea tehnic garantat
Timpul mediu ntre defectri
Timpul mediu de reparare
Timpul de lucru efectiv
Timpul de rspuns al serviciului
post vnzri

Total
Tabel 3. Estimarea costurilor necesare dup utilizarea echipamentului
Costuri dup utilizarea echipamentului Costuri [euro] Ctiguri/Profit [euro]
Scoaterea din uz
nlturarea resurselor energetice -
Costuri de dezmembrare -
Costuri de demontare -
Costuri cu sortarea componentelor -
Costurile de recondiionare -
Costuri pentru avizarea scoaterii din funciune -
Recuperarea materialelor
Costuri finale de nlturare a deeurilor -
Costuri pentru transport / Vnzare
Costuri cu reciclarea / refolosirea
nchiderea inventarului/reciclarea pieselor de schimb
Valoarea folosirii ulterioare
Total
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nregistrarea informailor necesare despre costurile i
veniturile ateptate reprezint unul din cei mai
complexi pai n aplicarea analizei LCC. Evaluarea
tehnico economic a echipamentelor de producie
alternative se bazeaz n principal pe compararea
costurilor i veniturilor anticipate pe ntreg ciclu de
via, aa cum sunt prevzute n Tabelele 1; 2 i 3 [6].
Evaluarea cantitativ folosete metode tradiionale de
analiz a investiilor. Metodele statice de analiz a
investiilor sunt folosite frecvent n practica industrial
datorit aplicrii relativ simple; exist totui dezbateri
despre avantajele lor. Metodele statice de analiz, se
aplic pe o perioad de referin a duratei totale de
via, care de cele mai multe ori se limiteaz la un an.
Aceast abordare conduce la o situaie n care numai
veniturile i cheltuielile care intervin n aceast
perioad de timp sunt luate n considerare. Totui, n
realitate, veniturile i cheltuielile nu sunt uniform
distribuite pe durata de via. n aceste condiii calcul
corespunde unei valori medii de exploatare, iar aceast
perioad medie nu ofer concluzii despre plile pe
durata ntrgului ciclu de funcionare. n consecin,
dobnda i lichiditile rezultate n urma plilor i
veniturilor sunt ignorate, deoarece aceast metod nu
ia n considerare factorul timp.
n contrast cu metodele statice, metodele dinamice se
bazeaz pe observarea duratei de utilizare totale. Aceast
abordare corespunde unei viziuni mult mai largi a metodei
LCC, deoarece timpul total de funcionare este luat drept
baz de calcul. O caracteristic a metodelor dinamice este
nregistrarea veniturilor i cheltuielilor pe durata de via a
echipamentului. Momentele din timp diferite la care s-au
fcut plile sau ncasrile sunt luate n considerare, prin
actualizarea costurilor folosind metodele clasice.
Factorii calitativi, cum ar fi timpul de livrare,
poziionarea productorului pe pia, certificarea
furnizorilor, trebuie aplicate prin alte metode de
evaluare. Pentru evaluarea factorilor calitativi, literatura
de specialitate descrie metode de analiza beneficilor
care i-au demonstrat utilitatea n practica industrial.
Este de notat faptul c, prin comparaie cu analiza LCC,
evaluarea factorilor calitativi trebuie fcut pe baza unui
consens ntre prile implicate.
Evaluarea aspectelor economice i strategice la nivelul
utilizatorului reprezint o baz temeinic n luarea unei deci
decizii n alegerea, unei alternative potrivite de achiziie.
Decizia de a cumpra un echipament se bazez pe un
pronostic, i de aceea de multe ori poate s nu fie cea mai
bun soluie. Modelul de analiz prezentat poate fi vzut de
ca o contribuie la diminuarea riscurilor i este potrivit
pentru a reduce gradul de incertitudine, i pentru a lua n
considerare aspectele importante legate de mentenan [5].
Pentru creterea fiabilitii metodei LCC, se poate aplica
analiza sensibilitii. Scopul analizei sensibilitii este de
a demonstra cum sunt interconectai parametrii folosii
n analiza LCC i rezultatele obinute.
Pentru a putea decide asupra aplicrii metodei LCC,
trebuie rspuns la urmtoarele ntrebri:
Va genera echipamentul de producie costuri
recurente mari i costuri ulterioare comparabile cu
costurile de achiziie?
Echipametul de producie are o durat de folosire
ndelungat?
Costurile ulterioare achiziiei devin mai importante
pe msura trecerii timpului de exploatare?
Scoaterea din folosin i nlocuirea echipamentului de
producie necesit cheltuieli mari?
Exist factori poteniali de reducere a costurilor
care s poat fi identificai prin aplicarea LCC?
Dac la aceste ntrebri se rspunde mai mult cu da,
atunci se poate presupune c este util utilizarea LCC.
Trebuie notat faptul c rspunsurile depind n mare
msur de subiectivizmul celui care ia decizia.

5. CONCLUZII

Agentul economic care concepe un nou echipament
de producie trebuie s ia n calcul nu numai costul de
producie i preului de vnzare, ci i costul total pe
ntreg ciclu de via. El trebuie s aplice principiile
marketingului inovrii pentru a fi orientat asupra
pieei, a potenialilor clieni, a condiiilor ecologice i
a implicaiilor utilizrii produsului asupra mediului.
n condiiile globalizrii i a tehnologiei informatice
existente, cel care concepe i realizeaz noul produs
trebuie s fac o analiz tehnico economic
punnduse n poziia pe care o are utilizatorul n
relaiile cu furnizorii. Acesta n procesele de achiziie
i aprovizionare va elabora o analiz temeinic a LCC
pentru variantele alternative de echipamente de
producie existente pe pia abordnd aspectele
precizate n Tabele 1; 2 i 3.
Tabelele din seciunea 4 pot fi folosite pentru
colectarea datelor ntr-o manier sistematic. Aceste
tabele furnizeaz date verificate despre costurile
anticipate. Ele sunt de un real ajutor pentru
comunicarea ntre utilizator i productor i pentru
stabilirea preului de vnzare / cumprare.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Filipoiu, I.D., Mller, St., Mller, D.A., Dezvoltarea de produs
orientat asupra costurilor pe ntreg ciclu de via al
echipamentelor, TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista
construcia de maini nr. 4/2007, ISSN 0573-7419, pp.13 18.
2. Filipoiu I.D., Meier M., Kunz A., Mler St., - Tehnologii i
utilaje tehnologice * Fabricaie i costuri, ed. PRINTEH
Bucureti, 2003.
3. Griffin, Thomas P. Hustad Evaluating QFDs Use in Firms as
a Process for Developing products The journal of Product
Innovation Management 9 (3) 1992
4. Gnther, T., Life Cycle Costing, WISU Das
Wirtschaftsstudium, 10/1997, pp. 900-912.
5. Kremin-Buch, B., Strategisches Kostmanagement
Grundlagen und moderne Instrumente. Wiesbaden, Gabler
Verlag, 1998.
6. * * * DIN EN 13306:2001 09 Begriffe der
Instandhaltung, Dreisprachige Fassung EN13306:2001
(Maintenance terminology, Trilingual version EN
13306:2001),Berlin, Beuth Verlag.
7. * * * VDI 2884:2005 Beschaffung, Betrieb und
Instandhaltung von Produktionsmitteln unter Anwendung
von Life Cycle Costing (LCC), Berlin, Beuth Verlag.
8. * * * STAS 11272/2 79 Analiza valorii. Aplicarea
metodei la produse.


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Quick Info

MicroMountains iNNOVATION fORUM for MicroTechnology 2009

Event Type: Technology Transfer Missions / Others
Start Date: 21-Jan-2009
End Date: 21-Jan-2009
City: Villingen-Schwenningen
Country: Germany
Description:
The iNNOVATION fORUM is a new platform to transfer latest research results to market in the field of
Microsystems Technology or MEMS. The forum is organised and held by MicroMountains Network in close
cooperation with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg, and supported by
several well-known partners and institutions active in Microsystems Technology.

The main topics presented are:
Micro Medical Applications and Microfluidics
Sensors and Systems for Industrial Applications
Micro Energy Harvesting

Event:
During MicroMountains iNNOVATION fORUM for MicroTechnology, international experts and researchers
in the field of micro technology present latest market related research and developments results, new strategies
and current project ideas to decision makers from various European industry sectors who are looking for new
cost cutting applications and/or new markets for their products. Youll learn firsthand which potential lies in the
various technologies. Youll discuss about the possible utilization right on the spot or about any further
cooperative development steps with experts.

Here, youll be given time and opportunity to discuss with speakers from various scientific areas. Youll be able
to arrange one-to-one meetings, selectively and according to your interests, with speakers and other participants
of your choice. New partnerships, new networks, and new chances will arise and also bring about successful
new products.

For more information about this forum and for registration please visit: www.innovation-forum.eu

Location:
Congress and Culture Center of Villingen
Bertholdstrasse 7
78050 Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany

Deadline for registration: 10 January 2009

Conference language: English
Industrial Sectors: Industrial manufacture
Materials technology
Automation/Robotics
Electronics, microelectronics
ENERGY
Medicine, health

(http://www.enterprise-europe
network.ec.europa.eu/publicwebsite/calendar/viewdetails.cfm?EventID=1862&type=future)


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

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CICLUL DE VIA NTRE PRODUS I IMPACTUL SU
ASUPRA FACTORILOR DE MEDIU


Ana Maria Onu, Ioan Piturescu, Emilia Stanescu

Institutul National pentru Intreprinderi Mici si Mijlocii, Bucuresti, ROMANIA, e-mail: ana@inimm.ro
Institutul National pentru Intreprinderi Mici si Mijlocii, Bucuresti, ROMANIA, e-mail: pituresc@ictcm.ro
Institutul National pentru Intreprinderi Mici si Mijlocii, Bucuresti, ROMANIA, e-mail: emilia@inimm.ro


REZUMAT
In activitatea oricarei firme, mediul sau ambiant joaca un rol esential in definirea strategiilor sale, in sesizarea
si folosirea oportunitatilor de dezvoltare, constituind practic suportul realizarii obiectivelor de crestere
economica, de profitabilitate sau doar de supravietuire.
In opinia lui Phillp Kotler, produsul, pe care acesta il numeste global poate fi definit ca fiind ansamblul
factorilor si fortelor externe intreprinderii care sunt in masura sa ii afecteze acesteia maniera de dezvoltare.
PRODUSUL este rezultatul material al unei activiti umane, destinat satisfacerii unei nevoi i reprezint o
sum de componente materiale i imateriale, i caracteristici interdependente ce alctuiesc un tot unitar.
Produsul adus pe pia trebuie abordat ntr-o concepie de sistem, care nglobeaz alturi de substana
material a bunului i o component ambiental format din elemente imateriale. Astfel, pentru a defini
produsul ca obiect al schimbului, acesta trebuie abordat din mai multe puncte de vedere, conturndu-se
concepiile urmtoare :
1. Concepia integratoare asupra produsului privete produsul ca un sistem complex de componente
materiale i imateriale, de natur informaional i subiectiv.
2. Concepia valoric
3. Concepia funcional
4. Concepia privind statutul schimbtor al produsului pe pia.

ABSTRACT
In the activity of a firm, the environment plays an essential role in defining its strategies, using the development
opportunities, forming the realizing support objectives for economic increasement, profitability or only
surviving.
In the opinion of Phillip Kotler, the product, named global can be defined as being the assembly of the
external enterprises forces and factors that are able to affect the products development manner.
The PRODUCT is the material result within a system concept, addressed to satisfy a need and represents a sum
of material and immaterial components and independent features that form a total unit.
The product brought on the market has to be tackeled within a system concept, that englobes the goods
material substance and also an ourside component, it has to be tackled from different points of view, framing
the following conceptions:
1. The integrating conception towards the product concerns the product as a complex system of material
and immaterial components.
2. The valuable conception
3. The functional conception
4. The conception that regards the changing status on the market.

CUVINTE CHEIE: ciclu de via, produs, factori de mediu

KEYWORDS: life cycle, product, environment agents


1. INTRODUCERE

Agenii economici i desfoar activitatea
ntr-un anumit mediu mbinand factori de natur
economic, social, politic, tiinifico tehnic,
juridic, geografic, demografic. Putem evidenia
urmtoarele trei tipuri de mediu:
Stabil. Schimbrile n acest mediu sunt rare, de
mic amploare i uor previzibile.
Schimbtor. Modificrile sunt frecvente, de o
amploare variat i, n general, previzibile.
Turbulent. Modificrile sunt foarte frecvente, de
amploare variat cu influene profunde asupra
activitii firmei i greu de anticipat.


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180

n condiiile actuale activitatea ntreprinderilor se
desfoar preponderent ntr-un mediu de un dinamism
accentuat.





2. MEDIUL AMBIANT
AL UNUI PRODUS

Mediul ambiant al unui produs poate fi divizat n
Micro i Macromediu.
Micromediul cuprinde acele elemente ale mediului
cu care ntreprinderea intr n relaii directe.
Ca exemplificare:
Furnizorii, care n baza contractelor asigur
ntreprinderea cu materie prim, materiale,
echipamente, resurse energetice, for de munc.
Pentru ncheierea contractelor cu furnizorul,
ntreprinderea are nevoie de informaii referitoare la
dimensiunile i calitatea ofertei, preurile practicate,
politicile comerciale utilizate, cunoaterea unor aspecte
privind climatul intern al ntreprinderii furnizoare
(stabilitatea economic, disciplina tehnologic etc.).
Prestatorii de servicii. Ultimii pot fi firme sau persoane
particulare, care ofer o gam larg de servicii necesare
pentru activitatea ntreprinderii.
Clienii. Aceast categorie include: consumatorii,
utilizatorii industriali; ntreprinderile comerciale,
ageniile guvernamentale, utilizatoare de serviciile
produse de ntreprindere.
Concurenii. Acestea sunt firmele sau persoanele
particulare care i deservesc pe aceiai clieni i au
aceiai furnizori sau prestatori de servicii.
Organismele publice reprezentate de asociaiile
profesionale, asociaiile consumatorilor, mediile de
informare n mas, organele de stat (financiare, fondul
social, vamele, de justiie etc.) fa de care
ntreprinderea are obligaii legale.
Distributia veniturilor in societate. Cu cat este mai bine
consolidata si bine reprezentata in structura societatii o
categorie de consumatori cu venituri medii-mari, cu atat
nivelul consumului este ridicat, rotatia bunurilor si
serviciilor, precum si a masei monetare este accelerata;
acestea constituie atributele unei piete bogate pentru
toate tipurile de produse, o piata care contine in
dezvoltarea actuala sursele dezvoltarii viitoare.
Nivelul fiscalitatii este un alt factor economic
important, care influenteaza viata produsului.
Cursul de schimb al monedei nationale este o alta
variabila economica ce afecteaza mediul in care se
desfasoara produsul.
Legea cererii reprezinta relatia conform careia
cantitatea ceruta dintr-o anumita marfa este invers
proportionala cu pretul produsului respectiv.
Veniturile consumatorilor. O crestere a veniturilor pe
care consumatorii pe pot cheltui contribuie la sporirea
posibilitatii lor de a cumpara, daca ceilalti factori raman
constanti.

Macromediul cuprinde elementele structurale
Factori demografici
Factori naturali
Factori economici
Factori tehnici si tehnologici
Factori socio-culturali
Factori politici si legislativi
Concurentii
Furnizorii
Sindicatele si actionarii
Media
OPC
Consumatorii finali si
intermediarii
PRODUS
Figura 1.
Mediul unui produs


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

181

ale mediului cu aciune indirect i pe termen lung
asupra activitii ntreprinderii. Macromediul include:
Mediul demografic caracterizat de numrul populaiei,
structura pe vrste i sexe, dimensiunea medie a unei
familii, repartizarea teritorial, populaia urban i
rural. Analiza indicatorilor mediului demografic
permite o evaluare corect a dimensiunilor cererii la
producia ntreprinderii.
Mediul economic reprezint spaiul n care activeaz
ntreprinderea: structura pe ramuri a economiei, nivelul
de dezvoltare a economiei naionale n ansamblu i pe
fiecare ramur n parte, gradul de ocupare a forei de
munc, situaia financiar valutar.
Mediul tehnologic se evideniaz prin invenii i
inovaii, mrimea i orientarea fondurilor destinate
cercetrii dezvoltrii, asimilarea de produse noi i
modernizarea produselor tradiionale, reglementrii
orientate spre eliminarea sau restrngerea efectelor
poluante ale proceselor de producie.
Mediul cultural caracterizeaz sistemul de valori,
obiceiurile, tradiiile i normele de convieuire n
societate. Mediul cultural are o influen substanial
asupra compartimentului consumatorilor, asupra
segmentrii pieelor, asupra comunicrii ntreprinderii
cu piaa.
Mediul politic influeneaz asupra activitii
ntreprinderii prin structura societii, forele politice i
raporturile dintre ele, prin gradul de implicare a statului
n economie, gradul de stabilire a climatului politic
intern, zonal, internaional.
Mediul juridic mbin reglementrile de natur juridic
prin intermediul crora este vizat n direct activitatea
ntreprinderii.
Mediul natural (clim, relief, zcminte etc.)
n condiiile economiei de pia principala component
a mediului n care apare firma, att n calitate de
productor ct i de consumator, este piaa. Aceasta din
urm, fiind un sistem de coordonare a activitii
economice a agenilor economici, mijlocete legturile
multiple ale ntreprinderii cu mediul ambiant.








Realizarea obiectivelor ntreprinderilor (creterea
rentabilitii i a eficienei economice pe baza
sporirii cifrei de afaceri pe seama fiecrui produs)
este n funcie de sporirea supleei, adaptabilitii i
flexibilitii firmei n raport cu mediul.

3. CONCLUZII

Intregul profit al factorilor care afecteaza
calitatea serviciilor si produselor (factori tehnici,
administrativi si umani) trebuie orientat spre
reducerea, eliminarea si cel mai important,
prevenirea deficientelor de calitate.
Pentru a obtine maximul de eficacitate si
pentru a satisface asteptarile cumparatorului, este
esential ca sistemul de conducere a calitatii sa fie
adecvat tipului activitatii si produsului sau
serviciului oferit.
Un sistem de conducere a calitatii are
doua aspecte interdependente si anume:
1). Nevoile si interesele companiei
respectiv atingerea si mentinerea calitatii dorite la
un cost optim.
2). Nevoile si asteptarile cumparatorului;
pentru cumparator exista o nevoie de incredere in
posibilitatea firmei de a furniza calitatea dorita.
Calitatea produsului se realizeaza in
procesul de productie insa se constata in procesul
de consumare a acestora. De aceea se impune
evidenierea deosebirilor dintre calitatea produciei
i calitatea produselor.
Obinerea unei calitati satisfacatoare
implica parcurgerea ansamblului de activitati din
spirala calitatii, pornind de la prospectarea pietei
si sfarsind cu activitatea de analiza, incercari,
desfacere si service.
Spirala calitatii reprezinta un model
conceptual al activitatilor interdependente care isi
exercita influenta lor asupra calitatii unui produs
sau servicii in intreaga desfasurare a fazelor
incepand cu identificarea nevoilor pana la
evaluarea satisfacerii lor.

REFERINTE

[1] Duma, M., Tranziia spre economia de pia, Tribuna
economic, 2003, nr. 26
[2] Henke, Steve, Privation and Development, Centrul Internaional
pentru Cretere Economic, San Francisco, S.U.A., 2000.
[3] Magliaho, Bruno , Les petites et moyennes entreprises,
Editura Hatier Paris, 1995
[4] Scarlat, C., Initierea, dezvoltarea si managementul
afacerilor mici si mijlocii, Editura Conphys, Ramnicu Valcea, 2001.
[5] Strickland, T., Strategic management, concepts and cases,
Editura BPI/Irwin, 2003.
[6] Paina, N., ntreprinderea i piaa, Tribuna Economic,
2003, nr. 17, pg. 14.


Flux de aprovizionare
Productie Desfacere
Figura 2.
Mecanismul pietei pentru un produs


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

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C

L
I

A
T
E





D
U
S


O
R




Documentarea in domeniu
Macroclimatul in unitate
Gradul si nivelul de cunostinte al
proiectantilor
Microclimatul in fluxul de
fabricatie
Proiecrarea tehnica tehnologica a
produselor functie de resurse
Calitatea resurselor materiale si a
materiilor prime
Pregatirea tehnica a fabricatiei si
organizarea fluxurilor de
fabricatie
Gradul de organizare a productiei
functie de caracteristicile acesteia
Nivelul de pregatire a perso-
nalului
Planificarea functie de resurse a
productiei si programarea in timp
pentru utilizarea integrala a
dotarii
Gradul de dotare cu
SDV si AMC-uri
Starea tehnica a utilajelor si
instalatiilor
Calitatea reparatiilor si a
intretinerii fondurilor fixe
Organizarea structurilor de
productie functie de cerinte
Organizarea controlului calitatii
in unitate
Controlul indeplinirii sarcinilor
de serviciu
Calitatea deciziilor
Organizarea fluxului
informational si informatic
Gestionarea produselor
Aprovizionarea cu materii prime
si materiale conform cerintelor
Respectarea documentatiei
tehnice si tehnologice
Ergonomia muncii
Figura 3.
Fluxul unui produs in cadrul unei intreprinderi


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

183


CERCETARE STIINTIFICA

operatori de service la
Livrarea produselor cumparator si suportarea logisticii
catre beneficiari


Analize, incercari, probe(verificarea fiabilitatii)


Control final
conformare fata de Efectuarea
contracte calculelor
CERCETARE STIINTIFICA tehnico-economice
Controlul proceselor si comerciale
tehnologice
(conformare fata de Proiectarea si executarea prototipului
doc. tehnica Procesul de productie Omologarea prototipului

Asigurare, aparate de Stabilirea
masura, standuri Aprovizionarea tehnologiilor
pentru probe functionale materialelor, si asigurarea
receptie calitativa masinilor, disp.,
calificare cadre






Quick Info

ISPIM09 Conference, The Future of Innovation, Vienna, Austria, 21-24 June 2009

Organised by ISPIM, hosted by The Austrian Federal Economic Chamber, and supported by DANUBE - European
Programmes for Training, Research and Technology and Ratio Strategy & Innovation Consulting, this conference
will bring together about 300 academics, business leaders, consultants and other professionals involved in
innovation management.
The conference will include facilitated themed sessions for academic practitioner presentations together with
interactive workshops and discussion panels.
The ISPIM09 Conference will be held along side The R&D Management Conference allowing delegates to move
freely between conferences and connecting the ISPIM and R&D Management networks.






Figura 4.
Spirala calitatii unui produs


TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

184

ISPIM 2009 Conference Call for Papers

The 2009 ISPIM Conference - The Future of Innovation - will be held in Vienna, Austria on 21-24 June 2009.
Organised by ISPIM, hosted by The Austrian Federal Economic Chamber, and supported by DANUBE - European
Programmes for Training, Research and Technology and Ratio Strategy & Innovation Consulting, this conference
will bring together about 300 academics, business leaders, consultants and other professionals involved in
innovation management. The conference format will include facilitated themed sessions for academic and
practitioner presentations together with interactive
workshops and discussion panels. Additionally, the conference will provide excellent networking opportunities
together with a taste of local Viennese culture.
The ISPIM 2009 Conference will be held along side The R&D Management Conference 2009 allowing delegates to
move freely between conferences and connecting the ISPIM and R&D Management networks.
Globalisation is one of the major forces that have made innovation imperative for any industry. No organisation,
business nor government, can afford to leave innovation to a few motivated individuals. The future of innovation
revolves around the paradox of managing the unmanageable.
What processes can ensure an uninterrupted flow of new creative ideas?
How can we entice all employees to be part of this effort?
How do we select and develop the most promising ideas?
How can we speed up this process?
How do we balance radical and continuous innovation?
How do we manage the dependence on internal and external knowledge sources?
Finding answers to these questions is crucial for the future success of innovation.
Submissions from academics, consultants and managers on innovation-related topics are strongly encouraged and
should focus on the following:
_ Commercialising and financing innovation
_ Methods and tools for innovation
_ Measuring and managing innovation
_ Organisational creativity & idea generation
_ Networks and clusters of innovation
_ Collaboration for innovation
_ Culture & diversity management in innovation
_ Entrepreneurship & intrapreneurship
_ High growth venturing
_ Innovating business models
_ Innovation training & education
_ Innovation policy and global competitiveness
_ Managing virtual innovation
_ Value creating networks and communities.

Important Submission Deadlines:
_ 31 December 2008: Outlines Only (All Academic, Practitioner and Workshop Submissions)
_ 31 January 2009: Acceptance Notification
_ 30 April 2009: Final Submissions (including papers, slides, profiles & photos) together with registration and payment.

(http://conference.ispim.org/files/ISPIM_2009_Call_for_papers.pdf)

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

185



RESEARCHES CONCERNING APPLICATION
OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
TO PROCESS INDUSTRY PRODUCTS


Irina RDULESCU

1
S.C. ICTCM S.A., Bucharest, ROMANIA, e-mail: irena_sandu@yahoo.com


REZUMAT
Lucrarea prezint conceptul de ciclu de via al unui produs i analize privind Evaluarea
Ciclului de Via. Autorul subliniaz cteva aplicaii privind aplicarea conceptului de
Evaluare a Ciclului de Via la produsele industriale. Piaa actual ndeamn clienii,
factorii de decizie i investitorii s devin din ce n ce mai interesai de protejarea mediului,
de dezvoltarea durabil- s asigure un bun impact al afacerii asupra mediului nconjurtor.

ABSTRACT
The paper presents the concept of lifecycle product and considerations about Life Cycle
Assesment. The author emphasizes some applications of life cycle assessment to process
industry products. Todays market prompts customers, decision makers and investors
to become more and more interested in environment protection, in sustainability - to assure
a good impact of the business on the environment.

KEYWORDS: Product lifecycle, Life Cycle Assessment, Eco-Design process, Business,
Application

CUVINTE CHEIE: Ciclu de Via, Evaluarea Ciclului de Via, Eco - proiectare, Afaceri,
Aplicaie

1. INTRODUCTION

Considering the product notion as departure
for the researches, it must be analysed the concept in
business situation, as an economic good and
accounting good or service, which can be bought and
sold; the manufacturing situation analyses the
products as raw materials and sold as finished goods.
In our days, a modern enterprise must include the
eco - conception in its developing products process;
product design has effects over the environment and over
the costs, during its life cycle, [1], [2].
Producing, distribution, employment and the
end of life cycle of products, which are energy
consumers, have environment impact. It is a fact that
80% of environment impact of a product can be
determined during product design phase.
For an efficient influence in products
improvements it has to consider environment aspects.
The impact over environment must be applied during
all product life cycle, using a better product design.
This is the elementary philosophy of Eco-Design,
from ecological point of view.
A product lifecycle includes the raw materials
acquisition, the components production, the products
assembly, the distribution, the product utilization; also
it may be included the modernization, the reutilization
and the end with all corresponding traffic.
The life cycle concept can be understood as a set of
necessary steps for a product to perform its function,
including the attainment of natural resources and its
final disposal, soon after it has exhausted its function.
Therefore, activities like manufacture, distribution,
usage, and the post-usage recycling of the product are
considered within this spectrum [3].
Figure 1 presents the five stages that generally
constitute the life cycle of any product.










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Figure 1. Stages of the life cycle of products, [3]

The life cycle of a product can be divided into stages:
1. Resource extraction and processing of raw
materials,
2. Product manufacture,
3. Distribution and use of the product,
4. Processing of the disposed product.

Each stage may consist of a number of
processes which each uses one or more inputs from
previous processes and gives outputs to one or more
next processes. Each input can be followed upstream
to its origin and each output downstream to its final
end. The total of connected processes is called the
product system, process tree or life cycle.
Observation: Transport is considered a stage of the
life cycle because it is an activity that can potentially
impact the environment and permeates practically the
entire lifecycle of products [4].
Considering the approach of Life Cycle
Design, new politics of Product Eco-Design give a
direction over strategies, concerning new affairs
opportunities and actions according to legislation and
market demands. It must develop own ideas for Eco-
Design strategies, practical ways of approach to Eco-
Design and new views for own products and
processes [5], [6].
Strategic approach considers all enterprise
levels. There must be consider all potential
environment impacts for a product; engaged actions
are an integrated element in enterprise politics [7].
Considering the eco- conception of the
products it is recommanded to manage the products
technological amelioration, which imply the
integration of environment parameter in products
development process. The objective is to reduce the
product impacts over environment during all its life
cycle. Life Cycle concept implies that all entries
(materials, energy) and all exits (polluting emissions
and wastes) must be identified and considered, in all
process phases, also in distribution, utilization and
elimination phases.
The enterprise management must focus the
objectives for Eco Development, reaching one or
more strategies: resources protection, wastes
prevention, product service working optimization [7].















2. CONSIDERATIONS
ABOUT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a technique to
evaluate the environmental performance of a product
throughout its life cycle. This assessment is conducted
both by identifying all interactions occurring during
the life cycle of product and environment, as well as
by the evaluation of the environmental impacts
potentially associated with these interactions [8].
Figure 2 presents the ISO framework for LCA (ISO
14040 1997) with an important notion of the iterative
character of LCA. All phases may have to be passed
through more than once due to new demands posed by
a later phase. Though decisions and actions may
follow the interpretation phase, these decisions and
action in itself are outside the framework of LCA [9].


Figure 2. The phases of an LCA according to ISO
14040 (1997), [9].
Considering the goal definition, it clarifies the initial
reasons, the intended application and the audience of
the LCA. In cases which require a comparison of
different products that are functionally equivalent, or

TEHNOLOGIA INOVATIV Revista Construcia de maini nr. 3-4 / 2008

187
a comparison of the processes within the life cycle of
one product, it must apply LCA.
The scope definition specifies the object of the LCA
and directs the specific methodology to be followed in
the next phases.
Because a particular product can provide different
services and a given service can be provided by
different products, LCA object of study is a product
service rather than a product itself. The comparison of
products is made on a common basis, using the
methodological choices about boundaries and
procedures for the other phases, which are according
to ISO 14040.
Inventory analysis identifies and quantifies the resource
extractions and consumptions, and the releases to the
environment relating to the processes that make up the
life cycle of the examined products; they are also
referred to environmental interventions, [10].

Figure 3. Life Cycle Assessment, [5]

Life-cycle analysis (LCA) has become one of the
most actively considered techniques for the study and
analysis of strategies to meet environmental
challenges [11]. It has as basic objective the guidance
of decision makers, government policy makers and
also consumers in order to devise and select actions
with minimal environmental impacts, following
technical objectives and including economic,
engineering and social goals.
The main purpose of an LCA is to provide a
quantitative assessment of the environmental impact
of products over their entire life cycle, with a view to
making improvements.
Traditional engineering and process analysis must
interfere with environmental considerations; so the
main concepts diffuse into industrial and technical
decision making and LCA will enable industry and
government to find ways to both increase efficiency
and reduce harm to the environment [11].
The wide spectrum of interests of LCA potential users
give information about product developers,
consumers and policy makers point of view.
Process and product developers view LCA as a way to
incorporate environmental considerations into their
design process, making it possible to anticipate and
avoid potential pitfalls.
Consumers and consumer interest groups see LCA as
a way to better inform the customer of the relative
environmental impact of alternative products;
regulators and policy makers see LCA as a tool to
guide the development of environmental policy and
also provide a mechanism to enforce legislative
objectives [11].
Because environmental objectives have a growing
social importance, it is a must to develop special tools
to collect environment relevant information. It is also
the problem of the complexity of the modern
industrial economy, which makes difficulties to know
how any individual action affects the environment.
So, LCA is being developed to produce a framework
within which this information can be collected,
refined, and acted on [11].
Life-cycle analysis is a three-step process:
inventory analysis, considering the identification
and quantification of energy and resource use and
environmental releases to air, water, and land;
impact analysis, considering the technical
qualitative and quantitative characterization and
assessment of the consequences of resource use
and environmental releases for the environment;
improvement analysis, considering the evaluation
and implementation of opportunities to reduce
environmental burdens.
The three stages of LCA reflect classical technical
decision-making procedures. In each case, a control
volume is identified. Resource flows into the control
volume and waste emissions from the control volume
are then measured. The next step is to determine the
relationship between these resource and waste fluxes
and the underlying scientific and technological
principles. Finally, the problem is solved based on the
insight gained from these principles and the objectives
of the analyst [3].

3. APPLICATION OF LIFE CYCLE
ASSESSMENT TO PROCESS
INDUSTRY PRODUCTS

In our days a successful business is one that has
the ability to change in order to meet market demands
using sustainability as a competitive advantage in
the marketplace.
Todays market prompts customers, decision
makers and investors to become more and more
interested in environment protection, in sustainability
- to assure a good impact of the business on the

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environment. A modern business is adjusted to the
organization profile, adopting new processes and
developing sustainable business practices; so, it will
have an improved efficiency and a good reputation.
This policy is concentrated in Sustainable Businesses
Are Competitive Businesses.
Public conscience acts on different levels:
companies managers are choosing suppliers with
environmental, social and cultural values and practices
that match their own, government is applying
environmental criteria when selecting a supplier,
consumers are selecting more and more ecological
products [12].
By knowledge and experience it can be obtained
effective strategies to choose right technologies and
processes to maximise the efficiency of an enterprise.
To achieve productivity and profitability goals it is
important to have a corporate culture, that is willing
to accept the need for change and adapt new
strategies. Some examples of good practice and
special interest in environmental protection, applying
life cycle assesment, are presented.
Application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to
process industry products and particularly to chemical