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1.4

What you should learn

GOAL 1
GOAL 1

Use angle

postulates.

Classify angles asof 7 1.4 What you should learn GOAL 1 Use angle postulates. acute, right, obtuse, or

acute, right, obtuse, or straight.

Why you should learn it

acute, right, obtuse, or straight. Why you should learn it To solve real-life problems about angles,

To solve real-life problems about angles, such as the field of vision of a horse wearing blinkers in

Example 2.

L L I I L L F F A A E E E E R
L
L
I
I
L
L
F
F
A
A
E
E
E
E
R
R

Angles and Their Measures

GOAL 1
GOAL 1

USING ANGLE POSTULATES

Angles and Their Measures GOAL 1 U SING A NGLE P OSTULATES An have the same

An

have the same initial point. The rays are the

angle
angle

consists of two different rays that

sides vertex
sides
vertex

of the angle. The initial point is the

of the angle.

The angle that has sides AB

by ™BAC, ™CAB, or ™A. The point A is the vertex of the angle.

Æ˘ and AC

Æ˘ is denoted

C vertex sides A B
C
vertex
sides
A
B
EXAMPLE 1
EXAMPLE
1

Naming Angles

is denoted C vertex sides A B EXAMPLE 1 Naming Angles Name the angles in the

Name the angles in the figure.

SOLUTION

There are three different angles.

PQS or ™SQP

SQR or ™RQS

PQR or ™RQP

P q S R
P
q
S
R

You should not name any of these angles as ™Q because all three angles have Q as their vertex. The name ™Q would not distinguish one angle from the others. .

.

.

.

The measure of ™A is denoted by mA. The measure of an angle can be approximated with a protractor, using units called degrees (°). For instance, BAC has a measure of 50°, which can be written as

mBAC = 50°.

150 160 30 20 140 170 40 10 130 081 0 120 60 110 70
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0
081

Angles that have the same measure are called

congruent angles.

For instance, ™BAC and ™DEF

each have a measure of 50°, so they are congruent.

MEASURES ARE EQUAL.

mBAC = mDEF

ANGLES ARE CONGRUENT.

BAC £ ™DEF

BAC = m ™ DEF ANGLES ARE CONGRUENT. ™ BAC £ ™ DEF “is equal to”

“is equal to”

“is congruent to”

D 50 E F
D
50
E F

26 Chapter 1 Basics of Geometry

Logical
Logical

Reasoning

130 120 50 60 140 40 110 70 150 30 100 80 POSTULATE 160 POSTULATE
130
120
50
60
140
40
110
70
150
30
100
80
POSTULATE
160
POSTULATE 3
Protractor Postulate
20
Consider a point
A on one side of
OB
¯˘ . The rays of the form OA
Æ˘ can
90
be matched one to one with the
real numbers from 0 to 180.
A
170
The
measure
of
™AOB is equal
10
to the absolute value
of the
difference between the real
123456
Æ˘
Æ˘ .
O
B
numbers for OA
and
OB
80
100
A point is in the
of an angle if it is
exterior
081
between points that lie on each side of the angle.
0
D E
A
point is in the
exterior
of an angle if
interior
A
it
is not on the angle or in its interior.
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POSTULATE POSTULATE 4 Angle Addition Postulate måRST R If P is in the interior of
POSTULATE
POSTULATE 4
Angle
Addition Postulate
måRST
R
If P is in the interior of ™RST, then
S måRSP
P
m™RSP +
m™PST = m™
RST.
måPST
T
POSTULATE
EXAMPLE
2
Calculating Angle Measures
STUDENT HELP Study Tip As shown in Example 2, it is sometimes easier to label
STUDENT HELP
Study Tip
As shown in Example 2,
it is sometimes easier
to label angles with
numbers instead of
letters.
I I F F L L E E L L A A E E R
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1 23 region seen by both eyes
1
23
region seen
by both eyes

VISION Each eye of a horse wearing blinkers has an angle of vision that measures 100°. The angle of vision that is seen by both eyes measures 60°.

Find the angle of vision seen by the left eye alone.

SOLUTION

You can use the Angle Addition Postulate.

m2 + m3 = 100°

m™3 = 100° º m™2

m™3 = 100° º 60°

m™3 = 40°

Total vision for left eye is 100°.

Subtract m2 from each side.

Substitute 60° for m2.

Subtract.

So, the vision for the left eye alone measures 40°.

STUDENT HELP Study Tip The mark used to indicate a right angle resembles the corner
STUDENT HELP
Study Tip
The mark used to
indicate a right angle
resembles the corner of
a square, which has four
right angles.
GOAL 2
GOAL
2

CLASSIFYING ANGLES

which has four right angles. GOAL 2 C LASSIFYING A NGLES Angles are classified as measures.

Angles are classified as

measures. Angles have measures greater than 0° and less than or equal to 180°.

acute, right, obtuse,
acute,
right,
obtuse,

and

straight,
straight,

according to their

acute, right, obtuse, and straight, according to their A A A A Acute angle 0° <

A

acute, right, obtuse, and straight, according to their A A A A Acute angle 0° <

A

acute, right, obtuse, and straight, according to their A A A A Acute angle 0° <

A

right, obtuse, and straight, according to their A A A A Acute angle 0° < m™A

A

Acute angle 0° < m™A < 90° EXAMPLE 3
Acute angle
0° < m™A < 90°
EXAMPLE
3

Right angle mA = 90°

Obtuse angle 90° < mA < 180°

Straight angle mA = 180°

Classifying Angles in a Coordinate Plane

m ™ A = 180 ° Classifying Angles in a Coordinate Plane Plot the points L

Plot the points L(º4, 2), M(º1, º1), N(2, 2), Q(4, º1), and P(2, º4). Then measure and classify the following angles as acute, right, obtuse, or straight.

a. LMN

b. LMP

c. NMQ

d. LMQ

SOLUTION

Begin by plotting the points. Then use a protractor to measure each angle.

 

MEASURE

CLASSIFICATION

 

a. mLMN = 90°

right angle

b. mLMP = 180°

straight angle

c. mNMQ = 45°

acute angle

.

d. mLMQ = 135° .

.

.

.

.

.

obtuse angle

y L ( 4, 2) N (2, 2) x M( 1, 1) œ (4, 1)
y
L ( 4, 2)
N
(2, 2)
x
M( 1, 1)
œ (4, 1)
P
(2, 4)

Two angles are

have no common interior points.

adjacent angles

if they share a common vertex and side, but

EXAMPLE 4
EXAMPLE
4

Drawing Adjacent Angles

Use a protractor to draw two adjacent acute angles ™RSP and ™PST so that RST is (a) acute and (b) obtuse.

T STUDENT HELP E N HOMEWORK HELP Visit our Web site www.mcdougallittell.com for extra examples.
T
STUDENT HELP
E
N
HOMEWORK HELP
Visit our Web site
www.mcdougallittell.com
for extra examples.
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170 160 150 081 140 130 120 110 100 SOLUTION a. 90 35 T P
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SOLUTION
a.
90
35
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80
25
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28 Chapter 1 Basics of Geometry

170 081 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 b. 65 90 65 P T
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b.
65
90
65
P
T
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0

GUIDED PRACTICE

G UIDED P RACTICE
G UIDED P RACTICE

Vocabulary Check

Concept Check

Skill Check

Match the angle with its classification.

A. acute

B. obtuse

C. right

1. 2. with its classification. A. acute B. obtuse C. right B C 3. A B C D.

B

C

3. its classification. A. acute B. obtuse C. right 1. 2. B C A B C D.

A

B
B

C

D. straight

4.

B

C A
C
A

Use the diagram at the right to answer the questions. Explain your answers.

5. Is ™DEF £ ™FEG?

6. Is ™DEG £ ™HEG?

7. Are ™DEF and ™FEH adjacent?

8. Are ™GED and ™DEF adjacent?

G F 45 45 D E H
G
F
45
45
D
E
H

Name the vertex and sides of the angle. Then estimate its measure.

9.

D
D

F

10.

L
L

11.

E

M

N

H 12. J K
H 12.
J
K
R S T
R
S
T

Classify the angle as acute, obtuse, right, or straight.

13.

mA = 180°

14. mB = 90°

15.

mC = 100°

16. mD = 45°

PRACTICE AND APPLICATIONS

100° 16. m ™ D = 45° P RACTICE AND A PPLICATIONS STUDENT HELP Extra Practice
STUDENT HELP Extra Practice to help you master skills is on pp. 803 and 804.
STUDENT HELP
Extra Practice
to help you master
skills is on pp. 803
and 804.

NAMING PARTS Name the vertex and sides of the angle.

17.

F X T
F
X
T

18.

K N E
K
N
E

19.

S R q
S
R
q
STUDENT HELP HOMEWORK HELP Example 1: Exs. 17–22 Example 2: Exs. 23–34 Example 3: Exs.
STUDENT HELP
HOMEWORK HELP
Example 1: Exs. 17–22
Example 2: Exs. 23–34
Example 3: Exs. 35–43
Example 4: Exs. 38, 39

NAMING ANGLES Write two names for the angle.

20.

A 21. E U
A 21.
E
U
B C D
B
C
D

22.

P S T
P
S
T
N AMING A NGLES Write two names for the angle. 20. A 21. E U B
FOCUS ON CAREERS
FOCUS ON
CAREERS
Page 5 of 7 FOCUS ON CAREERS L L L L I I F F A
L L L L I I F F A A E E E E R
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SURVEYOR

Surveyors use a tool called a theodolite, which can measure angles to the nearest 1/3600 of a degree.

N E R T E T N I
N
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I

CAREER LINK

www.mcdougallittell.com

MEASURING ANGLES Copy the angle, extend its sides, and use a protractor to measure it to the nearest degree.

23.

A B C
A
B C
24. Y 25. F X Z D E
24.
Y
25.
F
X
Z
D
E

ANGLE ADDITION Use the Angle Addition Postulate to find the measure of the unknown angle.

26.

m™ABC = ? A D 45 60 C B
m™ABC =
?
A
D
45
60
C
B
27. m™DEF = ? 60 120 D E F
27. m™DEF =
?
60
120
D
E
F

?

28. mPQR =

q P S 20 160 R
q
P
S
20
160
R
60 120 D E F ? 28. m ™ PQR = q P S 20 160

LOGICAL REASONING Draw a sketch that uses all of the following information.

D is in the interior of ™BAE.

mBAC = 130°

E is in the interior of ™DAF.

mEAC = 100°

F is in the interior of ™EAC.

mBAD = mEAF = mFAC

29.

Find mFAC.

30. Find mBAD.

31. Find mFAB.

32.

Find mDAE.

33. Find mFAD.

34. Find mBAE.

CLASSIFYING ANGLES State whether the angle appears to be acute, right, obtuse, or straight. Then estimate its measure.

35.

E

F, obtuse , or straight . Then estimate its measure. 35. E 36. H 37. K

36.

H 37. K G
H 37.
K
G
N M L
N
M
L

LOGICAL R EASONING Draw five points, A , B , C , D , and OGICAL REASONING Draw five points, A, B, C, D, and E so that all three statements are true.

38. DBE is a straight angle. DBA is a right angle. ABC is a straight angle.

39. C is in the interior of ™ADE. mADC + mCDE = 120°. ™CDB is a straight angle.

x y x y
x y
x y

USING ALGEBRA In a coordinate plane, plot the points and sketch

ABC. Classify the angle. Write the coordinates of a point that lies in the interior of the angle and the coordinates of a point that lies in the exterior of the angle.

40.

A(3, º2)

41. A(5, º1)

42. A(5, º1)

43. A(º3, 1)

B(5, º1)

B(3, º2)

B(3, º2)

B(º2, 2)

C(4, º4)

C(4, º4)

C(0, º1)

C(º1, 4)

30 Chapter 1 Basics of Geometry

GEOGRAPHY For each city on the polar map, estimate the measure of ™ BOA , EOGRAPHY For each city on the polar map, estimate the measure of BOA, where B is on the Prime Meridian (0° longitude), O is the North Pole, and A is the city.

44. Clyde River, Canada 45. Fairbanks, Alaska 46. Angmagssalik, Greenland 47. Old Crow, Canada 48.
44.
Clyde River, Canada
45. Fairbanks, Alaska
46. Angmagssalik, Greenland
47.
Old Crow, Canada
48. Reykjavik, Iceland
49. Tuktoyaktuk, Canada
180
North Pole
O
0
B
Reykjavik,
Iceland
150
30
Fairbanks,
Alaska
Angmagssalik,
Greenland
Old Crow,
120
60
Yukon Territory
Clyde River,
Tuktoyaktuk,
90
NWT
NWT

PLAYING D ARTS In Exercises 50–53, use the following information to find the score for LAYING DARTS In Exercises 50–53, use the following information to find the score for the indicated dart toss landing at point A.

A dartboard is 18 inches across. It is divided

4 13 18 6 1 into twenty wedges of equal size. The score 99 81
4
13
18
6
1
into twenty wedges of equal size. The score
99
81
117
63
of
a toss is indicated by numbers around
20
the board. The score is doubled if a dart
135
45
lands in the double ring and tripled if
A
153
27
it
lands in the triple ring. Only the
top half of the dart board is shown.
171
9
50. m™BOA = 160°; AO = 3 in.
B
O
1
1
9
3
2
51. m™BOA = 35°; AO = 4 in.
8
8
2 8 3
no
triple
5
3
3
score
ring
8
8
8
52. m™BOA = 60°; AO = 5 in.
double
5
12
9
14
1
8 52. m™BOA = 60°; AO = 5 in. double 5 12 9 14 1 Test

Test

Preparation

ring

53. mBOA = 90°; AO = 6.5 in.

54. MULTI-STEP PROBLEM Use a piece of paper folded in half three times and labeled as shown.

of paper folded in half three times and labeled as shown. A H B G O
of paper folded in half three times and labeled as shown. A H B G O
A H B G O C F E D
A
H
B
G
O C
F
E
D

a. Name eight congruent acute angles.

b. Name eight right angles.

c. Name eight congruent obtuse angles.

d. Name two adjacent angles that combine to form a straight angle.

★★ Challenge STUDENT HELP HOMEWORK HELP
★★ Challenge
STUDENT HELP
HOMEWORK HELP

Bearings are measured around a circle, so they can have values larger than 180°. You can think of bearings between 180° and 360° as angles that are “bigger” than a straight angle.

EXTRA CHALLENGE www.mcdougallittell.com
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AIRPORT R UNWAYS In Exercises 55–60, use the diagram of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport IRPORT RUNWAYS In Exercises 55–60, use the diagram of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and the information about runway numbering on page 1.

An airport runway is named by dividing its bearing (the angle measured clockwise from due north) by 10. Because a full circle contains 360°, runway numbers range from 1 to 36.

55. Find the measure of ™1.

56. Find the measure of ™2.

57. Find the measure of ™3.

58. Find the measure of ™4.

59. What is the number of the unlabeled runway in the diagram?

60. Writing Explain why the difference between the numbers at the opposite ends of a runway is always 18.

N W E 15 18 S 1 ? 4 3 2 33 3 36
N
W
E
15
18
S
1
?
4
3
2 33
3
36

MIXED REVIEW

N W E 15 18 S 1 ? 4 3 2 33 3 36 M IXED
STUDENT HELP Skills Review For help solving equations, see p.790.
STUDENT HELP
Skills Review
For help solving
equations, see p.790.

USING A LGEBRA Solve for x. SING ALGEBRA Solve for x.

(Skills Review, p. 790, for 1.5)

61.

64.

67.

x

+ 3

= 3

2

º8

= 12

2

+ x

x

+

2 (º1) = 7

5 + x

62.

= 5

2

x + 7

65. = º10

2

8 + x

68. = º1

2

x + 4

63.

= º4

2

º9 + x

66. = º7

2

x + 2 (º3) = º4

69.

EVALUATING STATEMENTS Decide whether the statement is true or false.

(Review 1.2)

70. U, S, and Q are collinear.

71. T, Q, S, and P are coplanar.

U P R S T q
U
P
R S
T
q

72. UQ ¯˘ and PT intersect.

¯˘

73.

Æ˘ and TS

SR

Æ˘ are opposite rays.

¯˘ 73. Æ ˘ and TS SR Æ ˘ are opposite rays. D ISTANCE F ORMULA

DISTANCE FORMULA Find the distance between the two points.

(Review 1.3 for 1.5)

74.

A(3, 10), B(º2, º2)

75. C(0, 8), D(º8, 3)

76.

E(º3, 11), F(4, 4)

77. G(10, º2), H(0, 9)

78.

J(5, 7), K(7, 5)

79. L(0, º3), M(º3, 0)

32 Chapter 1 Basics of Geometry