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ESSENCE OF KURMA PURANA

Compiled, Composed and Inerpreted by V.D.N.Rao, Former General Manager, India Trade Promotion Organisation, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, Union Ministry of Commerce, Govt. of India

ESSENCE OF KURMA PURANA

Contents

Page

Vishnu’s Avatara as Kurma, Lakshmi as Maya and revelation of Tatwa Gyaan (Sage Indradyumna’s prayer to Vishnu included)

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Evolution of Brahmanda (the Golden Egg) and Features of Supreme Architect

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Brahmana Dharmas, Ashrama Vidhana and ‘Abhinnata’ (Indivisibility) of Trimurtis

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Brahma Srishti

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Devi Mahatmya: Sati and Parvati Rupas and Himavaan’s Stuti to Parvati (Devi Sahasra naamaa Stotra included)

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Varaha Deva’s Avatara and his rescue of Bhu Devi from Rasaatala

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Narasimha’s incarnation, Prahlada Bhakti and Andhakasura’s remorse & ‘Ganatwa’

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Vamana Deva’s incarnation and King Bali’s extreme sacrifice

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Shri Rama’s incarnation, execution of Ravana and installation of Rameshwara Linga

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King Jayadhwaja’s Vishnu Bhakti and Sapta Rishis assertion for ‘Nishkama Bhakti’

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‘Krishnaavataara’, his worship to Shiva, Vishnu-Shiva Identity & Shiva Linga Mahima (Krishna’s warning not to ignore Shiva Puja and Vyasa’s Stuti to Shiva included)

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Varanasi Mahima: Krittivasa, Kaparda, Omkaresha, Madhyasta & Vishwesha Lingas

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Triveni Sangama (Prayaga) Mahatmya

 

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Delineation of Atma Swarupa (Guhya Jnaana)

 

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Shiva Bhakti, Shiva Shakti, Shiva Tatwa and Shiva Tandava

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Unfolding of Ishwara ‘Vibhutis’ (faculties) and Concepts of Pashu-Paasha-Pashupati

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Rudiments of Yoga Practice and Yoga Mahima (One-ness of Shiva-Narayana re-emphasised)

 

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Shraaddha Prakarana: Profile, Significance, Procedure & Do’s and Don’ts

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Tirtha Mahima: Gaya, Pushkara, Saarasvata, Kaalanjara and many other Tirthas

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Shiva Linga ‘ Patana’ at Deva Daaru Vana, Brahma’s reproof and Munis’ remorse (Brahma extols Shiva Mahima, Stuti by Munis and discourse on Karma Jnaana Yoga)

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Kurma Purana Phala Shruti and Kurma Deva Stuti by Maharshis

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ESSENCE OF KURMA PURANA

Namaskrutwa Jagad Yonim Kurma rupadharinim Harim,

Vakshye Pouraanikeem Divyam Kathaam Paapa Pranaashanim/

Yaam shrutwaa Paapakarmaapi Gaccheta Paramaam gatim,

Na naastikey Kathaam Puraamaamaamimaam bruyaat kadachana /

Shraddhaanaaya Shaantaaya Dhaarmikaaya Dwijaataye,

Imaam Kathaanubruyaat Sakshaannaaraayaneritaam/

(My greetings to Bhagavan Narayana Vishnu who is the root cause of the totality of the Universe assuming the Form of Kurma; the unique Kurma Purana which destroys all the Great Sins of life is a definite means of Mukti. But this Sacred Kurma Purana is certainly not meant for Nastikas or Atheists but is for Believers of Almighty, Dharma and Values of Life, fortitude and devotion).

Vishnu’s Avatara as Kurma, Lakshmi as Maya and Revelation of Tatwa Gyaan (Sage Indradyumna’s prayer to Vishnu included)

DwipayanaVeda Vyasa Maharshi also called Romaharshana (or he whose body-hairs are imbued with happiness) was inspired by Suta Maha Muni to narrate the happenings of ‘Kurma Avatara’ of Vishnu to the Sages at Nimisha Forest. As Deva Danavas decided to initiate the act of the Ksheera Samudra Mathana or churning of the Ocean of Milk - on which Narayana was lying normally in yogic slumber- by erecting the Mandara Mountain, Bhagavan Narayana had already assumed the Kurma Rupa or the Form of a gigantic Tortoise. Even by then, Devi Lakshmi the Goddess of Wealth was in position along with Kurma Deva. As Devas and Maharsis like Narada asked Devi Lakshmi to be identified, Narayana replied that she was of his own ‘Amsha’or Swarupa:

Iyamsa Pramashaktirmayi Brahma Rupiney,

Maya mama Priyaanantaa yahedam mohitam Jagat/

Anayaiva Jagat Sarvam Sadevaasura Maanusham,

Mohayaami Dwija Sreshtaa grasaami visrujaami cha/

Utpattim Pralayam chaiva Bhutaanaamagatim gatim,

Vijnaayaanveekshya chaatmaanam taranti vipulaalimaam/

Asyaastwamshaanadhishtaaya Shaktimanto bhavan Dwijaah,

Brahmoshaanadayo Devaah Sarva Shaktiriyam mama/

Saishaa Sarva jagatstutih Prakrithistrigunaatmikaa,

Praageva Mattaha Sanjaataa Shrikalpey Padma vaasini/

Chaturbhujah shankha chakra padma hastaa shubhaanvitaa,

Koti Surya Pratikaashaa Mohini Sarva dehinaam/

Naalam Devaa Pitaro Maanavaa Vasuvopicha

Mayaametaam Samutturtam ye chaanye Bhuvi dehinah/

(This Devi Lakshmi is of Vishnu’s Swarupa and Parama Shakti Maha Maya who allures the Universe in totality; Her charms are endless and is spread all over with her attractions conjuring one and all and with her assistance what Vishnu creates, destroys and recreates again. Thus Vishnu confirmed that this Maha Shakti was the prime source of energy based on which, Brahma, Shiva and all the Devas which were the ramifications of Maha Maya came to be created by the mix of Three Gunas or features of Satwa-Rajas and Tamas. She thus got originated with four hands possessing Shankha-Chakra- Kamal and Abhaya or Raksha to assure protection to one and all of the Beings in Creation and indeed there was none including Devas, Pitaras, Manavas etc. who could conquer her except by extreme dedication and deep devotion.)

Devi Lakshmi was briefed by Brahma as follows:

Devidamakhilam Vishwam Sadevasura -maanusham,

Mohayitwaamamaadeshaat samsaarey vinipataya/

Jnaanayoga rataan Daantaan Brahmishthaan Brahma vaadinah,

Akrodhanaan Satyaparaan dooratah parivarjaya/

Dhyaayino nirmamaan Shaantaan dharmikaan vedapaaragaan,

Jaapinastaapasaan Vipraan dooratah parivarjaya/

Sartyaparaan dooratah parivarjaya/

Vedavedaanta vijnaana sancchinnaasesha samshayaan,

Mahaayajna paraan Vipraan dooratah parivarjaya/

Ye Jayanti japairhomair Deva Devam Maheswaram,

Swaadhyaayanejjayaa dooraat taan prayatnena varjaya/

Bhakti yoga Samaayuktaaneeswaraarpita maanasaan,

Paanaayaamaadishu rataan dooraat pariharaamalaam/

Pranavaasaktamanaso Rudra japya paraayanaan,

Atharva shirasaso- dhyetrun Dharmajnaana parivarjaya/

(Brahma advised Lakshmi Devi to certainly spread the net of Maya on Devas, Asuras, Manuhsyas and indeed the entire world, but not on those who were always engaged in Jnaana Yoga, Jitendriyata or control of Jnaana-Karmendriyas, Brahma Nishtha or Absorption in Brahmatwa, Brahmavaaditwa or seeking to prove Brahma’s existence , krodha shunyata or resistance of anger and Satya paraayanata or Constant pursuit of Truth. Those who are Dhyaanis or Meditators, devoid of desires, ever Peaceful, Dharmik or the Virtuous , Veda Jnaanis, Japa-paraayanaas, and Tapasvis should also be exempt from the Maya. Veda Vedaanta Jnaanis, Yajna paraayanaas or practitioners, Japa- homa- Yajna and Swaadhyaaya Murtis too never be exposed to the Lakshmi Maya. Again, those persons who dedicate themselves to Bhagavan and were deeply attached to Praanaayaama viz.Dharana- Dhyaana and Samaadhi , ‘Pranavopaasana’, Rudra Mantra Japa and Athrava sirasaadhyeya and Nitya Ishwaraadhayena are too exempt from the playful exposure of Maya).

Having heard about the influence of Devi Lakshmi’s Maya, Devas and Munis enquired of Vishnu whether there was any body who might have escaped the impact of Maya in the past, Hrishikesha cited one example of a well-read and illustrious Brahmana called Indradyumna who in his previous birth was a reputed King also named Indradyumna and claimed invincibility over Devas. But meanwhile Vishnu assumed Kurma Avatara and since the Shaktis of Tri Murtis and of Devas got merged into the Avatara, the King sought refuge into the Avatara; then Kurma Deva blessed the King to take to the next birth as a Brahmana and in his current life practised Vratas, Upavaasaas, Homas and worshipped Vishnu. That was the background of Indradyumna as the King and later as Brahmana. Devi Lakshmi encountered the Brahmana and was overcome by his sincerity and dedication and on revealing her identity as Lakshmi touched the Brahmana with affection and assured that one day Bhagavan Vishnu himself would provide Jnaana to him and disappeared. Brahmana Indradyumna meditated toVishnu for very many years and decades and finally Bhagavan obliged him with his darshan as the latter fell down on his knees and prayed to him.

Indradyumna’s Prayer to BhagavanVishnu:

Yajneshaachyuta Govinda Madhavaananta Keshava,

Krishna Vishno Hrishikesha tubhyam Vishwatmaney Namah/

Namostutey Puraanaaya Haraye Vishwa Murtaye,

Sarga Sthiti Vinaashaanaam Hetaveynanta Shaktaye/

Nirgunaaya Namastubhyam Nishkalaaya amalaatmaney,

Purushaaya Namastubhyam Vishwarupaayatey namah/

Namastey Vaasudevaaya Vishnavey Vishwayonaye,

Adi Madhyanta Heenaaya Jnaanagamyaaya tey namah/

Namastey Nirvikaaraaya Nishprapanchaaya tey namah,

Bhedaabheda Viheenaaya Namostwaananda Rupiney/

Namastaaraaya Shaantaaya Namo Apratihataatmaney,

Ananta Murtaye tubhyam amurtaayam Namo namah/

Namastey Paramaarthaaya Maayaatitaaya tey namah,

Namastey Parameshaaya Brahmaney Paramatmaney/

Namostu tey Susukshmaaya Maha Devayatey namah,

Namah Shivaaya Shuddhaaya Namastey Parameshthiney/

Twayaiva Srushthimakhilam twameva Paramaagatih,

Twam Pitaa Sarva Bhutaanaam twam Maataa Purushottama/

Twamaksharam Paramdhaama Chinmaatram Vyoma Nishkalam,

Sarvasyaadhaara –mavyaktamanantam Tamasah Param/

Prapashyanti Paramaatmaanam Jnaana deepena kevalam,

Prapadye Bhavato Rupam tad Vishnoh Paramam Padam/

Evam stuvantam Bhagavan Bhutaatmaa Bhutabhaavanah,

Upaabhyaamatha hastaabhyaam paspasrsha prahasanniva/

(My salutations to you Yagna Swami, Achyuta, Govinda, Maadhava, Ananta, Keshava, Krishna, Vishnu, Hrishikesha, Vishwaatma, Puraana Purusha, Vishwa Murti, Hari! You are the cause of Creation, Continuation and Conclusion of the Universe; You possess Unending Energy, You are the Nirguna Swarupa, Nishkala, Vimalatma or of the Pure Soul; Vishwa Rupa Purusha, Vishwa Yoni, vaasudeva, Vishnu; You have neither Beginning-nor the Inter Stage-nor even the Termination; You are realisable only by Jnaana or Paramount Knowledge; You are Nitrvikara or Devoid of Features; Prapancha or Pancha Bhutas; You possess neither dissimilarities nor constancies; but are the Embodiment of Ananda or Bliss! You are the only Power that could save us from the Deep Oceans of Samsara or the Miseries of Life; You are always Peaceful, Tranquil, Wholesome, Ever-Clean and Eternal; You are beyond Illusions, Paramartha Swarupa or the Supreme Goal; Paramatma or the Ultimate Soul; The Everlasting; The Minutest; Maha Deva-Parameshti and Parabrahma! You are the Highest Scripter of Srishti; the Final Destiny; the Purushottama; the Father and Mother of Bhuta- Praanis in Totality; the Avinaashi /Indestructible; Parama dhama or the Last Refuge Point; the Chikitsa Rupa or the Best Physician; Vyoma or the Akaasha; Nishkala or the Transparent; The Adhara or the Fulcrum; Avyakta or the Unknown; Ananta or The Endless; Nitya Prakasha or the Ever-Resplendent; and Realisable by Yogis only by the Light of Jnaana or the Awareness of Infinity! As Indradyumna extolled Bhagavan Vishnu, the latter was pleased, smiled and touched the Muni and passed on Tatwa Jnaana.) As Indradyuma was in a trance and in a state of bliss, Bhagavan passed on the Fundamentals and Nuances of Tatwa Gyaana.

Highlights of Tatwa Gyan: Bhagawan unfolded the Basic Principles of Tatwa Gyaana with an Intro of Ashrama Dharma, Bhakti Saadhana, Saguna Swarupa Bhavana gradually leading to Nirgunatwa, Virat Swarupa, and Brahma Gyaana. He stated:

Varnaashramaachaaravataam Pumsaam Devo Maheshwarah,

Jnaanena Bhaktiyogena Pujaniyo na chaanyathaa/

Vigjnaaya tatparam Tatwam Vibhutim Karyakaaranam,

Pravruttim chaapimey Jnaatwaa Mokshaartheeshwaramarchayet/

Sarva Sangaan parityajya Jnaatwaa Maayaamayam Jajat,

Adwaitam bhavayaatmaanam drushyasey Parameshwaram/

Trividhaa Bhaavana Brahmanm prochyamaanaa nibodha mey,

Ekaa madvishayaa tatra dwitiyaa Vkyata samshrayaa,

Anyaacha Bhaavanaa Braahmi Vigjneyaa saa gunaatigaa/

Aasaamanyaamchaatha Bhavanaam Bhavayed Budhah,

Asaktah Samshrayedaadyaamityesha Vaidiki Shrutih/

Tasmaat Sarva prayatnena tannisthastatparaayanah,

Samaaraadhya Vishwesham tato Mokshamavaapyasi/

(Persons engaged in the Varnaashrama and Ashrama Dharmas should follow the Principles of Bhakti and Jnaana and worship Bhagavan and there would indeed be no other means of Sadhana. Those desirous of accomplishing Moksha must perform ‘Upasana’ by appropriately assessing the intricacies of Parama Tatwa, Vibhutis or Alternate Counter-Part Shaktis, Karya-Kaarana or Cause-Causation Forms and then worship the Supreme Ishwara. There are three kinds of Bhavanas or feelings about Paramatma viz. Saguna Swarupa or in full physical Form; the second feeling relates to a Virat Swarupa or of a Giant Form; the Third relates to Brahma Jnaana Vishaya Bhavana or of the Complex and Unidentifiable Type beyond one’s comprehension. A devotee might follow any of the above Bhavanas to perform ‘Upasana’; a none too capable person who could imagine Bhagavan in a Complex Swarupa might as well worship Him in the Primary Form of Bhagavan and indeed that type of worship was authorised by Vedas. In any case, Indradyumna was advised by Bhagavan that in any of the Forms of Saguna, Nirguna or Paraaguna, one must perform worship with Nishtha or Dedication to accomplish Moksha). Then Bhagavan explained to the Sage that Paratpara Tatwa was an endless personification of Para Brahma:

Paratparam Tatwam Param Brahmaikamavyayam,

Nityaanandam Swayam Jyotiraksharam Tamasah Param/

Ishwaryam tasya yannityam Vibhutiriti geeyatey,

Kaaryam Jagadathaavyaktam Kaaranam Shuddamaksharam/

Aham hi Sarvabhutaanaam- antaryaameeshwarah Parah,

Sargasthityanta kartutwam Pravurtirmama geeyatey/

Etad Vigjnaaya Bhaavena Yathaavadakhilam Dwija,

Tatastwam Karmayogena Shaaswatam Samyagarchaya/

(The Para Tatwa beyond one’s Imagination is Para Brahma the Ananda Swarupa or the Embodiment of Bliss; Swaprakasha or the Auto-Illuminated; Avinaashi or Indestructible; Ever Prosperous; Ever Lasting; Karyakaarana Swarupa; Srishthisthitisamhaara Karana; and the Maha Tawta and Vibhuti Swarupa. I am the Antaryami Ishwara. Brahmana! Do therefore seek to visualize me and worship me through Karma Yoga, advised Bhagavan).

That was how, the Sage Indradyumna proceeded to worship the Mata Tatwa and attained Moksha.

Tasmaad Sarva prayatnena Varnaashrama vidhou sthitah,

Samaashriyat yaantimam Bhavam Maayaam Lakshmim Tred budhah/

( This would be the path of observing Varnaashrama Niyamaas as Brahmana Indradyumna did by sincerely dedicating the self to Paramatma that one ought to follow to overcome the Lakshmi Maya!)

Indeed that was the backdrop of Kurma Purana by hearing, reciting and analysing which would bestow long life, fulfillment, ‘paapa vimochana’ and Mukti:

Dhanyam Yashasyamaanushyam Punyam Mokshapradam Nrunaam,

Puraana shravana Vipraah kathanam cha viseshatah/

Shrutwaa chaadhyaayameyvaikam Sarvapaapaaih pramuchyatey,

Upaakhaanamathaikam vaa Brahmalokey Mahiyatey/

Evolution of Brahmanda (the Golden Egg) and popular features of the Supreme Architect

Prakrtutim Purusham chaiva Pravishyashu Maheshwarah,

Khshobhayaamaasa yogena Parena Parameshwarah/

Pradhaanaat kshobhamaanaaccha tathaa Pumsah Puraatanaat,

Praaduraaseen -mahad beejam Pradhaana Purushatmakam/

Mahatmaanaa Mati Brahma Prabuddhih Khyaatireeshwarah,

Prajnaa Dhrutih Smritih Samvidetasmaaditi tat smrutam/

Vaikaarikasthaijamascha Bhuta -adish chaiva Taamasah,

Trividhoyamahankaaro Mahatah Sambubhuva ha/

Ahamkaarobhimaanascha kartaa Mantaacha sa smrtutah,

Atmaacha Pudgalo jeevo yatah Sarvaah pravruttayah/

Pancha Bhutaanyahamkaaraat tanmaatraani cha janjirey,

Indriyaani tathaa Devaah Sarvam tasyataatmajam Jagat/

(Parameshwara assumed the dual Forms of Purusha and Prakriti and following their interaction appeared a Maha Beeja called Mahatma, Mati, Prabuddha, Khyati, Pragjna, Dhruti, Smruti and Samvit. This Maha Tatwa was the ‘Adi Karana’or the Prime Cause of Creation or Three Kinds of Ahamkara (Ego or Self Awareness) viz. Vaikarika, Taijasa, and Taamasa. This Ahamkara took to six kinds of Pravrittis or manifestations viz. Abhimaan, Karta, Manta, Atma, Pudgal and Jeeva. The Ahamkara created Pancha Bhutas of Prithvi-Jala-Teja-Vaayu and Akasha or Earth-Water-Radiance- Air and Sky; the Ahamkara also created Five ‘Tanmatras’ (Subtle Forms of Matter) of Shabda- Sparsha-Rupa-Rasa-Gandha or Sound-Touch-Vision-Taste and Smell; the corresponding Indriyas or Physical Parts of Ears-Skin-Eyes-Tongue and Nose). The undefinable ‘Manas’ or Mind is stated to be

the first Vikara (Change or Transformation) and therefore Vaikarika Srishti got intiated by Vaikarika Ahamkaara. This Srishti comprised five Karmendriyas of hands, legs, mouth and organs of generation and excretion besides Jnanendriyas of Ears, Nose, Eyes, Tongue and Skin and the Eleventh Indriya is of the Manas or Mind which is ‘Ubhayaatmaka’or a common feature.This is the Creation of Bhuta - tanmatraas and Bhutaatma Praja Srishti. Vikara prapta Bhutas produced Shabda Tanmatra which further produced Akasha ; the Vaikarika Akasha created Sparsha Tanmatra and created Vaayu; Vaikara prapta Vaayu produced Rupa tanmatra ; (from Vayu Teja got created and further to Rupa); after interaction Teja created Rasa tanmatra which in turn produced Jala and its resultant product of rasa; Jala and Gandha led to Sanghaat or Prithvi Tatwa and so on.

The seven ‘Mahaatmas’ (Top Significances) viz. the Mahat, Ahamkaara and the Pancha Tatwas are inter-dependent and their combination only could take up Srishti.

Purushaadhishti Tatvaaccha Avykataanugrahenacha,

Mahadaaayo viseshaantaa hyanda mutpaadayantidey/

(There was a common role of Purusha, Maha Tatwa, Pancha Bhutas and others in floating the Brahmanada). The Brahmanda was floating on a huge mass of water and inside the Brahmanda was Kshetrajna Purusha also called Hamsa, Hiranya -garbha, Kapila, Chaandomurti and Sanatana. Within the Brahmanda were Meru, Mountains and Samudras. Also present were Devatas, Asuras, Maanavas, Nakshatras, Vayu, Surya and Chandra. Outside the Brahmanda, there was a wide spread of water ten times larger than the size of the Golden Egg. There also was illumination of ten times more of the water and ten times further was the volume of Vayu. Far more voluminous than the size of the Vayu was that of Aakasha and far beyond was the Akakasha was thick layer of Ahankara; spread all over Ahamkara was that of Maha Tatwa; indeed the Maha Tatwa was stated to be of the Great Unknown!

Bhagavan Kurma Deva thus explained to Rishis about the genesis of Brahmanada and confirmed that the Maya surrounded the seven layers of Jala, Tejas, Vayu, Aakaasha, Ahamkara, Maha Tatwa and Paramatma. He also described with conviction to the Rishis the meaning of some of the Names that He assumed in different contexts:

Ekopi Sanmahadevastridhaasou samavasthitah,

Sargarakshaa layagunairnirgunopi Niranjanah,

Ekadhaa sa dwidhaachaiva Tridhaacha Bahudaa punah/

Yogeshwarah Shariraani karoti vikaroticha,

Naanaa kruti kriyaa rupa naamavanti Swaleelayaa/

Hitaayachaiva Bhaktaanaam sa eva grasatey punah,

Tridhaa vibhajya chaatmaanam Trikaalye sampravartatey,

Srujatey Grasatey chaiva veekshatey cha viseshatah/

Yasmaat srushtaanugruhnaati grasateycha punah prajaah,

Gunaatmakatwaat Trailokye tasmaadekah sa ucchyatey/

Agrey Hiranya garbhah sa praadurbhutah Sanatanah,

Aditwaadaadi Devaasou Ajaatatwaadajah smrutah/

Paati yasmaan Prajaah Sarvaah Prajaapatiriti smrutah,

Deveshu cha Mahadevo Mahadeva iti smritah/

Brihatvaaccha smruto Brahmaa Paratwaat Parameshwarah,

Vashitwaadapya vashyatwaadishwarah paribhashitah/

Rishih Sarvatragatwena Harih Sarvaharo yatah,

Anupaadyaachha Puurvatwaat Swayambhuriti sa smrutah/

Naraayaanamayano yasmaat tena Naaraayanah smrutah,

Harah samsaaraharanaad vibhutvaad Vishnuruchyatey/

Bhagavaan sarva Vijnaanaadavanaadomiti smrutah,

Sarvajnah Sarva Vigjnaanaat Sarvah Sarvamayoyatah/

Shivah sa nirmalo yasmaad Vibhuh Sarvagato yatah,

Taaranaat Sarva duhkhaanaam Taarakah parigeeyatey/

Bahunaatra kimuktena Sarvam Brahmamayam Jagat,

Aneka bheda bhinnastu kreedayatey Parameshwarah/

(Even as a Unique and Singular Entity, the Nirguna-Niranjana assumed Three Forms since the tasks expected were some what self-contradictory viz. Creation-Preservation and Extermination and three distinct Gunas or Features were required to take up the deeds. Maha Deva was in fact accustomed to assume various Forms-some times as one, or two or three and even as in Ananta Rupas or in Endless Profiles. He was playfully habituated to sport different forms, deeds and names appropriate to exigencies of Srishthi-Sthiti and Samhara; this was so since he performed the tasks on his own or by his agents. As he executed the deeds simultaneously with the predominance of one Guna or another or all of the Gunas together, he came to be called Advaita to the One and Only; at the beginning itself he was the foremost to appear he was named as Adideva;as he was never born he was named Ajanma; as he was deeply involved in the happenings of one and all among the human beings, he was named Prajapati and as he was the Supreme of Prajas or the People; as he was the Foremost of the Devas, he was called as Maha Deva; he was the ‘Parama’ or the Ultimate, and was thus named Parameshwara; as he well-known as Sarva Harana at the time of Pralaya of the Universe or at the end of one’s Life Journey, he had the name of Hari; as he was Self-Generated or put in differently he got Materialised on his own, he was known as Swayambhu; as he was popular as the Final Refuge Point or Ayana of one and all, he was named Naraayana; it was in another context that he was lying or Ayana on ‘Naara’or Water popular as Ksheera Sagara his most popular name was Narayana; as he is Omni Present anywhere in the Universe occupying the Entirety he is called Vishnu; as he is the Omni- Scient of the goings-on all over spread the length and breadth of the Totality he had the Unique Epithet of OM; as he was the Epitome of Visishtha Jnaana or the Distinctive Knowledge of Everything, he was called Sarvgjna; as he was Atma Swarupa he was known as Sarva; Shiva as he was Mala Shunya; Vibhu as he was Sarva Vyapta or All- Pervading and Taraka as he could steer clear of any types of obsctacles. Indeed, is there a need for overemphasis of the obvious by way of explanations about Parameshwara, his innumerable and varied Rupas, leelaas or his playful activities! Suffice to say that the very Existence of the Universe is owed to him!)

Brahmana Dharmas, Ashrama Vidhana and ‘Abhinnata’ (Indivisibility) of Tri Murtis

Kurma Bhagavan described to Maharshis that after the Sanatana Srishti by Paramatma, Brahma took up the task of Srishti of ‘Charaachara Jagat’and created nine Maanasa Putras or Mind-borne Sons viz. Marichi, Bhrigu, Angira, Pulastya, Pulah, Kratu, Daksha, Atri, and Vasishtha. The Four Vedas of Ruk-Yajur-Saama and Atharva constituted the natural appearance of Brahma. At the beginning of Srishti, Trigunas of Satwa-Rajasa and Tamasika were non-existent; there was no Raaga-Dweshas or Desire-Hatred Syndrome and no interplay of ‘Arishadvargas’or the Six Basic Enemies of Beings viz. Kama (desire), Krodha (anger), Lobha (greed), Moha (infatuation), Mada (arrogance) and Matsara (jealousy). With the passage of time the concepts of ‘Swadharma’and ‘Paradharma’accentuated the class-distinction and Brahmana Dharma was defined as :

Yajanam Yaajanam Daanam Brahmanasya pratigraham,

Ahyaapanam cha adhyayanam Shasta Karmaani Dwijotthama/

(The six major duties of Brahmanas were stated to be the Performance of Yajnaas, enabling and encouraging the Yajna Karmas, giving as also receiving ‘Daanaas’; Adhyayana or Reciting Scriptures and Adhyaapana or Teaching them). Daana, Adhyayana and Yajna are the common features of Kshatriyas and Vaishyas while Kshatriyas have the duties of Law-Order -Defence as Vaishyas perform Business, Agriculture, Trading and Accounting. The other categories are to specialise in Shilpa, Crafts and such other professions.

As regards Ashrama Dharmaas viz. Garhastya-Vanaprastya-Sanyasa and Brahmacharya, Kurma Bhagavan ordained the following:

Agnayotithishurushaa Yajno Daanam Suraarchanam,

Gruhastasya Samaasena Dharmoyam Munipungavaah/

Homo Mula phalaashitwam Swaadhyaastapa eva cha,

Samvibhaago yathaanyaayam Dharmoyam Vanavaasinam/

Bhaiksaashanam cha Mounitwam Tapo dhyaanamviseshatah,

Samyajnaanam cha vairaagyam Dharmoyam Bhikshukey matah/

Bhikshaachaaryaacha shusrushaa Guroh Swaadhyaaya eva cha,

Sandhyaa karmaagni Kaaryaacha Dharmoyam Brahmachaarinam/

(Grihastya Dharma mainly entails Upasana of Agnis viz. Garhapatya, Aahavaniya, Dakshinaagni; Atithi Seva; Yagna-Daana- Deva Pujas form the core of Brahmana Vidhi. Havana, Kanda mula phala sevana, Swaadhyaaya and Tapas are the Vaana Prastha Dharmaas; Bhiksha bhojana, Mouna Vrata, Tapa, Samyakm Dhyaana or Composite worship of Deities, Samyak Jnaana and Vairagya or other worldliness are Sanyasa Dharrmas. Brahmachaari Dharmas include Bhiksha Bhojana, Guru Seva, Swaadhyaaya, Sandhyaa karma and Agni Karyas. While annotating Grihasta Dharma, Kurma

Bhagavan clarified that sleeping with one’s own wife-sujbect to specified qualifications was to be concerned as Brahmacharya itself :

Rithu kaalaa –bhigaamitwam Swadaareshu na chaanyatah,

Parvarjyam Grihastasya Brahmacharyamudaa hritam/

Also, Kurma Deva proclaimed:

Vedaabhyaasonvaham Shaktyaa Shraaddham chaatithi pujanam,

Grihastasya Paro Dharma Devataabhyarchanam tathaa/

Trayaanaamaashramaanaam tu Grihastho yoniruchtatey,

Anyey tamupajeevanti tasmaancchreyaan Grihaashrami/

(Grihasta Ashrama is considered the seed of the Four Ashramas and the most significant); more so, the ‘Purusharthaas’ of human beings are Dharma-Artha-Kaama-Mokshaas and hence the importance of this Ashrama.) But the common requirements of all the Ashrams are:

Kashamaa Damo Dayaa Daanamalobhastyaaga Eva cha,

Aarjivam chaanasuya cha Tirthaanusaranam tathaa/

Satyam Santosha Aastikyam Shraddhaa chendriya nigrahah,

Devataabhyarchanam Pujaa Brahmanaanaam Viseshitah/

Ahimsaa priyavaa ditwamapaishunyamakaltataa,

Samaasikamimam Dharmam Chaturvarnerbraveen Manuh/

(Kshama or patience, Daya or compassion, Daada or charity, Alobha or non-greediness, Tyaga or sacrifice, Arjiva /softness of speech and behaviour, Anasuya or lack jealousy / large heartednesss; Tirtha Sevana, Satya or Truthfulness, Santosha or Happiness / contentment; Aastikata or Attachment to Vedas and Scriptures; Shraddha or devotion; Jitendriatwa or overcoming of Physical attractions; Deva Puja, Brahmana Puja, Ahimsa / Non-Violence, Madhura Bhashana or nice manner of conversation and Paapa Rahitya or general attitude of sinlessness). In fact the First Manu named Swayambhu Manu prescribed the above noble traits/ common features of all the Human Beings irrsepective of the Chaturvarnaas. Among Brahmacharis, there again are of two categories viz. Upakurvaan and Naishthika Brahma tatpara; Brahmacharis learn and recite Vedas and then enter into Grihastaashrama are called Upakuyravaans while those who always remained with Guru are called Naishtika Brahmacharis. Again Grihastis are of two kinds viz. Udaaseenas and Saadhakaas; the former Grihastis lead a virtuous life and simultaneously take up family responsibilities too are Sadhakas; while those who leave away the Pitruruna, Devaruna, Rishiruna besides leave family, money and social obligations and remain targetted only at Moksha are Udaseenas. Likewise, Sanyasis are of three categories: Jnaana Sanyasis or those Veda Sanyasis or Bhoutika Sanyasis;

Bhoutika Sanyasis in which Bhavana is important, while Veda Sanyasis are of Sankhya or Yoga practitioners; and Karma Sanyasis or the performer of the prescribed karmas or deeds.

Singularity of Tri Murthis: Depending on the emphasis of the Satwa-Rajas-Tamasa Gunas of the Eternal and Unique Paramatma, three Murtis were formed as Brahma-Vishnu and Maheshwara:

Tistrastu Murtayah prokta Brahma Vishnu Maheswaraah,

Rajah Satwa Tamoyogaat Parasya Paramatmanah/

Anyonyayamanuraktaastey hyanonyamupa jeevinah,

Anyonyam pranataashchaiva leelayaa Parameshvaraah/

Braahmi Maaheshwari chaiva tathaivaakshara bhavanaa,

Tristrastu Bhavana Rudrey vartantey satatam Dwijaah/

Pravartatey mayyajastramaadyaa chaakshara bhaavanaa,

Dwitiya Brahmanah proktraa Devasyaakshara bhaavanaa/

Aham chaiva Maha Devo na bhinnou paramaarthatah,

Vibhajya swecchhayaatmaanam sontaraameshwarah sthitah/

Ttrailokya makhilam Srushtim Sadevaasura maanushaam,

Purushaha Paratovyaktaad Brahmatwam samupamagat/

Tasmaad Brahmaa Mahadevo Vishnurvishweshvarah Parah,

Ekaikssyaiva Smritaastitrastanuh Karyavashaat Prabho/

Tasmaat sarva prayatnena Vandyaah Pujyaah prayatnatah,

Yadicchedachiraat sthaanam yattanmokshaakhya mavyayam/

(Paramatma materialised Trimurtis on the basis of Satwa-Rajo-Tamo Gunas for the three basic responsibilities of Srishti-Sthiti-Samhara; the Three Profiles are dependent on each other, transferable to each other, interested and involved with each other in fulfilling their tasks; they also greet each other, exchange and also supplement each other’s thoughts and deeds. Indeed they are indivisible. Also, Rudra is interactive with the inherent thoughts of Brahmi, Maheswari and Akshara / Vaishnavi. From his side said Bhagavan Vishnu / Kurma Deva that the thoughts of ‘A’kshara were spontaneous and of the second Letter of the word Akshara denoted Brahmi and so on. As far as Vishnu and Maheshwara were concerned there indeed was no duplication whatsoever. They were mutually and freely exchangeable, divisible yet wholly singular, mystifying and confusing and were indeed one and the same. It was the same Swarupa of Bhagavan who was like all the three who were close-knit! Indeed all three Murtis are worthy of worship and thus the need for attaining any one of them is similar to realise them all.

Brahma Srishti and Pancha Sargas

Even as he thought of Srishti, Brahma created darkness involuntarily and as the variations of the darkness, five ‘Avidyas’ occurred viz. Tamas, Moha, Maha Moha, Tamishra and Andha. With meditation in favour of Paramatma, Brahma then visioned a Seed-like Formation of a Five-divisioned Entity surrounded by darkness viz. Prakasha or Jnaana, Stambha or Jada, Sagjna vihina or Chetana vihina, Naga or Stationary or Immobile like Mountains and Trees and Mukhya or the Principal, thus providing broad hints of Mukhya Sarga to Brahma about the kind of Srishti that he could take up; even while taking the pointers or suggestions, Brahma also thought of another category of Srishti viz. Tiryagsrota or of Pashu-Pakshi Srishti. These types of Srishti did not greatly impress Brahma and therefore resorted to Deva Sarga in which the features of happiness and contentment predominated. After further meditation, Brahma realised that there should be an Arvaakstrota Srishti of Human Beings with a mix of Rajasa-Tamasa Gunas with some Satwa Guna as well and thus launched Manushya Sarga. This was followed by Bhuta Sarga in which the Creations would not possess capacity to acquire but give away. Thus there were Five Sargas viz. Mukhya, Tiryagsrota, Deva, Manusha and Bhutadi. Thus Brahma’s Mahat Sarga comprised the categories upto Manusha Sarga; Bhuta Sarga was followed as the Second Sarga while the Third was that of Vaikarika / Aindriyaka Sarga; all these Sargas were considered as Abuddhipurvaka or Unintentional.

Then followed Buddhi Purvaka (Deliberate) Srishti and Brahma begot Manasa Putras viz. Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana, Rijhu, and Sanatkumara all of whom being Yogis, Parama Vairaagis, and Ishwara Bhaktas who did not further the Creative Deeds. Despite continued Tapas, Brahma had to wait long, got frustrated and out of his eye drops mingled with anger were materialised from his frown the Rudra Rupa called Nilalohita and ten additional Swarupas ( Bhava, Sharva, Ishana, Pashupati, Bheema, Ugra, Mahadeva, Ekapaada, Ahirbhudani, Hara). Brahma continued Srishiti of Jala, Agni, Antariksha, Aakaasha, Vaayu, Prithvi; Nadi, Samudra, Parvata, Vriksha,Vanaspati as also Time-Units l ike Lava, Kashtha, Kalaa, Muhurtha, Dina-Ratra, Paksha, Maasa, Ayana, Varsha and Yugas. He then created Marichi from his eyes; Bhrigu from his hridaya or heart; Angira from his head; Pulastya from his Udana Vayu; Pulaha from hisVyaana Vayu; Kratu from Brahma’s Shanta Swabhava; Daksha from his Prana Vayu; Atri from his ears, Vasishtha from his Samaana Vaayu; Dharma from Vyavasaaya; and Sankalpa from his Sankalpa or Proposition.

Brahma created from his Eastern Face the Gayatri Chhanda, Rigveda, Trivrutsama, Rathantara (Saama) and Agnishtoma among Yagnaas; from his Southern face, he produced Yajurveda, Rishabh Chhanda, Trishthap Chhanda, Pancha dasha Stoma, Brihat Saama and Uktha; from his Western Face, Brahma evolved Sama Veda, Jagati Chhanda, Saptadasha Stoma, Vairupa and Atiratra Yagjna; from his Northern face, Brahma materialised twenty one branches of Atharva Veda, Anushthup Chhanda, Aaptoryaama and Vairaja Yagnas. He created Devatas, Rishis, Pitaras and Manushyas; Yaksha, Pishacha, Gandharava, Apsaras, Kinnaras, Rakshasaas, Pakshi-Mriga-Pashu-and Sarpas.

As there was a mixed factor of Dharma and Adharma across the Srishti attempted so far- and more over since the speed of Srishti did not gain momentum- Brahma divided his physique into two Parts:

one as Purusha and another as Stree (woman); the latter was named Shata Rupa replete with Jnaana- Vigjnaana and was married to Brahma Putra Swayambhuva Manu. Shata Rupa and Swayambhu gave birth to Priyavrata and Uttanapaada as also two daughters Prasuti and Akriti. Prasuti got married to Daksha Prajapati and Akriti was wedded to Ruchi Prajapati. The latter gave birth to Yagjna and

Dakshina while Daksha and Prasuti gave birth to twenty four daughters viz. Shraddha, Lakshmi, Dhruti, Tushti, Pushti, Medha, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja, Vapu, Shanti, Siddhi and Kirti besides Khyaati, Sati, Sambhuti, Smriti, Preeti, Kshama, Santati, Anasuya, Urga, Swaha and Swadha.

Devi Mahatmya: Sati and Parvati Rupas and Himavan’s Stuti to Parvati (Devi Sahasra naama stotra included)

Bhagavan Kurma who described to Munis that Brahma along with his Manasa Putras performed Parama Tapas or deep meditation. All of a sudden, Brahma experienced that Ishana Rudra appeared from his own face and commanded him to divide Rudra as ‘Ardhanaareshwara’. Accordingly, he divided Rudra into two halves as Prakriti and Purusha and the Purusha Swarupa was further divided as Ekadasha Rudras; Ekaadashaitey kathitaa Rudraastribhuvaneshwaraah, Kapaalishaadayo Vipraa Deva kaarye niyojitah/ Sowmyaasowmyaistathaa Shantaashantaih Streetwam cha sa Prabhuh, Vibheda Bahudhaa Devah Swarupairasitaih sitaih/ Taa vai Vibhutayo Vipraa Vishrutaah Shaktayo Bhuvi, Lakshmyaadayo yaabhireeshaa Vishvam Vyapnoti Shaankari/ Vibhajya punareeshaani swaatmaanam Shankaraad Vibhoh, Mahadeva niyogena Pitaamahamupasthitaa/ Taamaaha Bhagavaan Brahmaa Dakshasya duhitaa bhava, Saapi tasya niyogena praaduraaseet Prajaapateyh/ (Kapaali, Isha and the other Rudras were appointed in various responsibilities of Tribhuvanas; Mahadeva got materialised into many Swarupas as Sowmya and Roudra (Peaceful and Fiery), Shanta and Ashanta (Placid and Violent) and Sweta and Krishna Rupas (White and Black) of Stree Bhagas or of Feminine Forms. These ‘Vibhutis’or counterpart Shaktis as in the Form of Lakshmi for Vishnu were popular already and Shankara Shakti was already called as Ishaani. As instructed by Maha Deva, she approached Brahma and asked him to let her be the daughter of Daksha Prajapati). That was how Daksha was instructed by Brahma to become Dakshayani or Sati Devi and wed Rudra Deva. In course of time, Daksha Prajapati performed a huge Yagna notoriously named as Daksha Yagna to which Maha Deva did not invite Parama Shiva and an uninvited Sati Devi felt humiliated that her Swami was insulted as he was denied his due in the Yagna and self- immolated in the Homa-Kunda. She assumed the reborn Swarupa as Himavati the daughter of Himavan and Maina Devi subsequently.

As Maharshis asked Kurma Deva about the background of Bhagavati called by several names as Ardhanaareeshwari, Sati, Haimavati and so on, Kurma Deva replied:

Saamkhyaanaam paramam shaankhyam Brahmavijnaanamuttamam,

Samsaaraarnavamagnaanaam jantunaameka mochanam/

Yaa sa Maaheshwari Shaktirjnaana rupaati laalasaa,

Vyoma sangjnya Paraa kaashthaa seyam Haimavati mataa/

Shivaa Sarvagataanantaa Gunaateetaa Sunishkalaa,

Ekaaneka vibhaagasthaa Jnaana rupaati laalasaa/

(She is the embodiment of Parama Sankhya Shastra called Tatwa Jnaana or the Brahma Jnaana; she is one definite and unique means of ‘Sadhana’or Facility tide over the Samasara and accomplish Mukti. She is the Janaa Swarupa of Maheswara, his Icchaa Rupa or of the Most Desirable Form, Paraakashtha Rupa or the Highest Reachable, the Maheshwari Shakti known as Haimavati, the Sarva

Vyapata, Ananta, and Gunaateeta, the Unique Jnaana Rupa and Shiva / Mangala daayani.) She is the possessor of Four Shaktis named Shanti, Vidya, Pratishtha and Nivrutti and thus is appropriately called ‘Chaturvyuhaatmaka’. She is the symbol of Jnaana Shakti, Kriya Shakti, and Prana Shakti;

Anandaaksharam Brahma Kevalam Nishkalam param,

Yoginastat prapashyanti Maha Devyaah param padam/

Paratparam tatwam shaaswatam Shivamachyutam,

Ananta Prakrutou leenam Devyaastat paramam padam/

Shubham Niranjanam Shuddham Nirgunam Dwaitavarjitam,

Atmopalabhdhi vishayam Devyaastad Paramam padam/

Tasmaad vimuktimavicchan Parvatih Parameshwarim,

Ashrayet Sarva bhaavaanaatma bhutaam Shivaatmikaam/

(Yogis are always engaged in meditating the Swarupa of Maha Devi who is Anandamaya (full of Happiness), Avinaashi (Indestructible), Brahma Rupa, Adviteeya (Unparalleled) and ‘Bhedarahita’ (Unique). Devi’s supreme existence is beyond existence and is of Tatwa Rupa, Sanatana (Ageless), Shivam or Kalyanakari; Achyutam (Everlasting), Shubham (Propitious), Niranjanam or Epitome of Shiva; Shuddham (Spotless), Dwaitarahitam or Singular; and Atma Jnaana Vishaya. Hence, all those immersed in the efforts of accomplishing Moksha need to mobilise their complete energies unto Himavati Devi).

As Devi Jagadamba appeared before Himavan and confirmed that she would soon take birth as his daughter, the latter requested her to reveal her real identity. She did so and he was frightened and shaken up; he was motionless to start with and gradually recovered his senses to visualise her Swarupa:

Koti Surya prateekasham Tejo bimbam Niraakuklam,

Jwaalaamaalaa Sahasraadhyam Kaalaanala shatopamam/

Damshtraa karaalam Durdhrasham Jataamandala manditam,

Trishula Varahastam cha ghora rupam Bhayanakam/

While Himavan witnessed a Koti Surya Tejo Bimbam, with thousands of strings of flames, protruding damshtras, Jataamandalaas, Trishula hastaas and a frightfully weird face, he was non-plussed but gradually witnessed the Devi as:

Prashantam Sowmya Vadanamanantaascharya samyutam,

Chandraavayavalakshanaam Chandra koti Samaprabham/

(Peaceful, equable, soft and relaxed and as cool and resplendent as koti Chandraas). Looking at both the demeanors that were at once grotesque and at the same time charming and pleasant, Himavan held his breath with panic and reassurance and recited Omkara incessently and grasped into spontaneous commendation with a Sahasra naama as follows:

Devi Bhagavati Sahasranaama:

Shivoma Paramaa Shaktiranantaa Nishkalaamalaa,

Shantaa Maaheswari Nityaa Shaswati Parama-akshara/

Achintyaakevalaanantyaa Shivaatmaa Paramaatmika,

Anaadiravyayaa Shuddaa Devaatmaa Saravagaachalaa/

Ekaaneka vibhaagastha Mayaatita Sunirmala,

Mahaa Maaheswari Satyaa Maha Devi Niranjanaa/

Kaashthaa Sarvaantarasthaa cha Chicchakti Rati laalasaa,

Nandaa Sarvaatmikaa Vidyaa Jyorirupaamrutaakshara/

Shaantih Pratishthaa Sarveshaam Nivruttiramrutapradaa,

Vyoma Murtiryomalayaa Vyomaadhaaraachyutaamaraa/

Anaadhinidhanaamoghaa Karanaatmaa Kalaakala,

Kratuh Prathamajaa naabhiramrutasyaatma samshrayaa/

Praaneshwarapriyaa Maataa Mahaa Mahisha ghaatini,

Praaneshwari Praana Rupaa Pradhaana Purusheshwari/

Sarva Shakti Kalaakaaraa Jyotsnaa Dhourmahimaaspadaa,

Sarva kaarya niyantricha Sarva Bhuteshwareshwari/

Anaadiravyakta guhaa Mahaanandaa Sanaatani,

Akaashaayoniryogasthaa Mahaa Yogeshwareshwari/

Mahamaaya Sudushpura Mulaprakritireeshewari,

Samsaara yonih Sakalaa Sarva Shakti samudbhavaa/

Samsaarapaaraa Durvaaraa Durnireekshaa Duraasadaa,

Praana Shaktih Praanavidyaa Yogini Paramaakalaa/

Maha Vibhutirdurdharshaa Mula Prakriti Sambhavaa,

Anaadyananta vibhavaa Paraarthaa Purushaaranih/

Sargasthintyantakarani Sudurvaachyaa Duratyaya,

Shabdayonih Shabdamayi Naadaakhyaa Naada Vigrahaa/

Pradhaana Purushaateeta Pradhaana Purushaatmika,

Puraani Chinmayi Pumsaamaadih Purusha Rupini/

Bhutaantaraatmaa Kutasthaa Mahaa Purusha Sanjitaa,

Janma mrityu jaraatitaa Sarva Shakti samanvitaa/

Vyaapini chaanavacchinna Pradhaanaanupraveshini,

Kshetrajna Shaktiravayakta Lakshanaa Malavarjitaa/

Anaadi Maayaa Sambhinna Tritatwaa Prakritirguhaa,

Mahaa Maayaa Samutpanna Taamasi Pourushi Dhruvaa/

Vyaktaavyaktaatmikaa Krishnaa Raktaa Shuklaa Prasutikaa,

Akaaryaa Karya Janani Nityam Prasava Dharmini/

Sarga Pralaya Nirmuktaa Srishtisthith-yanta Dharmini,

Brahmagarbhaa Chaturvimshaa Padmanaabhaachuyaatmika/

Vaidyuti Shashvati Yonirjagnmaateshwara priya,

Sarvaadhaara Mahaarupaa Sarvaishvarya samanvitaa/

Vishwarupaa Mahaa Garbhaa Vishvesecchaanuvartini,

Maheeyasi Brahmayonir mahalakshmi samudbhavaa/

Mahaa Vimaana madhyastaa Mahaa nidraatma hetukaa,

Sarva Saadhaarani Sukshmaahyavidyaa Paaramaarthikaa,

Ananta Rupaanantasthaa Devi Purusha Mohini/

Anekaakaara Samsthaanaa Kaalatraya vivarjitaa,

Brahma janmaa Hareymurtir Brahma Vishnu Shivaatmikaa/

Brahmesha Vishnu Janani Brahmaakhyaa Brahma samshrayaa,

Vyaktaa Prathamajaa Braahmi Mahati Jnaana Rupini/

Vairaagaishwarya Dharmaatmaa Brahma murti hridi sthitaa,

Apaamyonih Swayambhutirmaanasi Tatwasambhavaa/

Ishwaraanicha Sharvaani Shankaraardha Sharirini,

Bhavaani chaiva Rudraani Mahaa Lakshmirathaambikaa/

Maheshwara Samutpannaa Bhakti Mukti Phalapradaa,

Sarveshwari Sarva Vandya Nityam Muditamaanasaa/

Brahmendropendra namitaa Shankarecchaanuvartini,

Ishwaraardhaasanagataa Maheshwara Pativrataa/

Sakrudvibhaavitaa Sarvaa Samudra parisoshini,

Parvati Himavanputri Paramaananda- daayani/

Gunaadhyaa Yogajaa Yogya Jnaana Murtirvikaasini,

Savitri Kamalaa Lakshmih Shriranantorasisthitaa/

Sarojanilayaa Mudraa Yoginidraa Suraardrini,

Sarasvati Sarva Vidyaa Jagajjeshthaa Sumangalaa/

Vaagdevi Varadaa Vaachyaa Keertih Sarvaartha Saadhikaa,

Yogeswari Brahma Vidyaa Maha Vidyaa Sushobhanaa/

Guhyavidyaatmavidyaa cha Dharmavidya -atma bhaavitaa,

Swaaha Vishwambharaa Siddhih Swadhaa Medhaa Dhrutih Shrutih/

Neetih Suneetih Sukrutirmaadhavi Naravaahini,

Ajaa Vibhaavari Sowmyaa Bhogini Bhogadaayani/

Shobhaa Vamshakari Lolaa Maalini Parameshthini,

Trailokya Sundari Ramyaa Sundari Kaamachaarini/

Mahaanubhaavaa Satvasthaa Mahaa Mahisha Mardini,

Padmamaalaa Paapaharaa Vichitraa Mukutaanana/

Kaantaa Chitraambaradharaa Divyaabharana Bhushitaa,

Hamsaakhyaa Vyomanilaya Jagatsrushti Vivardhini/

Niryantraa Yantravaahasthaa Nanidini Bhadra Kaalikaa,

Adityavarnaa Koumari Mayura vara Vaahini/

Vrishaasanagataa Gouri Maha kaali Suraarchita,

Aditirniyataa Roudri Padmagarbhaa Vivaahanaa/

Virupaakshi Lelihaanaa Mahaapuranivaasini,

Mahaaphalanavadyaangi Kaamapuraa Vibhaavari/

Vichitraratna Makutaa Pranaataatirprabhanjani,

Koushiki Karshani Raatris-tridashaartirvinaashini/

Bahurupaa Surupaa cha Virupaa Rupavarjitaa,

Bhaktaarthishamani Bhavyaa Bhava Bhaava Vinaashini/

Nirgunaa Nityavibhavaa Nissraaraa Nirapatrapaa,

Yashaswini Saamagatir bhavaanga Nilayaalayaa/

Dikshaa Vidyaadhari Deeptaa Mahendravinipaatini,

Sarvaatishaayani Vidyaa Sarva Siddhi Pradaayani/

Sarveshwara Priyaa Taarkshyaa SamudraantaraVaasini,

Akalankaa Niraadhaaraa Nityasiddhaa Niraamayaa/

Kamadhenur bruhad garbhaa Dheemati Mohanaashini,

Nissankalpaa Niraatangkaa Vinayaa Vinayapradaa/

Jwaalaamaalaa Sahasraadhyaa Deva Devi Manonmani,

Maha Bhagavati Durgaa Vaasudeva samudbhavaa/

Mahendropendra Bhagini Bhaktigamyaa Paraavaraa,

Jnaanajneyaa Jaraatitaa Vedaanta Vishayaa gatih/

Dakshina Dahanaa Daahyaa Sarvabhuta Namaskritaa,

Yogamaayaa Vibhaavagjnaa Mahaa Maayaa Maheeyasi/

Sandhyaa Sarva Samudrabhutir Brahma Vrikshaashrayaanatih,

Beejaankura Samudbhutir Mahaa Shaktir Mahaa Matih/

Khyaatih Pragjnaachitih Samvit Mahaa Bhogeendra –shaayini,

Vikrutih Shaankaari Shaastri Ganagandharwa sevitaa/

Vaishwaanari Mahaashaalaa Devasenaa Grihapriyaa,

Mahaa Raatrih Shivaanandaa Shachiduhswapna naashani/

Ijyaa Pujyaa Jagaddhaatri Durvigjneyaa Surupini,

Guhaambikaa Gunotpattirmahaa peethaa Marutsutaa/

Havyavaahanaantaraagaadih Havyavaaha Samudbhavaa,

Jagaryonirjaganmaataa Janma Mrityu Jaaraatigaa/

Buddhimaataa Buddhimati Purushaantara vaasini,

Taraswini Samaadhisthaa Trinetraa Divi Samsthitaa/

Sarvendrayamano Maataa Sarva Bhuta Hridisthitaa,

Samsaarataarini Vidyaa Brahmavaadimanolayaa/

Brahmaani Brihati Braahmi Brahma bhutaa Bhavaaranih,

Hiranmayi Mahaa Rraatrih Samsaara Parivartikaa/

Sumaalini Surupaacha Bhaavini Taarini Prabhaa,

Unmeelini Sarvasahaa Sarva Pratyaya Saakshini/

Susoumyaa Chandra Vadanaa Taandavaasakta Maanasaa,

Satwa Shuddhikari Shuddhirmalatraya Vinaashini/

Jagatpriyaa Jaganmurtirs Trimurtiramritaashraya,

Niraashrayaa Niraahaaraa Nirankuravanodbhavaa/

Chandrahastaa Vichitraangistragvini Padmahaarivi,

Paraavara Vidhaanajna Maha Purusha Purvajaa/

Vidyeshwara Priyaa Vidyaa Vidyd- jjihvaa Jitashramaa,

Vidyaamayi Sahasraakshi Sahasra Vadanaatmajaa/

Sahasra Rashmihi Satvasthaa Maheshwara padaashrayaa,

Ksaalini Sanmayi Vyaaptaa Taijasi Padma bhodikaa/

Mahaa Maayaashrayaa Maanyaa Mahadeva Manorama,

Vyoma Lakshmih Simharathaa chekitaanaamita Prabhaa/

Veereshwari Vimaanasthaa Vishokaa Shokanaashini,

Anaahataa Kundalini Nalini Padma Vaasini/

Sadaanandaa Sadaa Keertih Sarva Bhutaashrayasthitaa,

Vaagdevataa Brahmakalaa Kalaateetaa Kalaaranih/

Brahmashri Brahma Hridayaa Brahma Vishnu Shiva Priyaa,

Vyomashaktih Kriyaashaktir Jnaana Shaktih Paraagatih/

Kshobhikaa Bandhikaa Bhedyaa Bhedaabheda Vivarjitaa,

Abhinnaabhinna Samthaanaa Vamshini Vamsha haarini/

Guhyashaktirgunaatitaa Savadaa Sarvatomukhi,

Bhagini Bhagavatpatni Sakalaa Kaalakaarini/

Sarvavit Sarvatobhadraa Guhyaatitaa Guhaaranih,

Prakriyaa Yogamaataa cha Gangaa Vishveshvareshwari/

Kapilaa Kaapilaa Kaantaa Kanakaabhaa Kalaantaraa,

Punyaa Pushkarini Bhoktri Purandara purassaraa/

Poshani Paramaishwarya Bhutaadi bhutahushanaa,

Pancha Brahma Samutpattih Paramaardhaartha Vigrahaa/

Dharmodayaa Bhaanumati Yogigjneyaa Manojava,

Manoharaa Mano Rakshaa Taapasi Veda Rupini/

Vedashaktir Veda Maataa Veda Vidyaa Prakaashini,

Yogeshwa -reshwari Maataa Mahaa Shaktirmanomayi/

Vishwaavasthaa Vinirmurtir Vidyunmaalaa Vihaayasi,

Kinnnari Surabhi Vandyaa Nandini Nandivallabhaa/

Bharati Paramaanandaa Paraapara Vibhedikaa,

Sarvapraharanopetaa Kaamyaa Kaameshwareshwari/

Achintyaachintya Vibhavaa Hrillekhaa Kanakaprabhaa,

Kushmaandi Dhanaratnaadhyaa Sugandaa Gandha daayani/

Trivikrama Padodbhutaa Dhanushpaanih Shivodayaa,

Sudurlabhaa Dhanaadhyakshaa Dhanyaa Pingala Lochanaa/

Shaantih Prabhaavatih Deeptih Pankajaayata Lochana,

Aadyaahridkamalodbhutaa Gavaam Maataa Ranapriyaa/

Satkriyaa Girijaa Shuddhaa Nitya Pushtaa Nirantaraa,

Durgaa Katyaayani Chandi Charchikaa Shanta Vigrahaa/

Hiranya Varnaa Rajani Jagadyantra pravartikaa,

Mandaraadri Nivaasaacha Shaaradaa Swarna Maalini/

Ratnamaalaa Ratnagarbhaa Prithvi Vishwa pramaathini,

Padmaananaa Padmanibha Nitya Tushtaamritodbhava/

Dhunvati duh Prakampyaacha Surya Maataa Drushadvati,

Mahendra Bhagini Maanyaa Varenyaa Varadarpitaa/

Kalyaani Kamalaa Raamaa Pancha Bhutaa Varapradaa,

Vaadyaa Vareshwari Vandyaa Durjayaa Duratikramaa/

Kaalaraatrir Maha Vegaa Virabhadrapriya Hitaa,

Bhadrakaalir Jaganmaataa Bhaktaanaam Bhadradaayini/

Karaala Pingalaakaaraa Naama Bhedaa Mahaamadaa,

Yashashvini Yashodaacha Shadhadhwa parivartikaa/

Shankhini Padmini Sankhyaa Sankhyaa Yoga Pravartika,

Chaitra Samvatsaraarudhaa Jagat Sampuranindrijaa/

Shumbhaarih Khechari Swasthaa Kambugrivaa Kalipriya,

Khagadhwajaa Khagaa Roodha Paraarthyaa Paramalini/

Ishwarya Vartmanilahyaa Viraktaa Garudaasana,

Jayanti Hriduhaa Ramyaa Gahvareshtaa Ganaagranih/

Sankalpa Siddhaa Saamyasthaa Sarva Vijnaadayani,

Kalikalmasha Hantri cha Guhyopa nishaduttamaa/

Nishtha Drushthih Smritirvyaaptih Pushthistushtih Kriyaavati,

Vishwaamareshvarey- shaanaa Bhuktirmuktih Shivaamritaa/

Lohitaa Sarpamaalaacha Bhishani Vanamaalini,

Anantashaya-naanyaa Naranaaraayanodbhava/

Nrisimhi Daityamathani Shankachakra gadaadharaa,

Sankarshana Samutpattirambikaa paada samshrayaa,

Mahaajjwaalaa Mahaa Murtih Sumurtih Sarva kaama dhruk/

Suprabhaa Sustanaa Gauri Dharma Kaamaartha Mokshadaa/

Bhrumadhya nilayaa Purvaa Puraana Purushaaranih,

Maha Vibhutidaa Madhyaa Saroja nayano samaa/

Ashtaadasha Bhujaanaadyaa Nilotpaladala Prabhaa,

Sarva Shaktyaasanaarudhaa Dharmaadharma Vivarjitaa/

Vairaagya Jnaana Nirataa Niraalokaa Nirindriyaa,

Vichitra Gahanaadhaaraa Shaswatasthaana Vaasini/

Sthaaneshwari Niraanandaa Trishula vara dhaarini,

Asesha Devataa Murtidevataa Varadevataa,

Ganaambikaa Gireh Putri Nishumbha vinipaatini/

Avarnaa Varna ahitaa Nivarnaa Beeja sambhavaa,

Anantavarnaarnanya -stathaa Shankari Shanta Maanasa/

Agotraa Gomati Goptri Guhyarupaa Gunottaraa,

Gouh Geeh Gavyapriyaa Gouni Ganeshwara Namaskrutaa/

Satyamaatraa Satya Sandhaa Trisandhyaa Sandhivarjitaa,

Sarva Vaadaashrayaa Sankhyaa Saankhya Yoga Samudbhavaa/

Asankhyeya prameyaakhyaa Shunyaa Shuddha Kulodbhava,

Bindu naada samutpattih Shambhu vaamaa Shashiprabhaa/

Visangaa Bhedarahitaa Manojnaa Madhusudani,

Mahaa Shrih Samutpattistamah Paarey Pratishthitaa/

Tritatwa maataa Trividhaa Sushuksma padasamshrayaa,

Shantyatitaa Malaatitaa Nirvikaaraa Niraashrayaa/

Shivaakhyaa Chitta Nilayaa Shiva Jnaana Swarupini,

Daitya Daanava Nirmaatri Kaashyapi Kaalkalpikaa/

Shaastrayonih Kriyaamurthischaturvarga Pradarashikaa,

Naaraayani Narodbhutih Kaumudi Linga dhaarini/

Kaamuki Lalithaa Bhaavaa Paraapara Vibhutidaa,

araanta jaata mahimaa Badavaa Vaama Lochanaa/

Subhadraa Devaki Sitaa Veda Vedaanga paaragaa,

Manaswini Manyumaataa Mahaa Manyu Samudbhavaa/

Amrityuramritaa Swaahaa Puruhutaa Purushtutaa,

Ashocchyaa Bhinna Vishyaa Hiranyarajatapriyaa/

Hiranyaa Raajati Haimi Hemaabharana bhushitaa,

Vibhraajamaanaa Durjayaa Jyotishtoma phalapradaa/

Maha Nidraa Samudbhudabhutiranidraa Satya Devataa,

Deerghaa Kakudyuni Hridyaa Shaantidaa Shaantivardhini/

Lakshmyaadi Shaktijanani Shakti Chakra pravartikaa,

Trishakti Janani Janyaa Shadmuparivarjitaa/

Sudhaamaa Karmakarani Yugaananta Dahanaatmikaa,

Samkarshini Jagaddhaatri Kaamayonih Kiritini/

Aindri Trailokya Namitaa Vaishnavi Parameshwarih,

Pradyumna Dayitaa Daantaa Yugma drishtistrilochanaa/

Madotkataa Hamsagatih Prachandaa Chandi Vikramaa,

Vrishaa Veshaa Viyanmaataa Vindhya Parvata Vaashini/

Himavan Meru Nilaya Kailaasa Giri Vaasini,

Chaanura hantru tanayaa Nitigjnaaa Kaama Rupini/

Veda Vidyaa Vratasnaataa Dharma Sheelanilaashanaa,

Vira -bhadra Priyaa Veeraa Mahaa Kaala Samudbhavaa/

Vidyaadhara Priyaa Siddhaa Vidyaadhara Niraakritih,

Adyaayani Haranti cha Paavani Poshani Khilaa/

Maatrukaa Manodbhutaa Vaarijaa Vaahana Priya,

Kareeshini Sudhaavaani Veenaa Vaasana Tatparaa/

Sevitaa Sevika Cinivaali Gurut –mati,

Arundhati Hiranyaakshi Mrigaangaa Maana Daayavi/

Vasudpradaa Vasumati Vasordhaara Vasundharaa,

Dhaaraa dhaara Varaarohaa Varaavara Sahasradaa/

Shriphalaa Shrimati Shreeshaa Shrinivaasaa Shivapriyaa,

Shridhara Shrikari Kalyaa Shridhaaraardha Sharirini/

Ananta Drushti rakshudraa Dhaatrisha Dhanadapriya,

Nihantri Daityanandhaanaam Simhikaa Simhavaahanaa/

Sushenaa Chandranilayaa Sukeertiscchinna Samshayaa,

Rasagjnaa Rasadaa Raamaa Lelihaanaamrita-strava/

Nityoditaa Swayamjyotirutsukaa Mritajeevani,

Vajradandaa Vajra jihvaa Vaidehi Vajra Vigrahaa/

Mangalyaa Mangalaa Maalaa Malinaa Malahaarini,

Gaandharvi Gaarudi Chaandri Kambalaashwitara Priyaa/

Soudaamini Janaanandaa Bhrukuti Kutilaananaa,

Karnikaarakaraa Kakshyaa Kamsa praanaapahaarini/

Yugandharaa Yugaavartaa Trisandhyaa Harshavardhini,

Pratyakshadevataa Divyaa Divyagandhaa Divaaparaa/

Shakraasanagataa Shaakri Saadwi Naari Shavaashanaa,

Ishtaa Visishtaa Shishteshtaa Shishtaashishta prapujitaa/

Shatarupaa Shataavartaa Vinataa Surabhih Suraa,

Surendramaataa Sudyumna Sushumnaa Suryasamshitaa/

Samikshya Satpratishtha cha Nivritti Jnaana Paaragaa,

Dharma Shastraartha Kushalaa Dharmajnaa Dharma Vaahana/

Dharmaadhaavinirmaatri Dhaarmikaanaam Shivaprada,

Dharmashaktirdharmamayi Vidharmaa Vishwadharmini/

Dharmaantaraa Dharmnamedhaa Dharmapurvaa Dhanaavahaa,

Dharmopadeshti Dharmaatmaa Dharmagamyaa Dharaadharaa/

Kaapaali Shaakalaa Murtih Kalaa Kalita Vigrahaa,

Sarvashakti Vinirmuktaa Sarva Shaktaashrayaashrayaa/

Sarvaa Sarveshwari Sukshmaa Susukshmaa Jnaanarupini,

Pradhaana Purushesheshaa Mahaa Devaika Sameekshini,

Sadaa Shivaa Viyanmurtir Vishwamurtiramurtikaa/

(Devi Bhagavati! You are Shiva, Uma, Paraa Shakti, Ananta, Nishkala, Amala, Shantaa, Maheswari, Nitya, Shashvati, Paramaakshara, Achintya, Kevala, Anantyaa, Shivatmika, Paramatmika, Anaadi, Avyaya, Shuddha, Devatmika, Sarvaga, Achala, Eka, Vividha Rupa, Mayaatita, Sunirmala, Maha Maheshwari, Satya, Maha Devi, Niranjana, Kaashthaa, Sarva Hridyayastha, Chetanaa Shakti Rupa, Atilaalasa or of Extreme Desire; Nanda, Sarvatmika, Vidya, Jyoti Rupa, Amritaakshara, Shanti, Pratishtha, Nivrutti, Amrita Prada, Vyoma Murti, Vyomalaya, Vyomaadhaara, Achuyta, Amara, Anadi nidhana, Amogha, Kaaranaatmika, Kala, Akala, Kratu, Pradhamaja, Amrita naabhi, Atma Samshraya, Praneshwarapriya, Mataa, Maha Mahisha Ghaatini, Praaneshwari, Praana rupa, Pradhaana Purusheswari, Sarva Shakti Kalaakaara, Jyotsna, Akasha Rupa, Mahimaspada, Sarva Kaarya niyantri, Sarva Bhuteshwari, Anaadi, Avyataguha, Mahananda, Sanatani, Akashayoni, Yogastha, Maha Yogeshwareshwari, Maha Maya, Sudhushpura, Mula Prakriti, Ishwari, Samsaarayoni, Sakala, Sarva Shakti Samudbhava, Samsaara Paaraa, Durvaara, Durnireeksha, Duraasadaa or difficult to Realise; Praana Shakti, Praana Vidya, Yogini, Paramaa, Kalaa, Maha Vibhuti, Durdharsha, Mula Prakriti Sambhava, Anaadyananta Vibhava, Paraartha, Purusharaini Purusha or Purusha performing Agni- Manthana; Saraga Sthitiryanta kaarini, Sudurvaacchaa, Duratyaya, Shabdayoni, Shabdamayi, Naadaakhyaa, Naada Vigraha, Pradhaana Purushaateeta, Pradhaana Purushatmika, Puraani, Chinmayi, Adi Swarupa Purusha, Purusha Rupini, Bhutaantaraatma, Kutasthaa, Maha Purusha Sanjnita, Janma Mrityu Jaraateeta, Sarva Shakti Samanvita, Vyaapini, Anivaancchinna, Pradhaananu Praveshini, Kshetrajna Shakti, Avyakta Lakshana, Mala Varjita, Anaadi Mayaa sambhinna or Anadi Maya Rupa; Tritatwa, Prakriti, Guha, Maha Mayaa Samutpanna, Taamasi, Pourushi, Dhruva, Vyaktaavyaktaatmika, Krishna, Raktaa, Shukla, Prasutika, Akaarya, Karyajanai, Nityaprasava dharmini, Sargapralaya nirmukta, Srishthisthityanta dharmini, Brahma garbha, Chaturvishaa or the Final of the Twenty Four Tatwaas; Padmanaabha, Achyutaatmika, Vaidyuti, Shaswati, Yoni or Mula Kaarini; Jagan Maata, Ishwarapriya, Sarvaadhaara, Maha Rupa, Sarvaishwarya samanvitaa, Vishwa Rupa, Maha Garbha, Visweshocchaanuvartini, Maheeyasi, Brahma Yoni, Maha Lakshmi Samud - bhava, Maha Vimaana Madhyasta, Maha Nidra, Atmahetuka, Sarva Saadhaarani, Sukshma, Avidya, Paramaarthika, Anantarupa, Anantasthaa, Devi, Purusha Mohini, Anekaaraara samsthaanaa, Kaala traya vivarjita, Brahma Jnaanaa, Hara Murti, Brahma Vishnu Shivatmika, Brahmoshivavishnujanani, Brahmaakhya, Brahma samshraya, Vyaktaa, Prathamaja, Braahmi, Mahati, Jnaana rupini, Vairaagyai- shwarya dharmaatmika, Brahma Murti, Hridiyastah, Apamyoni, Swayambhuti, Maanasi, Tatwa sambhava, Ishwarini, Sharvaani, Shankaraarthasharirini, Bhavani, Rudraani, Maha Lakshmi, Ambika, Maheshwara samutpanna, Bhaktimukti phalaprada, Sarveshwari, Sarva vandya, Nityamudita maanasa, Bhahmopendranamita, Shankarecchaanuvartini, Ishwaraardhasanagata, Maheshwara

pativrata, Sakrudvibhavita, Sarva, Samudraparisoshini, Parvati, Himavatputri, Paramaananda daayini, Gunaadhyaa, Yogajaa, Yogya, Jnaana Murti, Vikaasini, Savitri, Kamala, Lakshmi, Shree, Vishnuhridaya sthita, Saroja nilaya, Mudra, Yoga Nidra, Asuraardini, Sarasvati, Sarva Vidya, Jagajjeshtha, Sumangala, Vagdevi, Varada, Vaachaya, Kirti, Sarvaartha saadhika, Yogishwari, Brahma Vidya, Maha Vidya, Sushobhana, Guhya Vidya, Atma Vidya, Dharma Vidya, Atmabhavita, Swaha, Shivambhara, Siddhi, Swadhaa, Medha, Dhruti, Shruti, Niti, Suniti, Sukruti, Madhavi, Nara vaahini, Aja, Vibhavari, Sowmya, Bhogini, Bhogadayini,Shobha, Vashamkari, Chanchala, Malini, Parameshthini, Trailokya Sundari, Ramya, Sundari, Kaamachaarini, Mahanubhava, Satwasttha, Maha Mahisha Mardini, Padmamaalaa, Paapahara, Vichitra, Mukutaanana, Kanta, Chitraambaradhara, Divyaabharana bhushita, Hamsaakhya, Vyomanilaya, Jagatsrishthi vivardhini, Niryantra, Yantra vaahastha, Nandini, Bhadrakalika, Adithya varna, Kaumari, Mayuravaravaahini, Vrishasanagata, Gauri, Mahakaali, Suraarchita, Aditi, Niyata, Roudri, Padmagarbha, Vivaahana, Virupaakshi, Lolihana, Mahapura nivaasini, Mahaphala, Anavadyangi, Kamarupa, Vichitraratnamakuta, Pranataarthi prabhanjani, Koushiki, Karshani, Raatri, Tridashaarti vinaashini, Bahurupa, Surupa, Virupa, Rupavarjita, Bhaktaarthi shamani, Bhavya, Bhavabhaava vinaashini, Nirguna, Nityavibhava, Nissaraa, Nirupatrapa, Yashaswini, Saamagiti, Bhavaanga nilayaalaya, Diksha, Vidydhari, Deepta, Mahendravinipatini, Sarvaatishayani, Vidya, Sarva Siddha pradaayini, Sarveshwara priya, Taarkshya, Samudraantara vaasini, Akalanka, Niraadhaara, Nityasiddhaa, Niraamaya, Kamadhenu, Vrishadgarbha, Dheemati, Mohanaashini, Nissankalpa, Niraatanka, Devadevi, Manonmani, Maha Bhagavati, Durha, Vaasudeva samudbhava, Mahendropendra bhagini, Bhakti gamya, Paraavara, Jnaanajneya, Jaraatita, Vedanta vishya, Gati, Dakshina, Dahana, Daahyaa, Sarva bhuta namaskruta, Yogamaayaa, Vibhaavajna, Maha Maya, Maheeyasi, Sandhyaa, Sarvasamudbhuti, Vrikshaavriksha- shrayaanati, Beejankura samudbhuti, Maha Shakti, Mahamati, Khyaati, Pragjna, Chiti, Samvita, Maha Bhogindrashaayini, Vikruti, Shankari, Shastri, Gana gandharvasevita, Vaishwaanari, Mahaashaala, Devasena, Grihapriya, Maharaatri, Shivaananda, Shachi, Duhswapna naashini, Ijyaa, Pujya, Jagaddhaatri, Durvijneya, Swarupini, Guhaambika, Gunotpatti, Mahaapetha, Marutsuta, Havya vaahanaantagaadi, Havyavaaha samudbhava, Jagadyoni, Jaganmaata, Janmamritujaraatiga, Buddhimaataa, Buddhimati, Purushaantara vaasini, Taraswini, Samaadhistha, Trinetra, Divisamstita, Sarvendriyamanomaata, Sarva bhuta hridisthita, Samsaara taarini, Vidya, Brahmavaadi manolaya, Brahmaani, Brihati, Braahmi, Brahmabhuta, Bhavaarani, Hiranmayi, Mahaa ratri, Samsaara parivbartika, Sumaalini, Surupa, Bhavini, Taarini, Prabha, Unmeelani, Sarvasaha, Sarvapratyaya saakshini, Susowmya, Chandra vadana, Tandavaasakta maanasa, Satva shuddhikari, Shuddhi, Mala- traya vinashini, Jagatpriya, Trimurti, Amritaashraya, Naraashraya, Niraahaara, Nirarankushanod - bhava, Chandrahasta, Vichitraangi, Stragvini, Padmadhaarini, Paraavaravidhaanajna, Maha Purusha Purvaja, Vidyeshwarapriya, Vidya, Vidyujjihva, Jitashrama, Vidyaamayi, Sahasraakshi, Sahasra vadanaatmaja, Sahasra rashmi, Satvastha, Maheshwara padaashraya, Maanya, Mahadeva Manorama, Vyoma Lakshmi, Simharatha, Chekitaana, Amitaprabha, Veereshwari, Vimaanastha, Vishoka,Shoka naashini, Anaahata, Kundalini, Nalini, Padmavaasini, Sadaanandaa, Sadaakeerti, Sarva bhutaashraya - sthita, Vaagdevata, Brahmakalaa, Kalaatita, Kalaarani, Brahmashri, Brahma hridaya, Brahmavishnu- Shivapriya, Vyomashakti, Kriya Shakti, Jnaana Shakti, Paraagati, Kshobhika, Bandhika, Bhedya, Bhedaabheda vivarjita, Abhinna, Abhinna samsthaana, Vamshini, Vamsha haarini, Guhya Shakti, Gunaatita, Sarvada, Sarvato mukhi, Bhagini, Bhagavatpatni, Sakala, Kaala kaarini, Sarvavit, Sarvatobhadra, Guhyaatita, Guhaarani, Prakriya, Yoga maata, Ganga, Vishveshwareshwari, Kapila, Kaapila, Kanta, Kanakaabha, Kalaantara, Punya, Pushkarini, Bhokti, Purandara purassara, Poshani, Paramaishwarya bhutida, Bhuti bhushana, Panchabrahma samutpatti, Paramaarthaartha vigraha,

Dharmodaya, Bhanumati, Yogijneya, Manohara, Manojava, Manoraksha, Taapasi, Veda Rupini, Veda Shakti, Vedamata, Veda vidyaa prakaashini, Yogeshwareshwari, Maata, Maha Shakti, Manomayi, Vishwaavastha, Viyanmurti, Vidyunmaala, Vihaayasi, Kinkari, Surabhi, Vandya, Nandini, Nandi vallabha, Bharati, Paramaananda, Paraapara vibhedika, Sarva praharanotpeta, Kaamya, Kameshwareshwari, Achintya, Achintya vibhava, Hrillekha, Kanakaprabha, Kushmaandi, Dhana ratnaadhya, Sugandha, Gandha dayini, Trivikrama padodbhuta, Dhanushpaani, Shivodaya, Sudurlabha, Dhanaadhyaksha, Dhanya, Pingala lochana, Shanti, Prabhavati, Deepi, Pankajaayata lochana, Aadyaa, Hridkamalodbhuta, Gavaam Maataa, Rana priya, Satkriya, Girija, Shudda, Nitya pushta, Nirantara, Durga, Katyayani, Chandi, Charchika, Shanta vigraha, Hiranyavarna, Rajani, Jagadyantra pravartika, Mandaaradri nivaasa, Sharada, Swarnamalini, Ratnamala, Ratnagarbha, Prithvi, Vishwapramaathini, Padmaanana, Padmanibha, Nitya tushta, Amritodbhava, Dhunvati, Duhprakamya, Surya Mataa, Drushadwati, Mahendra bhagini, Maanya, Varenya, Varadarpita, Kalyani, Kamala, Rama, Panchabhuta, Varaprada, Vaachyaa, Vareshwari, Vandya, Durjaya, Duratikrama, Kaalaraatri, Mahavega, Virabhadra priya, Hitaa, Bhadrakaali, Jaganmaata, Bhakta Kalyana dayini, Karaala, Pingalaakaara, Namabheda, Amahamada, Yashashwini, Yashoda, Shadhwa parivartika, Shankini, Padmini, Saankhya, Sankhya yoga parvartika, Chaitra, Samvatsararudha, Jagat sampuranindrija, Shumbhaari, Khechari, Swasthaa, Kambugriva, Kalipriya, Khagadhwaja, Khagaarudha, Paraadharya, Paramalini, Aaishvarya vartma nilaya, Virakta, Garudaasana, Jayanti, Hridguha, Ramya, Gahwareshtha, Ganaagrani, Sankalpasiddha, Saamyasthaa, Sarva Vijaana dayini, Kalikalmasha hantri, Guhyopanishat, Uttama, Nishta, Drishti, Smriti, Vyaapti, Pushti, Tushti, Krayavati, Vishvaamareshwareshaana, Bhukti, Mukti, Shiva, Amrita, Lohita, Sarpamaala, Bhishani, Vanamalini, Anbanta shayana, Asnanya, Naranaaraayanodbhava, Nrisimhi, Daitya Mathani, Shanka chakragadaadhara, ankarshana sdamutpatti, Ambikaapada samshraya, Maha jwaala, Maha murti, Sumurti, Sarva kaama dhruk, Suprabha, Sustana, Gauri, Dharmakaamaartha mokshadaa, Bhrumadhya nilaya, Purva, Purana purushaarani, Mahavibhutida, Madhyaa, Sarojanayana, Samaa, Ashtaadasha bhuja, Anaadya, Nilotpala dala prabha, Sarva Shaktyaasanaarudha, Dharmaadharma vivarjita, Vairagya jnaana nirata, Niraaloka, Nireendriya, Vichitra gahanaadhaara, Shaswata sthaana vaasini, Staaneshwari, Nirananda, Trishula vara dhaarini, Asesha Devataa Murti, Ddevata, Varadevata, Ganaabika, Giriputri, Nishumbha vinipaatini, Avarna, Varna rahita, Niravaana, Beeja sambhava, Anantavarna, Anantastha, Shankari, Shaanta Maanasa, Agotra, Gomati, Goptri, Guhyarupa, Gunottara, Gou, Geeh, Gavyapriya, Gouni, Ganeshwara namaskrutya, Satyamaatra, Satya sandha, Trisandhya, Sandhivarjita, Sarvadaashraya, Sankhya, Sankhyaayoga samudbhava, Asankhyeya, Aprameyaakhya, Shunya, Shudda kulodbhava, Bindunaada samutpatti, Shambhuvaama, Shashiprabha, Visanga, Bheda rahita, Manoja, Madhusudani, Mahashri, Shri samutpatti, Tamah paare pratishthita, Tritatwa maata, Trividha, Susukshma pada samshraya, Shaantaatita, Malaatita, Nirvikara, Niraashraya, Shivaakhya, Chitta nilaya, Shinajnaana Swarupini, Daitya daanava nirmaatri, Kashyapi, Kaalakalpika, Shastrayoni, Kriyamurti, Chaturvarga pradarshika, Narayani, Narodbhuti, Kaumudi, Lingadharini, Kaamuki, Lalitha, Bhava, Paraabhava bhutida, Parantajata Mahima, Badava, Vamalochana, Subhadra, Devaki, Sita, Vedavedaanga paaraga, Manaswini, Manyumaata, Maha Manyu Samudbhava, Amrutya, Amrita,

The above ‘Sahasra Naamaas’ of Bhagavati rendered by Himavan pleased Devi and she gave him ‘Upadesha’and an ever grateful Himavan assumed the role of her father and performed the Immortal Shiva Parvati wedding for ‘Loka Kalyaana’. The Phala Shruti of the above Devi Sahasra Naamaas was stated as follows:

Ya imam pathateydhyaayam Devyaa Maahaatma kirtanam,

Shivasya sannidhou Bhaktyaa Shuchitad bhaava bhaavitah/

Sarva paapa vinirmukto Divya yoga samanvitah,

Ullanghya rahmano Lokam Devyaah Sthaanamavaapnuyaat/

Pratyekam chatha Naamnaani Juhuyaat Sananatrayam,

Putanaadikrutairdoshair Graha doshaischa muchyatey/

Sampujya Paarshwatah Shambhum Trinetram Bhakti samyutah,

Labhatey Mahatim Lakshmim Maha Deva Prasaadatah/

Tasmaat Sarva prayatnena Japtavyam hi Dwijaatibhih,

Sarva Paapaaanodaartham Devyaa naam Sahasrakam/

( Whosoever recites always with Cleanliness and Sincerity the above Commendation of Deva Bhagavati in the presence of Maha Deva would be steered clear of his or her sins and irregularities of on-going life and attains Devi Loka even beyond Brahma Loka; such persons would definitely avoid Arishtaas or impact of Evil effects; all the possible drawbacks and obstacles of Grahaas /Planets would be overcome and by the Grace of Shankara, Devi Lakshmi would bestow the devotee ample prosperity and longevity).

Varaha Deva rescues Bhu Devi from Rasatala

At the time of Pralaya or Total Annihilation, there was darkness all around and life was submerged in water when Vishnu rested in Yoga Maya:

Ekaarnavey tadaa Tasmin nashtey Sthaavarajangamey,

Tadaa Samabhavad Brahmaa Sahasraakshah Sahasrapaat/

Sahasra Sirshaa Purusho Rukmavarna stwaateendriyah,

Brahma Naraayanaakhyaastu Sushvaapa salilo tadaa/

Apo Naaraa iti proktaa naamnaa purvamitih Srutih,

Ananam tasya taa yasmaat tena Narayanah smritah/

(As there was nothing else except water everywhere and the whole Creation of Moveables and Immovables got submerged in water, then Paramatma Purusha with thousands of eyes, feet and heads surfaced in golden colour lying on an unending water sheet; indeed he was Narayana as described in Vedas as ‘Aap’or ‘Naara’ or water (Naara+Ayana or resting on water). While being playful with water Narayana assumed the Swarupa of a Varaha or Boar, lifted up Bhumi (Earth) from Rasatala by the sheer might of his ‘Damshtras’( protruded teeth/ tusk) and on visioning this unique feat as accomplished by Bhagavan, Siddhas and Brahmarshis commended and Narayana as follows:

Namastey Deva Devaaya Brahmaney Parameshtiney,

Purushaaya Puraanaaya Shaswataaya Jayaaya cha/

Namah Swayambhuvey tubhyam Srashtey Sarvaartha Vediney,

Namo Hiranyagarbhaaya Vedhasey Paramaatmaney/

Namastey Vaasudevaaya Vishnavey Vishwayonaye,

Naraayanaaya Devaaya Devaanaam Hitakaariney/

Namostu tey Chaturvaktra Shaaranga chakraasi dhaariney,

Sarva Bhutaatma Bhutaaya kutasthaaya namonamah/

Namo Veda rahasyaaya namastey Vedayonaye,

Namo buddhaaya Shuddhaaya namastey Jnaana rupiney/

Namostwaananda rupaaya Saakshiney Jagataam Namah,

Anantaayaaprameyaaya Karyaaya Kaaranaayacha/

Namastey Pancha bhutaaya Pancha Bhutaatmaney Namah/

Namostu tey Varaahaaha Namastey Matsya rupiney,

Namo Yogaadhigamyaaya Namah Sankarshanaaya tey/

Namastrimurtaye tubhyam Tridhaamney Divya tejasey,

Namah Siddhaaya pujyaaya Gunatraya vibhaaviney/

Namostwaadityavarnaaya Namastey Padmayonaye,

Namomrutaaya Murtaayaa Maadhavaaya Namo namah/

Twayaiva Srashtamakhilam Ywayyeva Layameshyati,

Paalayaitajjagat sarvam jnaataa twam sharanam gatih/

Ityevam sa Bhagavan Vishnuh Sanakaadyarabhishthitah,

Prasaadamakaro teshaam Varaahavapureeshwarah/

(Salutations to you Deva Deva, Brahma, Parameshthi, Purusha, Purana the most Ancient, Shaswata the Everlasting, Swayambhu or Materialised on His own; Srashta or the Creator; Sarvaartha Vedi or He who knows everything; Hiranyagarbha or the Golden Bellied; and Vedha or Paramatma; You are the Origin for the Creation of the Universe; the Great Comfort Point of Devas; Narayana; Vishnu; the Holder of Sharanga-Chakraa-Sword named Nandaka; Chatirmukha; Atma Rupa; Kutastha or the Seat of Spiritual Eye or the Unchanging Spirit’- litearally meaning standing on the Top; Vedarahasya

Swarupa; Veda’s Originator; Shuddha-Buddha Swarupa; Jnaana Rupa; Ananda Swarupa; the Unique Witness of the World; Ananta or the Endless; Aprameya or the Incomprehensible; Karya-Karana Rupa or the Act and the Reason for the Act; Pancha Bhuta or the Composite Form of the Five Elements; Mula Prakriti or the Basic Root of Prakriti or Maaya or the Creation; Varaha Deva; Matsya Rupa; Visionable by the Yoga route; Sankarshana; You are the Teja Rupa of Triguna- Tri Murti- Tridhaama or three abodes; Aditya Samaana Varna; Murthaamurta Swarupa or of a Form or Non Form; The Last Shelter Point or Sanctuary and Maadhava! You Create-Protect and Terminate the World. You are indeed the shield and safeguard! ) As Narayana expanded his Body as Kurma, Bhu Devi rested on the Kurma Swarupa and Brahma Srishti commenced all over again.

Narasimha’s incarnation, Prahlada’s Bhakti and Andhakasura’s remorse securing ‘Ganatwa’

Of the thirteen wives of Kashyapa who were the daughters of Daksha viz. Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arishta, Surasa, Surabhi, Vinata, Tamra, Krodhavasha, Ira, Kadru, Muni and Dharmaja, Diti gave birth to Hiranya Kashipu and Hinarnyaksha. Hirnayakashipu became arrogant having secured the boon of invincibility from Brahma and tormented Devas, Maharshis and Brahmanas, even to the extent of declaring himself as mightier than Narayana. Devas approached Vishnu who had already created from his ‘Amsha’ the ‘Narasimha’ or the Man-Lion Swarupa and despatched him to the Kingdom of Hiranyakashipu. On learning of this, the Daitya commisioned four of his sons viz. Prahlada, Anihlada, Samhlada and Hlada; the sons charged Narasimha with Brahmastra, Vaishnavastra, Kaumaraastra and Agneyastra but Narasimha caught hold of the feet of all the Putras and through them all in different directions. Hiranyakashipu confronted Narasimha Deva and tried to hit him on the chest even as the latter disappeared on Garuda. Hiranyaksha the younger brother of Hiranyakashipu recited the Pashupata Mantra against Narasimha but Mahadeva would not harm Vasudeva. That was the time when Prahlada realised the Supremacy of Narasimha:

Drushtawaa paraahatam twastram Prahlaado bhaagya gouravaat,

Meyney Sarvaatmakam Devam Vaasudevam sanatanam/

Samtyajya sarva shastraani Satyayuktena chetasaa,

Nanaama Shirasaa Devam yoginaam hridayeshyam/

Stutwaa Naaraayanaih stotraaih Rukyajuh Saaama sambhavaih,

Nivaarya Pitaram Bhraatrun Hirantaaksham tadaa braveet/

Ayam Naaraayanonantah shaswato Bhagavaanajah,

Puraana Purusho Devo Mahayogi Jaganmayah/

Ayam Dhaataa Vidhaataa cha Swayamjjoytirniranjanah,

Pradhaana Purushastwam Mula Prakritiravyayah/

Ishwarah Sarvabhutaanaamanantaryami gunaatigah,

Gacchaadhwamenam sharanam Vishnumavyaktamavyayaa/

Ayam sarvaatmanaa vadhyo Nrisimholpa pararaakramah,

Samaagatosmadbhavanamidaaneem Kaalacheditah/

Vihasya Pitaram Putro Vachah Praaha Mahaamatih,

Maa Nindaswainameeshaanaam Bhutaanaamekamvyayam/

Katham Devo Mahadevah shaswatah Kaalavarjitah,

Kaalena hanyatey Vishnuh Kaalaatma Kaalarupadhruk/

Tatah Suvarna kashipur duratma vidhichoditah,

Nivaaritopi putrena yudodha Harimavyayam/

(As the powerful Narayananstra and Shiva’s Paashupataastra proved to be ineffevtive, Prahlada realised that Narasimha was none else other than Vaasudeva Himself and having visioned him as Ruk-Yajur-Saama Swarupa extolled him withVaishnava Stutis and asked his father, uncle and brothers to stop the battle; he said they should all take shelter from himn and not fight with him as he is Anata, Sanatana, Ajanma, Maha Yogi, Puruna Purusha, Dhata, Vidhata, Swayam jyoti, Niranjana, Purana Purusha, Tatwa, Mula Prakriti, Avyaya, Ishwara, Antaryami and Avyaya Vishnu. Hiranyakashipu shouted that this Narasimh was indeed worth killing as he entered this place as though he was sent by Kaala or Mrityu to my house for being killed. But smilingly, Prahlada tried to convince the Daitya that Vaasudeva was the Singular Entity who himself was Kaala Varjita( deathless) Kaal (Mrityu or death) and Kaalaatma or the Form of Mrityu himself and there was no question of Kaala Deva despatching Narasimha to their Place; but since Hiranyakashipu was fool hardy, the Lion from Narasimha tore the Daitya’s guts and intestines from his body and cut them into pieces and sent him to hell; as this happened, the highly enraged Bhagavan killed the Daitya Sons, excepting of Prahlada, who was overcome by the presence of Vaasudeva. As Hiranyaksha became the King, his atrocities were intensified against Devas and Sages and finally imprisoned Bhu Devi and dragged her into Rasaatala. Bhagavan assumed the form of Varaha and having killed him and rescued Bhu Devi returned to Vaikuntha. Prahlada anointed his cousin brother Andhaka as the King and rejected the Asura way of life and was fully immersed in Vishnu’s worship. In course of time, Prahlada was by the influence of Maya ignored to perform the Puja of a Brahmana Guest who was annoyed and cursed Prahlada that what all the positive fruits were earned by way of Vishnu Puja by him would be lost; thus Prahlada went back to his erstwhile Asura Gunas and neglected Vishnu puja; in fact he attacked Hari once but got snubbed by him.Having recovered from the ill-effects of the Maya, Prahlada then performed worship with redoubled energy to Vishnu. Meanwhile Andhakasura , an ardent devotee of Mahadeva developed devotion for Parvati.

Once, there was a dreadful and widespread ‘Anavrishti’or famine at Daruvana and there was no production of foodgrains for years together; there were many deaths of human beings as also cattle. Munis and others approached Gautami Rishi who provided excellent food to one and all. Those who were unscrupulous and jealous of the Muni created a ‘Mayavi’ Cow and made the Muni touch the animal which died as he touched it. All the Brahmanas then refused to take the food provided by the Muni in view of the ‘Gohatya’or the killing of the Cow and left away from his Ashram. In course of time, the Rishi came to learn of the mischief of some of the playful Brahmanas and cursed them that

they would be abandoned out of the purview of Vedas and would die soon and get their rebirths soon and keep on consuming impure food. The repentant Brahmanas prayed to both Mahadeva and Vishnu; in response, Bhagavan Rudra made new Shastras like Kaapaala, Naakula, Vaama, Bhairava, Purva Paschimaa, Pancha Ratra etc. by reciting which human beings would get rid of their sins and leave the recycle themselves into the vortex of quick births and deaths. Shiva for the sake of the Brahmanas appeared on Earth and commenced ‘Bhiksha Vritthi’ or professional begging by wearing garlands of Kapalaas and smearing ash on the forehead carrying Nandi along as also Kaalabhairava. Vishnu on the other hand assumed the Swarupa of a maid to serve Devi Parvati along with Brahma, Agni, Indra, Yama and so on. Nandi was the gate keeper procecting Maheswari in view of the threat posed by Andhakaasura who was obsessed with the Devi. This was the background when Andhakasura arrived at the Place of Parvati Devi for whom he developed an obsession. As Kalabhairava stopped the Daitya and fought with him, Andhaka multiplied himself into innumerable Forms along with the Strong men of Army like Ghantakarna, Meghanaada, Chandesha, Chandatapana, Vinayaka, Meghavaaha and so on and defeated Nandi and Bhairaweshwara. As Andhaka’s army became more and more violent especially since Andhaka was multiplying manifold, Bhairava and Nandi reached Vaasudeva, and the latter made such an arrangement to exterminate the million Rupas as they emerged and Andhaka ran away from the battle field. Even before Andhaka fled away, some hundred Devis were in position and were singing hymns of victory in praise of Devi Girija and Parama Shiva. The Devis questioned Shiva, Parvati and Vishnu when Shiva explained that he was the Parama Tatwa whom none could visualise possibly; he said:

Aham Naraayano Gauri Jaganmaataa Sanaatani,

Vibhajya Samsthito Devaha Swaatmaanam Bahudheswarah/

Na mey viduh param tatwam Devaadyaa na Maharshayah,

Ekoyam Veda Vishwaatmaa Bhavaani Vishnurevacha/

Aham hi Nishkriyah Shaantah Kevalo Nishparigrahah,

Maameva Keshavam Devamaahur devimathaambikaam/

Esha Dhaataa Vidhaataa cha Kaaranam Kaaryamevacha,

Karthaa Kaarayitaa Vishnurbhuktimukti phalapradah/

Bhoktaa Pumaanaprameyah Samhartaa Kaalarupadhruk,

Srashtaa Paataa Vaasudevo Vishwatmaa Vishwato mukhah/

Kuutastho hyaakasharo Vyaapi Yogi Naarayanah swayam,

Taarakah Purushohyaatmaa Kevalam Paramam padam/

Saishaa Maheshwari Gauri Mama Shakti Niranjanaa,

Shantaa Satyaa Sadaaandaa Param mitih Shrutih/

Asyah Sarvamidam Jaatamatriava layameshyatyi,

Yeshiva Sarva Bhutaama Gateena muktamaa gatih/

Tayaaham sangato Devyaa Kevalo Nishkalahparah,

Pashyaamyaseshamevedam Yastad Veda sa muchyatey/

Tasmaadanaadimadvaitam Vishnumaatmaana meeshwaram,

Ekameeya vijaaneedhwam tato yasyatha nivrutthim/

Maanyantey Vishnumavyakta maatmaanam Shraddayaanvitaah,

Ye bhinnadrushtyapeeshaanaam Pujayanto na mey Priyaah/

Dwishanti ye Jagatsutim Mohitaa Rouravaadishu,

Pachyamaanaa ma muchyatey Kalpakoti shatairapi/

Tasmaadasesha bhutaanaam Rakshako Vishnuravraayah,

Yathaavadih Vijnaaya dheyayah Sarvaapadih Prabhuh/

(I am Ishwara the composite of Narayana, Sanatana Jaganmataa Guauri and the Self divided into innumerable Forms; Neither Maharshis nor Devas are aware of Parama Tatwam; even Vishnu or Devi too are quite unaware; I am the Nishkriya or Action less, Shanta the Peaceful, Kevala or the Singular and the Nishparigrah or the Nir-Dwandya; I am also known as Keshava, Deva and Devi Ambica. This Vishnu himself is Dhata, Vidhata, Kaarana or the Cause; Kaarya or the Action, Kartha the Doer and Kaarayita or the one prompting Action; He is also Bhukti-Mukti Phala Prada; Bhokta; Aprameya; Samharta; Kaala Swarupa; Srishti-Paalana; Vishwatma, Sarvavyapaka, Vaasudeva, Kutastha, Avinaashi, Vyaapi, Yogi, Narayana, Taraka, Purusha, Atma, Kevala and Moksha. This Maheswari Gauri is Shakti, is Niranjana, Shanta, Veda, Satya, Sadaananda; Sarvot -panna and Laya Kaarana; Adwiteeya, Nishkala, and Sampurna; I visualise the Universe through her and comprhent Maha Tatwa from her; those who guess Tatwa from her would attain the Essence of Life. Those who imagine that Shiva alone is Paramatma and ignore / dislike Vishnu are not my Bhaktas and similarly those who worship Vishnu and detest Shiva are sure to be banished to Rouraka Narakas. Indeed thus no prayer is complete disregarding Vishnu or Shiva).

Meanwhile Andhaka was unable to resist his obsession withe Devi Parvati and landed on the Mountain and tried to reach Mahadeva and Devi Parvati. Vaasudeva exclaimed to Mahadeva as to why he was going slowly in exterminating Andhaka, while he was capable of exterminating the Universe in entirety and why that in fact he allowed an opportunity to Andhaka earlier to run away from the battle field! Then Mahadeva lifted his Trishula which got attracted to the Daitya and commenced Tandava Nritya or the Typical Form of his dance. Brahma and Devas then realised that Andhaka’s hour of ‘Paapa Vimochana’ arrived; Munis and Siddhaganas recited Vedas, Gandharvas and Kinnaras sang tuneful songs of eulogy of Mahadeva and Apsaraganaas danced with joy in anticipation. The top portion of the Trishula burnt off all the sins of the Daitya as he was freed from the thick blanket of Maya and he secured ‘Mahaa Gyaana’; since he was purified of his evil thoughts and deeds, Andhaka then broke down into spontateous Stuti of Maha Deva:

Namaami Murthnaa Bhagavantamekam Samaahitaa yam Vidureesha Tatwam,

Puraatanam Punyamanantarupam Kaalam Kavim Yogaviyoga-hetum/

Damshtraa karaalam Divi Nrityamaanam HutaashaVaktram Jwalanaarka rupam,

Sahasra paadaakshi Shirobhiyutam Bhavantamekam pranamaami Rudram/

Jayaadi Devaamara pujitaanghryai Vibhaagaheenaamala Tatwarupa

Vayavaadibhedairakhilaatma rupa/

Twaameka -maahuh Purusham Puranamaaditya varnam Tamasah parastaat,

Twam pasyaseedam paripaasya -jastram twamantako Yogi gunaabhijushtah/

Ekontaraatmaa Bahudhaa Nivishto deheshu dehaadih viseshaheenah/

Twamaatma shabdam Paramaatmanatwam Bhavantamaahuh Shivameka keychit/

Twamaksharam Brahma Param Pavitramaanmada rupam Pranavaabhidhaanam,

Twameeshwaro Vedapadeshu Siddhah Swayam Pabhosesha visheshah heennah/

Twamindrarupo Varunaagni rupo Hamsah Praano Mrutyurantosi Yagjnah,

Prajaapatir Bhagavaaneka Rudro Nilagreevah stuyasey Vedavidbhih/

Narayanastwam Jagataamathaadih Pitaamahastwam Prapitaamahascha,

Vedaanta -guhyopi nishatsu geetah Sadaa Shivastvam Parameshwarosi/

Namah parastaat Tamasah Parasmai Paraatmaney Panchapadaantaraaya,

Tri Shaktiteetaaya Niranjanaaya Sahasra Shaktyaasana samsthi -taaya/

Trimurthayenantapadaatma murtey Jagannivaasaaya Jaganmayaya,

Namo Lalaatorpita lochanaaya Namojanaanaam Hridi Samsthitaaya/

Phaneendra haaraaya Namostutubhyam Muneendra siddhaarchita Paada yugma/

Sahasra dharmaasana Samsthitaaya Namah Paraantaaya Bhavodbha -vaaya/

Sahasrachandraarka Vilochanaaya Namostutey Soma Sumadhyamaaya,

Namostutey Deva Hiranyabaaho, Namombikaayaah Pataye Mundaaya/

Namotiguhyaaya Guhaantaraaya Vedaanta Vijnaana sunischitaaya,

Trikaala heenaamala dhaamadhaamney Namo Maheshaaya Namah Shivaaya/

Yevam Stuvantam Bhagavaan Shulaagraadavaropya tam,

Tushtah provaacha hastaabhyaam spushtaaya Parameshwarah/

(I greet that Unique Paramatma-the Puraatana, Punyadaayi, Ananta Kaala Swarupa, Kavi and Samyoga-Viyoga Swarupa- whose Maha Tatwa is sought after by Samadhi-sthita Yogis. I salute that fierce-ful, Agni-faced, Surya-like; thousand footed-thousand faced-thousand headed Adviteeya Rudra. I pay my obeisances to you Maha Deva as Devas worship your feet; you are the Indivisible Tatwa Swarupa; Agni-Vaayu- Surya Swarupa; Victory to you Purana Purusha; You are beyond Tamas and Maya and the dazzling light; Palana-Samhara Karta; Yogi Samuha Sevita or the One worshipped by Groups of Yogis; the Antaraatma or the Inner Consciousness that is distinct from the Outer Body Frame; You are the Atma Tatwa and the Paramatma Tatwa. Prabho! You are the Embodiment of Joy, the Hallmark of Purity; Omkara Shabda Vaachya; Devoid of all Padarthaas; and You are Indra, Varuna, Agni, Hamsa, Praana, Mrityu; Anta and Yagjna. Those who are conversant of Vedas address you as Nilakantha, Eka Rudra, Prajapati, and Bhagavat Swarupa. You are the Adi or the Beginning, Narayana, Pitamaha and Prapitamaha. Sada Shiva Parameshwara, you are the Secret Meaning of Vedaanta Shastraas and Upanishads. You are beyond Tamo Guna, Parama Paramatma, Pancha Padaanta Swarupa; the Tri Shakti Swarupa of Braahmi, Vaishnavi and Shaakta; Niranjana and Sahasra Shakti Rupa; Tri Murti Swarupa of Brama, Vishnu and Shiva Rupa; Anata Padaatmaka, Atma Murti, Jagannivaasa and Jaganmaya; You wear your eyes on your forehead and Nagaraja maalaas all over your body, while Munis and Siddhas keep your feet-lotuses in their inner vision. My humble salutations to you who is seated on the ‘Dharmaishwarya’ or the Wealth of Virtue; your eyes are like thousand Suryas and Chandras while your mid-body is Moon-like cool. You are of Hiranya baahu or of glittering golden hands; Ambikapati Munda. My sincere ‘Namaskaaraas’to you Guhya, Guhyantara, Vedantarupa, devoid of influences caused by the ‘Trikaalaas’ and the Supreme Source of Pure Radiance).Parama Shiva was so pleased with Andhakas passionate Stuti that he conferred ‘Ganatwa’ under Nandi Deva’s leadership).

As Andhka fell on her feet and prayed to her: Namaami Devavallabhamanadi madrijaamimaam, Yatah Pradhaanama Purushou nihanti yaakhilam Jagat/ Vibhati ya Shivaasaney Shivena Saamakavyayaa, Hiranyetirnirmaley Namaami taamimaamajam/ Yadanantaraakhilam Jagajjayanti yaani samkshayam, Namaami yatra taamumaa- masesha bhedavarjitaam/ Na jaayateyn na heeyatey na vardhatey cha taamumaam, Namaami yaa gunaatigaa Gireesha putrikaamimaam/ Kshamaswa Devi Shailajey krutam mayaa vimohitah, Suraa-surairarchitam Namaami tey padaambujam/ Ithyam Bhagavati Gauri Bhaktinamrena Parvatee, Samstutaa Daityapatinaa putratvey jagruhendhakam/ (My sincere apologies to Shankara Priya Devi Parvati the Prime Prakriti who along with Purusha creates and terminates the Universe in totality. Forgive my shame as I had evil feelings towards you Devi who is the Symbol of Purity and Auspiciousness seated along with Parama Shiva as you too are Ajanma or Birthless and Avyaya or Endless. Kindly absolve my unpardonable sin for ignorance as she creates and destroys and is beyond Trigunas and is worthy of worship by Deva-Danavas alike! Andhakasura’s heartfelt guilt of highest order was pardoned by Devi Parvati and being a fund of mercy forgave him as typical of a Supreme Mother).

Vaamana Deva’s incarnation and Bali Chakravarti’s extreme sacrifice

Prahlada’s son King Virochana who overpowered Devas and occupied Trilokas came into contact with Brahma Manasa Putra Sanat Kumara and was greatly impressed with his teachings of ‘Atma Jnaana’ or the Knowledge of the Supreme Soul. He abandoned Kingship and coronated Bali as the Emperor. Bali Chakravartii expanded his Empire further and Devas had futher difficulties as their miseries increased manifold as their hopes of recovering Swarga receded further since Bali Chakravarti’s administration was impeccable as per Scriptures: he was a Brahmana Bhakta, highly enlightened and progressive administrator and none could raise a finger against him or his virtues. But, the fact remained that Devas became nomads and completely lost their glory; the very many yagnas conducted by the Chakravarti under the direction of Daitya-Danava Guru Shukracharya were

impeccable but the Yagna Phalas were purely for the advantage of Daityas but were denied to Devas. Deva Maata Aditi was highly disturbed as her own sons were roaming from pillar to post neither without a home nor with a power! The highly disillusioned mother then resorted to exreme Tapasya to Narayana seeking that vaasudeva should take to an Avatara to defeat Daitya-Danavas and restore Devas back to their original position of glory. In response to her Tapasya, Vaasudeva appeared in his full Form with Shankha-Chakra-Gadaa-Sharangas and an ever grateful Aditi prayed to him as follows:

Jayaasesha duhkhoghanaashaika heto Jayaananta mahaatmya yogaabhiyukta,

Jayaanaadi madhaanta vijnaana murtey Jayaasesha kalpaamalaananda rupa/

Namo Vishnavey Kaalarupaaya tubhyam Namo Naarasimhaaya seshaaya tubhyam,

Namah Kaala Rudraaya Samhaara Kartrey Namo Vaasudevaaya tubhyam namastey/

Namo Vishwamaayaa vidhaanaaya tubhyam Namo Yoga gamyaaya Satyaaya tubhyam,

Namo Dharma Vigjnaana nishthaaya tubhyam Namastey Varaahaaya bhuyo Namastey/

Namastey sahasraarka chandraabha murtey Namo Vedavigjnaana Dharmaabhi -gamya,

Namo Devadevadi Devaadideva Prabho Viswayonetha bhuyo Namastey/

Namah Shambhaveuy Satyaishthaaya tubhyam Namo hetavey Vishwarupaaya tubhyam,

Namo yoga peethaantarasthaaya tubhyam Shivaayaika rupaaya bhuyo namastey/

(Victory to you as you are the only destroyer of the root causes of difficulties and setbacks; You are constantly engaged in Yoga; the Vigjnaana Swarupa without a beginning, center and end; Victory to you the Asesha Kalpa without any rest or intermission of activities; the embodiment of spotlessness and bliss; Victory to you Kaala Rupa, Narasimha, Kaala Rudra, Vaasudeva, Mayaavidhaana or the Planner of Illusions; Satya Rupa who is comprehended by Yoga; Jnaana nishtha; Dharma; Varaha Swarupa; Unique Symbol of Magnificence comparable to thousands of Suryas and Chandras; the unparalleled medium of Dharma and Jnaana as proposed and embedded in Vedas; Devadi Deva, Adi Deva, Satya Nishtha, Vishwa Rupa, Kaarana Rupa, Eka Rupa and Yoga peetha Madhya or as situated in the Center of Yoga; my sincere salutations to You!) In response to Aditi’s commendation as above, Narayana bestowed his boon to soon take the Incarnation as Vamana Murti.

As this development took place, King Bali noticed fearful premonitions including earth quakes and heavy rains followed by lightnings and thunders, when Bali asked his grand father Prahlada about these untoward signs. Prahlada replied that his apprehension as visioned by him was that Vaasudeva had then entered Devi Aditi’s garbha to destroy the Daitya elements in the Universe as they tormented Devas and dislodged them from their rightful thrones and statuses. King Bali softened his stiff stand against Devas as Prahlada explained at length that Vaasudeva was of tamasika feature as Shankara, of Raajasika nature as Brahma and of Satvika nature as Vishnu and better that King Bali took refuge in Narayana. As time passed, Vishnu arrived in his new incarnation as Vaamana Deva: Chaturbhujam Vishaalaaksham Shrivatsaangitavakshasam, Nilamegha pratikaasham bhraajamaanam Shriyaa - vritam/ (Vishnu with his four hands, broad eyes, Shrivatsa Mani on his chest, with colour like blue clouds and extremely lustrous made his appearance) as Vaamana Avatara in the Brahmana clan. Then Devatas, Siddha ganaas, Sadhyas, Charanaas, besides Indra and Brahma gathered around and performed Jaata Karmas, and subsequently Upanayana followed by Vedaadhyayana under the tutorship of Bharadwaja Maharshi. As King Bali performed a Maha Yagna, Vaamana Deva

accompanied Guru Bharadwaja attended the function with Krishna Mriga Charma or deer skin and Yagnopaveeta or the Sacred Thread, Palaasa danda, jataa, bhasma etc.that were typical of a Brahmachaari while reciting Vedaas. The Bhikshu then asked charity of a mere three feet of land and in agreement of the ‘daanaa’, King Bali performed ‘Sankalpa’ or Vedic Approval and as a formality offered water in the Bhikshu’s hands. Then the measurement of three feet commenced formally; King Bali washed Vishnu’s feet and declared that he was giving away in charity the three feet of land and symbolically left water on land:

Vichakramey Prithivimesha Aitaamataantariksham Divamaadi devah,

Vyapetaraagam Ditigneshwaram tam Prakartukaamah sharanam prapannam/

Aakramya Lokatraya meesha paadah Praajaapadyaad Brahmalokam jagaama,

Praneymuraaditya sahasrakalpam ye tatra Lokey Nivasantin Siddhhaah/

(Vishnu then sought to measure the three feet by occupying the Earth, Antariksha or the Sky and the Dyuloka; as he occupied the trilokas, the Lord’s feet touched the Prajapati loka and the the Brahma loka where the Siddha ganaas and others had the chance of touching the foot of Vishnu Deva; as the Sacred feet pierced through the Kapaala of Brahmanada, Sacred waters of Ganga flowed down on to Akaasha.

Thus:

Gatwaa Mahaantam Prakritim Pradhaanam Brahkaanamekam Purusham Swabeejam/

Atisdhthadeeshasya padam tadavyayam drushtwaa Devaastatrta tatra stutivanti/

Aalokya tam Purusham Vishwakaayam Mahaan Balirbhaktiyogena Vishnum,

Nanaama Naaraayanamekamavyayam swachetasaa yam Pranamanti Devaah/

Twamabrameed Bhagavaanaadikartaa bhutwaa punar Vaamano Vaasudevh/

Mamaiva Daityadhipateyrdhunedam Lokatrayam Bhavataa Bhaavadattam/

(Vishnu’s feet reached upto Maha-Pradhana-Prakriti-Swabeeja Swarupa-Purusha-Brahma and got settled there; Devas prayed to that Avyaya at different positions with great devotion and so did the King when Vaamana Deva declared that the Tri Lokas were indeed under his possession).

As Bali extolled Vaamana Deva, the latter instructed the King to enter Pataala Lokas and enjoy life till the end of the Kalpa and finally enter Vishnu Himself. Janardana then restored Swarga back to Indra and Devas as Siddhas, Devatas, Rishis, Kinnara, Brahma, Indra, Rudra, Adityas and Marudganas prayed to Vishnu out of gratitude.

Incarnation of Shri Rama, execution of Ravana and Installation of Rameshwara Linga

Devi Aditi and Kashypa Muni gave birth to Aditya and the latter had four wives viz. Sangjna, Raagjni, Prabha and Chaaya Devi; Sangjna’s sons were Manu and Yama and their daughter was Yamuna; Ragjni’s son was Raivata and Chhaya’s sons were Saavarna and Shani and daughters were Tapati and Vishta. Manu’s eldest son was Ikshwaku and in that illustrious lineage was born Harischandra who was famed for his Truthfulness as he sacrificed his Kingdom, wife and son. It was

also in that lineage in which Bhagiratha was born, known for his persistence and fortitude and succeeded to bring down Ganges from Heavens to wash off the impact of Kapila Maharshi’s curse to his great-grand fathers. Raghu and Dasaratha too belonged to that Vamsha in which Shri Rama was born as an Incarnation of Vishnu with his brothers named Bharata, Lakshmana and Shatrughna. Devi Sita was the daughter of King Janaka to whom Maha Deva gifted a Shiva Dhanush and the King announced that whosoever could lift and set the Dhanush would be given Devi Sita in wedding. None of the powerful and valiant Kings or others could even lift the Dhanush, let alone set it. But Shri Rama was not only able to set it but even broke it. King Dasaratha planned to make Rama the Yuva Raja or the heir apparent, but the youngest of the three Queens called Kaikeyi thwarted the plan and instead demanded Rama to be banished to spend fourteen years in Vana Vaasa or Forest Life even as her own son Bharat should be the Yuva Raja. The weak King could neither stop Rama to go to forests nor refuse Kaikeyi’s wish and in this dilemma succumbed to death; Rama accompanied by Devi Sita and brother Lakshmana proceeded to the forests while a faithful Bharata discarded Kingship and only acted as the Administrator on behalf of Shri Rama during his absence. During the VanaVaasa, Rama destroyed several Rakshasaas with the able assistance of Lakshmana, facilitated Maharshis to perform Yagnas and promoted virtuous deeds by shielding Dharma against Adharma (Virtue versus Vice) and Nyaya against Anyaya (Justice against Injustice). Almost at the end of the stipulated time of Forest Life moving from place to place and protecting Maharshis, Munis and the Virtuous and punishing the Evil, Rama lived in a ‘Parnashala’ or thatched abode in peace when a Rakshasi called Surpanakha spotted Rama and made amorous proposals to him but being of ‘Eka Patni Vrata’ or of a Single wife Practice refused her proposals of marriage; since she made desperate and insistent efforts, he instructed Lakshmana to cut off her nose as he was against the Dharma of killing a woman. The Raakshasi approached her brother Ravana the most obnoxious and vicious Demon King of Lanka across the high Sea away from the mainland of Bharata Desha. Ravana decided to score against Shri Rama, more so as Sita Devi was beautiful and charming. He despatched another Demon called Maricha to reach Sita-Rama’s Parnashala by assuming the Form of a Golden Deer to tempt Sita while Rama chased the animal and while being killed by him it shouted ‘Rama’ as though Rama was in trouble; Lakshmana left the Parnashala and Ravana in disguise as a Muni requested Sita for alms to cross the Lakshmana Rekha – a Protective and Circular Line laced with Mantras- which was drawn by Lashmana and as soon as she crossed it, Ravana appeared in his original form with ten heads and twenty hands and kidnapped her and whisked her away to Lanka. On return to the Parna shaala, Rama was distraught and on learning from Jatayu the friend of Dasaratha that Sita was kidnapped by Ravana and took her away to Lanka, befriended Sugreeva and Hanuman, crossed the Sea and killed Ravana and the entire clan of Ravanasura. Apart from Sugreeva and the huge monkey brigade, Hanuman, a matchless Bhakta or devotee of Shri Rama played a momentous role in the Epic of Ramayana: he crossed the High Sea to Lanka; spotted Devi Sita in a Garden of Lanka under imprisonment suffering Ravana’s heavy pressure of marrying her and threats of killing her husband Rama; convinced Sita that he was a genuine messenger of Rama; assuaged Sita’s misery and boosted her morale by assuring that Rama was arriving; cautioned Ravana with dire consequences since Rama was of Vishnu’s Incarnation and would annihilate him and his entire clan; assisted Rama to construct a Rama Setu or a massive bridge across the Sea; saved Lakshmana’s life on the battle field as he was hit by Indrajit’s arrows by reaching the Himalaya Mountain Range and bringing overnight a huge Mountain with ‘Sanjeevani’or life saving herb; took a lead role in killing countless Rakshasaas; carried Rama and Lakshmana on his broad shoulders as their personal chariot; facilitated the destruction of Indrajit, Kumbhakarna and Ravana and finally enabled the coronation of Vibheeshana, the only virtuous brother of Ravanaasura, as the King of Lanka.

In the midst of Setu, Rama and Sita decided to install a Shiva Linga, not only to celebrate the victory of Virtue against Evil, but also to atone the killing of Ravana a Brahmana though a Demon. Hanuman was comissioned to fetch a genuine Shiva Linga from Varanasi Kshetra but as he could not reach the appointed spot at the auspicious ‘Muhurta’, Devi Sita prepared a Linga with Seashore sand and the

Sand Linga so installed had thus come to stay till date-apart from the Shiva Linga brought by Hanuman though belatedly. Maha Deva appeared in his full Form along with Devi Parvati before Rama and Sita in the presence of the ‘Rama Sena’, blessed them and assured them all as follows:

Yat tavyaa sthapitam Lingam drakshyanteeha Dwijaatayah,

Mahaapaataka samyuktaaseshaam Paapam vinashyatu/

Anyaani chaiva Paapaani snaatasyatra Mahaadadhou,

Darshanaadeva Lingasya naasham yaanti na samshayaha/

Yaavat sthaasyanti girayo yaavadeshaa cha Medini,

Yaavat Setuscha taavaccha sthaasyaamyatra tirohitah/

Snaanam daanam japah shraaddham bhavishyatya-kshayam krutam,

Smarana Deva Lingasya dinapaapam pranashyati/

(‘Darshana’ or viewing of this Rameshwara Linga that was installed formally by Brahmanas on behalf of Shri Rama an Devi Sita should surely have their great sins destroyed. Taking bath in the Sea and worshipping the Linga would uproot the remaining blemishes and imperfections of a devotee. Maha Deva assured that as long as Mountains were existent and P rithvi was present, Setu would be in position and would be Maha Deva in the Rameshwara Linga. Whatever holy deeds like Snaana- Daana-Japa-Shraddhaas are performed at the Place would have multiplying and lasting effects. Even the ‘Smarana’ or the very thought of Rameshwara Linga from a distance would abolish the sins of the day!) After the Linga Pratishtha thus, Shri Rama administered Bharata Desha with Ayodhya as his capital for centuries and his Administration was acclaimed as ‘Rama Rajya’when his Subjects were happy, contented and without ‘Tapatrayaas’or the three kinds of Adhi Bhoutika like physical problems, Adhytaatmika or internal / psychological difficulties and Adhi Daivika or God-made complications like famines, earthquakes or f loods. During his Sovereignty, Shri Rama’s governance excelled in Brahmana Puja, Ashwamedha Yagna and ‘Dharma Paalana’.

King Jayadhwaja’s Vishnu Bhakti and Sapta Rishi’s assertion of ‘Nishkama Bhakti’ to Vishnu

In the context of Chandra Vamsha the glorious personalities were Chandra and Tara (the wife of Deva Guru Brihaspati)- Budha and Ila the daughter of Vaivaswata Manu- Pururava and Apsara Urvashi- Nahusha who performed hundred Yajnas and became a temporary Indra and Pitara Kanya Viraja- Yayati and Devayani the daughter of Shukracharya the Raakshasa Guru as also Sharmishtha the daughter of Raakshasa Vrishaparva- Yadu and Turvasu from Devayani and Puru from Sharmishta- Yadu’s son Kroshta, Sahasrajit etc- Sahasrajit’s grandson Haihaya whose son was Kartaveeryaarjuna who was killed by Parashurama; it was in this famed lineage of Sahasrabahu (Kartaveeryarjuna) was born Jayadhwaja, who was an unparalleled Vishnu Bhakta. He was of firm conviction that Dharma was the noblest feature, all the Kings on Earth were of the ‘Amsha’ of Vishnu and that Vishnu was the ablest Administrator:

Rajyam Paalayataavashyam Bhagavan Purushottamah,

Pujaneeyo yato Vishnuh Paalako Jagatoharih/

Saatviki Raajasichaiva Taamasicha Swayambhuvah,

Tristrastu Murtayah Proktaah Srishtisthityanta hetavah/

Satwaatmaa Bhagavaan Vishnuh Samstaapayati Sarvadaa,

Srujed Brahmaa Rajo Murtih Samharet Taamaso Harah/

Tasmaan Mahipateenaam tu Raajyam Paalayataamayam,

Aaraadhyo Bhagavan Vishnuh Keshavah Keshimardanah/

(Those who are Kings and Administrators ought to worship Vishnu, since Vishnu is the most competent as he as a Swayambhu possessed all the Three Gunas of Satvika-Raajasika-Taamasika nature and displays the three features of Srishti-Paalana-Samhaara and that is precisely why a King should worship Vishnu). But other brothers of Jayadhwaja viz. Shura, Shurasena, Ghrishna, and Krishna expressed their views too; they stated that Rudra was the Unique one to bestow Mukti as he was the Samhara Kaaraka responsible for the End. He assumes Tamoguna at the end of Kalpaas and as the Vidyaa /Jnaana Swarupa and Shakti Swarupa, Rudra alone would be worthy of worship, since Creation and Preservation were merely passing phases merely:

Ayam hi Bhagavan Rudrah Sarvam Jagadidam Shivah,

Tamogunam samaashritya Kalpaantey Samharet Prabhuh/

Yaa saa ghorataraa Murtisya Tejomayi Paraa,

Samhareyd Vidyayaa Sarvam Samsaaram Shulabhrit tathaa/

King Jayadhwaja replied:

Tatwena munchatey Jantuh Satvaatmaa hagavan Harih/

(It is only through Satva Guna alone, Maanavas attain Mukti and Bhagavan Vishnu is the Embodiment of Satwa Guna.) The brothers argued:

Tamuchur Bhraaaro Rudrah sevitah Saatvikairjanaih, Mochayet Satwa samyuktah Pujesham tato Haram/

( All the Satvika guna sampannas or those who always possess Satwika Guna do worship Rudra Deva and as an analogy one must worship Maha Deva.) The further argument from Jayadhwaja was that Swadharma or the Duty of a Varnaashrama-in this case of Kings-was of utmost applicability to attain Mukti. The counter argument of the brothers was that their father Kartaveeryarjuna who followed Swadharma wordshipped Rudra. As the arguments were endless and fruitless, all the brothers came to the conclusion that they should all visit Sapta Rishis to explain as to who should worship –Shiva or Vishnu-being a King! Vasishtha and other Saparishis unanimously stated as follows:

Ya yasyabhimataa Pumsaha saa hi tasyaiva Devataa!

( Who so ever of Devataas is acceptable by a person is the Devata worthy of worship!) Having established this as the broad Principle, the Sapta Rishis provided the following exceptions and their counsel:

Kintu kaarya viseshena Pujitaashcheshtadaa Nrinaam,

Viseshaat Sarvadaa naayam niyamo hyanyathaa Nripaah/

Nripaanaam Daivatam Vishnustathaiva cha Purandarah,

Vipraanaamagniraadityo Brahmaachaiva Pinaakadhryuk/

Devaanaam Daivatam Vishnurdaanavaanaam Trishulabhrit,

Gandharvaanaam tathaa Somo Yakshaanaamapi kathyatey/

Vidyaadharaanaam Vagdevi Sandhyaanaam Bhagavan Ravih,

Rakshasaam Shankaro Rudrah Kinnaraanaam cha Parvati/

Rishinaam Daivatam Brahma Mahadevascha Shulabhrit,

Manunaamsyaadumaa Devi tathaa Vishnuh sa Bhaskarah/

Grihastaanaamcha Sarvey Syurbrahmaa vai Brahmachaarinam,

Vaikhaanasaanaamarkah syad Yatinaam cha Maheswarah/

Bhutaanaam Bhagavaan Rudraha Kushmaandaanmaam Vinaayakah,

Sarvbeshaam Bhagavaan Brahmaa Deva Devah Prajaapatih/

Ityevam Bhagavan Brahmaa swayam Devebhyabhaashata,

Tasmaajjayadwajo nunam Vishnavaaraadhyamarhati/

(Depending on the belief that human beings repose in specific Deva-Devaas and the resultant fruits that they achieve, worship is performed by them as per their wishes and the fulfillment and that might not be a general practice. But in general, Kings worship Vishnu or Indra; Brahmanas worship Agni Deva, Surya, Brahma and Shiva; Devas worship Vishnu while Danavas perform puja to Shiva; Gandharvas and Yakshaas pray to Soma Deva; Human Beings tend to worship Uma Devi, Vishnu and Surya; Grihastas or Family men and women pray to all the Devatas while Brahmacharis worship Brahma; Vaikhaanasaas pray to Surya and Sanyasis tend to deem Maheswara as their destiny; Bhutas pray to Rudra; Ganesha is worshipped by Kushmandaas but Brahma is prayed by one and all. Sapta Rishis quoted Brahma however that Kings would better worship Vishnu.)

As this kind of discussions were going on, a frightening and cruel Danava named Videha entered the Kingdom of the Five Sons of Kartaveeryaarjuna and created havoc by killing men and women mercilessly. His roars and rumbles produced panic al over and the Five Sons attacked the Demon with all their capacity: Shura released Roudrastra, Surasena with Vaarunastra, Krishna used Prajaapatastra, Ghrishna with Vayavyastra while Jayadhwaja simulteneously released Kaubera-Aindra-Agneyaastra. But the Danava destroyed all the Astras with his Shula. Finally, King Jayadhwaja made a desperate effort to pray to Vishnu:

Vishnum Grasishnum Lokaadimaprameyamanaamayam,

Traataaram Purusham Purvam Shri Patim Peetavaasasam/

(Jayadhwaja’s prayer was to Vishnu, Grasishnu or the Supreme Hold, Aprameya (Indestructible), Anamaya (devoid of sorrows), Purva Purusha (The Ageless Being), Shri Pati or the husband of Lakshmi etc).

Instantly, Bhagavan Vishnu released Sudarshana Chakra known for its speed and positive action and the mountain-like head of the Asura Videha fell on the ground dead and there was abundant relief to the King brothers and their Subjects in the Kingdom. Jayadhwaja was complimented by his brothers for his timely and sincere prayers to Vishnu who saved the Kingdom from destruction; the bothers then approached Maharshi Vishwamitra to teach them the Puja Vidhana of Vishnu and the latter having taught the Procedure stated:

Yatah Pravruttur bhutaanaam yasmin Sarvamidam Jagat,

Sa Vishnuh Sarva Bhutaatma tamaashritya vimuchyatey/

Swavarnaashraya dharmenam Pujyeyam Purushottamah,

Akaamahata bhavena samaaraadhyo na chaanyataa/

(Since Vishnu is the Soul of all the Beings in the World and as they are governed by him and his kindness, every Being must worship him as required by their Ashrama Dharmaas but not with any ulterior motive). As the Sage clarified that worship to Vishnu was not to seek motives but as an obligation required by Varaashrama Dharma. Jayadhwaja and the brothers all reached home and performed ‘nishkaama’puja to Vishnu and Prameshwara alike and subsequently executed a thanks-giving Yagna under the auspices of Vasishtha and Rudrabhaktas besides Maharshis Gautama, Atri and Agastya for Loka Kalyaana or Universal Peace and auspiciousness.

‘ Krishnaavatara’, Krishna’s worship to Shiva, Vishnu-Shiva identity and Shiva Linga Mahima (Krishna’s warning not to belittle Shiva and Vyasa Stuti of Shiva included)

Maharshi Bhrigu gave a ‘Shaap’(Curse) to Madhava Vishnu to take to human birth as Vaasudeva the son of Vasudeva and Devaki by birth at Mathura in imprisonment by King Kamsa and as Krishna the son of Nanda and Yashoda by upbringing; Vishnu was inattentive when the Rishi called on the latter and hence the curse. The embriyo of the seventh son of Devaki’s garbha was transferred to that of Rohini’s garbha by Vishnu Maya and it was believed that Balarama or Sankarshana was the son of Rohini; simultaneously it was believed that the seventh garbha of Devaki was a miscarriage. The eighth son of Vasudeva and Devaki, being Vishnu himself, was transferred by his father across the River Yamuna in rain from Mathura to Gokula into the unconscious bed of Yashoda who deliverd a female child viz. Kaushiki Devi; Vasudeva exchanged Vaasudeva to Yashoda and brought Maya to Devaki. As King Kamsa tried to lift the previous children of Devaki-Vasudeva and banged the heads of the babies against the prison walls, he desired to repeat the acts, but Kaushiki Maya flew away to skies and warned Kamsa that Vishnu or his Avatara Krishna was already born safe elsewhere and it was not far that the cruel Kamsa would soon meet his fate in death. Krishna displayed several Leelas or Miracle Acts along with Bala Rama, including the killings of Putana, Shakatasura, Dhenukaasura and other Demons; relieving the curses of Gandharva boys turned into huge trees as Yashoda tied to a huge stone in between them; providing vision of the entire Universe to Yashoda on the excuse of opening his mouth for eating sand and taking her into trance; subduing the poisonous Kaliya Snake in Kalindi lake; lifting Govardhana Mountain to provide shelter to the Gopa Prajas or the Inhabitants of the Area against cyclone and taught a lesson to Indra who demanded worship from the villagers; teasing Gopika maids by smearing butter and curds on their cheeks; enchanting Gopikas with his heavenly music of flute into bliss to the extent of engaging them into ‘Raas Leelaas’or group dances; killing Kamsa, Sishupala and several vicious and cruel Kings for establishing peace and social security; transferring the inhabitants of Mathura overnight to Dwaraka Nagari for safety and enjoyment and finally playing an outstanding role as the key figure in the Maha Bharata Battle in uprooting evil forces and protecting the Virtuous climaxing with the projection of his Vishva Swarupa and Gitaa Pravachana with the unique message viz.

Yadaa yadaahi dharmasya glaanir bhavati Bharata,

Adhyuddhaanam Adharmasya Sambhavaami Yugey Yugey/

Krishna’s worship to Maha Deva : Shri Krishna had Eight Principal Wives viz. Rukmini, Satyabhama, Jambavati, Nagnajiti, Mitravinda, Lakshmana, Kalindi and Maadri, but accepted sixteen thousand maidens released from the prisons of Narakaasura whom he decimated. Rukmini had eight sons viz. Charudeshna, Suchaaru, Chaaruvesha, Yashodhara, Chaarushrava, Charuyasha, Pradyumna and Shankha. Similarly other wives had several sons. But Devi Jambavati longed to get an exemplary Son like Indra and on realising this wish decided to perform Parama Tapasya to Parama Shiva and left for the Ashram of Maharshi Upamanyu on the banks of Ganges. The Maharshi wondered that Shri Krishna himself was an Avatara of Vishnu and as to why did Krishna seek to have a darshan of Mahadeva! Krishna expressed his determination to vision Shiva and Devi Parvati in person and the Maharshi explained the regulations involved in Shiva Tapasya like bhasma dharana, shaven head, Valka dharana or wearing stiff clothes, high concentration and Rudra Japa. The Maharshi cited examples of Vasishta, Krishna Dwipaayana Vyasa, Maha Yogi Yagjnyvalka and Bhrigu who succeeded in securing the Darshana of Shiva-Parvati after performing ‘Nidaana Rupa Tapasya’ or Paraakashtha / Sarvottama Yoga. Following the rules very strictly, Krishna followed the ‘Upadesha’ or the teachings and instructions of Upamanyu such as Paashupata Yoga, Paashupata Vrata and Paashupata Jnaana and incessantly recited Rudra Mantras with strict adherence of the formal and required form of worship to Mahadeva. After considerable effort, Shri Krishna visioned Maha Deva and Devi Parvati on the Sky as follows:

Kireetinam gadinam chitramaalam Pinaakinam Shulinam Devadevam,

Shaardula charmaambara samvrutaangam Devyaa Mahaadevamasou dadarsha/

Paraswadhaasakta karam Trinetram Nrisimha charmaavrita sarva gaatram,

Samudgirantam Pranavam brihantam Sahasra Surya pratimam dadarsha/

Prabhum Puraanam Purusham Purastaat Sanaatanam Yoginameeshitaaram,

Anorineeyamsamananta Shaktim Praaneswaram Shambhumasou dadarsha/

Na yasya Devaa na Pitaamahopi nendro na chaagnir -varuno na Mrityuh,

Prabhaavamadyaapi Vadanti Rudram Tamaadi Devam Puruto dadarsha/

Tadaanvapashyad Girishasya Vaame Swaatmaanmavyakta manantarupam,

Stuvantameesham Bahubhirvachobhihi Shankhaasichakraarpita hastamaadyam/

Kritaanjalim Dakshinatah Suresham Hamsaadhirudham Purusham dadarsha,

Stuvantameeshasya Param Prabhaavam Pitaamaham Lokagurum Divistham/

Ganeswaraanarka sahasra kalpaan Nandeeswaraadeenamita Prabhaavaan,

Triloka bhartruh Puratonwapashtat Kumaaramagni pratimam sashaakham/

Marichamatrim Pulaham Pulastham Prachertasam Dakshamathaapi Kanvam,

Paraasharam tatparato Vasishtham Swayambhuvah chaapi Manum dadarsha/

(Shri Krishna visioned Parama Shiva wearing Mukuta/ Headgear,Gadaa / mace, Trishula, Pinaaka Dhanush / Pinaaka bow and Chitra-Vichitra/ multi-coloured garlands; he was attired with Simha Charma or Lion Skin; reciting Pranava; likened to thousands of Suryaas; and Trilochana or of Three Eyes. Krishna also viewed before him that Purana Purusha, Sanaatana, Yogeswara, the Tiniest like atom, with Endless Shakti /Energy, viz. Shambhu. Krishna visioned that Parama Shiva who could not be comprehened by Devataas, Pitamaha Brahma, Indra, Agni, Varuna and Yama till date. Krishna saw Maha Deva along with Vishnu along with Shankha-Asi or Sword and Chakra on his left side in position even as the latter was known as Atma Swarupa-Avyakta- Ananta and Adi Deva and the latter was engaged in continuous commendation of Maha Deva! To Shankara’s eastern side was seated Brahma glorifying Parama Shiva, while facing the latter were Ganeshwara, Nandeswara and Kartikeya. Behind Shiva were the famed ones like Marichi, Atri, Pulaha, Pulastya, Pracheta, Daksha, Kanva, Parashara, Vasishtha and Swayambhu Manu). Thus Krishna had a full ‘darshan’of Shiva accompanied by Parvati, Shri Krishna applauded him as follows:

Namostu tey Shashwata Sarvayoney Brahmaadhipam,

Twaamrushayo vadanti,

Tapascha Satwam cha Rajastamascha Twaameva Sarvam pravadanti Santah/

Twam Brahmaa Hariratha Vishwayoniragnih Samhartaa Dinakara mamdalaadhivaasah,

Praanastwam Hutavaha Vaasavaadi bhedastwaamekam sharanamupaimi Devameesham/

Saamkhyaastwaam Vigunamathaahureka rupam Yogastwaam satatamupaasatey hrudistham,

Vedaastwaamabhidadhateeh Rudramagnim twaamekam sharanamu- paimi Devameesham/

Twatpaadey kusumamathaapi patramekam Dattvaasou bhavati Vimukta Vishwa bandhah,

Sarvaagham pranudati Siddhayogijushtam Smrutwaa tey padayugalam bhavatprasaadaat/

(My salutations to You Shaaswata! Sarva Mula Kaarana or the Root Cause of the Totality; Rishis affirm that you are the Master of Brahma; they assert that you are the Spring of the Three Gunas of Satwa-Rajasa-Tamasas; indeed you are the one residing in all the Lokas of Brahma, Vishnu, Vishwayoni, Agni, Samharta and also in Surya Mandala; You are the varied Forms of Praana, Hutavaha or Agni, Indra and all other Devaas; I have arrived into the shelter of Maha Deva; Saankhya Shastra Vedis extol you as the Singular and Gunaateeta Entity beyond Gunas and Maha Yogis are in constant search for you and perform ‘Upasana’; Vedas commend you as Rudra and Agni. Mahadeva! I seek indulgence and support! Human Beings place a flower or even a Bilwa Patra on your feet and you oblige them to get rid of the Shackles of Samsara! When Siddhaas and Yogis think of your sanctified feet sincerely, you are merciful to smash the burden of their sins!)

Yasyaseshavibhaaga- heenamamalam hridyantaraavasthitam

Tatwam Jyotiranantamekamachalam Satyam Param Sarvagam,

Sthaanam praahuranaadi madhyanidhanam yasmaadidam jaayatey

Nityam twaahu –mupaimi Satyavibhavam Vishweswaram tam Shivam/

Om Namo Nilakanthaaya Trinetraaya cha ramhasey,

Maha Devaaya tey nityameeshaanaaya Namo namah/

Namah Pinaakiney tubhyam namo Mundaaya Dandiney,

Namastey Vajrahastaaya Digvastraaya Kapardiney/

Namo Bhairava naadaay Kaalarupaaya damshtriney,

Naaga Yagnopaveetaaya Namastey Vahniretasey/

Namostutey Gireeshaaya Swaahaakaaraaya tey namah,

Namo Muktaattahaasaaya Bheemaaya cha namo namah/

Namastey Kaamanaashaaya namah Kaalapramaathiney,

Namo Bhairava Veshaayaa Haraaya cha Nishanginey/

Namostutey Traimbakaaya Namastey Kritthivaasasey,

Namombikaadhi pataye Pashunaam Pataye namah/

( I seek shelter unto the truthfully glorified Vishweshwara Shiva, whom Tatwajnas worship as he is Indivisible, Transparent, Existent in one’s interiors of heart, Luminous, Infinite, Unique, Stable, Truthful, All-Pervasive displayer of Beginning-Central-Terminating points of Life. My sincere salutations to you Pranava Swarupa, Nilakantha, Trilochana, Shakti Rupa, Maha Deva, Ishaana, Pinaaka dhanush dhaari, Munda-Danda Dhaarana, Vajra hasta dhaarana, Digvastra, Kapardini or Jataadhaari with Matted Locks; Bhairava naada, Kaala Swarupa; Naagayajnopaveeta dhari (He who wears Serpents as the Holy Thread); Agni samaana veerya nidhana (He whose semen is like Fire); Gireesha; Swaahaakaara or of the Swarupa of Offerings to Agni in Homas; Mukta -atthahaasa or He whose maddening voice reverberates; Bheema rupa; Kaamanaasha or the Destroyer of Lust; Kaala Pramathiney or He is capable of churning Mrityu Devata; Bhairava Vesha; Hara; Nishanginey or he who carries sword and bow- arrows; Triabikaaya or Three-Eyed; Kruttivaasa or Wearer of Elephant Skin; Ambikaadhipataye or the husband of Devi Ambika; Pashupati or the Supreme Chief of Beings).

Namastey Vyomarupaaya Vyomaadhipataye namah,

Nara naari shareeraaya Saankhya Yoga Pravartivey/

Namo Deva Naathaaya Devaanugatalinginey,

Kumaara guravey tubhyam Devadevaaya tey namah/

Namo Yagnaadhipataye Namastey Brahmachaariney,

Mrigavyaadhaaya mahetey Brahmaadhipataye namah/

Namo Hamsaaya Vishwaaya Mohanaaya namo namah,

Yoginey Yoga gamyaaya Yogamayaaya tey namah/

Namastey Praana Paalaaya Ghantaanaada priyaaya cha,

Kapaaliney namastubhyam jyotishaam pataye namah/

Namo namo namastubhyam bhuya eva namo namah,

Mahyam sarvaatmanaa Kaamaan prayachha Parameshwara/

(Namastey Akaasharupa! Akaashaadhipati! Artha Naareeshwara, Practitioner of Saankhya Yoga, Devanaatha, Shiva Linga that is worshipped by Devas always; the Guru of Kumara Skanda; Devadeva! My greetings to you Yagnaadhipati! Brahmachariney; Maha Mriga Vyaadha or hunter; Mahatey; Brahmaadhipataye; Hamsa Swarupa; Vishwa Mohana! You are the Yogi; Yoga gamya; Yoga Maya; Praana Paalaka; Ghanta naada priya or He who likes the sound of bells; Kapaalini; Jyotisha or Nakshatra Pati; Sarva Kaama Pradaata, Parameshwara; my repeated salutations to you again and again!)

Shri Krishna eulogised Parameswara and fell on the feet of Shiva-Parvatis. As a gladdened Parvati was enjoying Krishna’s visit, Parama Shiva embraced Krishna and said: Krishna! You are indeed the bestower of wishes to one and all yourself! Krishna smiled and said that they knew indeed whatever he approached them for; but the boon that he sought was to bless him to secure a son as renowned as Maha Deva himself! As both Shiva and Parvati granted the wish, Shri Krishna visitited Kailasha for enjoyment and rerturned to Dwaraka. On his rerturn, Maharshi Markandeya arrived at Dwaraka and together they did the ‘Pratishtha’(installation) of a Shiva Linga and formal worship of the Shiva Linga. Consequent to Shiva Darshana, Krishna was blessed with the birth of Saambu from Devi Jambavati.

Krishna-Shiva’s Identity: Maharshi Markandeya wondered as to why Krishna who himself was worship-worthy and granted boons to his devotees, Krishna replied smilingly:

Bhavataa kathitam sarvam tathyameva na samshayaha,

Tathaapi Devameeshaanaam Pujayaami Sanaatanam/

Na mey vipraasti kartavyam naanavaaptam kathanchana,

Pujayaami tathaapeesham jaanannetat Param Shivam/

Na vai pashyanti tam Devam Maayayaa mohitaa janaah,

Tatoham swaatmano mulam jaapayanj pujayaami tam/

Na cha Lingaarchanaat Punyam Lokesmin bheetinaashanam,

Tathaa Linge hitaaaishaam lokaanaam Pujayecchivam/

Yoham tallingamityaahur Vedavaada vido janaah,

Tatohamaatma meeshaanam Puja- yaamyaatmanaiva tu/

Tasyaiva Paramaa Murtistanmayoham na samshayah,

Naavayorvidyatey bhedo Vedeyshvevam vinischayah/

Yesha Devo Mahaadevah sadaa samsaara bheerubhih,

Dhyeyaha Pujascha Vandyascha Jneyo Lingey Maheshwarah/

(Markandeya! Whatever you said is in order and the Truth is that I am worship-worthy by others; but still I worship Ishaana; there is nothing that I cannot achieve a thing, nor is unavailable to me; yet I am aware that I perform Puja to Parama Shiva. Those who are unable to overcome Maya or Illusion could never achieve Shiva Darshana; but I do realise that my foundation is Shiva and hence I always worship Him. There is no better Punya Phala nor fearlessness than what the Sacred Task of Lingaarchana would confer and for accomplishing propitiousness human beings must resort to Shiva Puja, Shri Krishna affirms. Those who realise and experience Vedic Siddhaantaas (Principles) do recognise that Shiva Linga is my own Swarupa and that is precisely why I perform my own worship of the Atma Swarupa of Ishana, says Krishna. He further confirms: I am Shankara’s Parama Murti and I am Shankara myself without doubt. Vedas have emphasised that there is no differernce whatsoever and Krishna and Shiva are just the same. This is the reason why that one should instal Shiva Linga all over!)

Shiva Linga Mahatmya: Maharshi Markandeya heard the account of Shri Krishna as above signify- ing the Identity of Krishna / Vishnu and of Shiva and sought to comprehend the significance of the Shiva-Linga. Then Shri Krishna explained that at the time of Pralaya or Total Devastation, the Universe was totally submerged in ‘Ekarnava’or a single sheet of Samudra Jala / Ocean Water and he as Narayana was lying floated in the midst of the Water with Shankha-Chakra-Gada and other Armaments along with thousands of heads, eyes, feet and hands. Meanwhile, he saw a Chaturmukha (Four-Headed) Brahma reciting the Chatur Vedas of Rig-Yajur-Saama-Atharva who shone like thousand Suns with Golden Colour and approached Vishnu stating that he was the Swayambhu or Self- Generated Brahma the Creator and questioned Vishnu as to who was he! Vishnu replied that he was Supreme Creator-Preserver-Destroyer of the Universe each time there was a Pralaya repeated. As there was some seemingly overlap of functions, Brahma argued and sought to establish his seniority over Vishnu. A huge, lustrous and fiery Linga emerged on its own while mutual arguments were on and the Linga seemed to have neither an end nor beginning. They consented that Brahma should travel up the Linga to ascertain its height and Vishnu should seek the bottom but finally meet at the same place after finding the height and depth. For thousands of years passed by but they could not succeed in the task and having returned to the same place prayed to the Linga Swarupa as follows:

Anaadi malasamsaara roga vaidyaaya Shambhavey,

Namah Shivaayha Shaantaaya Brahmaney Linga Muturtaye/

Pralayaarnava Samsthaaya Pralayodbhuti hetavey,

Namah Shivaaya Shaantaaya Brahmaney Linga Murthaye/

Jwaalaamaalaavritaangaaya Jwalanastambha rupiney,

Namah Shivaaya Shaattaaya Brahmanmey Linga Murtaye/

Aadi madhyaanta heenaaya Swabhaavaamala deeptaye,

Nama Shivaaya Shaantaaya Brahmaney Linga Murtaye/

Mahaadevaaya Mahatey Jyotishenanta tejasey,

Namah Shivaaya Shaantaaya Brahmaney Linga Murtaye/

Nirvikaaraaya Satyaaya Nityaayhaamala tejasey,

Namah Shivaaya Shaantaaya Brahmaney Linga Murtaye/

Vedaanta saara rupaaya Kaalarupaaya Dheematey,

Namah Shivaaya Shaantaaya Brahmaney Linga Murtaye/

(You are indeed free from various vikaaras or imbalances and stressful conditions, we salute you Shambhu, Shiva, Shanta and Linga Murti Parabrahma! You are the cause of Pralaya and the totality of water that submerged the Universe; we salute to you Shambu, Shiva, Shanta and Linga Murti Para Brahma! You are of the Physique engulfed with huge garlands of flames as an Unknown Entity in the form of a Pillar; we salute you Shambhu, Shiva, Shanta and Linga Murti Para Brahma! You are featureless, radiant and transparent without beginning-centre-end; we salute you Shambhu, Shiva, Shanta and Linga Murti Para Brahma! You are Maha Deva, Mahaan, Jyoti Swarupa and Ananta Tejaswi; we salute to you Shambhu, Shiva, Shanta and Linga Murti Para Brahma! You are the Pradhana Purusha, Eshwara, Vyoma / Sky Swarupa, Vedha / Brahma; we salute you Shambhu, Shiva, Shanta and Linga Murti Para Brahma! You are Nirvikaara, Satya, Nitya, Vimala Tejo Rupa; we salute you Shambhu, Shiva, Shanta and Linga Murti Parabrahma! You are the Vedanta Saara or the Essence of Vedanta, Kaala Rupa and Dheeman; we salute you Shambhu, Shiva, Shanta and Linga Murti Para Brahma!) As Vishnu and Brahma extolled the Parabrahma as above, Maha Yogi Parameshwara appeared before them with thousand crores of Faces and with unparalleled illumination and heat likened to crores of Suryaas; he has thousands of hands, feet, Trinetras signifying Surya- Chandra-Agni, carrying Pinaka Dhanush and Trishula; wearing Charmaabara and Sarpa Yagnopaveeta; his voice was like thunderous clouds and addressed Vishnu and Brahma as follows:

Yuvaam prasutau gaatrebhyo mama Purvam Sanaatanou,

Ayam meyDakshiney Paarshvey Brahmaa Loka Pitaamahah,

Vaama Parshvey cha mey Vishnuh Paalako Hridaye Harah/

(Maha Deva stated that in the Past, Brahma was born from my right side and Vishnu emerged from the left and Hara was situated in my heart). Maha Deva further stated:

Pralahyasthitisargaanaam Kartaa twam Dharanipatey,

Vatsa Vatsa Harey Vishvam Paalayaitaccharaacharam/

Tridhaa Bhinnousmyaham Vishno Brahmavishnu Haraakhyayaa,

Sarga rakshaa Laya gunairnirgunopi Niranjanah/

(Dharanipati Vatsa Hari! You will be in over-all charge of Srishti-aalana-Pralaya and specifilally for Vishwa Paalana. I shall be the Nirguna Niranjana and at the same time would be divided into Three Rupas as Brahma-Vishnu-Hara). This was how Shri Krishna gave the Origin of Shiva Linga which came to be worshipped all over. Having stated the above, Shri Krishna cautioned all the Narayana Bhaktaas saying:

Paraat parataram yaanti Naraayana paraayanaah,

Na tey tatra gamishyanti ye dwishanti Maheswaram/

Dhyaanam homam Tapastaptam Jnaanam Yajnaadiko vidhih,

Teshaam Vinasyanti Kshipram ye nindanti Pinaakinam/

Yo maam samaashrayetrityamekaantam bhava- maashritah,

Vinindya Devameeshaanam sa yaanti narakaayutam/

Tasmaat saa Parihartavyaa nindaa Pashupatou Dwijaah,

Karmanaa Manasaa Vaachaa tadbhakteyshwapi yatnatah/

( Surely Narayana bhaktaas should be able to attain excellent Places of Mukti, but who ever think of Maheshwara with dislike would never ever reach any where! Those who keep hatred against and find fault with Shiva would be instantly be negated of their endeavours for Vishnu and their dhyaana, homa, Tapas and Yagnaadi Karyaas would be wasted in futility. What is worse, those who possess negative feelings for Mahadeva should be punished for thousand years of Naraka experiences. My warning to you Dwijaas therefore, Pashupati bhakti must always be retained by way of Karmanaa- Manasaa-Vaachaa means or by way of deeds-thoughts and speech in favour of Maha Deva!)

Veda Vyasa Stuti to Maha Deva: While describing the rampant evils during Kali Yuga when human beings underwent multiple changes in terms of Varna Sankarana, dwindling standards of Dharma and predominance of Vices, Veda Vyasa advised Arjuna to spread the message of resorting to the singular and sincere Shiva Puja to fulfill their desires and destroy their innumerable sins in their lives:

Evam Vidho Kali Yugey doshaanaamekashodhanam,

Mahadeva Namaskaaro Dhyaanam Daanamiti Shrutih/

Tasmaadaneeshwaraananyaan tyaktwaa Devam Maheswaram,

Samaashrayed Virupaaksham yadeecchet Paramam Padam/

Naarchayanteeha ye Rudram Shivam Tridashaavanditam,

Teshaam daanam Tapo Yajno Vridhaa Jeevitameyvacha/

(To demolish the blemishes and turpitudes of Kali Yuga, human beings have a singular solution to salute, meditate and perform worship and charities in the name of Maha Deva as affirmed in Vedas; hence, those determined to attain ‘Parama Pada’ would worship Maha Deva only and maximise the effect of the virtuous deeds like Daana-Tapa-and Yajnas). In this context, Veda Vyasa Maharshi recited the following Commendation to Parama Shiva:

Namo Rudraaya Mahatey Deva Devaaya Shuliney,

Traimbikaaya Trinetraaya Yoginaam Guravey Namah/

Namostu Vaamadevaaya Mahaadevaaya Vedhasey,

Shambhavey Sthaanavey nityam Shivaaya Parameshthiney,

Namah Somaaya Rudraaya Mahaagraasaaya Hetavey/

Prapadeyham Virupaaksham Sharanyam Brahmachaarinam,

Mahaa Devam Mahaayogameeshaanam chaambikaa –patim/

Yoginaam Yogadaataaram Yogamaayaa samaavritam,

Yoginaam Gurumaachaaryam Yogigamyam Pinaakinam/

Samsaara taaranam Rudram Brahmaanam Brahmanodhipam,

Shaaswatam Sarvagam Shaantam Brahmanyam Braahmanapriyam/

Kapardinam Kaala Murti- mamrutim Parameshwaram,

Eha Murtim Mahaa Murtim Vedavedyam Divaspatim/

Neela kantham Vishwamurtim Vyaapinam Vishwaretasam,

Kaalaagnim Kaala dahanam Kaamadam Kaama naashanam/

Namsye Gireesham Devam Chandraavayava bhushanamn,

Vilohitam Lelmaanama –adityam Paramshthinam,

Ugram Pashupatam Bheemam Bhaskaram Tamasah param/

( My ‘namaskaraas’ to Trishuladhaari Rudra! You are Traimbaka, Trilochana, and Yoga Guru; You are Mahadeva, Vedhaa, Vaama Deva, Shambhu, Sthaanu, Parameshti and Shiva! My salutations to you Soma, Rudra, Mahagraasa or he who absorbed the whole ‘Prapancha’ into himself at the time of Pralaya and Kaarana Rupa or the Form of the Root Cause. I seek shelter from Virupaaksha worthy of refuge; Bramachari; Maha Yoga Swarupa, Ishaana and Ambikaapati. I seek asylum from Yoga Pradaana or the Maha Yogi who provides Yoga, the Yoga Guru, Yoga Gamya or the Destination to Yogis; I seek sanctuary from Samsaara Taarana or the Breaker of Worldly Shackles; You are Rudra, Brahma, Brahmaadhipati, Shaswata, Sarva Vyapi, Shanta, Brahmana Rakshaka, Brahmana Priya, Jataadhaari, Kala Murti, Amurti or Formless; Eka Murti, Maha Murti, Veda Vedya, Dyuloka Swami, Nila Kantha, Vishwa Murti, Sarva Vyaapi, Vishwa reta or the one whose virility created the Universe; Kaalaagni Rupa, Kaala dahana or who put Kaala to flames; Kaama Prada, Kaama Naashaka, Chandra bhushana, Raktavarna, Graasa, Aditya, Ugra, Pashupati, Bheema, Bhaskara, Paresha and Parameshti!).

Having extolled Maha Deva thus, Veda Vyasa taught the formal Shiva worship to Arjuna of Pandavaas. Arjuna practised the worship with great sincerity and became invincible in the context of the Great Battle of Maha Bharatha. As he continued his devotion thus, Maha Deva put Arjuna to test by assuming the Swarupa of a hunter of a Boar; when the arrows of Arjuna and Maha Deva in disguise hit the boar simultaneously, Arjuna entered into an argument with the Hunter in disuguise followed by real fight with Maheswara and after testing Arjuna’s capability revealed himself and blessed Arjuna with Pashupataastra Vidya. As he was fortified himself with Paasupada Vidya, Arjuna fought with great confidence and became a renowned hero of Maha Bharata Battle, with the unique support of Shri Krishna and the blessings of Maha Deva.

Varanasi Mahatmya: Krittivaasa, Kapardesha, Omkaaresha, Madhyesha & Vishweshwara

Suta Maha Muni quoted Veda Vyasa’s reported conversation between Devi Parvati and Maheswara about the significance of Varanasi or Avimukta Kshetra, where Maha Deva was stated to have assumed Kaala Swarupa and intiated Samsara Samhara or the Universal Destruction at the time of

Maha Pralaya. Parama Shiva affirmed that this was his most beloved Kshetra and the devotees worshipping there with Ganga Snaana, Daana, Japa, Yajna, Tapas, Karma, Dhyana, Adhyayana of Scriptures and Jnaanaarjana or Earning of Jnaana would have multiplier effects; those who enter the Kshetra would have their thousands of past and current sins destroyed while by chance they die at the Place-be they Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, others, women, Mlecchaas, or any other species like animals, repliles, birds and even Krimi/ Keetaas- would instantly assume Shiva Swarupas and attain Kailasa:

Naavimukey Mritaha kaschinnarakam kilimbishi,

Ishwaraanugraheetahi Sarvey yaanti Paramam Gatim/

Moksham sudurlabham matvaa Samsaaram chaati bheeshanam,

Ashmanaa charanou hatwaa Vaaranaasyaam vasennarah/

(Those extreme and confirmed sinners who die at Varanasi would certainly not visit Narakaas and by the grace of Ishwara would secure ‘Parama Gati’. That should be the reason that human beings might even break their feet with stones but still prefer reside at Varanasi). Those who suffer hurdles and difficulties but still prefer to stay at Varanasi would indeed never regret as they were sure of permanent bliss instead of shirking passing troubles. Indeed there are countless Sacred Tirthaas in Bharata Desha such as Prayaga, Naimishaaranya, Shrishaila, Kedara, Bhadrakarna, Gaya, Pushkara, Kurukshetra, Rudrakoti, Narmada, Amraatakeshwara, Shaaligraama, Kubjaagra, Prabhasa, Vijayeshaana, Gokarna and Bhadrakarna and so on and their Mahima too was of consequence, but those bhaktas who attain the Punya by dying at Varanasi were stated to be of unparalleled impact. Bathing in Ganga which was called ‘Tripatha Gaamini’ or the Holy River that travelled in Triloklas of Swarga-Bhumi-Pataalaas has unique signficance as it washes of the blemishes of thousands of births.The presence of Ganga, the superiority of Maha Deva’s residence there and the combined effect of Shraaddha, Daana, Tapa, Japa and Vrata woud indeed make the stay of Bhaktas the most important event ever and also the easiest in terms of effort.This Kshetra is called Avimukta as it should be never left away nor deserted; it provides Brahma Gyaan and those who die there are provided the ‘Upadesha’ or Instruction of Tataka Brahma by Maha Deva Himself!

Yat tat parataram Tatwamaviktamiti shrutam,

Ekena Janmanaa Devi! Vaaranaasyaam tadaapnuyaat/

(That Paraatara Tatwa as instructed to the persons on death bed is called ‘Avimukta’and that Upadesha might indeed be possible in a single life itself!)

Varanasi Kshetra is basically in between the two Rivers called ‘Varuna’ and ‘Asi’. The Kshetra is famed for Five Sacred Lingas viz. Krittivaaseshwara, Madhyameshwara, Vishweshwara, Omkaareshwara and Kapardeshwara.Veda Vyaasa showed the Five Lingas to his disciples and explained to them of their significance:

Krittivaasa Linga was signified as a Daitya who assumed the Form of an Elephant used to kill Brahmana devotees in meditation of Shiva and the latter killed the elephant and sported the wearing of the elephant skin and hence the name of Krittivaaseshwara. The Mahtmya of Kapardeeshwara Linga or Shiva of Matted Locks was explained by Vyaasa to his students: Once a Tiger chased a deer- kid and killed it in the presence of Kapardeshwara Linga and most surprisingly the killed deer-kid was received by a Shiva-like Purusha and Gandharvas sang melodies and rained flowers on it!

Vyasa said that those who performed Kapardeswara Lingaarchana after taking bath in a Pishacha Sarovara would be blessed by Maha Deva at once and narrated the legend of a Learned and Virtuous

Brahmana named Shankhukarna who was always engaged in Shiva Linga Puja with high earnestness. One day, he saw a Piscacha swooning with hunger and thirst approached him crying as it was unable to withstand its pitiable condition. Shankhukarna asked the Piscacha about his background and the latter revealed that he too was a Brahmana but he never performed any worship nor Atithi (Guest) Puja and not even a small good turn excepting looking after himself and his family. Only once he

came across a Shiva Linga, touched it and greeted it with sincerity and almost at the same time died suddenly; the ‘Yama dutaas’arrived but converted him as a Piscacha and eversince then was wandering with extreme hunger and thirst! Shankhukarna heard the story and appreciated that atleast once the Piscacha before his death visioned touched and greeted a Shiva Linga as he died and became

a Piscacha! That occurrence was significant enough and asked to take bath in a Pond near the

Kapardeshwara Linga; as the Pischa took bath as advised by sincerely praying to Mahadeva and instantly the Piscacha fell and a Celestial Form emerged and flew up in a ‘Vimana’as Gandharvas and Apsaras welcomed him into it! Shankukarna witnessed the happening about the Piscacha and could not resist the recitation of a long Prayer to Kapardi which began and ended as follows:

Kapardinam twaam Paratah Parastaad Goptaaramekam Purusham Puraanam,

Vrajaami Yogeshwara meeshitaaramaadityamagnim Kapilaadhirudham/

Vrajaami nityam sharanam Guhesham Sthaanum prapadye Girisham Puraarim,

Shivam Prapadye Haramindumoulim Pinaakinam twaam sharanam vrajaami/

(I seek ‘sharanam’or sanctuaryto you Paratara, Paraatpara, Adwiteeya, Sarva Rakshaka, Purana Purusha, Yogeshwara, Niyamaka, Aditya, Agni Swarupa, Vrishabha Vaahana!- I crave for the protection of Shaanu Swarupa, Guhesha or Buddhi Incarnate, Gireesha, Chandramouli Hara, Shiva, Pinaakidhara!). As Shankukarna’s Stuti ended, he fell down unconscious and Kapardi Swami appeared before him and absorbed in his fold!

Omkareshwara Linga Mahima was explained by Veda Vyasa to his sishyas that even by pronouncing its name, massive sins get crunched. Maha Vidwaans who comprehended the purport of Jnaana realised that Pashupati was an embodiment of ‘Panchaartha’viz. Ateeta Shanti or Supreme Bliss, Shanti or Harmony and Amity, High degree of Vidya or Knowledge, Pratishtha or Utmost Reputation and Nivruitti or Detachment or Path of Liberation; all these Five Essentials were derivated from Omkara Swarupa as the composite Form of the Panchayatana Rupa of Maha Deva; a devotee who had the comprehension of the Omkara Swarupa at the Time of his / her termination would enter into that Territory of Effulgence and through it would get absorbed into Parameshwara. That indeed was the most powerful worship possible to Omkareshwara, stated Veda Vyasa. Devarshis, Brahmarshis and Maha Siddhaas do realise the scope, depth and intensity of worshipping Omkareshwara as a part of ‘Nyasa’or Unification of the Self and the Supreme!

Veda Vyasa and his pupils visited Madhyameshwara Linga on the banks of River Mandakini an extension of Ganga and some of the very keen devotees of Madhyamesha enquired about Veda Vyaasa and the latter’s followers introduced their Guru as Krishna Dwaipaayana Vyaasa of the

‘Amsha’of Narayana himself and the regular devotees of the Linga extended their courtesies to Vyasa.

It was learnt that in the past Shri Krishna performed Paashupata Vrata to this very Linga and stayed

there for a year by shaving his head, applying ash and wearing Rudraksha Malaas and finally had Shambhu’s darshan and secured boons. Even one time worship to Madhyeshwara in one’s lifetime after taking bath in Mandakini, daana, tapas, shraaddha and Pindadaana to Pitras would annul life time sins of even Brahmahatya nature, said Vyasa. He affirmed that Mandakini snaana and worship to Madhyameshwara would yield ten times bigger fruits than that of Kurukshetra at the time of Solar Eclipse.

While referring to Varanashi Kshetra Mahima, Veda Vyasa enlightened his followers about several Punya Tirthas attached to the banks of Ganga such as Vishwarupa Tirtha, Taala Tirtha, Akaasha Tirtha, Gauri Tirtha, Prajapatya Tirtha, Swarga Dwaara, Jambukeshwara, Jnaana Tirtha, Yama Titha, Agni Tirtha and so on and finally reached Brahma Tirtha. It is believed that once Brahma brought a Linga and went to have his bath and meanwhile Vishnu installed it and told Brahma that he had greater faith in Rudra Deva than Brahma but however the Linga would be known to have been installed at Brahma Tirtha. Having further visited quite a few other Tirthas, Vyasa finally had his bath along with his sishyas and performed Vishweshwara Linga Puja; he settled down at Varanasi for some time and asked his sishyas to settle down at their will. Mahatma Vyasa then stayed there by performing Rudraabhishekaas thrice a day while taking food from his ‘bhiksha’ or charity. One day, he could not secure the bhiksha and a furious Vyasa threatened that he would curse to the inhabitants of Varanasi to create ‘Vighnas’or obstacles and Devi Parvati appeared and requested Vyasa not to curse but take food from herself instead. Having given the bhiksha, Devi asked Vyasa not to stay in Varanasi further since he was short tempered; Vyasa apologised and requested her to let him visit the Place only on Chaturthis and Ashtamis and Devi agreed accordingly.

Suta Maha Muni gave Phala Shruti of about the Mahatmya of Varanasi as follows: as follows:

Yah pathedavimuktasya Mahatmyam Shrunuyaadapi,

Shravayeda vaa Dwijaan Shaantaan sopi yaati paraam gatim/

Shraaddevaa Dauvikey Kaarye Raatraavahani vaa Dwijaah,

Nadeenaam chaiva Teereshu Devataanataneshu cha/

Snaatwaa Samaahita manaa damhamaatsraya varjitah,

Japedisham Namaskrutya sa yaati Paramaam Gatim/

(Whoever would read, hear or narrate about the Avimuta or Vaaranasi Kshetra would definitely secure Maha Punya; if a person took bath and engaged in performing ‘shraaddhaas’, Deva Karyaas, either in the day or night, on the banks of Ganga or in Mandirs, freed from ‘dambha’or self-pride or Matsara or narrow-mindedness, and meditate Maha Deva, would indeed secure ‘Parama Gati’).

Triveni Sangama (Prayaga) Mahatmya

On the conclusion of Maha Bharata Battle at Kurukhsherta, Yuddishtara was crowned as the King, but a huge feeling of remorse haunted him as he was responsible for the killings of close relatives like grandfather-figures, Gurus, uncles, his own elder brother, first cousins and their sons apart from countless soldiers. He then expressed his wish to atone for the killings and requested Mahatma Markandeya to suggest the best way out perform ‘Prayaschitta’ or formal expiation as per Vedic course. Markandeya readily suggested Prayaga Tirtha Darshana for the purpose of penance and reparation. He stated that the Kshetra was protected against Evils by some sixty thousand Bows and Arrows in favour of Ganga and by Sabita Deva riding seven horses protecting River Yamuna while Devi Saraswati was flowing as ‘Antarvaahini’ or under ground-current at this famed Triveni Sanagamam or the Confluence of the Three Rivers of Ganga-Yamuna-Saraswati. Markandeya also affirmed that Indra Deva along with Devas stayed at the Prayaga Kshetra and Vishnu himself protected the Prayaga Mandali. Further, Maha Deva himself secured Parayaga and the ‘Vata Vrikhsa’ or the Banyan Tree on its River-Banks. Indeed, a person who might have committed even a minute sin was not eligible to Moksha but let alone him or her committing high proportion of sins could be qualified for Salvation instantly:

Prayaagam smaranaamasya Sarvamaayaati Sankshamam,

Darshanaat tasya Tirthasya naama samkirtinaadapi,

Mrittikaa labhanaad vaapi Narah Paapaat Pramuchyatey/

(Prayaga Smarana or the very thought of Prayaga would suffice to unleash sins; Prayaga Darshana, Naama Samkirtana, or even a touch of the dust of Prayaga would destroy serious sins. There are Five Kundaas in the Confluence of Prayaga and each one of them were excellent points of Purification. If by mischance, a human being were to suffer diseases, taken to the ‘Triveni Sangama’ and died there, then transportation of Sun-Radiant Like Vimanas to Parama Pada. Markandeya stated further that Pitru oriented or even Self-oriented deeds must be accompanied by charities in the intermediate place of Ganga and Yamuna and such charities would have multiplier effect. Charity of a Kapila Cow with golden or silver covered horns and with clothing all over its body would have the Punya of accomplishing Rudra loka for thousand years! Markandeya warned those reaching Prayaga by a Vrishabha as they would be liable to reach Narakas. But auspicious deeds like weddings in the intermediate region of Ganga and Yamuna Sangam would avoid Narakas and assure joy for long long time. A person performing Snaana and severe / difficult Vrataas at the Sangam would reap the benefit of Ashwamedha and Rajasuya Yagnaas. Along with the banks of Yamuna and Ganga are countless Tirthaas, each of which had a description to provide; for instance, Yamuna’s southern side two Maha Nagas called Kambal and Ashwatara who were Parama Bhaktas of Maha Deva stayed and sacred snaanaas at that Tirtha would wash off Maha Paapas. On Ganga’s eastern side there was a famed Sarva Saamudra Gahvara or Cave and those who could stay there for three days and nights observing Brahmacharya and mental control would secure Ashvamedha Yagna Punya. Another Tirtha named ‘Hamsaprapatana’ near Pratishthanapura and the belief was that Apsara Urvashi landed there by her Hamsa and bathing there would fetch Yagna Phala. Then there was a very Sacred Koti Tirtha where if a person died then he or she would spend Swarga Loka for a crore of years. Siddha Kshetra on Ganaga banks near Prayaga is reputed as the one which provided salvation to human beings on Earth, to those in Pataala Lokas and also to Devas in Higher Lokas, thus the Tirtha was reputed as Tripathaga. Maharshi Markandeya emphasised Sangama Snaana in Magha Month for three days as that would secure passage to Higher Lokas. Another revelation was that those who could perform ‘Karishagni Seva’or Tapasya within a circle of flames of dried cow-dung at the Sangama Place would preserve his or her ‘Sarvaangaas’ in tact without any kind of illnesses through out their lives with physical fitness! Yet another Tirtha on the nothern side of River Yamuna called ‘Runa Vimochana’ or freedom from indedtedness.

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I S H V A R A

G I T A

Delineation of Atma Tatwa Swarupa (Guhya Jnaana)

Suta Maha Muni quoted Veda Vyasa to the Rishis at Naimisha Forest that ‘Brahmavaadis’or those who cogitated about ‘Brahma Gyana’or the Knowledge of Brahma like Sanat Kumara,Sanaka, Sanandana, Angira, Bhrigu, Kanaada, Kapila, Vaama Deva, Shukra and Vasishtha prayed to Narayana Maharshi at Badarikaashrama and the latter appeared along with Nara Maharshi. The Brahmavaadis requested Narayana Maharshi to answer certain queries which had not been replied satisfactorily in their comprehension such as to what was the ‘raison d’tre’or the cause of Creation; which was the Shakti that scripted, sustained and decimated it; what precisely that Atma or Soul meant and what indeed was the ‘Paramartha’ or the Final Goal all about! On hearing this, Maharshi Narayana discarded the Form of a Tapaswi and assumed the distinct Swarupa of Vishnu with Four Hands and Ornamentation of Shankha-Chakra-Gadaa-Saaranga besides Srivatsa accompanied by Devi Lakshmi. Simultaneously, Maha Deva too appeared at the behest of Vishnu as both of them were

seated comfortably and when Vaasudeva posed the same questions that the Maharshis gave, Maheswara provided replies while cautioning confidentialty of the explanations:

Atmaa yah Kevalah Swasthaha Shaantah Sukshmah Sanaatanah,

Asti Sarvaantaraha Saakshaa- cchinmaatrastamasah Parah/

Sontaryaami sa Purushaha sa Praanah sa Maheswaraha,

Sa Kaalogni-stadavyaktam sa Ye Vedamiti Shrutih/

Asmaad Vijaayatey Vishwamaschaiva pravileeyatey,

Sa maayi Maayaya baddhah karoti Vividhaastanuh/

(Vedas affirmed that ‘Atma’or The Soul which was Unique or Singular, Vigorous, Wholesome, Tranquil, Tiny, Ancient, Intrinsic and beyond Tamo Guna was the Purusha, the Praana or Life and Maheshwara himself as also Agni, Kaala and the Unknown! This Samasara or the Universe was created by Parameshwara who also absorbed it into him; the Maha Maya which surrounded lesser layers of Maya created various Beings; indeed, the Pure Atma was not subject to changes nor features; it neither allowed transformation nor was prone to motivation).

Na chaapyam samsarati na cha Samsaarayet Prabhuh,

Naayam Prithi na Salilam na Tejah Pavano Nabhah/

Na Praano na Mano –Vyaktam Na shabdah sparsha yevacha,

Na Rupa rasaghandhaascha naaham Kartaa na Vaagapi/

Na Paani paadow no paayurna chopastham Dwijottamaah,

Na Kartaacha na Bhoktaa vaa nacha Prakritin Purushou,

Na Maayaa naiva cha Praanashchaitanyam Paramaarthathah/

(The Supreme Atma was neither Earth, nor Water, Tejas / Radiance, Wind nor Sky. It was neither Life, nor Mind, nor the Unknown, nor Shabda /Sound-Rasa/ Taste-Gandha /Smell; it was not the feeling of the Self nor of the Voice. One coud not identify the Soul as hands, feet, nor the Marmaavayaas; neither the Kartaa the Performer nor Bhokta- the one who experienced the performance; The Atma was not Prakriti and Purusha; not the Maya /Illusion and Life; in fact the Universe and Paramatma are clearly separated entities!

Yathaa Prakaasha tamasoh sambandho nopapadyatey,

Tadvaikyam na sambanthah Prapancha Paramaatmanoh/

Chaayaa tapou yathaa lokey Paraspara vilakshanou,

Tadah tasya Bhaven muktirjanmaantara shatairapi/

Pashyanti Mumanayo yuktaah swaatmaanam Paramaardhatah,

Vikaara heenam Nirduhkha maanaanda -atmaanavyayam/

Aham Kartaa Sukhi Duhkhi Krusha Sthuleti yaa matih,

Saa chaahankaara krutwaadaatmanya ropyatey Janaih/

( Just as darkness and light were clearly distinctive, Samsara and Paramatma had no relevance of each

other. Purusha and Prapancha too were quite different like sunshine and shadow. If Atma were unclean, diseased and full of malices by nature, then it could never have been purified even after thousands of lives and Yogis or Sages could never have visioned a spotless, blissful, indestructible and eternal Soul otherwise!) Paramatma therefore emphasised thus:

Aham Kartaa Sukhi Duhkhi Krushah Sthuleti yaa matih,

Saa chaahankaara kartutwaa daatma -atmanyaa ropyatey janaih/

Vadanti Veda Vidwaamsaha saakshinaam Prakruteyh Param,

Bhoktaara -maksharam Shuddham Sarvatra Samavasthitam/

Tasmaadajnaana mulo hi Samsaarah Sarva dehinaam,

Ajnaanaadyanyathaa Jnaanam taccha Prakriti sangatam/

( Human Beings tend to attribute their feelings as per their own mind-set and Ahamkaara/self- pride

as though they were the Kartas or the responsible persons for their happiness, unhappiness, thinness or

stoutness and so on; accordingly they reflect their emotions and sentiments to their inner consciousness and Atma (Soul). But those who were enlightened and learned with the knowledge of Vedas and Scriptures would indeed realise that there was a force beyond them and their nature and that indeed was the Eternal and All-Pervasive Para Tatwa; ignorance of that Reality which was far different from the illusion was the High Divider.)

Nityoditah Swayam Jyotih Sarvagah Purushah Parah,

Ahamkaaravivekena Kartaahamiti manyatey/

Pashyanti Rishayovyaktam Nityam Sadasaad –makam,

Pradhaanam Prakritim buddhwaa kaaranam Brahma vaadinah/

Tenaayam samgatohyatmaa Kutasthopi Niranjanah,

Swaatmaanamaksharam Brahma naavabudhyet Tatwath/

Anaatmanyaatma vijnaanam tasmaad duhkham tathetaram,

Raagadweshaadayo doshaah Sarvey bhraanti nibandha –naah/

Karmanyasya bhaved dosah Punyaapunyamiti stitih,

Tadhshaa Deva Sarveshaam Sarva Deva samudbhavah/ (Due to one’s own ego and ignorance, human beings tended to confuse themselves as Parama Purusha -the Self-Illuminated one- and declared that whatever was achieved or not was due to their own effort or lack of it. Brahmavaadi Rishis would clearly distinguish the Supreme, the Prakriti, and the Cause as also the Truth and Fallacy and thus seek ‘Saakshaatkaara’or Ready Realisation. The dormant, invisible and unfelt Truth would indeed co- exist with the illusions of life vis-à-vis the Eternal which got camouflaged! In the ‘Anaatma’ Tatwa or of the Non-Soul, even Atma Vijnana too woud get polluted due to ‘bhranti’ or illusions as likings and dislikings were produced leading to Depravities or Moralities. This was the reason why Paapa- Punyaas got generated and different kinds of human beings came into existence.)

Nityah Sarvatragohyaatmaa Kutastho Dosha Varhitah,

Eka sa bhidyatey Shaktyaa Maayaya na swabhavatah/

Tasmaadadvaitamevaahur Munayah Paramaartaah,

Bhedo Vykaswabhaavena saa cha Maayaatmasamshrayaa/

Yathaa hi dhumasamparkaannaakaasho maliney bhavet,

Antahkaarana jairbhaavairaatmaa tadatra lipyatey/

Yathaa swaprabhayaa bhaati Kevalah Spatikomalah,

Upaadhiheeno Vimalaastathaivaatmaa Prakaashatey/

Jnaana swarupameyvaahur jagatetad Vichakshanaah,

Artha swarupamevaajnaah pashyantanye kudrushtayah/

( That was also the reason why the Unique Partamatma was displayed in variegated types of Beings due to Maya Shakti or the Power of Illusion. Munis therefore believed firmly that Atma by itself was ‘Advaita’ or Singular but due to interaction with Maya looked as several entities, just as hot sunshine would pollute the Sky and hence the Purity of Atma was affected) .

Yadaa Sarvani Bhutaani Swaatmanyevabhi pashyati,

Sarva Bhuteshu chaatmaanaam Brahmaa sampadyatey tadaa/

Yadaa Sarvaani Bhutaani samaadhistho na pashyati,

Ekibhutah parenaasou tyadaa bhavanti kevalah/

Yadaa Sarvey pramuchyatey Kaamaa yesya hrudi sthitaah,

Tadaasaavamrutibhutah kshemam gacchati Panditah/

Yadaa Bhuta prudhakbhaavamekastha manupashyati,

Tata eva cha vistaaram Brahmaa sampadyatey tadaa/

Yadaa pashyati chaatmaanam kevalam Paramaarthatah,

Mayaa maatram Jagat krutstnam tadaa Bhavai Nivrutah/

(When Yogis could view all the Beings as existed in their own selves, that would become the achievement of Brahma Bhava. When Yogis reached a Samadhi Position or an Elevated Status of Enlightenment perceiving that all Beings in the World were just the same then they would have reached Atma Darshana or the Vision of the Soul and Brahma Bhava or the feeling of Oneness. Yogis woud then have no further desires and reach a stage of Fulfillment; then they feel equality of all Beings and sincerely reach a sensation of Oneness or Brahma Prapti. When Yogis vision ‘Paramaartha’ and the Uniqueness of the Supreme then Maya or Illusion would have been destroyed and the entire Universe would look as a Single Entity.)

Yadaa Janma jaraa duhkhavyaadheenaa meka bheshajam,

Kevalam Brahma Vijnaanam Jaayatosow tadaa Shivah/

Yathaa Nadee nadaa lokey Saarenaikataam yayuh,

Tadaatmaakharenaasou nishkalenai -kataam vrajet/

( When Yogis realise that birth, old-age, misery and disease would happen due to ‘Karma’ or previous actions and of the awareness of that Brahma Gyan, then Shiva Rupa would have been realised. Just as Rivers and Rivulets would reach the Ocean finally, the individual ‘Jeevatmaas’ would get submerged into Paramatma.)

Tasmad Vigjnanamevaasti na Prapancho na Samsrutih,

Agjnaanenaavrutam Loko Vigjnaanam tena muhyati/

Tad jnaanam Nirmalam Sukshmam Nirvikalpam yadavyayam,

Agjnaana mitarat Sarvam Vgjnaanamiti mey matam/

Etad vah Paramam Sankhyam bhaashitam Jnaana –muttamam,

Sarva Vedaanta saaram hi yogatastraikachittataa/

Yogaat sanjyayatey Jnaanam Jnaanaad yogah pravartatey,

Yogi Jnaanaabhi yuktasya naavaapyam Vidyatey kwachit/

Yadeva Yogino yaanti Saankhyaistadadhigamyatey,

Evam Saankhyam cha yoga cha pashyati sa tatwavit/

(Hence, Vigjnaanaa was ever-existent and not Samsara; Vigjnaana / Knowledge was surrounded by Agjnaana/ignorance. In other words, what ever was Nirmala, Sukshma and Avyaya was Jnaana and the rest was worthy of discarding. Sankhya Yoga was that Jnaana only and was the Essence of Vedas. That was what worth concentrating about.)

Having explained the above, Parameswara told the Brahmavadi Maharshis further as follows:

Esha Atmaahamavyakto Maayaavi Parameshwarah,

Keertitah Sarva Vedeshu Sarvaatmaa Sarvato –mukhah/

Sarva Kaamah Sarva rasah Sarvagandhojaraamarah,

Sarvatah paanipaadohamantaryaami Sanaatanah/

Apaani paado javano graheetaa hridi samsthitah,

Achakshurapi pasyaami tathaa karnah shrunomyaham/

Vedaaham Sarvamevedam na maam janaati kaschana,

Praahumarhaantam Purusham maamekam Tatwa darshanah/

Pashyanti Rishayo hetumaatopanah Sukshma darshanah,

Nirgunaamala rupasya attaddaishwaryamuttamam/

Yatra Devaa vijaananti mohiyaa mama Maayayaa,

Vakshye samaahitaa yuyam Shrunudhwam Brahma vaadinah/

Naaham prashastaa Sarvasya Maayaatitah swabhavatah,

Preranaami yathaapeedam kaaranam Sooraye Viduh/

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