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EE207 Electrical Power

Lecture 6

Power Transmission and Distribution

Generation of Electrical Power

• There are three main types of generating stations:

– Thermal Generating Stations

– Hydropower Generating Stations

– Nuclear Generating Stations

Thermal Stations

– Thermal generating stations produce electricity from the heat released by the combustion of coal, oil or natural gas.

– Thermal stations are rated between 200-1500MW and usually located near a river or lake because of the large quantity of cooling water required.

Generation of Electrical Power

– The efficiency of thermal generating station is always low. The maximum efficiency of any machine that converts heat energy into mechanical energy is given as:

ηηηη

====

( 1

−−−−

T

2

T

1

)××××

100

η=efficiency of the machine % T 1 =Temperature of gas entering the turbine [K] T 2 =Temperature of gas leaving the turbine [K]

Generation of Electrical Power

– Note that T 2 /T 1 should be as small as possible to obtain high efficiency.

– The highest feasible value for T 1 is 550 o C (823K). Because we can not exceed the temperature that steel and other metals can withstand. Also T 1 is usually in range of 20 o C (ambient Temperature).

Generation of Electrical Power 11 1 S 3 2 LP S 2 G 5 3
Generation of Electrical Power
11
1
S
3
2
LP
S
2
G
5
3
4
HP
Cooling
MP
Water in
P 1
S 1
6
9
S
4
Cooling
Water out
P4
10
8
7
P
3

Thermal Power Plant

Generation of Electrical Power

• The basic structure of a thermal generating station consists of the following components:

• (1) A huge boiler: Transferring heat from the burning fuel to row of water tubes (S1) surrounded by flames. Pump P1 keeps the water circulating.

• (2) Drum: Containing water and steam under high pressure. Steam races towards the High pressure pump HP after passing through Superheater S2. Superheater S2 ensures that the steam is dry to improve the station overall efficiency.

Generation of Electrical Power

• (3) HP: converts thermal energy into mechanical energy by letting the steam expands as it moves through the turbine blades. In order to prevent premature condensation the steam passes through a reheater S3.

• (4) MP: Medium Pressure turbine is similar to the HP turbine except it is bigger so that the steam may still expand more.

• (5) LP: Low Pressure turbine consists of two identical sections. Removes the available energy from the steam.

Generation of Electrical Power

• (6) Condenser: Causing the steam to condense by passing it over the cooling pipes S4. A condensate pump P2 removes the lukewarm condensed steam and drives it through a reheater (7) towards a feedwater pump (8).

• (7) Heat Exchanger: Receives hot steam bled from the HP to raise the temperature of the feedwater. This will improve the efficiency of the station.

• (9) Burners: supply and control the amount of gas,oil, or coal injected into the boiler.

Generation of Electrical Power

• (10) Forced-draft fan: supplies enormous quantities of air needed for combustion.

• (11) Induced-draft fan: carries the products of combustion and gases towards cleansing apparatus then to the outside air.

• (12) G: generator directly coupled to all three turbines converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Generation of Electrical Power

Thermal Stations and the Environment.

The main combustion products when oil, coal, gas are burned: CO 2 (Carbon dioxide), SO 2 (Sulfur dioxide) and Water. Water and CO 2 produce no immediate environmental effects, but SO 2 creates substances that give rise to acid rain. Natural gas produces only Water and CO 2 . This explains why Natural gas is preferable. Usually filters are used to remove particles from the boiler- gas flue stream.

Generation of Electrical Power

Hydropower Generating Stations These stations converts the energy of moving water into electrical energy by means of hydraulic turbines coupled to synchronous generators.

• The power that can be extracted from a waterfall depends on the height and the rate of flow and is given by:

P ==== 9.8qh

where, q: water rate of flow m 3 /s P: available water power kW

h: head of water m

Generation of Electrical Power

• Types of Hydropower stations

High Head developments: have head in excess of 300m and high speed Pelton turbines are used. The amount of impounded water is usually small.

Medium Head developments: have heads between 30 and 300 m, and medium speed Francis turbines are used. A dam is usually built across a river bed in relatively mountainous area. The amount of impounded water is huge.

Low Head developments: have heads under 30m and low speed Kaplan or Francis turbines are used. These stations usually extract power from flowing rivers.

Generation of Electrical Power

• Makeup of a Hydropower Plant

A hydropower installation consists of:

Dams: made of earth and concrete are built across river beds to create a storage reservoirs. Dams permit us to regulate the water flow throughout the year. Spillways adjacent to the dam are provided to discharge water whenever the reservoir level is too high

Conduits, Penstock, and Scroll-Case:

Conduits: lead the water from the dam site to the generating plant. Penstock: huge steel pipes that channels the water into a scroll-case that surrounds the turbine.

Generation of Electrical Power

Scroll-Case: distribute the water evenly around the turbine’s circumference.Guide vanes and wicket gates control the water so that it flows smoothly into the runner blades. Wicket gates open and close in response to a powerful hydraulic mechanism controlled by the respective turbine governors.

Draft Tube and Tailrace: Carefully designed vertical channels to remove water from the turbine. The water is led to a tailrace which channels the water to a downstream river bed.

Powerhouse: Contains Synchronous generator, transformers, circuit breakers and control apparatus.

Transmission of Electrical Energy

A transmission and Distribution must satisfy the following basic requirements:

– Provide at all times the power that consumers need.

– Maintain a stable, nominal voltage that does not vary by more than ±10%.

– Maintain a stable frequency that does not vary by more than ±0.1%.

– Supply energy at an acceptable price.

– Meet standards of safety.

– Respect environmental standards.

Transmission of Electrical Energy

• An Elementary Transmission and Distribution system is depicted below.

Generation Transmission Distribution Medium EHV HV MV LV Tie-line 120/240V 115kV single phase 2.4kV G1
Generation
Transmission
Distribution
Medium
EHV
HV
MV
LV
Tie-line
120/240V
115kV
single phase
2.4kV
G1
to
345kV
to
230kV
to
69kV
765kV
G2
600V three
phase
Heavy
Medium
industry
industry
Small industry
Commerce
Residences
Interconnection
Generating
Transmission
Transmission
Distribution
Rajparthiban Kumar
EE207 Electrical Power
16
Substations
Substations
Stations
Substations
Substations

Transmission of Electrical Energy

• Transmission substations: Change the line voltage by

means of a step up/step down transformer and regulate it by means of static var compensators, synchronous condensers.

• Distribution substations: Change medium voltage to

low voltage by means of step down transformers which may have automatic tap-changing capabilities to regulate the low voltage.

• Power distribution systems are divided into two major categories:

Transmission of Electrical Energy

Transmission Systems: The line voltage is roughly between 115kV and 800kV.

Distribution Systems: The voltage is generally in the range of 120V and 69kV. This is subdivided into:

Medium Voltage Distribution Systems: 2.4kV to 69kV, and

Low Voltage Distribution Systems: 120 to 600V.

The design of a power line depends on the following factors:

– The amount of active power it has to transmit

– The distance over which the power must be carried.

– The cost of the power line.

– Esthetic considerations, urban congestion, ease of installation, and expected growth.

Transmission of Electrical Energy

Types of Power lines according to voltage class:

Low voltage (LV) lines: Provide power to buildings, factories, commercial establishments. These are usually insulated Aluminium conductors (as overhead or underground cables). often transfer power from local pole-mounted distribution transformer to the service entrance of the customer.

Medium Voltage (MV) lines: Tie the load centres (high rise buildings, shopping centres, campuses…etc.) to one of the substations of the utility company. The voltage level is 2.4kV to 69 kV.

High Voltage (HV) lines: connect the main substation to the generating station. The lines are either aerial

Transmission of Electrical Energy

conductors or underground cables. The voltage level is below 230kV.

Extra High Voltage (EHV) lines: are used when the generating stations are very far from the load centres. These lines operate at voltage levels up to 800kV and may be as long as 1000km.

Components of a HV Transmission Line:

Conductors: conductors for HV transmission are always bare. The are made of stranded copper or Steel Reinforced aluminium Cables (ACSR). ACSR are usually preferred because they are lighter and more economical.

Transmission of Electrical Energy

Insulators: made of Porcelain and serve to support and anchor the conductors and to insulate them from ground.

Pin-type insulators for voltages below 70kV.

Suspension-type insulators for HV.

Pin type Insulator
Pin type Insulator

Rajparthiban Kumar

EE207 Electrical Power

Suspension type

21

Transmission of Electrical Energy

Supporting Structure: must keep the conductors at a safe height from ground and at an adequate distance from each other. For voltages below 70kV wooden poles can be used and steel towers made of galvanised- angle-iron pieces are used for very high voltages.

Equivalent Circuit of a Power Transmission Line

• Generally an ac PTL posses a resistance (r), an inductive reactance (x L ), and a capacitive reactance (x C ) uniformly distributed over the entire length of the line.

Transmission of Electrical Energy

L r jx L -jx C N
L
r
jx L
-jx C
N

• The line equivalent circuit can be simplified by lumping the individual resistances, inductances and capacitances to give a total resistance (R) and total inductance and capacitance (jX L ) and (jX C ) respectively.

• Thus the simplified equivalent circuit of a PTL becomes:

Transmission of Electrical Energy

R jX L L -j2X C -j2X C N
R
jX L
L
-j2X C
-j2X C
N

• Note that the total Capacitances is divided into two parts (each equal to 2X C ) at both ends of the line.

Transmission of Electrical Energy

• The circuit can be simplified further by omitting one or more of the equivalent circuit parameters based on the amount of active, reactive power associated with the line.

– For LV lines, the distance is short and and the voltage is low, thus capacitive reactive power Q C associated with the line is very small and negligible. Thus the capacitive component can be omitted.

Q

C

====

E

2

X

C

Transmission of Electrical Energy

E

R

Transmission of Electrical Energy E R jX L PTL Low & Medium voltage Simplified Equivalent cct.

jX L

Transmission of Electrical Energy E R jX L PTL Low & Medium voltage Simplified Equivalent cct.
Transmission of Electrical Energy E R jX L PTL Low & Medium voltage Simplified Equivalent cct.
Transmission of Electrical Energy E R jX L PTL Low & Medium voltage Simplified Equivalent cct.

PTL Low & Medium voltage Simplified Equivalent cct.

– HV and EHV lines are always long, and so the reactive powers associated with the line inductances and capacitances become more important. Also the efficiency of the line is high so the I 2 R associated with the line resistance become small, thus HV and EHV simplified equivalent cct. becomes:

Transmission of Electrical Energy

jX L

-j2X C

-j2X C

Transmission of Electrical Energy jX L -j2X C -j2X C E 1 E 2 HV and
Transmission of Electrical Energy jX L -j2X C -j2X C E 1 E 2 HV and

E 1

E 2

HV and EHV voltage Simplified Equivalent cct.

• Example: a PTL delivers 300MW to 3-phase load (see figure). If the line voltage at both ends (source and Load) is 230kV, determine the following:

Transmission of Electrical Energy

300MW

load

50km

230kV

1000k cmil

Line parameters: 0.065/km

Inductance:

Capacitance: 300k.km

• Active, Reactive power associated with the line.

• The approximate equivalent circuit, per phase.

0.5 /km

Transmission of Electrical Energy

Solution R=50km x 0.065 /km =3.25X L =50km x 0.5 /km = 25X C= 300000 .km /50km = 6000 The line to neutral voltage E=230kV/3=133kV The active power per phase P=300MW/3=100MW The load current I=100MW/133kV=750A If we temporarily neglect the presence of the capacitor in parallel with the load, then line I 2 R loss

Transmission of Electrical Energy

P line =I 2 R=(750) 2 x 3.25=1.83MW (1.8% of total P) The absorbed reactive power of the line: Q Ln = I 2 X L =(750) 2 x 25=14.1 Mvar (14% of total P). Reactive power generated by the capacitor at each end: E 2 /X C =(133) 2 /12000=1.47Mvar Total reactive power generated by the capacitors Q Cln =2 x 1.47Mvar = 2.94 Mvar (3 % of total P) Comparing P line ,Q Ln and Q Cln shows that Q Ln is the dominant component, and thus the line is inductive. The resistance and Capacitance of the line can be neglected.

Transmission of Electrical Energy

Voltage Regulation and Power Capability of TL Four types of lines will be examined in terms of voltage regulation and Active power handling capabilities. 1. Resistive lines

I

Active power handling capabilities. 1. Resistive lines I R P TL Equivalent Impedance E S E
R P TL Equivalent Impedance
R
P
TL Equivalent
Impedance

E S

E R

Source

Variable Load

Transmission of Electrical Energy

0.95E S

E R

0

E S 0.5E S P=E 2 S /4R
E
S
0.5E S
P=E 2 S /4R

19%

P 100%

0.95E S E R 0 E S 0.5E S P=E 2 S /4R 19% P 100%

Characteristics of Resistive line

– The maximum power that can be transmitted by the line to the load is obtained when the load impedance is equal the complex conjugate of the line impedance.

Transmission of Electrical Energy

Under this condition the load voltage E R =(1/2)E s and the maximum power transferred to the load P max = E s 2 /4R However this voltage level at the load is not acceptable. If we consider 5% voltage regulation (i.e. E R =0.95E S )is an acceptable limit, the the power that can be transferred by the line to the load:

P= (0.95E s ) 2 /19R this power is only 19% of the maximum power (P max )!

Transmission of Electrical Energy

This can be shown as:

E

R

I ====

I ====

====

E

0 95

.

s

−−−−

.

E

0 95

s

E

s

R

====

0 05

.

E

s

R

and thus ,

R load

====

P

load

====

∴∴∴∴

P load

P

max

E

R

I

====

19 R,and load Power ,

(

0 05

.

E

s

R

)

2

××××

19

R

====

0 0475

.

E

2

s

R

====

0 0475

.

E

2

s

/ R

E

2

s

/

4

R

====

19

%