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FOREIGN

DISSERTATION

51774

P 2644095'

DECLENSION OF NOUNS
IN

MABATHI AS SEEN IN DNYANESHWAR'S WORKS


INAUGURAL-DISSERTATION

VKRFASST UND DER HOHEN PHILOSOPHISCHEN FAKULTAT DER KGL. BAYER. JULIUS-MAXIMILIANSUNlVERSITAT^iJRZBURG

Zmi ERLANGUNG DER DOKTOIiWiJRDE


VORGELEGT AM
19.

FEBRUAR

1914

VON

KRISHNAJI J0SHL3
AU8 POONA

I.

A.

(BOMBAY)

(INDIEN)

LIBRARY
APR 141953

LEIPZIG
\j
DUUCK VON
G.

UNIVERSITY Of CAlthORNlA

KREYSING

1914

EEFERENT: GEHEIMER HOFRAT


PROF. DR. JULIUS JOLLY

I.

The study
known.

of

a language

is

greatly facilitated,

when the
origin,
is

exact source from which the language

takes

its

The

modern science of Philology, and the rapid deve-

lopment of
language,

it,

show us

clearly that such a

knowledge throws
difficult to

a flood of light on

many a

point in
it

the development of a

which otherwise
of
its

would have been


has

explain; for though every language possesses some characteristic

features

own,

it

many

peculiarities

tendencies,

that are inherited from and due to

and the mother


it

language.
is

To grasp these inherent


oldest

features adequately,
its origin.

necessary to trace the language back to

The

the Vedic Samskrit.

known language of the Aryans in India This was the language of literature
Side by side with the language of

is

as

used in the Vedas.


rature,

lite-

there exists always a language in popular form of

speech in current use among the


not be supposed that
this
all

common

people;

for it

can

the people could have spoken in


literature
only.

refined

language
is

of

The

existence

of such a language

due to several causes, such as the

constant emigrating of the Aryans and the separation from

each other owing to natural barriers and indifferent means


of communication, the difficulties of the

new conquered
to utter the

alien

races,

whose vocal organs were not trained

new
and

sounds, in pronouncing the language

of the conquerors,

the ever present tendency of economizing effort and simplifying the pronounciation as far as possible.
in

common parlance are named

Prakrits.

Such languages Such a Prakrit

there must have been in this Vedic period, but perhaps be-

cause
so

its

peculiarities
to

and differenciating features were not

be entitled to be called a separate dialect, or perhaps because there was no literature in it, no traces of it are left behind, unless there be some peculiarities that
got assimilated in Pali later on.

pronounced as

The next development

is

the middle Samskrit.

It is the

Samskrit of this period that

Panini treats in his grammar.


Pali, the oldest Prakrit

known

The Prakrit of this period is to us. Then came the third

period,

the period of the classical Samskrit.

By

this time

the Aryans had extended their possessions far and wide, and

brought many new provinces and new races under their influence, which gave rise to a number of Prakrit dialects in
this period.

The number
is

of

the chief Prakrits according to

namely Maharastri, Sauraseni, Magadhi and Paisaci. These names were given to the Prakrits after the provinces in which the different dialects were spoken 1). Here we have only to deal with the Maharastri Prakrit as the source from which Marathi takes its origin. The Aryans of the North gradually began to emigrate towards the South. In the time of Panini they had no knowledge of the territory south of the Vindhya mountains. Nearly two centuries later, Katyayana shows a knowledge of
four,

the grammarians

the country as

far as the river Godawari.

By

the time of

Patanjali the Aryans

knew

the whole of the South nearly,

and had conquered and brought under their influence the whole of the Dandakaranya. This Dandakaranya is the modern Maharastra, named so after the Rathas or Rastrakiitas'-). The language of this province is Maharastri^). This language
is

treated as the principal Prakrit by Vararuci, the oldest of


in his Prakritaprakasa,

the Prakrit grammarians,

and

also

by Hemacandra and other Prakrit grammarians. As Maharastri in its turn began gradually
the dignity of the language
1) Cf.

to

assume

of literature,

the language of

2) Cf.
3) Cf.

PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. 5, 12. Bhandabkar, Early History of the Deccan pages
12.

8,

10.

PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. iu Maharastri, Einleitung 12.

Jacobi, Ausgewiihlte Erzfihluugen

it became more and more regular and fixed by grammatical rules. Popular languages as a rule do not bear so many strict restrictions, and there came into being an Apabhramsa, known From as Maharastri Apabhramsa or Apabhranisa simply.

poetry and of songs, and the best of the Prakrits*),

this

Apabhramsa evolved
and tendencies Marathi 2).

in

course

of

time

the

Marathi
of

language.

This can be very well seen from


of the

many

the

peculiarities

Apabhramsa that are well

preserved in

The
plate at
in

document as yet found is the copper Manga] vedhem dated Sake 410 (A. D. 488) published
oldest Marathi

There is a second copper plate at Prabhata Dhulia. Cikurdem dated Sake 658 (A. D. 736) published in Visvavritta Then there is a series of copper plates and Kolhapur. inscriptions down to the twelfth century^). Thus the first evidence of Marathi is from A. D. 488. From this it can not
even then,
It will not
still

be concluded that the language was popular and prosperous


it

can be taken as a sure evidence, that the

language existed as a separate dialect sometime before 488.


be therefore far from right to assume 400 A. D.
as the probable approximate date of the origin of the Marathi
language'*).

From
is

this early date

down

to the

age of DnyaIt is not

neshwar there

no literature in the language.

improbable that some literature was produced in this long


span of time, but
time
shortly
is

lost to us.

It

may be

partly due to the

wild anarchy, that reigned in Maharastra for a considerable


after

400 A. D., and partly

to

the

wave

of

Samski'itism that came over the land at that time, and drove

even the refined language of literature like Maharastri out


of

the
1)

field

for

a time.
I.

The evidence
34.
2, 5, 6,

of

the language as

Dandin Kavyadarsa

2) Cf. also

PiscHEL, Pr. Gr.

12.

Grierson, L.

S. J.

Vol.

VII, Introduction.

Rajwade, Introduction to DnyaneshwarT. evidence of Marathi (a language evolved out of Maharastri through ApabraiMsa) going so far back as 488 A. D. it seems very
3) Cf.

4)

The

probable that Maharastri


leads to the

is

much
is

older than

it is

generally supposed to

be; the fact that Vararuci

the same as Katyayana, the Vartikakar,

came conclusion.

seen in Dnyaneshwar's works shows, that the language was not used for the
for
first

time then as the vehicle of poetic ideas


used

the language shows a huge capacity and power and a


first

perfect form, scarcely to be -found in a language


for such a purpose.

Certain
till

it is

that there

is

no literature

available at present

Dnyaneshwar's time.

shwar.

is some controversy about the date of DnyaneThere are two versions given. According to the first he was born in Sake 1193 (A. D. 1271) and died in Sake 1215 Kartika Vadya 13 (A. D. 1293); according to the second

There

version he

was born on the


(A. D.
19^^^

8^^ of

the latter half of Shra-

vana Sake 1197


the
25<*

July 1275) and died on Thursday

13*^

of

the latter half of

Kartika Sake 1218 (A. D.


In support of the birth date
is

October 1296 a Thursday).

of the first version

an Abhanga by Janabai

cited

fiffrft 3TT^^,

Ti^Z^

II

II

^"t^iT '^^'^t, ^-nnJi^fT

II

II

il^inii^Tt ^T^Tf,

^WTt ^f^^-^
^Vfi
II

^^ ^^
only a remark
is

'k^,

^TfT

II

In support of the date of death no evidence

is

cited;

made that the whole occasion is beautifully described by Namadeva in his Abhangas^). But this In very Abhanga gives the date of the second version.
support of the birth date of the second version, the same

Abhanga by Janabai

is

cited,

but with different readings

t^^ffr ^^T^

wnz^

II

II

T^inTrin^Tr

^fi5i%

^m^^
^"hflf

ii

ii

srift

vfBi ^^'^

iTTfT

II

II

1) Cf.

Introduction to Amritanubhava.

In addition to this there can be cited many Abhangas by the contemporary saints who give the same date with Thus Namadeva writes full particulars.

^T^m^H

fTf^ ^F^TEift

II

<^

II

^^% fwr^T TTf^T^ft


3^% TTTT^W ^<g.^^t
ifTRT
II

II

!^

II

^
I

^^

Syi?Ff

^%^T

The other Abhangas give the same


can be quoted.

particulars.

In

support of the date of death, the same contemporary saints

Thus Namadeva writes

5^ ^^
^TTWt

^ tJWf^^
m'T^

31T\ft
II

^^TV>

II

Tflim^TTnilif 3Tf%|^

3T^T^
ii

w^

^rrfS^

J^^ ^^^ift
8

ififTTft

^T^T ^'TftH
^W^^nft

II

II

^nRTTf^ f^^ilT'T

II

II

All the particulars given in this Abhanga are fully borne out in the Abhangas of the other saints^). Thus the
first

version

particulars,

is based upon slender evidence. which would have made it possible

It

gives

to test

no them

and thus fix the date. The second version gives full particulars, which are the same as given by the various saints; moreover the particulars tally well with the calender. The
death took place on a Thursday, and on the day given by
1) Cf.

Panoabkab, Life of Dnyaneshwar.

-^
the

it

second version as the day of the Samadhi,

was a
and
all

Thursday.

The evidence

of the first being slender,

the particulars given by the second, tallying well with the


calender and being fully corroborated by
saints,
all

the contemporary

there

is

reason to believe

it to

be the true version. be the

Thus

have taken the date


great

of the second version to

right date.

Dnyaneshwar the
Maharastra

in the reign of
19**'
,

Bramhan saint flourished in Ramdevarao Jadhav of Devagiri.


July 1275 possibly at Apegaon.

He was

born on the

of

the son of Govindpant Kulkarni of Apegaon, a village some eight miles from Paithan on the banks of Godavari, and his mother Rukmini, the daughter of Sidhopant Kulkarni of Alandi near Poona, both came of Vitthal who families noted for their devotion and piety. was extremily religions, and took very little interest in worldly matters, became a Sanyasin soon after his marriage and lived in Benaras as the disciple of Ramananda. Ramananda on his tour of pilgrimage came to Alandi, learnt that Yitthal had become a Sanyasin without the consent of his wife, and ordered him to resume his wordly duties, and live with his wife again. Vitthal obeyed his teacher, and in

His father Vitth'alpant

course of time got three sons and a daughter,


Sadhti poet
in

of

whom

the

was the second


of Vitthal,

son.

These unusual circumstances

the

life

incurred the wrath of the Bramhans

against him, and they pronounced a ban of excommunication

against the family.

The parents soon renounced everything,


had
to suffer privations.

and went on a pilgrimage, but the children, who were hooted


out
as the progeny of a Sanyasin,

They repaired

Bramhans to raise them from the rites of Bramhanism. The Bramhans refused and Dnyaneshwar who according to popular tradition, was supposed to possess supernatural powers, performed some miracles. This overawed the Bramhans, and they nullified the ban by issuing a certificate of absolution (Suddhipattra). This happened between 1284 and 1290^).
to Paithan, to request the
this ban, as it excluded
1) Cf.

Pangarkar, Life of Dnyanesliwar.


During
this

sometimes at Alandi,

time

the

brothers were

sometimes at Apegaon and sometimes at Newasein. Diiyaneshwar had also made acquaintance of the famous devotee

Nrtmadeva, a considerably prolix writer, whose works are handed down to us in very modern form. It was here at Newiivsem in the year 1290 that Dnyaneshwar gave his

commentary on Gita, the Bhavarthadipika, populary known as Dnyaneshwari. The last verse of this work gives this date.

written copy of

it

is

said to

have been prepared some


,

years later by his disciple Satcitanandabawa


available to day.

but

it

is

not

Dnyaneshwar wrote another

original

work

Amritanubhava

according to popular tradition in ten days,

the same year or perhaps in 1291.

on a tour of pilgrimage.

Then the brotheis went Dnyaneshwar underwent at Alandi

on the 25*^ October 1296 the ceremony of living-interment in the presence of his brother and numerous disciples.
Of the minor works
a short pamphlet
pasasti,
of

of

sixty -five verses,

Dnyaneshwar can be mentioned known as cangadeva


It
is

and numerous Abhangas.


the

somtimes argued
is

that

these Abhangas,
diiferent

language of which

so

modern

and
his

from the language of Dnyaneshwari, are not


this

work.

But

argument alone

is

not sufficient to deny


quite possible that

the authorship of these to him; for


these

it is

generation

Abhangas which are handed down from generation to orally, have gradually assumed this modern form, like the Abhangas of Namdeva his contemporary. One commentary on Yogavasistha is also ascribed to him, but it
Dnyaneshwar's works are mainly religious and philosophical. In Dnyaneshwari and Amritanubhava, he advocates

is lost.

the doctrines of pure Advaita philosophy.

He seems

to

have
the

seen the danger of these doctrines being misused by sophists,

and he preaches the devoteeism

common

people.
his

He draws

Abhangas works material from nearly every walk of


in

his

for
is

The

historical value of his

great.

life

and


"

10

full

society,

and thus his works are


of

of

imformation about

the social condition and general culture of those times.


the

From

standpoint
order.

literature,
is

they

are

of

an exceptionally

high

father of Marathi poetry and a consummate master of style. His style is racy, powerful, confident and beautiful. His vocabulary is unending, and he could light upon the aptest words and expressions with an amazing ease. His descriptions are at times perfect gems

He

the

of brevity, but he can also be charmingly prolix.

His argu-

ments

are

convincing
are often
the
first

and

to

the point.

His similes are


their

appropriate, natural and full of worldly wisdom; but some-

times they
short he
is

repeated

and

lose

charm.

In

Marathi poet, both chronologically and in merit, and remains unrivalled in Marathi literature.
It is interesting to see that there is a striking similarity
lives and works of Sankaracarya and DnyaBoth were consummate masters of style and argument; both were propagators of a new creed, and set the religion free from the imminent dangers, one from the meshes of Buddhism, the other from the sophistry of philosophers;

between the
neshwar.

both advocated the doctrines of Advaita philosophy, both wrote commentaries on Gita, both died so young, and lastly the life-works of both are honoured even to this day in
India.

Lastly there remains one point.


of

How

far

is

the language
of

Dnyaneshwar a type
for
it

of

the

spoken

language

that
is

period;
artificial.

is

sometimes asserted that his language

It is rather difficult to ascertain exactly

how

far

a poet of so remote a period, has taken liberties with the

language to make
for his

it suit his

thoughts.
in

metre and make it a fit vehicle The language has made such a vast

progress,

the seven centuries that have passed since the

time of Dnyaneshwar, that

many

of the forms

and expressions

used by him, sound completely unfamiliar to the modern ear.

But

this

can scarcely be adduced in support of the charge.


other hand there are points which rather lead to
Firstly,

On

the

quite

a dilferent conclusion.

many

of

the modern

forms and expressions in the language, can very well be traced

back
ficial

11

works.

to

the

forms found in Dnyaneshwars

These

could hardly be supposed to have developed out of the arti-

language used
of

by one poet.
forms
is

They are the further


in

developments
language.

the

then
to

current

use

in

the

Thus there

reason

believe that the forms

used by the poet were actually used in the spoken language,

and are not


popular.

his inventions merely.

Secondly Dnyaneshwar

wrote his commentary to make the teachings of the Gita

With

this

object in view,
it

he could scarcely have


he
has
is

used an

artificial

language, for
his

would have been directly


expressly

incompatible

with
in

aim.

Moreover

mentioned
ignorant^).

it

his works.
is

He

says that he

writing in
to the

such a language as

intelligible to the

young and

An
of

artificial

language could hardly have been


It is quite

the means

achieving this purpose.

probable

that he might have taken some liberties with the language


as a poet
;

for the language of poetry,

always

differs

little

from the language actually spoken.


there
is

But beyond

this

much,

no reason to doubt that the language used by him

was not the actual language then spoken in Maharastra. The editions of Dnyaneshwar*s works consulted by

me
It

are
1.

Dnyanadevi by Madgavkar. Published


critical edition

in

1907 Bombay.

is

prepared from twelve manuscripts.

The

dates of four of them are only given.


old as

Two

of these are as

1629 and 1737.

The readings accepted are not always


critical edition

good, and sometimes better readings and older forms are left
in the footnotes.

But being a

from so many
This edition

manuscripts I have chiefly quoted this edition.


is

named
2.

A.

Dnyaneshwari by Raj wade.


This
is

Published in 1909 Dhulia

with an introduction.
oldest

prepared from a manuscript

He holds that the MS. is the MS. of Dnyaneshwari as yet found. This is corroborated by the evidence of the language, the form of which is undoubtably older than any as yet published. I have
found by the author at Beed.
1) Cf.

Dnyaneshwari 181743.


compared the
is

12

This edition

with this edition every where.

named

B.

3. Sartha Dnyaneshwari by Sakhare. Published in 1910 Poona with a prose translation. The forms in this edition are much modern. I have quoted it as C. 4. Sartha Satipa Dnyaneshwari by Athalye. Published in 1902 Bombay with a prose translation. This edition agrees

almost with C.

it differs, the readings are always have very rarely quoted it as D. 5. Amritanubhava by Deshmukha. Published in 1905 Bombay with a prose translation. The form of the language at times is modern. I have not quoted it at all.

Where

more modern.

11.
All the nouns in Marathi end in vowels.

The Samskrit

nouns ending in

t, n,

and
or

s,

almost as a rule, either drop

the end consonants or take an additional final vowel, 3T for

the masculine and

31T

for the feminine in the Praki-its of

^).

But there are some traces


found in Marathi, and
without exception^).
all

the

old

samskrit consonant

declension left in the Prakrits 2).

These traces are not to be the nouns have vowel endings

In Marathi there are three genders, the masculine, the


the genders

and the neuter. In Maharastri and Apabhramsa of some of the saniskrit nouns are changed. Marathi has taken up the genders of the Prakrit for the most part; but some of them are also found to be changed. The
feminine,

genders of some words are uncertain


are sometimes

e. g.

W^,

>rt

etc.

They

used as masculine nouns, and sometimes as

neuter nouns.

There are two numbers, the singular and the plural. In Samskrit there is a third number, the dual. In the
Prakrits

plural

was

always
in

used

for

the

Sk.

dual*).

Marathi has no dual.

There are eight cases

Marathi

the Nominative (H^RTT),

Accusative (fl[<ft^), Instrumental (^^ft^T), Dative (^g^),


1)

PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. 339, 355.

PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. 355, 399, 408 etc. 3) In modern Marathi some of the Sk. words are sometimes written, with consonant endings as in Sainskiit; but in declension they are con2)

sidered us words ending in vowels.


4) Vr. 6, 63.


Vocative (^^^^TT).
accepted, there
is

14

and the
'of

Ablative (^^'ft), Genetive (wt), Locative (^Tnrt),

About the number

the cases to be

a difference of opinion among the modern


In Samskrit there are eight cases.

Marathi grammarians.
In Prakrits there
is

The purpose of the Dative was served by using the Genetive. The old Marathi case termination f% or and the new Marathi ^ and ^T are derived from the Sk. Genetive terminations and fT^. These were taken as the Dative terminations, and a new termination ^ varying according to gender into ^T-^^-^ came into use as
no dative^).

have mostly the sense of adjectives. This adjectival use of these forms, and the fact that they take all the case terminations again to form
affix.

a Genetive case

These forms in

new
case.

cases,

are the causes


is

why

Genetive

is

rejected

as
it

The Accusative
case

rejected on the ground that

has

no

separate

terminations.

Thus Joshi regards these


be eight 2), but
in

forms in

as adjectives exclusively, accepts the Genetive as


of the cases to

a case, and gives the number

remarks, that historically six cases only should be accepted^).

Damle
tives,

rejects

the Accusative only*).


to
it

It

is

the nature

of the genetive forms

have the force


is

of possessive adjec-

and

in

Marathi

also

due to the origin of the

termination ^.

It is derived

from Sk.

and

like the Sk.

forms in

is

used as an adjective and takes

new

termi-

nations to form

new

cases.

In old Marathi these forms are

always used as adjectives, but in new Marathi, the use of


these

forms

is

not exclusively adjectival.

There are some


it is

uses of these current in the language, which


to explain as possessive adjectives^)

not possible

and can not be explained

1)

(Vr.

6, 44.)

Hemachandra
it

gives a rule that in Prakrit a Dative


(He. 3

can be used when

serves a special purpose;

132)

and Prof.

PiscHEL also gives some examples of the Dative singular forms, found
in the Prakrit literature.

solitary

(Pischel, Pr. Gr. 361.) But these are only few examples, and the D. had practically disappeared.

2) Joshi,

M. Gr. page

116.

3) Ibid. 119.

4)

Damle, M. Gr. pages


348 to 350.

343, 344.

5) Ibid.

either,

15

T[

unless

they be accepted as Genetive forms.

in old Marathi there are the Genetive forms in OT,

Again and art.

These will have no place in grammar if the Genetive is The Accusative has no separate terminations in rejected. Marathi. The forms of Nom. and Ace. are identical. The Accusative of old has a tendency of having the same forms
as

the Nominative.

In Prakrit

many nouns have

identical

forms in the Nom. and the Ace.


is

In Samskrit the Ace. dual

any other more conclusive argument, the fact alone, that the Ace. has no separate terminations, is not sufficient to reject the case from the language alin the absence of

have Thus

always the same as the Nom. dual, and the neuter nouns all the three forms in the Nom. and Ace. identical.

together.

The

different case terminations are

Singular

Plural

Nom. and Ace. ^,


Instrumental
vy^,
%*,

^
it,

ftr

or ^Tf

^,

ftr

or

Dative
Ablative

^-^

w,

^
^
1,

^t%, ^if^
31T,

^f%, ^ff
3Tt,

Genetive
Locative

t %

^
> aft in
is

1
ft
all

^
^

Vocative

^. Nominative
termination 3T^.

It is

derived from the Sk. nom. singular


the Prakrits^).
old Marathi

3T^ becomes 3T^

This aft becomes


is

in

Apabhramsa^).

The

from this Ap. ^.


Sk.

The development

as fellows

ar^

>

aft Maharastri

>

Ap.

>

old Marathi.

in

The Sk. nom. sing, neuter termination ar^i; also becomes Ap. The masculine and neuter nouns in ^ only lake
termination optionally in the nom. and aec. singulars.

this

aft. Like
3ft

is

derived from the Sk. ar^.

Sk.

ar^

>

Mh.
1)

>^

old Marathi.

Vr.

51.

2)

He. 4-331.

PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. 345. PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. 346.

nally had f, ^,
optionally
in
r,

16

Masculine nouns ending in ^, ^,


as
final

or those which origi-

letters,

take this termination


In the plural

the Norn,

and Ace.

singulars.

there are no terminations.

and Ace.

plural.

for different

is its Nom. The ways of forming the plural are different bases. They are discussed under those declensions.

The

plural of a noun

Instrumental singular vy^,


derived from the

TJ.

These
>
Tl^jj

terminations are

Sk

Instr. termination

TJ^T.

The developt|

ment

is

Sk.

TJ'T

>

Tjoi

Maharastri^)
"oi

or

Ap.

> T^T,
^

old Marathi.

The Prakrit The masculine nouus in


TlT;

take the termination


neuter in
3T,

changed into f in Marathi. and the neuter nouns in Tj and the mas. nouns in 3T, i;,
is

31T

X,

bases take the termination

Tj

in

the

Instr. singular.

f^.

The
t^
is

origin of this termination

is

obscure.

Several

conjectures are made.


a)

derived from f^: as Sk. f^:

> ff Ap. >


Secondly the

"ftf

old

Marathi.

This does not appear to be probable for in Prakrit

becomes f but
in

never becomes ^.
as

in tlie

Prakrit endings
terminations
(ex.

is

always dropped when these are taken as


is

Marathi,

seen in

many

other

cases

the Abl. termination ^f^).


b)
It is derived

from the Locative of the word 3Tr^ in from the Locative of


derivation of
is

OT^m^
c)

(Sk.

^,

m4).

It is derived

W^

(d)

from the
to be

locative of ^^.

The

f^ from ^f seems

probable as this termination


of

always used in the sense

^f
This termination
is

used both in the sing, and the plur.


it

of

all

bases;

sometimes

forms compound cases with

an

added to the oblique form like other terminations beginning with a


Instrumental form before
it,

but sometimes

it is

consonant.

Plural

This
^.

termination
Sk.

is

derived from the Sk.

Instr. plural termination fM:.

^:

becomes ff

in

Maha-

1)

Vr. 5-4.

^
rastri

17

^
or

and

Ap.*).

This f^ becomes

development
All

is Sk. f^: fit ^, nouns except the masculine in OT and


Mh.
ft Ap.

>

>

iii

Marathi.

The

>

Marathi.

and the

feminine in

take this termination in the Instr. plural.

Dative^.
From
this

This
^.
Mh.

is

derived from the Sk. Genetive

singular termination

Sk.

Ap.

^
i;

the Marathi

Sk.

W>^
The

>^
for

becomes
is

in

Mh. and Ap.^)

derived.

Ap.

^ new

Marathi
i;

old

Marathi.
in

in this termination is the

usually found
also the

old Marathi

at the end of the words.

Compare

Ablative termination

^t^
it

^^.
is

% The
is

derivation of this termination

not clear.

It

quite

probable that
Sk.

comes from Sk. 3T^ as Rajwade


if
?f

has suggested.

3T^

> 3T^ Pr. > >


termination
Sk.
is

old Marathi.

All the nouns take these terminations both in the sing,

and the

plural.

Ablative

^T-f'T. This
ff'I?^^)
f^rlt

derived from
in Pr.^)

the Sk. Abl. termination WT^.

'^ becomes fffft

'^ +
From

<T^

was

originally fcft or #<Tt^).

this ff fft or ^fft is the Marathi ^T derived. The development is Sk. WR, or Mh. t^^ft t^rft or < Ap.

>

W^

>

> ^^ or ^Ot Marathi.


The termination ^^-"Hf
the termination
All nouns
is

simply a curtailed form of


the f.

^f^ by dropping

take this termination in both the numbers.

The termination
^f^,

^T

is

found in

many changed forms such

as

W^,

Ctf^, ftfinn, ft^,

^,

etc.

^R
is

has

also

similar forms.

Genetive
Ap.

sing.OT. This
^.

termination

derived from

>

in Mh. and Thus ysp^ becomes JtTW Mh. and or yrff f in Ap. From this ^rf^ by dropping the ^-J^^T by sandhi ^TTT-^rfT old Marathi. The development is Sk. Mh. 3IT3T an old Marathi. All the nouns W, ^, Ap. ^iTf

the Sk. gen. termination


in

Sk.

becomes

^^

>

>

>

^>W

1)

Vr.

55

2) Vr.

58.
5)

4)

PiscHEL, Pr. Or.

365.

3) Vr. 5-7. He. 461.


except the mas. and
fern,

18
in

short ^,

take this termi-

nation in the gen. sing.


for

This

is

also a general termination

making the oblique singular


Plural

forms.

3Tt. This
aTT^.

is

derived from the Sk. gen. plu.

termination

Sk.

an^

becomes STTUT^ in Mh.,


in

>
the

^^^^
^nH^

UTi|u[*l^.

This
"grit

becomes gTTTf
in Marathi.

Ap. and by dropping

>

f as t Ap.
This ^.

usual

Thus Sk.

^T^

>
is

>

Mh.

^^-3Tt

old Marathi.

the general termination for the oblique plural forms.


is

suffix f'TST

This termination W (M^). This Sk. W


firo, "R^TO >-

derived from the Sk. Taddhita-

becomes

in

Maharastri^) as

^W"^ and

so on.

This Maharastri

has become

That the Sk. W becomes ^ in Marathi This becomes ^TW in is also seen from such words as ^W. Hindi but ^T^ in Marathi. Thus Sk. W Mh. and Ap.

^ in Marathi.

W>

>>

"^ in

Marathi.

All the nouns take this termination in both the numbers.

This

is

changed into

'^T-^-^

according to the gender of

the noun they qualify, for these forms are possessive adjectives
in old Marathi.

Locative
Sk.
loc.

or t-

This

termination
Sk.

is

derived from the


in Mh.-)

termination f^T^.
in
Ap.^).

f^I^ becomes f'T


becomes

and f^
Sk.

This Ap. ff

in

Marathi by

dropping the

f^ >
All

as usual.

It is also written long as ^.

Thus
in

fw{ Mh.

> ff Ap. > t,


the
Jl

old Marathi.

nouns

except
in

mas. in

31T, S;

and ^,

fern,

3TT,

sing,

and the neu. and plural.

take this termination both in the

XT.

This
aw,
t;,

is

derived
bases.

from

the Pr. termination


is

TJ

for

fem. in

This termination

also

used in

the Instr. and G. singulars of these bases in Maharastri^).

Thus
of
is

it

is

the general termination for the oblique singular


31T, t;

the fem. nouns in


also

and

bases.

This termination
3T.

used in the
Vr.

loc. sing, of

mas. nouns in

Sk.

^%

1)

3, 27.

2)

Vr. 5-9.
4) Vr.

3)

PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. 313, 315.

6-22.

becomes jTrfwr,

19

5^ft
15

^%
it

in
is

Thus

in

this

case

MaharastrP) and 5%, derived from the Sk.

in
11

Ap.

>

Mh.

>
in

"R

Ap.
art.

>

1^

Marathi.
is

This
it is

really the Genetive plural termination 3Tt.


3TT
is

But when
Ti

added to the mas. nouns in


is

the process
it.

irregular.
in
"if

Then there

and the neu. no ^ Ade^a

before

The neuter

forms or oblique forms.

have also the regular Thus I have taken this


In one

Adesa
a

art as

separate irregular termination.

way

the process can

be said to be regular, for before a termination beginning with a vowel no oblique forms are made. The masculine
nouns in 3^ take this termination in the Instr. plural also. This is after the usage of the Ap. where the Instr. and Loc.
plurals

were always

identical.
is

Vocative

ft. This
A
is

derived from the Ap. Voc. plural

termination ft.
also
it is

In Marathi Ap. has ft in the plural 2). mostly used in the plural. In the singular there
general rule would be
that
is

are

no

terminations.

the

oblique singular form

the Voc. singular.

This rule

not

without exceptions, for sometimes ft is used in the singular also, and sometimes a base form is also used.
Before the case terminations are added the crude forms
of

the declinables have to undergo


this

certain variations

and

modifications;

modified form

is

called the oblique form

or Samanyarupa^).
for other cases.

In Samskrit the Genetive could be used


served the purposes of
of substituting

After the disappearance of the Dative from

the Prakrits, the Genetive always


the Dative.

The Prakrits

also

show a tendency
and

the Genetive for nearly all other cases, except the the

Nom. and
whole

Ace, and thus

simplifying

reducing

the

declension to two oblique cases only, viz. the Nominative and


1)

Vr. 5-9.

PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. 372. 3) Id Marathi there are really no crude forms for the nouns as in Sainskrit. The crude form and the Nominative singular are always the same; but before the other case terminations are added the final vowel
2)

of this form has to be modified, like that of the crude form in Samskrit.

Id this sense only I have called

it

a crude form.


the
GiBnetive.

20
is

especially

This tendency
prakrit.
Its

marked

in

the

Apabhramsa

Genetive terminations formed the

Ablative and sometimes the Locative also^).


only three case
inflections,

There remained
(including

the

Nominative
Genetive.

the

Ace )

the Instrumental

and

the

Of these the
Loc. pluraP).

Instr. plural

was always
its

identical

with the

Marathi at
followed
it.

origin found the inflection in this state


this general use of the

and

But

Genetive for other

cases naturally involved in itself an ambiguity; for then the

sense and the relations of different words in a sentence,

to

each other, could only be construed according to the context,

from the identical forms.


terminations
for

different

To obviate this ambiguity, new cases came into use. But as the
the
of

Genetive forms were already current in the language,

new

terminations were

added

to

these

forms

instead

adding them to the crude forms of the declinables.


forms.

Thus

these Genetive forms became the modified bases or the oblique

The new Marathi cases therefore are practically compound cases. Thus ff^t^ the Dative plural of ^^ fem. is really a compound case, the old Genetive plural ff^^ + the Dative termination. For a long time the use of the mere oblique forms and the use of the new case forms were side by side current in the language. Gradually

the use

ofiise,

the mere oblique forms for other cases fell out and the new case forms became more and more current. Unfortunately there is no evidence available of the form of the language before the time of Dnyaneshwar. But as far as could be judged from a list of words in 3T bases from the copper plate at Chikurdem dated A. D. 736, given by Rajwade in his grammar, it is found that there
of
,

all

the Dative singular forms, without exception, are without

any case terminations i. e. are the oblique or Genetive forms. In Dnyaneshwar's works, the use of the mere oblique forms
is

profuse, but the case forms with terminations are also as

much used

as

those

forms.

In the works of Ekanath (end

1)

He. 336 to 341.

2) PiscHEL, Pr. Gr.

371, 387, 381.


of the 15*^ century) there
is

21

Tukaram
case
(17^''

a lesser use of these forms for


century)

other cases, and later in the works of


lesser
still.

In

modern

Marathi

no

forms

without

terminations are used except sometimes in Poetry.

Now
time.

the question, whether there was this modified form

called Samanyariipa in use in the language in

Dnyaneshwar's Raj wade in his grammar newly published at Dhulia,

starts with the supposition, that there


in

was no Samanyarupa
all

the Marathi

language then;

for

the forms of the

Marathi declension can be traced back to the Mh. or Ap.


forms; and shows that the Samanyarupa in modern Marathi
is

developed out of the case forms in Dnyaneshwar's Marathi.

The second part of the assumption is evidently true, as the modern Marathi language is but a futher developed form of the language spoken in Maharastra in the 13^^ century. But
this

fact

does not go to prove the


arise

first

part of the suppo(a)

sition.
all

Here
(b)

three important

questions;

whether

the Marathi forms

can be traced back to the Prakrit

forms

made

in

the crude
if

whether there were any variations and modifications form of a word before adding the case
so,

terminations;

these modified forms be


a)

how can that be explained named Samanyariipa in


what
is

(c)

whether
evolved
is,

Marathi.
is

When

it

is

said that a certain language

out of another language,

generally meant

that

the evolved language as a whole has

many

of the peculiarities

and tendencies
there
are

of

other alien influences at work,


to

new language
These

thus deviate in

But side by side which make the develop certain peculiarities of its own, and some respects from the original language.
are
naturally few,

the mother language.

peculiarities

but the presence of

them makes it difficult to trace all the forms back to the original. That is why in Marathi all the forms can not be traced back to the original forms in Maharastri or Apabhranisa. That it is so can be well shown from the old Marathi declension. The declensions of the short i;, ^ and lang t;, feminine bases in Maharastri and Ap. are almost identical^).

1)

PiscHKL, Pr. Gr. 384.


In Marathi there
of the short ^,
is

22

made
in the declensions
fern, bases.

a clear difference
i;,

The short X, ^ bases take the terminations after simply lengthening the final
and long
short vowels,

but the long

\i,

bases modify their final

vowels regularly to X^, and ^%, in the singular and to XyUf "^^ in the plural. Both these different kinds of forms can not well be traced back to the original identical
forms in Mh. or Ap.
i;,

X^

^m

The same can be


masculine bases.

said

of

the short

and long

f^,

The

declensions of

these are also identical in Prakrits.^)


plural

There are no Dative

forms in Pr.; and singular forms are only for some


as
solitary

bases

exceptions.

hardly be traced back to these.


in

The new Dative forms can The forms of the masculine

3^ and the neuter


it

in

IT

can not be traced back to the

Prakrits, for there are no masculine nouns in 3TT and neuter

nouns in
b)

in the Prakrits.

These are peculiar

to

Marathi only,

In

Samskrit the crude form of a word undergoes

certain modifications

and variations before the case termiIn Prakrits the case


is

nations

are added.

similar

as

is

seen from the rules given

by the Prakrit grammarians^).


every
case

In

Marathi

it

is

clear

from

form,

that

the

terminations

are not added to

an unmodified base or the

crude form.

For example ^'^Wf'T,

ft^^f%

and trif'f^T^f^
f em.,

are the Ablative singular forms of the words

^f^

f^

f em.

These forms can be explained in two possible ways; by taking the final X, f^ and ^ of the and '^T'ft mas. respectively.
three bases to have
before the Abl.
sing,

changed into
termination

t;,

?;^, ?;^T respectively

^f^

or

by taking three
is

different terminations for the Ablative in the three cases as

^Of,

Tl^t^

and 3TT^1^.

The second explanation


with three
different

not

probable,

for the

terminations

initial

vowels can not be derived from the Pr. ^Tlt.


termination
different
is

In Pr. the

fft and not ^rft, "R^cft or

stt^ttI'^).

The

initials

can not be taken as the changes made in

1)

2)
3)

PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. 383. Vr. 5, 11 to 13, 18, 21, 31, 35 and others.
Vr. 57.


the termination before
it

23
is

different

added to
it
is

bases,

for

when a change

is

made

in

the termination

it is

expressly

stated by the grammarians^) and

nowhere stated that

the Ablative termination takes these different initial vowels.

But the modifications in the expressly stated 2). Thus the


the
modifications
of

final
f^,

^
%

vowels of the bases are

the final

\,

and fyu are simply and t; of the words

The case of the Dative There the Genetive forms are always used as in the Pr. and when the new terminations are added they are added to these Genetive forms. The terminations and ^
^f^,
is

T^

and

tfT'ft'

respectively.

very

clear.

can

not

be supposed to take the different


in the final

initial

vowels.

The changes

vowels

of other bases,

can also be

only explained as the modifications of the bases before the


case terminations

are

added, and not by taking different

terminations in every case.


c)

In Samskrit and Prakrits the modifications in the

crude forms are different before the different case terminations.

These modifications in those languages therefore, can not be a general common modified form before all the case terminations. The case of Marathi
properly termed Samanyariipa

is

quite different.

are so regular and


nations.

The modifications in the bases in Marathi common before the different case termiIn the

This

is

no departure from the old usage.

Prakrits the Genetive had almost become a universal inflection,

in Marathi,

in
all

and the modified forms or the so called oblique forms are only these Genetive forms. Thus the mas. 3T change the final 3T into OT sing, and art plu. before'
the case terminations beginning with a consonant.
is

modified form

No made before the terminations beginning with


3TT

a vowel.
forms.

These forms in

and art are only the Genetive and mas.


in t; the final

In the case of the

fern, in f;

vowels are modified into \^, xyu sing, and X^l plural for the fem. bases, and into sing, and xyiT plural for the

T^

mas. bases regularly.

Here

also these are only the Gen. forms.

1)

Vr.

5,

to 10, 14 to 16 etc.

2)

Vr. already quoted.

This modification of the

The same
final
is

24

true

of other bases.

vowel being so regular and common before the case terminations beginning with consonants, and the same modified

form being used without terminations in those cases where the terminations begin with vowels, it is aptly termed
Samanyariipa,

form common to

all cases
is

before the termi-

nations are added.

This Samanyariipa
is

termed oblique form.

The Samanyariipa
'"
Singular.

made
in 3T,

as follows
^,
f^,

Masculine
is

^,

^.
for

In Apabhramsa the Gerietive singular termination


the mas. in 3T

Analogous to the Magadhi genetive termi-

nation

this Ap.

is

taken by Marathi as a termination


Before this
is

for masculine

nouns in

all bases.

the final of
is

the base

is

lengthened.

The f

then dropped as

usual

in Marathi.

Thus

for different bases

3T

3TTf

31T

tf

t ^

t^f
^3if

^
in
if

^3lTf

- t T^T by Sandhi ^ ^^T by Sandhi


in 311

There are no masculine nouns


in Prakrits.

and neuter nouns


of these bases are

So the oblique forms


TJrT^.

formed in

analogy of the Genetive forms of the pronoun

derived

from

are
the

3TT

= TJ^T

sing,

The Genetive- forms of this pronoun and TJ + art imJ plural. Thus

masculine in an and the neuter in

Tj

have the

final

vowels changed into

V^J
in

sing,

and TJ^t

plural.

The neuter nouns

3T,

forms like the masculine in


Singular.

^ and ^ 3T, ^ and ^


\,
$;,

form their oblique


respectively.

Feminine

in 31T,

^, ^.

nouns are

The Maharastri Genetive singular terminations for the fem. 3T, an, Tj, ^i). Thus for all the feminine bases

Vararuci in the next rule excludes 3T and 3^ for 22.) 1) (Vr. 5 the fem. in 31|. But the Genetive singular form 7VX^T3T is given by PiscHEL (Pr. Gr. 374).

T
-

25
3n,
TJ

W3T-3fTXr

by Pararupa

t^T
t^^-tll

t ^

--

^3T
^91T, ^11

^
The
fem. in

--

i;^T, IJ^

by Sandhi
by Sandhi

^
^^T,

^%

oblique forms of the fem. in 3T are formed like the

OT or

i;

according
1[.

as

they are derived from Sk.

nouns ending in 3n or
Plural.

is

In the Ap. the Genetive plural terminations are

^.

generally for mas.

bases and

for the fem.

bases.

for the mas.

bases.

But they are used indifferently also; thus # is used bases und f for the fem. X, t i;, i;, B, In Marathi t is taken for all bases. Thus we get

for all bases masculine

and feminine

3T mas. only

9nt
Si{lt

OT fem. only

mas. and fem.

^
t^

^
IC

^3TTf

t
Masculine
3T
3IT

t3^f
Singular

m
art

^ ^^
T
x^i
Plural
3Tt

e oblique forms for different bases are

an

wr
t

11^

T t

V^ ^
^3^T

^
Feminine

T^ ^ ^^
Plural
3Tt
TJ

Singular
3TT,

an

t
T^T,

t V

T^

^
^TT,

^%

T^ ^ ^m


Neuter
3T

26

Plural

Singular

an

T^T

^
tT

^^
vyrt

^^

Before terminations beginning with vowels no oblique

form

is

made.

Then the
of

final of

the base and the initial of

the termination are joined according to Marathi Sandhi rules.

There are two kinds

Sandhi in Marathi;

(1)

when two

vowels are to be joined, the latter alone remains and the former is dropped, it is called Pararupa Sandhi (2) when the
;

former remains and the latter

is

dropped,
is

it is

called Piirva-

rUpa Sandhi.

Of these the former

generally
is

used

in

adding the terminations.

The use

of

the latter

seldom.

Sometimes even the Sk. Sandhi rules are used.

[II.

Masculine nouns.
Masculine
in 3T.

bhraina,

have given Samskrit, Maharastri, Apaand new Marathi forms in tables. The Maharastri and the Apabhramsa forms are taken from Pischel's Grammatik der Prakrit-Sprachen and sometimes

For comparison
old

Marathi

from Vararuci's Prakritaprakasa.

Sk.

Mh.

Ap.

0.

M.

n.

M.

N. sing.

T9
grn
S3' 5^

??

N. plu.
Ace. sing

^ ^
??

Ace. plu.
Instr. sin^ J.
Instr. plu,

5^^
3%:
TO^-ftr also 5crt'ff-^'f

D. sing.
D. plu.
Abi. sing,

M-^i^

trTfT3T

3%*^:

grni
5^^:
grnafr

gTlt-:F

Os

Os

Abl. plu.

G. sing.

^^^

grf^

T^?.

T^

??T-^

SPT^T-^"^-^

Sk.

28

0.

Mh.
^TTTin-liT^

Ap.

M.

n.

M.

G. plu.
L. sing.

5^Tm^
5%

^TTTf jTff
,

^cTt-^

iqcTt^T-^-^
^clTf, ^cTrrT

JrTfwT,

^ ?%-^,5^ff
T^ff 5^ff
.

??, i*f
H^T^
5cfT, ^rT

L. plu.

g^3

^^g-l'J:
H'^T-gTr

^, i^trf
^c!T

Voc. sing.

^
3^

^tT

vocpiu.

jttt

gTfft

?5^,I^tfr i.?ffr,imft

Nominative
In Samskrit the nouns have crude forms or bases to

which the terminations are added.


form of a noun and
its

In Marathi
are

the

crude

Norn,

singular

generally the

same There are very few exceptions to this rule, and even then there are optional forms with terminations, in addition
to

the regular forms.

The masculine nouns

in 3T take the

and aft optionally in the Nom. singular. Thus there are two forms like ^cT and H^ in the Nom. singular. "5?^ + ^ "53 by Para. Sandhi. The masculine 3T which have %, \, nouns in f preceeding the final vowel
terminations

take the termination 3ft instead of ^.

'^ +

aft

= "^Tt

by Para. Sandhi.
(181638), ^^, ^^^=1, ^^^ (2117), W^Z, TWK.IZ (198), ^^^T'T^ (190), ^^Tif^^ (1105),
Ex.
-ff^T^

W^,

f^ (18409),
367), ^rr^ftifTft

l^t (18492), TT^t (18413), ^1^^ (18


(181322).

Sometimes the

and

are dropped.

f^^
In

(18388),

9W^

(181286).
final

the

Nominative plural the

3T
"grfT.

undergoes

no
^tT.

change; the forms are like the Ap. forms. Ap.

Marathi
?^?n:

^'J, gtT, ^T (181675), "RTH? (1135), The Accusative like the Nom.
Sing.

(1 59).

138),
3Tf?flfr
,.

IT^T? (16148),

4^T^ (181525), 'T^T (181533), i^^T^ (16 "^^ (16148), f%wf (18837),

(224),

^fiT^

(18763).
"qxi-R

Plu.cTtT,^^,Htl(16 133),

(159), ^TTH (1165).

13

29

There are such exceptional forms as ^T^ (18

180

and

885
f^

Nom.

plural),

^T^

etc. in

the Norn, phiral.

Instrumental sing.
nation
is

?5^

+ 1 = "^

by Para.S. The termi-

added

to the Instru.

form or to the oblique form.

(18-1653), 3^^^, ^7f (18-1555), m% (181630), TT^^ (181609), ^^*ftr (150), 9W^T4 (155), W^^T

(6475),
Plu.

^"^^Tf

(3203).
"SJpf-

"SJ^

+^=

No

oblique form as the termi-

nation begins with a vowel; ^fft

TfHfTHTf (145),

+ f^ =

ft

or

?fft^.

(14342), ^fi (14404), f^T1ff%

t?R, mtTrft (153), ^"1*r (5- 162, 1829), ^^^tft (210),

has a singular 'iv^f^.

Dative
Sing.

Mere Genetive or oblique

form

is

used; ^cTT with

the terminations

^ and

'^;

^T
Plu.

(138), irftTT,

f^T^-re^ (2299),

^^ (1215),
^^1
(1642),

^TTT + ^-^ = "S?1^"^r ^^T (2328), ^^\ (16163),

^iiIT?f (1123).
is

Like the singular;


(1667),

oblique plural form

used

^Tlt.

Wt
(3198*),
724),

^T^

(2181),

^t

S>lt^(2 14),
(397),

\n^r3t^> (1131), 'ftTT^'^ (18


(16291).

^t?f

3T^W

Ablative
Sing.

"gTTT

+ J^ =

"JRTT^f'T;

oblique

form

plus

the

termination.

The
as
jrf'T,

Abl. termination wfT

is

seen in different forms such


etc.

^ft, W^f^,

^f^^T,

^^

The termination

^T
etc.

has also similar forms; the Ablative forms


are thus formed; tt4^T

^^f^,

UTt^fif

aftf^

iTxt^*^f^.

^Tinrr^f^ (4-203), ^*}s(l^r*! (4214),


107),

Wi'^f^ (12

^frt^ (15371).
There are also forms
like ^Tff'T (5

62).

Plu.

30

oblique
plural

Like
^^T

the singular;

form

is

used.

^^^Tm^f^r
Sing.
irffTBTT

(1692),

^if^f^^fiT

(1134).

Genetive explained under Samanyariipa.

(158), ^T^^T (14120), TTq^T (1650),


in '^ like

(18444); the forms


ft'rt (16318),

t^^T%, ^"t^xrZTf^^T etc.


cTTiTOt

I have rarely quoted these forms.


Plu.

^iP^Vl (17415), Timmi,

(17118).
Locative

the

T = J^'y the form in Prakrit form 5%, 5^. f^^Rlf (16142), ^f^ (18267),
Sing. "grf

T[

or

T[

formed after

m^ (16-259), ^^

(1-79), "^

(18-18).

Piu.-^cT

+f=

icrTf,

(1630), ITfR (18-1032, 1785).


Pr. "JtTT.

^
TPTrTft

Vocative like the


(12, 5167),

TT^

(1203).

Plural

With the termination added


HTftFRmft (315).

to the crude

form ^ff

+ ft =

or to the oblique plural form

^t +

ft

"g^Tfft.

Masculine in a^.

There are no masculine nouns

in

3lT

in

Prakrit.

No

forms can therefore be given for comparison.

^mi
Old Marathi
N. sing.

New
aiim
3TT^
9{[mT

Marathi

3T?an

N. plu.
Ace. sing. Ace. plu.

9m
9{tmi

^m

9^

31

New
Marathi
3^rl2IT^-lff
3^fi2rr'ft-i|1f

Old Marathi
Instr. sing.
Instr. plu.

3^T^-fiT, a^^fftr

3TT^
31ldl^T-^-?[

D. sing.

OTf3RlT^-^T-^

D. plu.
Abl. sing.

3^^t-^'>-?r

OTfi2rf^-^-rT-^
31Tf3RIT^^
S^flJlt^'T

3TT^T^fiT

Abl. plu.

W^^f^f^
SnSl^T-^
3^51 <<i-^

G. sing.
G. plu.
L. sing.

OTfizrr^-^-if
OTfizrf'^T-^'^-if

L. plu.

Voc. sing. Voc. plu.

OT^t OT^^ OT^T


31T^#t,

an^cT
31T?i2lf?r

arraRiT

aiT^^Ct
in 31T in

3^?i2rf^
old Marathi are mostly
3TT

The masculine nouns


original

words formed by adding the mas. termination


forms in 3T mostly ajectives.
TJ

to

the

This termination 3^

and the plural termination

are derived from the masculine


TJ

Nom. singular and plural forms of the pronoun from the Pr. I53T, Sk. TJffc^. These forms are
All

derived

and

the

adjectives

while forming the masculine take these

terminations.

In

taking these terminations from the pronoIn


these languages

minal declension, Marathi but follows the example of the


languages of the Indo-german family.
declension,
all

the pronominal declension has left some traces on the nominal

but

especially

on the declension of adjectives.


peculiarities
of

In the Vedic Samskrit


inflection

the

the pronominal

are extended to a certain number of adjectives^).


is

In other European languages the same


especially in forming the Genetive of the

found to be true,
bases 2).
In Gothic

and
is

in

old high

German

the strong declension of adjectives


declension^).

influenced
1) Cf.

by the pronominal

In English the

Macdonell, Vedic Gr. 390 page 299. Cf Brugmann, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik 462, 452 4. 3) Cf. Streitbero, UrgermaDische Grammatik 188 and Bbaune, Althochdeutsche Grammatik 245.
2)


apostrophe
's,

32

is

the

sign

of

the Possessive

the remains of

the old Possessive with the pronominal form "his"^).


is

Here

it

suggested that the whole forms of the pronoun fT are


31T,
f;

taken as terminations for the mas. in


in
Tj.

and the neuter


as no

But

this

does. not appear probable,

where

in
is

the Indo-german
found.
after
of

family of languages,

an analogus case

Only some single forms here and there are formed


the pronominal inflection.
3TT

Thus here
is

also in the case

the masculine in
inflection.

the Genetive
3Tr

formed after the


if

pronominal
be
3lT^rr;

^Wl +

would,
of

regularly joined
into

but here the

final 31T

the base changes

Jim
art

after the pronominal form TJ^T.

In the plural 31T^T

= 3TT^^.

These forms
for

a^^T

and 3TT^^t are taken as


In the Instr. singular

oblique forms

the D. and Abl.

^W[ -f TJf = 3TI^T


is

by Para. Sandhi.

In the Instrumental

plural and the Locative sing, and plural the termination art

added.

But here as

in the case of the Gen. plu. the final


is

3TT

undergoes no change; this termination


used.
sing.

looked upon as

other

terminations beginning with vowels, and


is

no oblique

form

Thus

an^T + art =
Plu.

arrgrt

by Para. Sandhi.
(14127),
aTT(in

Nom.

W^fT (1136),

W\v;dSl

(14 146), ^TTT (18-423).


(7-76),

^T^t

(1135),

^, g^W%
^fB51

^T^

(424).

Ace. sing. f^^T (14221),


593).
73,

"^T^^ (18438),

Plu,

^<^

^T^*^ (1182),

(II

(776),

^a& (6

16-3).
Instr. sing.

^iiiBf^ (1125)

has

C and

read W,

obviously a modern form.

^TTm^f (2202),

^f^

(385)

C and D read % ^%0t (3262) B has f^m; ^"^T (8212, 13197) C and D read again ^, in the first verse quoted. an^'lf^ (18-296), irT^T^f (18529). Plu. ^<Tt (157, 13-634), %n,m (36) C and D read 'f^; ^>35t (1629,
961,
359),

^35t (11583),

^^

(18438).

In the

first

two examples C and


1) Cf.

have no Anusvar.

Abbot, Grammar 207.


D.
sing.

33

9{mm
(17-105), OT^Rn^

*r^m
all

(423),

(883), 3T^'S^rrf^ (9165), ^TT^?f (11461),

aiifT^m^

(101139); B has
given; forms with
in

these forms with

Tl^
Plu.

as in the table

the Genetive

3T^ are later forms. B has always T[^.

In the plural and

^35^

(123
(6-27),

reading, 16-170),

^cT^

(3275, 624),

^7{^^

^^%^?f (6-227).
Abl. sing, ^^i^f^ (939); this form is irregular; ^Ot^n^f% (17139), B reads rightly but a plu ^%^8n^^. Gen. sing. f^^T (16101), ^TfTcH^ (12-241), ^W^l (1388), 3rNl5^T (9306). Plu. 9^^^^ (181054), ^r%^ (974), ^fT^^'^ (44).

Loc. sing. T35t (961, 174),

aiTfwt (131097, 1881),


(18583).

^iTTTt (1846),

a^rart

(18-792), ^xTt (17419). Plu. ^3t35t


"^TST

(6-458, 18-389), "^^35^ (790),


(18-293).

Voc. sing. 'rt^rt^T (11629), srt^iaS^ (11675),

%^^

C and D have the forms both in 3nn and TJ^, and sometimes an oblique form with a compound letter as in

new

Marathi.

Masculine
anfir

in

i;*

Sk.

Mh.

Ap.
anipr
artTinifr

O.M.
a^ft,

n.M.

N. sing. N. plu.

3Tf^:
arqij:

3TT^

anf^-^

a^Or-^
a^-'ft
3Tfl^-lft

an^
a^f^-^

Ace. sing.
Ace. plu.

3Tt^
3T^t^

arO'lH,

3Tr4*l*i
arfrinift

an^
awtif-ii

Instr. sing.

arftmr

3Tf4IDIl

3!nft-f^

Instr. plu.

art^f^:

amf^t^-f^

an^frtf-f^

air^

an^iRf-illf

34
Sk.

Mh.

Ap.

0.

M.

n.

M.

D. sing.

D. plu.
Abl. sing.

3Tftw:
3T^:

Abl. plu.

arfqwr:

G. sing.

3T^:

G. plu.
L. sing.

a^^^T-^-^
a^raRfT

L. plu.

arr^cT
an^T^

Voc. sing. Voc. plu.

a^^fr-'ft

In the Nom.
are used.
rupa.

The Genetive

and Ace. both the short and long forms is already explained under Samanyaas oblique forms.
is

The Gen. forms are taken


the oblique sing,

In the
is

Instr. singular,

form

used; the Plural

formed anf^

== air^.

Dative and Ablative as usual

with terminations added to the oblique forms.

The Loc.

is

formed

arrf'l

+ ^ = an^;
also

in the singular, forms without

an

Anuswar are

used.

From

the Instr. onwards the final


all

vowel should always be long, but in with short vowels are found.

the editions instances

Nom.

sing.

TTfTT^t^ (1126), t^sf^^f^T (13101),

^f^
^fif

(1379), t^frmfif (1-125);


(16),

wrfir

(l 151, 2103);

reads long

^.
B
reads

Ace. sing. 3inft(l 240,17 148, 141), ^rr^^t?! (1151).


Instr. sing,

ari^ (2336), t%t^ (1695),


(17311).
^TfT^i^Tf

vt

long;

tif>ft^

Plu.

W^

(16-163,

13-66),

^TrfT (18873),
Dat. sing,

(13-69)

art^ (18140), afwl^ (18759), ^ftfT^

(1847),
(15468).
Abl. sing.

35

(18-944),

3nf^

(9

479), ^xm^

ri^W\

^Tft^f^ (6129), f^rft^f^ (15238).


cnnn (3106), 3Tf?!^'^ ^^i5 luo;,

Gen. sing.

a B

nas sno lias short t^;

3^^ (18
3Tt4^

563) 9{[^^ (16288), fTtft^T (17-191, 192)


Loc. sing, Lioc.
642),
aipflf

(18^"^"^ (18193),
f'F.

^^^ no ^^ (18951),
ftlffe'^

(18

^ B

reads a short
'

Voc. sing,

ffr (11529),

(2286).

Masculine

in t.
t;

In declining the mas. nouns in


final

and

^ in Prakrit,
f;,

the

vowels are shortened^) and


bases mas.
is

the declension

of the long

^,
I
t;,

similar to that of the short

bases-).

have therefore given no Prakrit forms for the long mas.

bases.
irnift

Old Marathi

New
inrflr
irnflt

Marathi

Nom.
Nom.

sing.
plu.

TnTj!ty iTTift,

irrfwr
infxn^
TTTftl^T

Ace. sing. Ace. plu.


Instr. sing.

HlUlt,

irnft

W[Tn\,

ITTfuT^

mrft
ITTT^T^-ir^

irrPTif-W

Instr. plu.

imft,

"RTfuiiiifii

UTTRThRf-^
irn^T^-^T-7f

D. sing.
D. plu.
Abl. sing.
Abl. plu.

irrf^^-^-?f
infoi^Tt-^>'S

ITT^^-^T-fT-^f
IT'n^T^'T

TTTfuien^fH

irrfwf^f^
HTfui^T-^
ITTfural-^

Hl"lMl

G. sing.

irn^'^T-'^-^

G. plu.

TTT'?rNT-^>^

1)

He. 3-43.
PiscHEL, Pr. Gr. 383.

2)


L. sing.
L. plu.

36

New
Maratlii

Old Marathi

tttPr^
"RTfllT^t

itT^cT

mmrT
UTt^^IT

Voc. sing.

"RT^, TTTftp^T

Voc. plu.

m^fr,

irfiii^ft

ini2itift

In the Norn, and Ace. these nouns take the terminations

an

sing,

and

TJ

plural optionally.
iTTift,

m^,
TTT^

iTTPn^T sing, and


explained.
-g

Thus there are two forms TTlf^^ plural. The Gen. is


singular
is

already

The

Instrumental

formed

TTTftlif ;

generally the terminations beginning with

here and in the Locative forms there


in Samskrit.
infuilt.

vowels are added according to Pararupa Sandhi rule, but is a Sandhi formed as
D. and Abl. as usual.

The

Loc.

"RT^

art
is

In the Vocative plural the termination ft

also

found added to the base form as iTT^ft.


N. sing.

Wt

fft^T, ftfn^ (8-136), ^f^^T (13488), (3-41). Plu. inPn^ (17-56, 9514), ^if^^ (2263),
(2-102),

f^%^

^^ (167), ^'t^TOt
^Tt^T
inftil^

(163).

Ace. sing.

(16351),
(18-44),

%fr (181052), tj^


(181050).

(14259).
I.

Plu.

%^

sing.

Trf^* (5-131), mftif (16-144), mf35^ (12

120).

Plu.

ih^^i

(6143),

reads differently.

(18 1297), ^Tf^RH (18-449), '^ff^T^'t (14-173), ^jf^RH^'t (3 258). Plu. Wrf^^(16-2), mfxil^ (16-286, 388), ^-fTf%^
D. sing.

mOr^

(18198), ftt^T,

^f^T

(113),

fft^H

(3266), mfriT^tH (16-397),

^f^Rt^

(16-168), ^f^Jf^^ (13-726). G. sing, mfwr (16239); many forms


Plu.

before prepositions.

Wtfwn
Voc

(16280), TTTfrimt^ (16279).

plu.

f^^^tft (1351).

The forms in ^ and the Gen. forms before prepositions, have not quoted here. The sense of the Locative is usually

expressed by using the pre.

^f^,

wg

etc.

after Genetive

forms, here as well as in all other bases.

37

in

Masculine

^.

^i^
Sk.

Mh.

Ap.

o.M.

n.M.

N. sing.

^n^:
iT^'r:

TT^
1

m^
^"R^
1

'n^-^

^T^-^

N. plu.
Ace. sing. Ace. plu.
Instr. sing Instr. plu.
.

Tf^niftjTr^ TT^^Wt,

TT^ ^T^-1

*"U

^T^
^fT^
c(|ij.f|

m^H^
TT^iftj^T^

^-11
^i*!-1L

^-1
'T^

^T^5xjfr,^iv*
^T^ii?,

^T^m
TRrff-ff

TT^

^^ftr
^Tt
^n^-^>"5f

TT^-Upf
^l^'flf-ljlf

^T^f^:

D. sing. D. plu.
Abl. sing.

^^

TRf^ft

^T^f-ft

^T^-^-^
<ii^*i-?rr-rT-'^

TT^

^l^^4

TT^^fft
Abl. plu.

^T^:
TPft:

^T^
Tr^3W-3ft

'Tt^
^T^-^ ^1-=^
t

^li^^
Tt^'^TT-^-^

G. sing. G. plu.
L. sing.

Tr^%
^T^f-ir

'"T^'i; ^^1I?-TII^

^Tt5T-'^-f

^T^

TRfwT

qi^f^

^1
^t
^f,-^
'"t^

L. plu.

^^^
^T^"Y

^1^-^
^T^-^
Tr3T^
the
ease
of

m*!^
^^3-^
TT^ft
the

Voe. sing. Voe. plu.

^T^-^
^l^*I>

^^^:
As
in

^t?^
i;

mas. in

the

mas. in

have
the

also both the short

and the long forms

in the

Nom. and Ace.


Abl.
as
usual. in the

The Gen.
Loc.

is

already explained.

In the Instr. and in D. and

the

oblique

forms are used

Here

also all the editions

have short or long vowels

forms from Instr. onwards indiscriminately.


N. sing. 7T^ (1395),

^^ (13-118),

(13-401),

ftr^ (18-1424).

Plu.

ft^ (13601).


Ace. sing.

38

^^, ftr^ (13260),

^T^ (1376,

144),

(13553).

Plu.

^^

(13-290).

Instr. sing.

^(^ (18162), C has the termination W;


diiferently;

^^

(181011); TRJ (1152), B reads

t^ (11^i|^

404),

has h; ^T^^T (13144),

reads short ^;

(13380),
In

has ^.

the Instr. A,

C and

have sometimes forms with


terminations were not used

the terminations ^, R;
in

these

Dnyaneshwar's time in the Instrumental.


cf.

Evidently these
in A,

forms are modern;

^n^

(13-380),
often.

^Of (1323)

C and

have these forms more

D. sing, -ftr^ (181313); t^^'S (181424),

C has a long

^; 5!I^ (13401); ^T-gW (9125), B has short ^; ^T^h'^ (12211), B ^; ITT^^f (131010), B reads short ^; f?:^
(18866).
singular;
Plu.

^T^^'^ (793),
(18

reads

^T^

and C has a

^^

106),

reads

^,

C has

^ without
B
and

Anuswar.
Abl. sing.

^<f^

(1268); tj-^m^J^^ (887),

C have ^^f'T.
Gen. sing, rf^ (1572); fr^(15 87),

reads differently;

W^ (13554), ^^% (13421),


C have a
(9-322).
Loc. sing,
plural form ^T^'^T.

^^T^^T

(6-474),

B and

Plu. ^BT^^T

(1-82),

^^<T^^

f^^

(181380); ftl^ (15299),

and C

read differently.

Plu.

^^

(18344), B and C have short

i.

e.

a Norn, form (12202),

reads ft^.

Voc. sing.
524, 525),

^^

(1810); ^^^\ (181567, 11523,

reads in all these cases IT^.

39
Masculine

in

^.

fH
Old Marathi
N. sing.

New MaratM

N. plu.
Ace. sing.

Ace. plu.
I. I.

fn f^ T T
f5*^-f^
f^,Tf, rt%^\vi
f^r5^-'^-^

tH T T
1L
ftx^T^-lll
f^N^^Tf-?pf

sing.
plu.

D. sing.

ft^'re-wr-Tf
R't<ii*i-^-n-7(
M'>=^l^l

D. plu.
Abl. sing.

ft^-^-"?!
T<l'd<i(I^TI

Abl. plu.

G. sing.
G. plu.
L. sing.

t^T-^

fi^^T^ f<|xit MT-^-^


Nl^ld

L. plu.

f^J
ft^n
t^rf^fft

f^NltcT

Voc. sing.
Voc. plu.

ft^^
R^i^ft
The
Instr.

Nom., Ace, D. and Abl. as usual


Tf

singular

U%+ = ft^ by Sandhi; Plu. f^+ ^ = ft^. Locative


is

formed like the

Instr. plural.

Vocative as usual.

Nom.

sing.

Ace. sing.

^ (18780), f^ (16290). ^ (17-311, 18-941). Plu. m^


(18-323, 1712),

(18360),

the final vowel should be long.


I.

sing.

^W^
Plu.

(18-962),

^^
reads

(16100).
fli?'flf;

ffTg^ (18812);

^^

(16159),

C has %, a wrong

reading.

There are irregular forms like

^^

(131033

sing. A);

(11583

plu.),

reads

^W

and C WU^.


genetive.
Plu.

40

C has
<Tt;

D. sing. if^TT (11581) before a preposition, really a

^W^

(14

85), the verse is not in B.


(6

^T without an Anuswar.

"^W^

228), in B.

reads

also

^W^.
^qj^^T (814),
Plu.

a. sing.

m^TT^

(18360), 'g^T^

(16294).

f^^%

(9-145), IfTRT^TT^ (1054).

There are some mas. nouns ending in

and 3^.

They

have only the Nom. and Ace. forms

in the singular in ^, aft.

Thus Nom. and Ace.


of

sing.

^Bo%, 3TT^,

the

declension

is

like the mas. in

3Tg^ etc. The rest ?; for ^ and like the

mas.

in 3T for aft;

for these

words are merely other forms

of the

words

^35^,

aiT^^, 3T^?^ etc.

IV a.
Feminine nouns.
Feminine
in air.

Sk.
N. sing. N. sing.

Mh.

Ap.

O.M.

n.

M.

TTwr

Ace. sing.

TTwr

Ace. plu.
I.

sing.

I.

plu.

^Twrtf-ff

Tf^ift

D. sing.
D. plu.
Abl. sing.
Abl. plu.

G. sing.

G. plu.

L. sing.

plu.

Voc. sing.
Voc. plu.


In the Nom. singular

42

is

the base form

used as usual.

The

plural

form

is

derived from the Ap. form


?^,

TRT.

The

feminine nouns in long bases 3^,


31T like

take the termination

the Maharastri aft and the Ap.

to

form the plural.

'TT^

-h

OT

^^t;
like

the same as the Ap. form.

The

Instru-

mental

singular

the Mh. form irr^T3T by dropping the

final 3T as is usual in

Marathi. The plural "mw^ -f ^ W{^ by Para. Sandhi. The Genetive as already explained has two forms ^T^, ^T% from the Mh. forms ^^3T and ^^TJ
respectively.

Of these the form


in

^%

is

used as the oblique


the termination f^,

form.

Thus

the

Instr.

sing,

with

'TT^
case

f^

^%f;

there

are

other

forms

with

Instr.

forms before f^ as usual.

Dative and Abl. as usual

with the oblique forms.


used *\\^{, irr%.
nation ft.
N. sing,

In the Locative the oblique forms

merely are used; in the sing, both the Genetive forms are
Vocative
singular
is
is

the

same as the

oblique singular form;

the plural

formed with the termi-

^rrm (2-78, 13100),

^^

(13372), irf?l^

(2-27).

Plu.

TW^

(18197),

^ttm

(2175).

Ace. sing.
39),

^fMwi (1187), ift^m (221), ^cTT <16


Plu.

gwr
I.

(9-514).

^ft^T (18530), ^ft^t^T (116),

f^T

(28), ^ifT (1133).


sing.

IRT (24), t^T (461),

fWT

(9-514), ^'^^

(1162); ^WT^Tf (181428),


1084),
^(^T'RRf.

reads ^^^Tf;

^?fiT# (18
31TW-

reads

^fffi^; OT^fS^Tf (18947), B has

C and

have the termination

"Jpf

as in
is

new

Marathi.

Before the preposition

^in an

instr.

form
is

always used;
e. g.

there the form with the oblique form

found

'li^T?-

^^
B

(17184).

Plu.

inR (387); ^SdH (1731, 15509),

reads

^; B

has everywhere

for 35.

Dat. sing.

W^

(6126), TTfxn% (1293);

T^ (2304),
ifW^
Plu. ^I35t

B has T^%^; f^^^ (195), B (12 148),^T*T^ (18109),

reads differently;

f^

(1611).

43

"^^nrt

(137), C has 35T without the Anuswara.

(395),

^fr^tW (2-60), ^^^ETztW (192),


Abl. sing,
of

inr1?f

(3 116).
sing,

t^f^

(18928); examples of the Abl.


are
declined
like

the fem. in 3T which

those

in

3^.

Sfif^^
rently;

(12108), TT^^fiT (17144).

a sing.
prepo.

anPTT (142); MidbT^T (2267),


^ir (181088), ti*

reads

diffe-

^f^ (181681),

(9-323) before
cTKt

Plu. 5f^fq<*it (10

19),

C has no Anuswara.

(10222), IsfrT^t (10229),


before prepo.

TRt

(10231), these three

^fv^lf^^f

(18

349),

has a form in

arfwrfwr^T.
L. sing.

(9185), ^5^ (1116),

^
Plu.

(18450),

(1167),
has
ITT.

has a different reading.

Plu.

f^

(586), C

Voc. sing. 3t%,


111),

?R^^^ (1210).

"W^ft (394,

has THTT.

The feminine nouns in 3T are declined like the fern, nouns in an or ^ according as they are derived from Samskrit
nouns in from
in
31T

or ^.

So

^,

fR,

wNr

which are derived

^^, mm,
i;

W^
like

respectively are declined like the fem.


T^fT,

OT and words

^,

fWT
in

are declined like the

fem. in

as they are

derived from T^fTT, ^fe,


3T only in
sing.

f^f%

re-

spectively.

They have the forms


As

the Nom.

and Ace. singulars.

Thus Nom. and Ace.


all

^,

^TR,

and

so

on.

the other case forms are like the


I

forms of fem. in

31T or

^.

have quoted no examples.

Feminine

in

T*

The feminine nouns


fem. nouns
in

in

f;

and

are declined like the

long t,

in Prakrit 0.

No Prakrit forms

of

short

1C,

bases are therefore given

1)

PiscHBL, Pf. Gr. 384.

44

^^
Old Marathi
N. sing.
N. plu.

New

Marathi

t^^-'^ff
^y.'^'^fi

^^--^

Ace. sing.

^^-^
^v^-v^
^^>ftr
T^<^

1^
^fv^-v^-V

Ace. plu.
I.

^^
^^tif-nTf

sing.
plu.

I.

D. sing.
D. plu.
Abl. sing.

w^^>^>^ ^^^-^VW
w^'^'^^f^

V^^-'^ ^fm-^-^
^V^^-^-ilT-^

1^^^
T^l^-I

Abl. plu.

^^If^f^

G. sing.
G. plu.
L. sing. L. plu.

^^>^
T-^^^

^^^-^-W
V^'^'^-^

^^-^-^

Voc. sing.
Voc. plu.

^fi ^ft

V^^ V^^
^s^
T^^it
fem. nouns in

^^f^

As

in the ease of the mas. nouns in ^,

^ have
Ace.

both the short and the long forms in the Nom. and
is

The Gen.

already explained.

The

Instr. singular is
I'll;

formed from the Ap. form


Plural ^ft-^
oblique forms.
the

wv^
^^^'

like xii^ of

long;

the

+^
is

= ^^-

^^d Abl. as usual with

Tlie Locative is formed

^t^^ + ^

= ^^j
The
(159),

Anuswara
N. sing.

sometimes dropped in the singular.

Voc. as usual.

^-^
Plu.

(13125), C reads long

^^; ^T^

has ft.

^Z\

(13284).

Ace. sing. ^fTT (1369),

has long

rft;

Wrs\ (13284);


^ft (13114), C
has long

45

Plu. tf?:'TfffT

^.

(13130),

reads long Tft.


I.

sing, ^fft

(1340); 3TT?f^ (13125),

rently;
Plu. ^tTt

^mift (7139),

reads

diffe-

(1826),

3TTT^'^

(13592).

(1391),

reads fT,

C has T^; (13709), B


(13133),

reads differently.

D. sing,

^v^

(13104),

mv^
B

^m^ftftr

(14450); ^[v^'^^ (11604),


35),

has short ft^:

T^ftr (1

C has

a modern D. termination.

Abl. sing,

^t^^f^
B

(13568),

G. sing, ^f^rf^fft (181133),

B reads ^%^f^. B has a different reading;


(13451
in B),

^i)

(2221),

has ^z)',

m^

and C

read ^m^^'^.

Plu.

f^<^

(10286) before a

preposition.

L. sing. Vlfi

(1394);

(13297,

300),

has short

t; f^Tf (18432); ^l^i (13395, 509),


f^, respectively

reads ftn^^,
Voc. sing.

C reads ftr^^cT
(171).

^ ^
Mh.

reads ^'^ and

(18961).

Plu.

f^rv^ (18980), B

as in

modern Marathi.

Feminine

in

t.

^
Sk.

Ap.
lift

0.

M.

n.M.

N. sing.
N. plu. Ace. plu.

^
if^:

iT^
^^:

^ ^

'T^

uftsfr-^

iin[^

Tf^T
'^^^

Hit
TJtr:^

^ ^
^Wi
T^T

Ace. plu.
I.

nit^fr-^
uit^T-Ti-a^

'Tf^^T

sing.
plu.

f^
i^ff:

Hit

'Tf^^-W,

^^'^^-Ipf
if^fift-^Tf

I.

D. sing.

^
^^^:

^t

Hifff

^fi
irf^^-^-^
'rf^^t-^-^

't^^-^-t}
iT^^-^T-fT-^

D. plu.


Sk.
Abl. sing,

46
Ap.

0.

Mh.
uft^-aft

M.

n.

M.

^^t:

Abl. plu.

T^^:
't^^'r;

tij^I

iff^^pT
^ff^t^Or

^^-^
^^t^i
'r^^-^^-^
^T^rT
if^rtfT

m^
th^
TH^-uit

G. plu.
L. sing.
L. plu.

Tnt^i-^TTj;
Tnt3T--q

^f^^t-^
'T^Tf-'Tf^

f^T^
^i^^

Voc. sing. Voc. plu.

^
^^:

^g-^
Ti?^

^Tff
UT^

T^-iTf^^t

T^'^Tf^^

ir^>

mt^ft
plural
is

in^fr

ff^ft

^^^
31T,

The Nom.

formed with the termination

^^
is

4- arr

= ^f^[^
G.
is

by Sandhi.

The Instrumental singular


;

formed from the Mh. form

int^aTT

the Plural

T^

-H

==^

T^. The

already explained.

D. and Abl. as usual.

In the Locative the oblique forms are used, and there are
additional forms with the termination ^,

T^

+ ^

= 'T^;
in the

the

Anuswara

is

sometimes dropped.
is

Voc. as usual;

Singular the base form

used after the Prakrit form ^n^.


Plu. '^fe^T,

N. sing. H^Jift (170).

^^f35^7 (775),

^f^^T

(16377).

Ace. sing.

^T^

(170);

31T^

(1173),

reads short
Plu.

f^; 'T^Tt (16292);

W^

(13798),

has

f^.

^-

ff^Tsn (16290), ^f^^T (9512), ^Tftt^T (9-514);

atrft-

fr^T (1220),

reads arffftfT^T and

atffrfr^T.

sing,

^f^^

(4187),

^tf^T, ^f%^T (16290),


has

f^^T (16^334); ^f^f^^T (1282), B


^T^f^RTT (16
D. sing,
80);

f^

and C

^;

581),

C reads ^T^t^^ a wrong

reading.
^zftft^

^fe^

(16-260),

^Ol^ (13260),

(14

^TfT^f^^ (16177),
(16

has

different

reading.

f^^^

334),
B
has

reads

f^^lW
C reads

perhaps a plural form,

but then there should be an Anuswara on ^T.

'ftf^f^

(12161),

^f^;

^^ft

like in short


declension.

47

f^fi^^
(1249), C

Plu.

WlT^^I (18136),

has fwrtftr.
Abl. sing. f^sm^^T (11165).

G. sing,

f^

(16335), before prepo. ^fift^ (1058),

reads

OT^f^

and

in^f^;

5|fg5^% (16288),

f%T^^

(16200).
L. sing,

^^f^
are

(16295), W[^T{^ (1377).


also.

Plu.

T^

(15

433),
There

this

can be a singular form

some

feminine

nouns

which

have
etc.

double

forms;

^f^, ?"^^5 ^ff^, ^f^;


is

'ftft,

'ft^

When

the final vowel


it is

short they are declined like

^f^^; when
Double forms
This double

long then they are declined like -T^.

are also found in the case of the fem.


declension
is

bases.

very common in feminine bases.

In the mascuall.

line bases it is

extremely rare, or not found at

have

not been able to find any example in the mas. bases.

Feminine

in

^.

^
Old Marathi
N. sing.
N. plu. Ace. sing.

New

Marathi

^1

^-^

^1

^I-^

Ace. plu.
I.

^-I
^-ftr

^ ^-^ ^
^-uTf
^'Hf-iaf
Ox

sing.

I.

plu.

^
^-H^-^

D. sing.

D. plu.
Abl. sing.
Abl. plu.

\(^^
Vl^iT

^??PI

^t?nr

48

Old Marathi
G. sing.

New

Marathi

^-^

^^r^.^-^

G. plu.
L. sing.

^^
^1-^

L. plu.

Voc. sing. Voc. plu.

^ ^
^tft

^ ^ ^
^

^'^-'^'^-^

^^
In the Instr. and Loc. the
D.,
Abl. and

As in the case of the mas. in ^, the fem. in ^ have both the short and the long forms in the Nom. and Ace.

The Gen.
oblique

is

already explained.

forms are used as in the masculine.

Voc. as usual.
N. sing.

^Tg (1137),

(2105), ^i^^^ (13206).

Ace. sing,

^g

(1120, 440, 8217).


(11538, 181680);

D. sing.

^*r^^

^^ (13865),
B
reads

C reads ^^%*.
G. sing. ^T^TTT (4-38).
Plu.

^^'^

(7321),

a singular form.

V^
of

(10

241)

before a preposition.

The examples

the fem. in

and

are very few,

as there are very few words in these bases.

Feminine

in

^.
word

The Mh. and Ap. forms


in

of the

^^

are given.

But
base

Marathi the word

^^

is

declined
adj.

like the short

word.

The

o.

M. forms of the

^^

are therefore given.

^ ^^
Sk. N. sing.

Mh.

Ap.

o.M.

^H:

^
^^3ft-^
<=ljj

N. plu.
Ace. sing.

^^:

^^ ^w^

^
^1^
^^

^m
^^:

Ace. plu.

^^3fr-^

cl^^

^W^


Sk.
I. I.

49

Ap.
0.

Mh.
3T^3T-ij-3n

M.

sing.
plu.

'Twa

^^
^(Wfi

^^-f^

TfH:
Tfcl

^(^ft

D. sing.
D. plu.
Abl. sing, Abl. plu.

^W^:
^^t:

^W^
W^T-^-^
^F^t-^'^-^

^^ W^
^^1

'T^Sfft-Tt

^^^f^
^^^t^f^

^wr:
^^^:
^^'TTTj;

G. sing.
G. plu.
L. sing.
L. plu.

^^3T-T5-3TT

^^%-^
^Tr-^

^^m-^
^^^-11

^^t
^^ff ^^ff
^5^

^MTJj;

^F%

^^
^^
^^:

^^
^ir

Voc. sing.
Voc. plu.

^^^ ^^, ^^
^^Tfit

^3ft

^r^

Nom.
by Sandhi.

plural with the termination 3TT,

^^4-3TT

= ^F^T,
D. and
are
used.

The

Instr. singular is

formed after the Mh. form

^^STT; the plural


Abl. as
usual.

^^ + ^
the
Loc.

= ^F^
the

by Sandhi.
forms

In

oblique

Voc. as usual.
N. plu.
I.

sing.

D. sing.
G. sing.

^F^T (1868). ^^^T (16193, 97). Tr^% (18940). Tr^%^T (13594).


TJ

There are some fem. nouns ending in

and

as

%,
in

^, ^^^%,

^T^Z

etc.

These nouns have only forms

the Nominative and Ace. singular.

Nom. and Ace.

sing.

%, ^^:

^F^,

^T^t.

No forms

for other cases occur in the works.

IV b.
Neuter nouns.
Neuter
in 3t.

^^ia5

Sk.

Mh.
^^j^r*^

Ap.

0.

M.

n.

M.

N. sing.

^^I^

^^
^^T^-^t
M.H

^^,
T^S
Hicfc),

^
^

^535

N. plu.
Ace. sing.

^mT^
^^*i
tSR^Tf^

^^T<
Mi^*i

q^
qia5

Ace. plu.

^^It

'^R^t"^
5

T^

qiS

The
The
in Ap.

rest like the masculine in 3T.

Sk.

3T^ remains 3T^

in Maharastri but

becomes

The neuter nouns


in the

in 3T in
sing,

Marathi have therefore


mdo,
it

two forms
is

Nom. and Ace.

m^. The
in

plural

formed by adding the termination

derived from the

Ap. 3T^
plural
base.

it

This

termination
all
T[

is

used

forming

the
Tj

of

neuter nouns in
plural
is

bases except those of the

The
I

^3S

=
of

^^.

The Ace.

like

the

Nom.

have quoted examples

Nom. and Ace. forms only;

other case forms are like the mas. forms.


N. sing.
Plu. ^q^T^Jf

%TT^

(6148),

^^^

(1816), 3t^ (1896).

(687), ^^xf (6399),

(18-95), ^R^l?

(18160), 3TW?f (18161).


Ace. sing,
piu. ss),
vsas

51

(517),

f^f

*S

(550), \mBoij:
(1692).

(5 lu),

(5-18),

H^

(6458),

(534).

(le-

In-egular forms
(6

are the Abl. singular form


correct
in

271),

^T^^^l^
C has

C reads a

form

^l^M^f'^; and a Loc.

form

^l^^^l (672

B),

reads ^^llldb, and

Neuter

in

^.

Old Marathi
N. sing.
N. plu.

New

Marathi

Ace. sing.

Ace. plu.
I.

sing.
plu.

I.

D. sing. D. plu.
Abl. sing. Abl. plu.

G. sing.
G. plu.
L. sing. L. plu.

Voc. sing.

Voc. plu.

The Nom.
Sandhi.
lu

plural
of

is

formed

^^ff
is

H- it

^fifif by
i<.

The

rest

the declension

like the mas. in

the Locative in addition to the oblique forms there are d


forms

52

^
;

with

the

termination

^rft

^cff

by

Para. Sandhi.

Nom.

sing.

^<ff (9176),
^fff (18

x^Tift

(1672). example

Ace. sing,

20), in the second

has

^fTT;
^Tf

xjTuf^

(1672);

^Tf

(13 30), B
Plu.

has f^, C reads

^'^if;

(6 492), B
I.

reads f^.
721, 56).

mf^^ (18 844, 4 177),


in the

^T7{^ (18314,

sing, qifinif

(7150, 13483, 18-532, 705),


differently;

last

example C reads

mfinif^Tf (181468).
Plu.

D. sing. mfiHin (15337, 12120).


14); tTTfTR^t

^Tri^ (10

(18886), C has

xrifxiI^T sing.

Abl. sing. ^TfiimT^fir


plural form.

(18929),

has mfin^t^f^ a

G. sing.

t(TfTf^T

(12120, 13359), B has mftF(^;


has mftl^t and C reads differently;
has ^Tfnr^%if and C has f^.
Plu.

mPn^T (18272), B xfTpn^T^T (781), B


L. sing.
differently).
TITiflf

x?Tfo?^tf^ (13610), C has a singular form.

(975,

has

uft,

18398 C

reads

Neuter

in

^.

^^^
Old Marathi
N. sing.

New

Marathi

^^^
^^^^

Tf^^
^t^T

N. plu.
Ace. sing. Ace. plu.

^^^
^^^^
rest like the mas. in

TT^^
TTH*^

The

^.
'STT^^'^

plural is formed

^t^^ +
^.

it

by Sandhi.

The

rest like the masculine in

N. sing.

53

^^,

mf^
has

(13315),

(1884).

Plu.

^^

(13597);

%^

C has ^^, ^j^^ (15217), C has

%f'^; -^W^

(G 399), B
(13401

^^.
reads short

Ace. sing, ftr^

(13 400), B
reading),

^; flfTT^ (9

442);

m^

reads ^;

^T^^

(1140);

iN^
^'rt.

(10207),

has

%f^.

Plu.

^r^ (1856).
has a plural form ^T^-

D. sing. "^IT^^^T (13378),


Plu.

f^m^

(181343),

has ftf^RT, C has fxif^^t.


plural form

G. sing.

^T^^^T^T (16386), B has a


before
Plu.

^-

^^^^T: m^^T (18746),


rently;

a prepo.

reads

diffe-

%fT:^%fiT (919).

a prepo.

f^^^^tt^^ (18173),

TT^^^ (10290), before B reads ftr^^^t%^T.

Neuter

in it.

Old Marathi
N. sing.
N. plu.

New

Maratlii

Ace. sing. Ace. plu.


I.

sing.

I.

plu.

D. sing.

D. plu.
Abl. sing.
Abl. plu.

G. sing.

G.plu.


L. sing.
L. plu.

54

Old Marathi

Old Marathi

f^^wr, f^^ut^

f^^mcT

f^int, f^^ut^t

f^^tfT
f^^^T
f<^^m^"t

Voc. sing.

f^^oi^

Voc. plu.

f^^^tft
in
Tf

The neuter nouns


being changed to
Tj

are words formed by the Pr. 3T^


TJ
Tj

or

by adding
This

the neuter termination


like the mas. termination

to the original forms in 3T.

3TT
is

is

derived from the neuter pronominal form ^.

This

Tj

different

from the neuter plural termination derived from


This
T?

the Ap. 3T^.


of it is

is

a singular termination; the plural

also derived
Tj,

from the plural pron. form f^.

These

terminations

are used in forming the neuter forms of


plu.
is

f^^^ + T == f^^^ by Para. Sandhi. The Genetive f^^^ + 3TT = f^^^T sing., f^^uf + 3Tt = f^^^t plu. by Sandhi. The Instr. f^^^ + Tpr = f^^BfiT by P. Sandhi; the plu. f^Bf -\- f = f^uR;
words.

The Nom.

formed

the D. and the Abl. as usual.


are used;

In the Loc. the oblique forms

there are also forms with the termination 3Tt as

in the mas. in

3n

t^^ + art =

t^nit by Para.

Sandhi.

Vocative

is

formed as usual.

N. sing.

^^
Plu.

(522), ilt"^ (583),

W^ (6-82),
^^

art^^n^

(9125).
W^iflf

^Tf (1612); ^iff (6399), B

has

t^t;

(13234),

has

^fijjn\.

Ace. sing. %Bf (1621),

%^

(4188),

(6292),

^-

^1
195),

(578),
I.

arf^T^

(163).

sing.

t^T^tfiT (161),

B and C have f^; ^T^^T%T (930), B has ^f^ (17424), B has 'T;
%^T^;
^fin^T^'^ (910),

m^f^ (1519); ^T^^f (9 W^f^ (11221), B has ^^\T^',


f^,

reads

^T^^T%^T^;

'^tf^-

t^BfiT^Tf (1615),

has f^.

D. sing. art^'^^T (131101);

^^^f^

(181149),

has a plural

form t^^t^'^,


wnr^mr (15-430), C
24); ft^Rrt (16170),

55

Plu.
<! lut<ll

reads ^^TfrrRn.

R (7
i

B ft%^, C
(5

ftftRTf.

Abl. sing.

^^f^Tlrf'T

165),

has ^^f^^Ttlrf'T and

reads as in modern Maratlii ^<^"<ii^T. G. sing.

^5r^ (12119); ^^RT (640), B has ^C^; mrirm (18785), before Prepo. B has HT^Nn; ^"^'RTT^ (692), B ^%^%; ^TT^%^ (1883), B reads ^rTT^%^ and C ^T^^f^T. Plu. ^^r%^t (1621), ^in^^t
(8100).
L. sing,

fr^nt

(131113);

^TT^nut
in

(16111);

<lfiy\\
Plu.

(15

265),

C has no Anuswara

any

of these cases.
:

^T^nnt (1812);
iNrr (16

^T|^t (18543), B has m^^\

^^f^in

78),

C has ^wf^f%^T and no Anuswara

any

of these examples.

Lebenslauf.
am 1. Januar 1881 zu Thana, PrasidentBombay, geboren. Meine Eltern sind der verstorbene Gutsbesitzer und Rechtsanwalt Keshavrao G. Joshi zu Thana und seine ebenfalls verstorbene Frau Laxmibai geb. Mandlik. Ich gehore dem Brahmanismus an. Die Volksschule besuchte ich in Thana und das Gymnasium in Poona. Ich bestand das Matriculation Exam" an der Universitat Bombay im Jahre 1898. Ich studierte am Elphinstone College (Bombay) und am Fergusson College (Poona), und bestand das B. A. Exam 1907 und M. A. 1909. Anfang 1910 wurde ich von der Deccan Education Society als lebenslangliches Mitglied gewahlt. Im September 1911 wurde ich von derselben Gesellscbaft nach Deutschland geschickt. Im Winter desselben Jahres lies ich mich in das philosophische Album der Universitat
Ich, Krishnaji Joshi, bin

schaft

Leipzig

eintragen.
in

Ich

studierte

ein

Semester in

Leipzig,

drei

1913. Wahrend dieser Zeit habe ich Vorlesungen iiber Sanskrit, Englisch und die deutsche Literaturgeschichte von den Herren Professoren Bulbring, Forster, Jacobi, Jiriczek, Jolly, Litzmann und Roetteken gehort. Ich spreche hiermit meinen aufrichtigen Dank alien, aber besonders dem Herrn Geheimrat Professor Jacobi und dem Herrn Geheimrat Prof. Jolly aus. Die miindliche Priifung fand am 1. Mai 1914 statt.

Semester

Bonn

und

kam nach Wtirzburg im Winter