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Teacher’s Edition
7

Maths Dimensions

essential learning

Chapter 1

Whole Number Revision 1

• Fill the 7-litre bucket.

• Pour water from it into the 5-litre bucket until the 5-litre bucket is full (this will remove 3 litres from the 7-litre bucket).

 1A Place value • 4 litres of water will remain in the 7-litre bucket. 1 a 31 b 703 c 2000 d 400 900 1G Order of operations 2 a Twelve 1 a 16 b 18 c 4 d 11 e 4 f 36 b Four thousand and ten 2 a 6 × (5 − 2) b 20 − (8 − 6) c 36 ÷ (6 ÷ 3) c Seven million 3 a (3 + 8) × 2 b 62 − (10 × 5) d Forty-ﬁve thousand, three hundred and thirteen 4 a 7 b 8 c 6 3 7 hundreds 4 306 804 5 a 15 b 9 c 34 d 10 e 16 f 5 5 a 87 621 b 12 678 6 2057 6 a 63 b 2 c 25 d13 Puzzle e 2 f 36 g 27 h 8 ‘ten-two’ i 36 j 130 k 44 l 12 1B Addition 7 a 2 × \$800 + 3 × \$500 + \$100 b \$3200 1 a 669 b 5190 8 a 8 × (29 + 11) b 320 2 a 9523 b 7420 9 Multiplying and dividing take priority over addition 3 \$148 4 11 808 km and subtraction. 5 a South Australia: 23 035 Puzzle Western Australia: 28 468 ‘thousand’ b July c 51 503 1H Estimation d Add the totals for each of the 4 months. 1 b 41 + 503 ≈ 40 + 500 = 540 1C Subtraction c 793 − 58 ≈ 790 − 60 = 730 1 a 716 b 9279 d 49 × 11 ≈ 50 × 10 = 500 2 a 88 b 894 e 798 ÷ 10 ≈ 800 ÷ 10 = 80 3 162 minutes f 102 × 39 ≈ 100 × 40 = 4000 4 Geelong to Lorne: 66 km 2 \$160 ÷ \$19 ≈ \$160 ÷ \$20 = 8 gifts Lorne to Port Campbell: 141 km Port Campbell to Warrnambool: 66 km 3 299 + 433 + 318 + 960 ≈ 300 + 450 + 300 + 950 = 2000; 2000 km

Puzzle

12

Whole Number Revision 2

 1D Multiplication 1 a 3114 b 28 956 2 a 2033 b 19 110 3 \$169 4 19 5 \$785 1E Division 1 a 413 b 89 2 a 1247 b 8041 3 292 litres 4 a 129 b the number of students who paid for tickets 1F Doubling and halving 1 a 10 × 69 = 690 b 36 × 100 = 3600 c 18 × 100 = 1800 d 100 × 97 = 9700 e 1000 × 19 = 19 000 2 a 560 b 800 c 330 d 392 e 600 3 a 1400 b 1670 c 342 000 4 \$500

Puzzle

• Pour from a full 7-litre bucket into the 5-litre bucket— this leaves 2 litres in the 7-litre bucket.

• Empty the 5-litre bucket.

• Pour the 2 litres into the 5-litre bucket.

The four 4s puzzle

 1 = 4 − 4 + 4 ÷ 4 2 = 4 ÷ 4 + 4 ÷ 4 3 = (4 + 4 + 4) ÷ 4 4 = (4 − 4) × 4 + 4 5 = (4 × 4 + 4) ÷ 4 6 = (4 + 4) ÷ 4 + 4 7 = 4 + 4 − 4 ÷ 4 8 = 4 × 4 − (4 + 4) 9 = 4 + 4 ÷ 4 + 4
 1J Number systems of the past 1 a 13 b 51 c 20 d 156 e 1353 f 1500 2 a VI b XIV c XXI d LXI e XXIX f MM 3 Roman numerals are harder to read quickly, and the ﬁlmmaker or TV network does not want viewers to realise that the ﬁlm may be fairly old. 4 a XIV = 14 b LXIV = 64 5 a MDC = 1600 b MDCL = 1650

Two logic puzzles

1 Inhabitant 1: elf, Inhabitant 2: elf, Inhabitant 3: troll

2 The bar should be cut immediately in two places—to make three pieces.

The three separate pieces will be one-seventh, two-sevenths and four-sevenths.

 Instalment 1: Bank pays the person a one-seventh bit Instalment 2: The person returns the one-seventh bit and the bank pays the person a two-sevenths bit

1

 Instalment 3: The bank gives the one-seventh bit back to the person Instalment 4: The person returns the one- and two-sevenths bits, and then the bank pays them with a four-sevenths bit Instalment 5: The bank gives the one-seventh bit to the person Instalment 6: The person returns the one-seventh bit and the bank pays the person a two-sevenths bit Instalment 7: The bank gives the one-seventh bit to the person

Chapter 2

Number Patterns 1

 3 32 a b 216 4 false a b true 5 4 × 25 = 100; 100 3 = 1 000 000 a 6 2 + 2 2 + 2 3 a b 14

2G Squares and square roots

 1 b a 36 144 c 64 2 0 and 1 a 3 5 b 10 c 9 4 a 625 b 2025 c 12 544 d 139 129 5 b a 33 216 c 0·72

6 1

Larger and smaller squares

 2A Exploring number patterns 1 Number Square The square is than the number 1 21, 26, 31, 36 b a 13, 17, 23, 30 39 1521 bigger d c 64, 55, 46, 37 26, 37, 50, 65 2 4 bigger 2 a b 1, 3, 6, 10, 15 0·3 0·09 smaller 0·767 0·588 289 smaller c 2, 3, 4, 5 d 21, 28, 36, 45 15 225 bigger 2B Multiples 1·2 1·44 bigger 0·98 0·9604 smaller 1 a 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 b 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 2 The list gives the multiples of 4. 5·001 25·010 001 bigger 3 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 98 2 39, 2, 15, 1·2, 5·001 4 a 12, 24, 36 b 36, 72, 108 3 0·3, 0·767, 0·98 5 a 40 b 60 4 1, because 1 2 = 1; and also 0 6 a 12 days b 84 days 5 a numbers greater than 1 2C Factors b numbers between 0 and 1 1 a {1, 2, 4, 8} b {1, 3, 5, 15} 2H Prime factors c {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24} d {1, 11} 1 60 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 2 1 3 7 is not a factor of 99 2 a 24 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 4 a 2 × 36, 3 × 24, 4 × 18, 6 × 12, 8 × 9 b 12 b 400 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 5 × 5 5 {1, 3, 9} c 50 = 2 × 5 × 5 6 a 2 b 1 7 \$20 d 98 = 2 × 7 × 7

2D Divisibility tests

 1 a no b yes c no d yes 2 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 3 A number is divisible by 5 if it ends in 0 or 5. 4 7 + 1 + 5 + 5 = 18, which is divisible by 9. 5 a 8004 b 8001

Number Patterns 2

 2E Exploring primes and composites 1 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47 Multiples of 4 and 6 are also multiples of 2, and numbers divisible by 2 have already been removed. 2 53 3 1 has only 1 factor 4 a 91 b 91 = 7 × 13 so it has more than two factors Its factors are {1, 7, 13, 91}. 2F Index notation 1 a 5 4 b 67 3 2 a 8 × 8 b 9 × 9 × 9 × 9 × 9 × 9

2 Maths Dimensions 7 Teacher’s Edition CD

e 120 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 × 5

f 57 = 3 × 19

Goldbach’s conjecture

Several answers are possible. Here is one (with some alternatives):

 4 = 2 + 2 6 = 3 + 3 8 = 3 + 5 10 = 5 + 5 12 = 7 + 5 14 = 7 + 7 16 = 3 + 13 (or 5 + 11) 18 = 7 + 11 20 = 3 + 17 22 = 11 + 11 24 = 5 + 19 (or 13 + 11) 26 = 13 + 13 28 = 11 + 17 30 = 13 + 17 32 = 3 + 29 34 = 17 + 17 36 = 5 + 31 38 = 19 + 19 40 = 17 + 23 42 = 5 + 37 44 = 3 + 41 46 = 23 + 23 48 = 5 + 43 50 = 3 + 47

Second part:

 21 = 3 + 7 + 11 23 = 5 + 7 + 11 25 = 3 + 5 + 17 27 = 3 + 5 + 19 29 = 5 + 11 + 13

2I

1

2

Odds and evens

a even

13 Pluto Place, 17 Pluto Place

b

odd

c

even

3
4
4
4 + 6 + 8
5
+
Odd
Even
Odd
Even
Odd
Even
Odd
Odd
Even
Odd
Even
Odd
Even
Even
Odd
Even
×
Odd
Even
Odd
Odd
Even
Even
Even
Even
6 a
either odd or even
b
8 ÷ 4 = 2 which is even
6 ÷ 2 = 3 which is odd
1
a
4
b
9
c
16
2
100
3
20 2 : 20 × 20 = 400
4
the sum of the ﬁrst n odd numbers is n × n.
a
Powers of 7
Value
Last digit
1
7
7
7
2
7
49
9
3
7
343
3
4
7
2401
1
5
7
16 807
7
6
7
117
649
9
7
7
823
543
3
 b 1 c 1 d 1, 5, 6, 10 Chapter 3 Fractions 1 3A Shaded diagrams 1 a 1 --- b 4 ------ 1 4 1 or --- c ------ or --- 2 12 3 12 3 2 4 --- 3 7 ------ 1 4 8 or --- ------ 7 28 4 13 5 7 3 67 --- 6 3 ------ ------ or --- 50 5 16 8 8 3 6 a B and D b --- --- 4 2 , 8 9 abcd --- --- --- 1 2 4 --- 2 5 3 9

3B

1

2

a

6

Mixed numbers and improper fractions

3

---

4

1

3

---

2 5

---

1 b

3

minutes

c

1

1

------

10

3

abc

------

------

2

19

------

5

7

b

19

13

23

37

------

8

4 a

3C

1 abc

---

---

4

1

7

2

1

d

3

---

5

e

2 a

8

3

---

5

f

9

2

---

5

Helena should not have added the two bottom numbers (denominators).

b
Fractions 2

c

4

---

5

3D

1 abcd

------

------

------

9

19

19

2

3F

e

13

------

20

20

4

17

------

20

f

20

5

---

6

3 a

5

8

24

b

2

Subtracting with the same

denominator

3

2

---

3

1 abcd

---

---

---

1

1

1

5

4

4

2

1

---

2

e

3G

Subtracting with different denominators

1

1

abcd

------

------

------

24 10

5

3

7

------

24 20

1

1

2

---

5

e

2

4

---

5

3

------

10

2

3I

1

------

10

3

7

------

20

Multiplying fractions

 1 abc ------ --- 6 1 35 8 16 d 1 --- 5 1 1 e 3 --- 3 f 3 --- g 1 3 2 1 ------ 10 Fractions 3 3J Dividing fractions 1 1 b 3 1 a --- c --- 4 2 2 3 b 3 a --- ------ 8 14 3 a 9 b 5 c 1 --- ------ 8 12

4

abcd

------

---

------

10

5

7

27

8

50

8

5 a

3

2

------

11

b

7

---

9

c

34

1 ------

35

3

6

8

3K

1

2

3

4

2

7

1

---

2

1

---

2

pies

7 3

3

---

4

books per hour

÷ 5 =

15

------

4

×

1

---

5

Fractions of quantities

a

a

3

---

4

14

\$20

× 60 = 45

\$36

b

28

b

c

21 cm

15

5 7

1

---

2

c

hours

=

d

15

------

20

69

=

70 kg

3

---

4

6 160 minutes or 2 hours, 40 minutes

7

a

1

---

5

b

1

---

5

× 60 = 12; 12 minutes

Fractions 4

3L

Squares and square roots of fractions

1 abc

------

---

25

1

64

1

---

4

5

9

1

1

7

---

9

2

a

6

b

c

3 abc

---

---

6

8

16

---------

121

41

------

64

5

7

------

10

4

3M Order of operations

1

1

---

3

a

b 2

1 a

9

b 6

1

---

3

1

---

2

 2 abcd ------ ------ ------ 13 13 11 16 24 15 6 1 --- 2 f 1 e 5 ------ 12 Chapter 4 Decimals and Percentages 1 4A Place value and notation 1 Thousands Hundreds Tens Units · Tenths Hundredths a 63·1 6 3 · 1 b 510·91 5 1 0 · 9 1 c 4000·2 4 0 0 0·2 d 0·07 0 0 · 7 e 31·59 3 1 5 · 9 2 a 50·4 b 9·39 c 6034·1 Decimals and Percentages 2 d 300·2 e 0·005 4D Adding decimals 3 a 9 tens b 9 tenths c 9 units d 9 hundredths 1 a 5·6 b 1·7 c 15·01 d 5·844 e 9 thousandths 2 \$12·25 3 42·1°C 4 47·4 kg 4 a False b True c False d True 4E Subtracting decimals 5 a Thousandths b 0·03 g 1 a 0·25 b 1·75 c 13·35 d 0·28 6 a 0·8 b 12·8 c 1·2 d 17·001 2 10·84 seconds 3 0·85 litres 4 154·8 cm 7 0·043, 0·403, 0·43, 4·03, 4·3 4F Multiplying decimals 8 a Apples b Apples c Apples 1 a 0·12 b 0·4 c 0·12 d 9·6 e 0·6 4B Estimation of decimals 2 a 0·12 b 0·143 c 13·44 d 0·0002 1 Question Approximate Estimated Actual 3 × 0·2 4 0·05 1·2 question answer answer 0·1 0·02 0·4 0·005 0·12 (calculator) 0·3 0·06 1·2 0·015 0·36 49·11 ÷ 5·1 50 ÷ 5 10 9·629 0·08 0·016 0·32 0·004 0·096 13·98 + 1·9 14 + 2 16 15·88 0·12 0·024 0·48 0·006 0·0144 1·88 − 0·93 2 − 1 1 0·95 4 a 25·2 b 29·13 c 2·216 d 24·7538 6·07 × 5·97 6 × 6 36 36·2379 5 \$18·80 6 a \$7·80 b \$2·20 2 a 90 ÷ 50 = 1·8 b \$1·95 3 600 7 \$91·52 4C Rounding decimals 8 a \$8·31 b \$29·44 c \$10·55 if given in cash 1 5·8 a b 13·1 c 0·5 d 42·6 4G Dividing by whole numbers 1 a 6·91 b 0·113 c 63·3 d 2 3·63 a b 0·17 0·2175 3 b a 1·438 16·259 c 0·001 2 \$5·35 ÷ 3 = \$1·78 or \$1·80 if paying in cash 4 6·7 kg 5 a \$7·99 b \$8·00 3 \$8·79

4 Maths Dimensions 7 Teacher’s Edition CD

Decimals and Percentages 3

4H Dividing by decimals

 1 a 2 b 48·2 c 9830 d 1·8 ÷ 9 2 a 155 b 9·64 c 4915 d 0·2 3 a 21 b 210 c 21 d 21 000 4 a 0·296 b 4·4 c 2·099 d 615·9 5 50 6 250 7 87·9 cents 8 25 days 4I Exploring powers of 10 1 a 29 b 538·1 c 4·9 d 6300 e 57·91 f 0·438 2 a 2·345 b 0·0036 c 0·732 d 0·001 56 e 60·034 f 0·007

4K

1

2

3

Fractions and decimals

 a 0·8 b 0·75 c 0·875 d 0·35 a 0·3125 b 1·5 c 3·175 a 0·444 444 444 b 0·232 323 232 c 5·188 888 888 d 60·658 658 658 ˙ ˙ a 0· 2 b 3· 18 c 14·0 7 d 3· 192 ˙ a 0· 8 b 0· 27

Converting decimals to fractions

4

5

4L

1

2

abcd

---

------

------

4

6

1

e

5

5

---

8

a 1

3

---

4

e 14

3

------

25

f

b

f

25

201

---------

250

2

---

5

7

2

9 ---

8

c

20

5

1

---------

125

d

17

------

25

76 ---------

200

63

Decimals and Percentages 4

4M Percentages

1
35%
2
3
a 86%
b
14%

4

5

6

7

4N Finding percentages of quantities

abcd

---

---

------

5

4

25

1

3

2

16

------

25

Less than half; half would be 50%.

 a 80% b 15% c 24% a 49% b 5% c 71·8%
 1 a \$30 b 38 c 72 m d \$112 2 \$180 3 144 kg 4O Calculating percentages 1 300 students 2 30 3 a 75 b 325 4 a \$45·90 b \$195·50 5 The Eski fridge is cheaper: it costs \$1300 − 35% of \$1300; \$1300 − \$455 = \$845 The Chillaway costs \$1150 − 20% of \$1150; \$920