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THE ENGLISH VERB

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Definition The verb in English has traditionally been defined as a word that expresses action or a state of things. This definition is not very useful, however, because other words, especially nouns and adjectives can also express these meanings. That is why, modern grammarians prefer to define word classes (or parts of speech) not only on the basis of their meaning, but also on the basis of their form, insofar as this is possible and on the basis of their function in sentences. Therefore, a complete definition of the verb should take into account three criteria: morphological, syntactic and semantic: - Morphologically, the verb assumes certain forms to express various grammatical categories: the categories of person, number (which it shares with other parts of speech) and the specific categories of tense, aspect, voice and mood. - A finite verb discharges the syntactic function of predicate in the sentence. - From the semantic point of view (i.e. from the point of view of their meaning) the class of verbs includes words expressing actions or states perceived as processes. 1.2. Classification of verbs Verbs may be classified in accordance with several criteria: their form; lexical meaning; complementation 1.2.1. Classification of verbs in accordance with their form There are three ways of classifying verbs on the basis of their forms: in accordance with their morphological structure, derivation, their base forms 1.2.1.1. Classification of verbs according to their morphological structure (or Composition) According to their morphological structure (or composition) verbs may be classified into: 1.2.1.1.1. One-word verbs, represented by: a) simple verbs: verbs which cannot be further subdivided into morphological elements, e.g. go, eat, sit; b) Compound verbs: verbs formed of two or more morphological elements written together, e.g. broadcast, underline, blackmail; c) derivative verbs, i.e. verbs formed by means of affixes (prefixes and suffixes): discover, mislead, deafen, symbolize. 1.2.1.1.2. Multi-word verbs: A multi-word verb is a lexical verb which may be combined with one or two particles to function as a verb with a unitary meaning. There are three kinds of multi-word verbs: phrasal verbs; prepositional verbs; phrasal-prepositional verbs. a) Phrasal verbs: A phrasal verb consists of a verb and an adverbial particle (e.g., sit down, go away, get off, give in, etc). The verb is usually a common English verb (be, break, come, fall, get, give, go, make put, take, turn); The adverbial particle is usually an adverbial of place (across, away, back, down, in, off, on, out, over, up). Phrasal verbs raise two sets of problems: semantic and syntactic. i. The meaning of phrasal verbs. - Quite a large number of phrasal verbs have a literal meaning. They retain the individual meanings of the (base) verb and the adverbial particle, i.e. the meaning of the phrasal verb is simply a result of the meanings of the two elements (the verb and the particle), e.g. to sit down, to run away, etc. In some cases, the base verb retains its meaning and the particle simply adds a special sense (so, we can fairly easily infer the meaning of the phrasal verb): on can mean forward, as in go on, read on, etc. up, off, out can mean completely, thoroughly, as in eat up, drink up, finish off, tire out (=exhaust completely) In a fairly large number of phrasal verbs, the particle can be omitted without changing the meaning of the sentence. However, the sentence sounds a good deal better (or more natural) with the particle, for instance: Turn round and see who is behind us. She usually wakes up at about six. - The meaning of the phrasal verb cannot be inferred from the individual meanings of the (base) verb and the adverbial particle.

The meaning of the phrasal verb is much more opaque or idiomatic. The particle changes the meaning of the base verb to such an extent, that we have to learn their meanings as a single unit, almost without association with the base verb: to make out (= to decipher, to understand), to let down (to disappoint), to come round (= to regain consciousness), to turn up (= to appear, arrive). Phrasal verbs are quite common in spoken, informal English. In more formal style they are sometimes replaced by one-word verbs (if there is a synonym): We decided to carry on. (= continue) The two girls fell out. (= quarrelled) Dont give away any information. (= reveal) Dont leave out anything important. (= omit) A large number of phrasal verbs are polysemantic and, depending on the context, they can have a literal or idiomatic meaning. For instance, bring up: Bring the piano / visitor up. (the phrasal verb has a literal meaning, i.e. carry it (the piano) up, bring him (the visitor) upstairs; They brought Tom up as their own child. (the phrasal verb has an idiomatic meaning: to raise, to educate) ii. In addition to problems concerning their meaning, transitive phrasal verbs, (i.e. phrasal verbs that take a direct object) also raise syntactic problems: - When the direct object is expressed by a noun, the noun object is placed either before or after the adverbial particle (or: the adverbial particle can either come before or after the noun object): They turned the offer down. / They turned down the offer. They managed to put the fire out. / to put out the fire. The verb and particle may be separated by a fairly short noun phrase. If the direct object is expressed by a long noun phrase, the particle is placed immediately after the verb (the object is placed after verb + adverbial particle): They turned down lots of perfectly good suggestions. When the direct object is expressed by a (personal) pronoun, the adverbial particle is placed after the object, i.e. a pronoun object always comes before the adverbial particle: They turned it down. / They managed to put it out. b) Prepositional verbs A verb may also form a combination with a preposition (e.g. call on, look for, look after, etc.). The verb and the preposition express a single idea: Im looking for my keys. (= seeking) She takes after her grandmother. (= resembles) Like all prepositions they are always used with objects (noun phrases/ pronouns). The noun phrase following the preposition is termed prepositional object. In fact, the purpose of the preposition is to link the (noun phrase) object to the verb. With prepositional verbs, the objects are always placed after the preposition, for instance: Look at the picture. / Look at it. Im waiting for Mary. / Im waiting for her. In some cases phrasal verbs with objects look identical to verbs followed by a prepositional object (prepositional verbs). But we can see they are different when we use a pronoun as an object. For instance, run down: He ran down his own wife. / He ran her down (phrasal verb) He ran down the hill. / He ran down it (verb+ preposition) c) Phrasal - Prepositional verbs are combinations consisting of three parts: a base verb, an adverbial particle, and a preposition (e.g. look forward to, look down on, catch up with, put up with, etc). They are partly phrasal verbs and partly prepositional verbs. The purpose of the adverbial particle is to change the meaning of the base verb. The purpose of the preposition is to link the noun phrase object to the verb. Both particle and preposition come immediately after the verb. Phrasal prepositional verbs are quite common in informal spoken English. They can often be replaced by a single-word verb in more formal English: The car ran out of petrol. (= finish supplies); I get on with my teachers very well. (= to have a friendly relationship with); I refused to put up with his rudeness any longer (=tolerate);

Ive got a bad cold. Youd better keep away from me. (= avoid) Other phrasal - prepositional verbs are: to cut down on (= reduce), to look up to (=respect), to face up to (= confront), to stand up for (= defend), etc. d) Idiomatic expressions: combinations of verb + other parts of speech, especially nouns, e.g. give way (= yield), make haste (= hurry, hasten), make fun of / poke fun at (= ridicule), etc. In these expressions, the verb itself has a diminished lexical value, while the main semantic load is carried by the nominal element. 1.2.1.2. Classification of verbs in accordance with their derivation. Verbs can be derived from other parts of speech through affixation and conversion. a) Affixation is the device by means of which a verb can be derived from other parts of speech through suffixes and prefixes. Some of the most productive verb-forming suffixes are: -ize: analyse/A.E. analyse, recognize, modernize, characterize -ify: certify, simplify, clarify, magnify -en: it is a very productive suffix added to adjectives or nouns. It has the causative meaning = to cause something to be. Eg broaden, deafen, deepen, soften, widen, shorten; strengthen, lengthen, heighten. Prefixes are used to a lesser extent to form verbs from other parts of speech. Nevertheless, one of the most productive verb-forming prefixes is en- added to adjectives or nouns: enlarge, enable, ensure, enrich; endanger, enjoy, encircle, enrage, encourage, entrust. b) Conversion refers to the derivational process by which a word belonging to a part of speech is changed into another part of speech, without the addition of an affix. - Quite a large number of nouns can be converted to verbs: to paper (a room), to park (a car), to service (a car), to process (leather, cheese, data). Most nouns representing various parts of the body can be used as verbs: to head (an expedition, revolt), to elbow (ones way through a crowd), to eye (someone with suspicion). - Adjectives may be converted to verbs: to dirty, to empty, to blue, to brown. 1.2.1.3. Classification of verbs in accordance with their base (inflectional) forms. The forms of English verbs are: 1. The base form. It is the uninflected form (given in dictionaries) which can be used as: a) the infinitive (often preceded by the Infinitive marker to); b) the imperative (2nd person singular/plural); c) the subjunctive (present synthetic); d) simple present tense (all persons except 3rd person sg.): E.g. work, write, put, bring, be (am, are). 2. The past tense form (Ved): worked, wrote, put, brought, was / were 3. The past participle form (Ven): worked, written, put, brought, been. 4. The (e)s form: is added to the base for the 3rd pers. sg. simple present tense: works, writes, puts, brings, is. 5. The ing form, also called the form for the present participle. It is formed by adding ing to the base: working, writing, putting, bringing, being. The conjugation of the English verb is based on the first three forms (they are the dictionary forms of the English verbs): worked -worked - worked; write wrote - written. Depending on how they form the past tense and the past participle, the English verbs are either regular (work) or irregular (write). Regular verbs: Verbs like work which have the past tense and the past participle in ed are called regular: Regular means that we can state all the verb forms of the English verb once we know the base form. Thus, we can predict their past tense and past participle form according to a rule, namely by adding ed to the base. The vast majority of English verbs are regular. Furthermore, all new verbs that are coined or borrowed from other languages adopt this pattern, for example xerox xeroxes xeroxed, xeroxing. Irregular verbs: Verbs like write, put, bring, be are irregular in that we cannot predict their past tense and past participle form according to a rule. For an irregular verb, we have to learn the 3 forms (the base form, the past tense and the past participle) individually. The irregular verbs form a small but very important group of verbs.

1.2.2. According to their lexical meaning, verbs may be classified into full/ main verbs and auxiliary verbs. 1. A full (main / lexical / ordinary) verb has a meaning of its own (full lexical meaning) and can form the predicate by itself. It is used as the main verb in a verb phrase: He works hard; He has worked. 2. An auxiliary verb has no independent meaning of its own. It does not make up a verb phrase on its own but must be accompanied by a following main verb. Auxiliary verbs are used together with (before) main verbs to help them express particular grammatical functions or meanings. There are two types of auxiliary verbs: - primary auxiliary verbs: be have, do. They are the most common verbs in English. They can be used as auxiliary as well as main verbs. As auxiliary verbs, combined with the infinitive, the present or the past participle of main verbs, they help to form the grammatical categories of the main verbs, i.e. tense, aspect, voice, interrogation, negation. - modal-auxiliary verbs: can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will, would. The modal auxiliaries are called so because they express a variety of moods and attitudes towards an action or state to which the main verb refers. The modal auxiliaries are used with the infinitive of main verbs to indicate the speakers attitude towards the utterance, e.g. permission, possibility, necessity. Unlike the primary verbs (be have, do), the modal auxiliaries are never used as main verbs, they are always used as auxiliary verbs (i.e. they cannot form a verb phrase on their own, without the support of a main verb). The modal auxiliaries also differ from the primary auxiliary verbs in that they lack certain basic forms: they have no s in the 3rd person singular, no infinitives or participles. Apart from these differences, all auxiliaries (both primary and modal auxiliaries) have certain characteristics in common, characteristics that distinguish them from main verbs. Rules applicable to all auxiliaries a) The negative of a verb phrase which contains an auxiliary is formed by putting the negative particle not after the auxiliary: He is helping us He is not helping us. He should help us He should not help us. Main verbs are distinguished from auxiliary verbs by their inability to form negation in this way. Main verbs require the use of do in order to form the negative: He helps us. He does not help us. b) Auxiliaries admit inversion (inversion means changing the word order of subject and verb in the sentence). This inversion occurs in: - Interrogative sentences: The interrogative of a verb phrase which contains an auxiliary is formed by inverting the subject and the auxiliary (the auxiliary is placed before the subject): He is helping us Is he is helping us? He should help us Should he help us? Again, main verbs are distinguished from auxiliary verbs by their inability to form interrogation in this way. Main verbs require the use of do in order to perform this inversion: He helps us. Does he help us? - With introductory negative and restrictive adverbs (for emphasis) I have seldom seen such a crowd of people. Seldom have I seen such a crowd of people. At no time was the entrance left unguarded. At no time should the entrance be left unguarded. If the verb phrase is expressed by a main verb alone, then we need the use of do to perform this inversion: He little realised the danger he was in. Little did he realise the danger he was in. c) Auxiliaries can be contracted in conversation. Contraction is a short form of a word, used both in spelling and in pronouncing the word. Contractions are used in speech and informal writing. The contraction is added to the end of a word and is marked in writing by an apostrophe (). - all auxiliaries can be contracted in the negative: usually not is spelled nt and is added to the auxiliary: He is not helping us. He isnt helping us. He should not help us. He shouldnt help us.

Notes: - There are no negative contractions for am and may: In questions, in informal speech, arent is used as a contraction for am I not: Arent I lucky? - Verb contraction or negative contraction? In informal English we sometimes have a choice in negative sentences, between contraction of the verb or contraction of not: Shes not hungry. or She isnt hungry. Ive not met him. or I havent met him. Hell not miss the bus. or He wont miss the bus. - Be (am, are, is), have (has, had), will (would) can be contracted in the affirmative. The word which comes before the contraction is usually a personal pronoun: Im reading; Weve seen it; Hell come. - Had and would have the same contraction: d Hed seen it. (= had) / Hed see it. (= would) - Is and has have the same contraction: s Hes reading. (= is) / Hes read. (= has) Contracted forms, being enclitic (= added to a preceding word) naturally do not occur at the beginning or end of a sentence: Will you be in tonight? (*ill you be in tonight?) I havent finished but he has. (has cant be contracted) d) emphasis: In conversation, special emphasis is often placed on auxiliary verbs. This emphasis can give some emotional force to the whole sentence or it can express some kind of contrast, for example between true and false, or between present and past: I am telling the truth, you must believe me. In normal speech, we use the weak forms [m], [mst]. But if we want to stress the fact that I am not lying, we place special emphasis on the auxiliaries by using the strong forms [m], [mst]. e) Auxiliaries can function as substitutes for main verbs in verb phrases. In order to avoid repeating a previous verb phrase, we can use an auxiliary only. Thus the main verb of the verb phrase is omitted (either by ellipsis or by substitution). These reduced constructions occur in: i. short answers: - answers to general questions (yes / no questions) Has it stopped raining? Yes, it has (stopped raining)./ No, it hasnt. Can he drive a car? Yes, he can (drive a car)/ No, he cant Note: an answer with yes / no, without an auxiliary is, of course possible, but it is considered less polite (or sounds rather blunt). - replies to statements, requests or orders (sentences expressing agreements or disagreements): Youll be on holiday soon. Yes, I will. (Ill be on holiday) Main verbs which have no auxiliary in their composition require the use of do as their substitute: Tom works hard. Yes, he certainly does. ii. additions to remarks: - affirmative additions: SO + AUXILIARY + SUBJECT SUBJECT + AUXILIARY + TOO Ann will stay and so will Tom. (will substitutes for the verb phrase will stay) Or: Ann will stay and Tom will too. Main verbs which have no auxiliary in their composition require the use of do as their substitute: Ann stayed and so did Tom. - negative additions: NEITHER / NOR + AUXILIARY + SUBJECT SUBJECT + AUXILIARY NEG. + EITHER Ann wont stay and neither will Tom. Or: Ann wont stay and Tom wont either. The functions of the primary verbs: BE, HAVE, DO Be, have, do are special verbs which can be used both as main and as auxiliary verbs. Be is used as: 1. Main verb: in existential sentences which make statements about the idea of being or existence: We were at home last night. There is a man at the door.

I will be here at 8 oclock. Be is constructed as an auxiliary even when it functions as a main verb. For example, it has no do auxiliary for negation, inversion (interrogation). The main verb be may have the auxiliary do in emphatic imperative sentences and regularly has it with negative imperative: Do be quiet! Dont be rude! 2. Auxiliary verb: - Be + -ing form (present participle) of a main verb forms the progressive aspect of that verb: He is writing. - Be + -en form (past participle) of a main verb forms the passive voice of that verb: The letter was written in German. - Be + to-infinitive of a main verb is used as a modal auxiliary to express order, instruction: No one is to leave the building without the permission of the police. Have is used as: 1. Main verb: As a main verb, have expresses various meanings: - State* meaning: to possess, to own: He has a new motorbike. (*A semantic distinction is made into: dynamic verbs, i.e. verbs which express activities and state verbs, i.e. verbs which express states. This distinction is very important for the morphological behaviour of the verbs, e.g. state verbs do not occur in progressive forms, passivizations) There is an alternative to this form of have when it means to possess: have got (have got is present perfect in form but its meaning is present simple): Hes got a new motorbike. Note: Have got is also the perfect of the verb get, meaning become, or receive e.g. Hes got tired of this game. Have forms the interrogative and negative in either of the two ways: i. according to the rule for main verbs, i.e. with the auxiliary do: I dont have any books. ii. or, have acts as its own auxiliary, with inversion. Generally speaking, the latter construction is restricted to British English only: I havent any books. - Dynamic / action meanings, such as take, eat, receive, experience, etc. The interrogative and negative are always formed according to the rule for main verbs, i.e. with the auxiliary do: How many classes do you have a week? Were having a party on Saturday. (= are holding) Students dont have classes on Saturday. Did you have any difficulty getting here? I have tea for breakfast and so does my husband. 2. Auxiliary verb: - Have + the past participle of a main verb is used to form the perfective aspect, i.e. the perfect tenses or forms of the main verbs: present perfect, past perfect, future perfect, perfect infinitive, perfect participle, perfect gerund. They have arrived. (present perfect) They will have arrived. (future perfect) In speech, the weak forms [hv], [hz], [hd], or the contracted forms [ve, s, d] are used. - Have + to-infinitive of main verbs expresses the modal value of obligation and provides all the tenses and forms that the defective modal verb must has not. In speech, the strong forms are used and they are never contracted: I have to work on Saturdays. Have is contracted only when got is added to it: Ive got to work tomorrow. The interrogative and negative forms are made according to the rules for main verbs, i.e. with do: Do you have to work on Saturdays? When got is added to have, the interrogative and negative forms are made according to auxiliary verbs (without do): I havent got to work tomorrow. - Have + object (NP / pronoun in the accusative) + base verb (short infinitive) of main verbs has a causative meaning = make:

Ill have the electrician check everything while hes here. / You really ought to have the doctor take a look at your eyes. - Have + object + present participle of main verbs expresses the values: i. cause, make: He had us working every night. (= made us work) The doctor will soon have her walking again. ii. permit, allow in negative sentences: I wont have you coming home so late. - Have + object + past participle of main verbs has a causative meaning: to cause someone to do something, or to cause something to be done: I had my house repaired. (= I caused, i.e. employed someone to repair it). The interrogative and negative of present and past simple are formed with the auxiliary do: Did you have your suit cleaned as you intended? Do you have your windows cleaned every month? I dont have them cleaned, I clean them myself. Do is used as: 1. Main verb: As a main verb, do expresses several meanings: to be busy/ occupied with, to perform, to carry out etc. and it has the full range of forms: What have you been doing lately? As a main verb, do forms the interrogative and negative in the present and past simple with do (did) as an auxiliary: What did you do last night? I didnt do anything on Sunday. I was too tired. 2. Auxiliary verb: - Do / did + the base form (the short infinitive) of the main verb is used to form the negative of the main verb in the present and past simple: He likes cats. - He doesnt like cats. He waited for us. - He didnt wait for us. - Do / did + the base form (the short infinitive) of the main verb is used to form inversion: i. in questions: He likes cats. - Does he like cats? He waited for us. Did he wait for us? ii. When a negative or restrictive adverb is placed in initial position (at the beginning of a clause) for emphasis (especially in the rhetoric style): They realized only later what a terrible thing had happened Only later did they realize what a terrible thing had happened. Little does he know how much suffering he has caused. At no time did he admit he was a thief. - Do / did + the base form (the short infinitive) of the main verb is used to add special emphasis to these verbs (to stress the action expressed by the verb) in the present and past simple affirmative. Do / did are pronounced with strong stress in speech: I do love this food but Im afraid I cant finish it. I did want to come to the meeting but I was ill. I did enjoy that dinner! It was delicious. Do is also placed at the beginning of an imperative sentence for emphasis: Do write to us and tell us how you are. Do sit down and make yourself at home! - As a substitute for a verb phrase, when we want to avoid repeating the verb: He said hed help us and he did. (=he helped us) They intended to reach the top of the mountain but no one knows if they did so (= if they reached the top of the mountain) i. In short answers (if there is no other auxiliary): Does he know Im here? Yes, he does. (= he knows) ii. In adverbial clauses of comparison: He works harder than I do (= than I work) He left for school the same time as I did.

iii. In additions to remarks: We often go to the theatre. So do we. I enjoyed the film very much last night. So did we. (= we enjoyed it too) The structure of the verb phrase A verb phrase consists either of a main verb: He came yesterday. (VP = main verb came) or of one or more auxiliary verbs together with the main verb: He is coming tonight: VP = auxiliary is + main verb coming When a verb phrase consists of more than one verb, there are certain rules for how they can be combined. There are four basic verb patterns (combinations) of auxiliary verbs with the main verb: A. MODAL pattern: A modal auxiliary is followed by the base form of the verb (a verb in the infinitive): He could help us. B. PERFECTIVE pattern: A form of the auxiliary have is followed by a verb in the past participle: He has helped us. C. PROGRESSIVE pattern: A form of be is followed by a verb in the -ing form: He is helping us. D. PASSIVE pattern: A form of be is followed by a verb in the past participle form: He is helped by us. These four basic combinations may also combine with each other to form more complex verb phrases (longer strings of verbs in one single phrase). The order of the auxiliaries is a fixed one (is alphabetical): (A) + (B) + (C) + (D) Therefore, a verb phrase which theoretically contains all auxiliaries should have the following order: [modal auxiliary + have + be-ing + be-ed + main verb]: He should have been questioned by the police. A (modal auxiliary) + B (have) + D (be-ed) He has been learning English for 5 years. B (have) + C (be-ing) By next October he will have been working in this company for 5 years. A (modal auxiliary) + B (have) + C (be-ing) What is called the lexical meaning is contained in the last word: the main verb. But it is only the first auxiliary that expresses the categories of person, number, or tense (it is the first auxiliary that makes the group finite). The first auxiliary in a verb phrase is called an operator, since it is the key word in several important operations (transformations) performed on the verb phrase: negation, inversion, substitution. Negation: He shouldnt have been questioned by the police. (not is inserted after the first auxiliary). Inversion: Should he have been questioned by the police? (the first auxiliary is placed before the subject while the rest of the verb phrase is left unchanged). Substitution: Should he have been questioned by the police? Yes, he should (i.e. He should have been questioned). 1.2.3. Classification of verbs according to their complementation According to complementation (i.e. words which complement the verb and which are, in general, obligatory in clause structure), verbs may be classified into: intransitive, transitive, linking verbs. 1. Intransitive complementation refers to the use of verbs without any other ites being necessary to complete their meaning, for example verbs such as appear, die, go, laugh, rain, happen etc. type of complementation a transitive verb requires to complete its An intransitive verb is a verb that is not followed by an object or by a complement. (It does not require an object to complete its meaning it is a verb of complete predication): The sun shines. The birds are singing. The old man died. Intransitive verbs are sometimes followed by adverbials (optional elements): We were sitting by the fire. He arrived yesterday.

2. Transitive complementation refers to the type of complementation a transitive verb requires to complete its meaning. A transitive verb is the use of a verb with one or two objects to complete its meaning when used in the active voice. Verbs such as ask, bring, carry, find, get, give, love, make, use, are typically used transitively: I love carrots. He took the book / it. She wrote an interesting essay. My mother gives me pocket money every week. Some verbs can be transitive or intransitive according to whether an object is present or not (They can be used with or without an object): He smokes. (intransitive V) He smokes ten cigarettes a day (transitive V) Transitive oblique refers to a type of ditransitive complementation (direct object + prepositional object with to) in which the recipient of the direct object is obliquely put into focus. Transitive verbs associated with this usage are bring, give, grant, hand, leave, send, etc.: direct object prep. object She sent | a letter | to John Bolton. 3. Linking verbs (or copula(r) verbs) A linking verb links the subject of a sentence to the subject complement (or predicative). The complement is usually a noun or an adjective which refers to the subject or completes the meaning of the subject. The most typical linking verb is be which is practically devoid of meaning and only serves to connect the subject with the subject complement: He is happy / a student. The other linking verbs are not entirely devoid of meaning. There are two types of linking verbs: a) state verbs (verbs of being): be, look, feel, seem, appear, taste, smell, sound, remain: He looked sad / pale. The cake is / tastes good. It seems strange, doesnt it really? b) resulting verbs (verbs of becoming). They indicate that the role of the verb complement is a result of the event or process described in the verb: get, grow, become, turn, go, come: Children grow tired easily. /Her hair has turned grey. Unfortunately, fairy tales rarely come true. In hot weather meat goes bad and milk goes sour quickly.

2. THE GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES OF THE VERB The English verb has grammatical forms determined by its categories of person, number, tense, aspect, mood, voice. Depending on the presence or absence of the first three categories (person, number, tense), the verbal forms are divided into finite and non-finite forms. A finite form of the verb displays contrasts in person, number, tense, mood; it can occur on its own in a sentence forming its predicate. A finite verb phrase is a verb phrase which contains a finite verb form, e.g. He studies English. In a more complex finite verb phrase (made up of several verbs) the first verb is the only one that is finite, the others are non-finite: He is studying English. (is = finite verb form; studying = non-finite verb form: present participle). The non-finite forms of the verb are represented by the infinitive, the -ing forms (present participle, gerund) and ed forms (past participle). The non-finite form lacks person, number, and tense contrasts. It cannot form the predicate in a sentence by itself; it occurs on its own only in subordinate /dependent clauses (termed non-finite clauses, i.e. clauses without a finite verb), e.g. Being tired, he went to bed early. (being = non-finite verb; went = finite verb). (= As he was tired he went to bed early) 2.1. The categories of person and number The English verb has only one formal indicator (inflection/ending) to mark these categories, namely the -s for the 3rd person singular present tense, indicative mood. Because of the scarcity of specific endings in the verb, these two categories (of person, number) are usually identified by means of the subject (unlike Romanian where the category of person can be identified by means of specific endings: lucrez, lucrezi, lucreaz, lucrm). Eg. I / you work: the category of person, namely 1st pers. vs 2nd person is identified by means of the subjects I vs. you I / we work: the category of number, 1st person singular vs1st pers. plural is identified by means of the subjects I / we 2.2. The category of tense The category of tense defines the verb and it does not characterize any other part of speech. The Tense Time relationship: Tense and time are two distinct concepts which should not be confused. Time is a universal, non-linguistic (extralinguistic) concept which exists independently of the grammar of any particular language; time is not a grammatical concept, but a common concept in the physical world. The non-linguistic (extralinguistic) concept of time has three divisions: PAST, PRESENT and FUTURE. The concept of time can be represented by means of an axis (a horizontal line, theoretically of infinite length) on which the PRESENT moment (the point of reference NOW) is located. Anything ahead of the present moment is in the FUTURE, anything behind the present moment is in the PAST. Then Now PAST PRESENT FUTURE X X X Temporal axis The extralinguistic concept of time (with its subdivisions into past, present and future) can be expressed linguistically by means of the grammatical category of tense. By tense we understand the correspondence between the form of the verb and our concept of time (the form of the verb whose function is to mark the time at which an event takes place, i.e. for expressing events in PAST time, PRESENT time or FUTURE time). Unlike other languages, where there is only one term for both concepts (extralinguistic and linguistic), viz. R. timp, Fr. Temps, English grammatical terminology has two terms: time for the extralinguistic concept and tense for the linguistic concept, i.e. for the forms of the verb. The grammatical category of tense relates the time of an event to the time when the utterance (communication) is produced about the respective event. Since the category of tense is obviously dependent upon the speaker (i.e. the person who produces the utterance) and upon the time of the utterance, tense is a deictic* category. (*Deictic (deixis) = a term which subsumes those items of the language which refer to the personal, temporal or locational characteristics of the situation within which an utterance takes place, whose meaning is thus relative to that situation: I / you, now / then, here /there, this/ that etc.)

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Three concepts are necessary for the temporal characterization of an event (action): i. The speech time: it is the time when the utterance is produced, i.e. when the communication takes place (the NOW of the deictic system). ii. The event time: it is the time at which the event occurs. iii. The reference time: it is the time represented on the temporal axis (present, past, future) specified in the sentence. A sentence specifies the reference time by the combination of tense inflections and temporal adverbials. Taking the three divisions of time on the temporal axis as reference points, events may be viewed in two ways: as being either simultaneous with the reference points (i.e. they are performed at these reference points) or perfected / completed before these reference points. 1. If the reference point of time is PRESENT (symbolized by the deictic adverb now), events can be expressed by means of two forms: - events simultaneous with the present moment (i.e. performed at the present moment) are expressed by the present tense; - events perfected before the present moment are expressed by the present perfect tense. 2. If the reference point of time is PAST (symbolized by the deictic adverb then) events can be expressed by means of two forms: - events simultaneous with the past moment (i.e. performed at the past moment) are expressed by the past tense; - events perfected before the past moment are expressed by the past perfect. 3. If the reference point of time is FUTURE, events can be expressed by means of two forms: - events simultaneous with the future moment (performed at the future moment) are expressed by the future tense; - events perfected before the future moment are expressed by the future perfect. It is mistaken to believe that tense forms alone mirror time and its subdivisions into past, present and future. As we shall see, besides tense forms, adverbials of time also contribute to the temporal specification of a sentence. English tenses are verbal constructions expressing points of time combined with aspect. 2.3. The category of aspect Aspect refers to the speakers/writers perspective on the time of an event. In English, aspect is concerned mainly with how the speaker perceives the duration of events, and how different events relate to one another in time. English has two aspects: perfect(ive) aspect and progressive (continuous) aspect. 2.3.1. The perfective vs. non-perfective / imperfective: The perfective indicates that an event was accomplished (perfected or completed) at / before a given point in time: before present (NOW), before past (THEN), before future. The perfective aspect is realized by the auxiliary have + -ed past participle of the main/lexical verb. 2.3.2. The progressive (or continuous) vs. simple aspect: With progressive aspect, the focus is principally on the duration of the event. It may therefore be used to indicate that something is ongoing, unfinished, or that it is extended but temporary. It may indicate that something is/was/will be already in progress when something else happens/happened. In other words, the focus is not on the starting or finishing point of an event but on the event as seen from its centre. The progressive (or continuous) aspect describes an action in progress at a given time (past, present, future). The action is incomplete, in progress or developing. The action is temporary, i.e. it does not last long, it happens during a limited period of time. The progressive aspect is realized by the auxiliary verb be + the ing form (the present participle) of a lexical verb. The simple aspect refers to an action which is complete or is used when the duration of the action is irrelevant (the action is thought of as a bare statement). In order to be able to analyse the contrast between the simple and the progressive aspect, as a grammatical feature of verbs, we should analyse their lexical aspect because there is a close relationship between their lexical aspect (i.e. their meaning) and their grammatical aspect. This relationship refers to the fact that the lexical aspect of a verb may determine its grammatical aspect,

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may determine whether the verb can be used in the progressive aspect or not. Thus, on account of their meaning, some verbs do not normally occur in the progressive aspect. 2.3.3. Classification of full / lexical verbs from the point of view of their lexical aspect. There are two classes of verbs: dynamic (activity / action) verbs and state (stative) verbs. 2.3.3.1. Dynamic (activity / action) verbs describe actions that happen in a limited time, having a definite beginning and end. A dynamic verb primarily expresses activity (drink, eat, play, work), process (change, grow) and bodily sensation (ache, hurt). Dynamic verbs are normally used in the progressive aspect. These verbs can be subdivided into: a) Durative verbs, i.e. verbs denoting actions that last in time: read, write, work. This is a class of verbs typically used in the progressive aspect: - The progressive forms show that the action is in progress at a certain time (past, present, future); the simple forms are used when the duration of the action is irrelevant: He is reading a book (the progressive form is used to express an action in progress at the present moment; the action has duration; it started before the present moment and has not been completed yet) He seldom reads books. (The simple form is used because the duration of the action is irrelevant) The progressive forms of durative verbs denote an action of limited, temporary duration (something that doesnt last long) taking place around a point in time (past, present or future). Durative verbs cannot be used in the progressive aspect when their action is no longer temporary, i.e. when they express unlimited or more permanent duration state. In other words, with these verbs the progressive aspect denotes limited or temporary duration, while the simple aspect denotes unlimited, permanent duration. Im living with my aunt at present. (The progressive aspect implies an action of limited duration) My parents live in the country. (The simple aspect implies a more permanent action) The stream flows into the sea (not * is flowing) The progressive aspect refers to activity in progress and therefore suggests not only that the activity is temporary but that it need not be complete. The progressive forms are often used to suggest an incomplete action, while the simple forms are used to express a complete action. This element of meaning is most evident in the past tense or in the present perfect: He wrote a novel several years ago. (i.e. he finished it) He was writing a novel several years ago. (But I dont know whether he finished it) I have mended the car this morning (the job is finished: complete) I have been mending the car this morning (but the job may not be finished: incomplete) b) Non-durative (momentary) verbs: verbs denoting momentary events, actions that occur in a fraction of time, i.e. actions that are completed almost at the same time they are performed: catch, find, hit, jump, kick, knock, nod, slam, slap. Since these verbs refer to actions so momentary that it is difficult to think of them as having duration, they cannot normally be used in the progressive aspect: He nodded.; She slammed the door.; The boy jumped for joy. On the other hand, when these non-durative verbs are used in the progressive aspect, they denote a repeated action (a series of events). Since the progressive aspect attributes duration to verbs and since these verbs, lexically, do not express duration, we are forced to think of a series of events (repeated actions) rather than of a single event. Compare: He nodded. (one single movement of the head). He was nodding. (repeated movements of the head in a certain span of time). 2.3.3.2. State (stative) verbs: a state verb describes a state or situation (which continues over a period of time), in which no obvious action takes place. State verbs denote an unlimited, permanent duration of an action: they are not normally used in the progressive forms because their meaning is incompatible with the characteristic meaning of the progressive aspect, i.e. an action in progress of limited duration (viewed at some point between its beginning and end), an incomplete action. Verbs not normally used in the progressive forms (verbs that do not have a progressive form because they describe a state) can be subdivided into the following classes: a) Relational verbs (verbs which express the idea of of being or possessing): be, belong, comprise, consist, contain, deserve, have, include, lack, need, owe, own, possess, require, etc. Since these verbs indicate permanent duration of an action, they do not normally occur in the progressive forms:

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He has / owns / possesses a house. Be careful with that box: it contains glassware. This book belongs to my friend. b) Verbs of inert* (involuntary) perception are verbs which refer to actions of the senses. Verbs which express an involuntary use of the senses, such as feel, hear, look, notice, smell, taste are not normally used in the progressive aspect: I feel (like) an absolute fool. Listen! Do you hear a noise? You look well. I see a car coming towards us. The house still smells of that cabbage stew. Whats wrong with the bread today? It tastes awful. These verbs commonly occur with can / could to express a sense experience that is going on at a given moment: I can see someone through the window but I cant hear what they are saying. Can you hear a noise outside? When I got off the train I could smell the sea. c) Verbs of inert* (involuntary) cognition (verbs of thinking, referring to the activity of the mind): believe, consider, doubt, forget, expect, guess, imagine, know, mean, realize, remember, suppose, think, understand: 'Do you know whether the castle is open to visitors? No, I think it is open on week-days but today is Saturday, so I imagine it is closed. They understand my problem now.; I believe he is the man we are looking for. I remember my first teachers. (*Inert or Involuntary = an action happening without conscious control or intention, an action which is independent of the speakers intention: the speaker has no control over it). d) Verbs referring to feelings, emotions (likes and dislikes): adore, desire, detest, like, loathe, love, hate, prefer, want, wish, etc. These verbs are not normally used in the progressive forms: He hates me. / I dislike his behaviour. Do you like English? ; I want to go to London. However, some of the verbs above may be used in the progressive aspect in some special cases, such as: i. When the speaker wishes to emphasize a temporary action, situation, not a permanent one: to express a temporary quality or state - Be may be used in the progressive aspect to express a temporary state, quality or behaviour. Be occurs in the progressive aspect with certain adjectives such as kind, obstinate, rude, absurd, silly, stupid etc. to indicate temporary behaviour. Compare: Ann is a good girl (the simple aspect is used to express a permanent state/quality = Ann is by nature a good girl) Ann is being a good girl today (the progressive aspect expresses a temporary quality or state = Ann is behaving well today, but as a rule she does not). He is being a fool. = He is acting foolishly. - Verbs denoting feelings can be used in the progressive aspect if they express temporary actions: (e.g., at a party): Hello, Ann! Are you enjoying the party? (Letter) Im on holiday in Brighton and Im loving every minute. ii. The verbs smell, taste, sound may be used in the progressive aspect when they express a voluntary action on the part of the subject, a deliberate use of the senses. Compare: The flower smells sweet. (involuntary use: The simple aspect refers to a state which is regarded as a permanent quality of the flower.) Im smelling the flower (voluntary, deliberate action: the progressive aspect refers to an activity taking place at the moment of speaking and limited in duration) Also: The cake tastes good. / The cook is tasting the soup to see if there is enough salt in it. Syntactically, the verbs smell, taste, sound occur in the progressive forms when they are used transitively. Feel is used in the progressive forms if we are talking about a persons health: How are you feeling today? Im not feeling too good actually.

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How is your mother feeling now? She is feeling much better. iii. When the verbs are recategorized, i.e. when they express other meanings, e.g. an activity not a state: - Verbs of possession (have, hold, possess) Compare: have: He has a new car. (have = possess [state verb]). He is having lunch. (have = eat [activity verb]). He is having a good time (have= experience [activity verb] hold: The bottle holds two litres. (hold = contain [state verb] He is holding a bottle in his hand (hold = keep [activity verb] - Some verb of thinking (think, expect, consider, imagine): What do you think I should do? (think = what is your opinion verb of inert, involuntary cognition, expressing a passive state of mind) Be quiet! Im thinking! (think= ponder, reflect [activity verb] He is thinking of buying a new car (to plan, to intend). I dont consider it wise to interfere (its my opinion) Im considering buying a new car (consider = think of, reflect). I expect hell finish the work in time (expect = think, believe). Im expecting a visitor / letter from him (expect =wait to receive) - Perception verbs (see, hear) may be used in the progressive forms when they change their basic meaning and are used with other meanings: they cease to be verbs of inert perception, expressing deliberate action (voluntary, deliberate use of the senses). Compare: Do you see that house over there? (see: basic meaning sense with ones eyes). The director is seeing the new applicants (see = interview) Im seeing the manager tomorrow ( = Im meeting him by appointment, I have an appointment with him). I shall be seeing him tomorrow. (see = meet) The plumber is here: he is seeing to the leak in our tank. (see to = arrange, deal with). I hear a noise outside (hear = basic meaning perceive sounds with the ears) Youll be hearing from him. (hear = get news from him) Since the verbs of perception see, hear cannot express the idea of deliberate, voluntary action (we cannot start or stop seeing, hearing at will), this idea is rendered by its synonyms look at, watch, listen to which can be used in the progressive forms. Compare: I (can) see him. / Im looking at him. I can hear music. / Im listening to music. Part of a conversation might run as follows: Did you hear what I said? Well, I heard you say something but I wasnt listening. d) When the sentence has some emotional connotation (praise, indignation): Are you forgetting your manners? In conclusion, the simple forms express: 1. mere information about a fact, when the duration of the action is irrelevant; 2. unlimited, permanent duration; 3. momentary action. The progressive forms express: 1. an action in progress of limited, temporary duration; 2. an incomplete action. The following chart (Celce-Murcia & Lars-Freeman, 1999: 118) lists the three tenses along the vertical axis. The four aspects simple (sometimes called zero aspect), perfect, progressive, and their combination, perfect progressive are arrayed along the horizontal axis. We illustrate the tense aspect combinations with the irregular verb write and the regular verb work. Simple Perfect Progressive Perfect Progressive have + -en be + -ing have + -en be + -ing Present write/writes has/have written am/are/is writing have/has been writing work/works has/have worked am/are/is working have/has been working Past wrote had written was/were writing had been writing worked had worked was/were working had been working Future will write will have written will be writing will have been writing will work will have worked will be working will have been working
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3. THE TENSE - ASPECT SYSTEM OF ENGLISH: THE TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD The categories of tense and aspect are closely interrelated in English. The most frequent meaning of the term tense is that associated with the verb forms of the indicative mood. In what follows we shall give a description of the English tenses, of their so-called absolute values and the changes these values may undergo in different contexts. 3.1. THE PRESENT TENSE 3.1.1. THE PRESENT SIMPLE The present simple: Formation The present simple is formed using the present tense form of a lexical verb (the same as the base form) for all persons except third person singular. Third person singular is formed by adding s or es to the base form, e.g. I/you/we/they/the children talk a lot. He/she/it/one/the child talks a lot. Uses and values: A. The present simple expresses several values which have as a basic meaning the fact that the event is simultaneous with the present moment 'Now'. (1) The commonest use of the present simple is unrestrictive (or timeless) use: it expresses an action or state that extends over a period of time centered in the present moment. This use covers two subdivisions: generic (or universal) present and habitual present a) Generic (or universal) present: The present simple denotes generic actions that take place in an unspecified period of time which includes the moment of speaking: they exist now, existed in the past and probably will exist in the future. The generic (or universal) present is used to express generic or universal truths, facts which are always true, as in the following examples: The Earth moves round the sun. (general truths or laws of nature) He works in a bank. (permanent situations or states) Water boils at 100 C.; The Severn flows into the Atlantic.; He who laughs last, laughs best. None of these sentences refers to a particular occurrence: The sentences do not specify a particular moment or interval of time. The verb is completely timeless: it refers to what is true for all time. In fact, generic statements imply the presence of the adverb always. As the examples illustrate, the present simple with generic or universal value is used to formulate general laws, definitions of scientific language, geographical statements, or proverbs. b) Habitual Present: The present simple denotes habitual actions, i.e. actions which happen repeatedly, regularly. The repetition of the action is often stressed by adverbs of frequency, such as often, usually, never, always, generally, rarely, sometimes, every day / week / month, on Sundays, etc.: I usually take the bus to work: I never get up late in the morning.; He goes to the cinema twice a week. She goes to England every year.; I study for two hours every evening; Generally, I dont drink coffee in the evening. None of these sentences refers to a particular moment of time; the sentences do not indicate a particular event or state. (2) The instantaneous present contrasts with the generic or habitual present uses in that it refers to a particular event which is simultaneous with the moment of speaking: the event takes place at the very moment of speaking. Normally, this value should be expressed by the progressive aspect, since the progressive aspect is the form taken by such verbs in order to designate a single occurrence of an event simultaneous with the moment of speaking. The present simple is used with dynamic verbs when no duration is thought of or when the stress is not so much on the duration of the action as on the quick succession of happenings: the event develops rapidly enough to be perceived in its entirety. Taking into consideration these temporal and aspectual characteristics of the instantaneous present simple we can easily understand why it occurs only in a restricted number of contexts: a) in radio or TV commentaries, especially sports ones. In making a commentary, the speaker sees the events in a chain of complete acts; he is merely reporting the events, he is not indicating their duration:

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Smith passes the ball to Charlton who heads it straight into the goal. In such a commentary, the commentator does not insist on the duration of the events but on their quick succession: the events are seen as momentary ones completed almost at the same time they are performed. b) In description of experiments and demonstrations: Now I put the cake mixture into this bowl and add a drop of vanilla essence. c) In stage directions (when the playwright gives directions to the actors): The present simple denotes a sequence of short actions going on at the moment of speaking: He stirs the fire, arranges some books and papers, is restless, shivers slightly and settles to read. The reason for not using the progressive aspect here points b) and c) is that it is the idea of repetition which is implied rather than something going on at the moment of speaking. In other words, these actions will happen each and every time the same circumstances are created (viz. cooking that dish or performing that particular play). d) In exclamations introduced by here, there: Here comes the bus!; There goes the last bus! ; There it goes! If these statements were not exclamatory, the progressive aspect would be used: The bus is coming. e) In assertions that use performative verbs. Performative verbs are those verbs for which the event consists in the uttering of the statement; the event happens at the very moment of speaking when we describe what we are saying as offering, begging, accepting: accept, apologize, admit, deny, regret, thank etc. Syntactically, they usually occur in the 1st person: We accept your offer. / I deny your charge.; I apologize for my mistake. I hope youll come to my party. (3) The present simple is used with state verbs (verbs which cannot be used in the progressive aspect): I dont know his name.; She thinks you are wrong. In conclusion, the present simple has several values (generic, habitual, instantaneous) which all have as a basic meaning the fact that the event is simultaneous with the present moment, a semantic fact which is reinforced by the presence of adverbials also indicating the present. B. In addition to the uses discussed above which have reference to present time, the present simple may indicate other temporal values: it can be used to refer to the future and the past. (4) The present simple referring to future time The present simple with future time reference occurs in simple / independent sentences and in subordinate clauses. a) In simple sentences: The present simple denotes planned future actions, when the future action is considered part of an already fixed programme, particularly when it refers to statements about the calendar, to a journey or timetable. This use is particularly frequent with a limited group of verbs of motion such as come, go, leave, return as well as with verbs expressing planned activity: begin, finish, start, end, meet. Adverbials indicating future time are obligatory for the correct interpretation of the temporal value: The examination begins at 9 oclock tomorrow morning. The train leaves Plymouth at 6:30 and arrives in London at 8:30. What time does the film begin? Our winter holiday begins on December 22nd. On day three we visit Stratford-upon-Avon. (in itineraries descriptions of travel arrangements) The present simple is used only in those contexts in which the anticipated event is considered as an assured fact, the future event is considered as unalterable, as a certainty. There is a pronounced modal nuance of certainty with this use. According to R. Quirk, the anticipated event is attributed the same degree of certainty that one usually associates with present or past events (1978: 89). Therefore, the present simple with future time reference is used in contexts about plans and arrangements considered as unalterable. b) In subordinate clauses: The present simple with future time reference is used in certain types of subordinate clauses, viz. Adverbial clauses of time, condition, comparison. The idea of futurity is clearly denoted in the main clause which expresses or implies future time: Ill give you the book as soon as I finish it.; We shall be late if you dont hurry.

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Unless you leave now, you will miss the train.; The sooner you finish the better it will be. (5) The present simple referring to past time The present simple sometimes refers to events in the past in some special contexts: a) The present simple is used with reference to actions in the past in order to express vividness in narration, to make past happenings seem present, vivid, as if they were going on now, at the moment of speaking. This use is traditionally known by the term historic present tense. From the stylistic point of view, the historic present tense occurs in speech (oral style) as well as in literary style, usuall for purposes of dramatising important events. i. Oral style: The present simple frequently refers to the past in narratives, where past events may be recounted partly or wholly in the present tense: for example jokes are often told entirely in present tense: Then in comes the barman and tries to stop the fight. Then suddenly he picks up the book and tears it into pieces. It was amazing, I couldnt believe it. And his mum says, Homework never killed anybody, and then he said, No, and Im not going to be the first. The time reference is past which appears from the (apparently incongruous) adverbial of time then. Normally, a past tense simple would be used. The use of the present gives highly coloured character to the narration in oral style. ii. Literary style: - Summaries of historical events, plots of stories, films etc., use present (and present perfect) tenses: The battle takes place in a marshy region and in the end the Turks are defeated. May 1945: The war in Europe comes to an end. At the end of the play both families realise that their hatred had caused the deaths of the lovers. - fiction: It is customary for writers to use the past tense to describe imaginary happenings so that the employment of the present simple in fiction is interpreted as a deviation from norm. G. Leech (1978: 21) remarks that some writers use the present simple in imitation of the oral style (to give a dramatic heightening of the narrative): Mr.Tulkinghorn takes out his paper, asks permission to place them on a table, puts on his spectacles and begins to read. (Charles Dickens- Bleak House) - in newspaper headlines: Ship sinks in midnight collision.; Plane crashes in fog. ; MP demands urgent inquiry. b) with some verbs of communication: forget, gather, hear, learn, tell, understand the present simple is used instead of the past tense or present perfect in order to express the persistence in the present moment of the effect of a past communication, to render the communication more vivid (in colloquial style): I forget his name.; Peter tells me you have been abroad. I hear you have changed your job. (= I have heard) 3.1.2. THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE Form: It is formed of the present tense of the auxiliary be + the present participle of the main verb: I am working, etc. Uses and values: (1) The present progressive denotes an action having two characteristics: i. an action in progress happening at the moment of speaking (it is viewed at some point between its beginning and end: the action has already begun but is not yet completed); ii. a temporary action, i.e. an action of limited duration and not yet finished. The temporary period can be as short as a few seconds (i) or as long as a few years (ii): (i) Listen! Its thundering. (ii) Industry is growing in South Africa. Time markers (adverbs of time) are not obligatory with the present progressive because the tense itself is understood to mean right now. Optional time markers for the present progressive are: now, right now, just now, at the (present) moment: He is sleeping right now. The verbal form is sleeping expresses an action which is in progress at the moment of speaking: the action began in the recent past, before the moment of speaking right now and will probably continue or will end at some point in the future. Other examples:

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I am not wearing a coat as it isnt cold.; Please dont make so much noise, Im studying. The wind is blowing, the leaves are rustling. ; She is living in Paris at the moment. I need an umbrella because it is raining. In order to distinguish the present progressive from the present simple it is necessary to study three separate aspects of meaning: a) The present progressive indicates a limited, temporary action and is thus distinguished from the unlimited (generic) present simple. The difference between the limited and unlimited duration is evident from the following sentences in which the present simple (expressing unlimited, permanent situations) contrasts with the present progressive (expressing limited, temporary situations): Water boils at 100 C. (generic) / The kettles boiling. Shall I make tea? My parents live in the country. / Im living with some friends until I can find a flat. The sentence with the present progressive am living - implies that the residence is temporary, that the action has limited time extension. b) The present progressive indicates duration and is thus distinguished from the non-durative, instantaneous present simple. The durative meaning of the present progressive is seen in the contrast of: I raise my arm. / I am raising my arm. In the first sentence, the event is mentally conceived as an indivisible entity, without duration (the sentence suggests a sudden movement); in the second sentence the event is conceived as having duration (the sentence suggests a gradual movement). The choice of verb form may depend entirely on the speakers viewpoint. The speaker may wish to take a synoptic view, a view of an action or series of actions as a whole, in which case he chooses the present simple. In describing a scientific experiment, a demonstrator is more likely to take this view: he is interested in his acts or in phenomena as items in a chain of events: I place a bell jar over a candle and in a few moments the water gradually rises. If the speaker is more concerned with drawing attention to the fact that an activity is in progress or in a state of incompletion he chooses the progressive form: Im placing a bell jar over the candle. There! Can you see whats happening? The water is gradually rising. In each case the actions or phenomena are the same, but the speaker looks at them differently. (G. Leech, 1978: 22) c) The present progressive indicates that the action is not complete and thus it is again distinguished from the present simple. This difference between complete and incomplete actions is illustrated by event verbs (become, fall, get, go, stop) which express a transition from one state to another. The bus stops. The present simple indicates that the vehicle arrived at a state of rest [complete]. The bus is stopping. - The present progressive indicates that the bus is only slowing down (in order to stop) [incomplete] (2) The present progressive may denote an action that extends over a slightly longer period of time, including the moment of speaking. a) The present progressive denotes an action which is happening around the moment of speaking but not necessarily exactly at the moment of speaking. Usual adverbial phrases: these days, this week / month / year, etc. Im taking driving lessons this year. The action can be generally in progress but not actually happening at the moment of speaking. I am reading a novel by John Fowles.; Mother is knitting a pullover for me. John is working very hard this term. In none of these sentences is there any indication that the activity is going on at the very moment of speaking, but the present progressive is used because the action denoted by the verbs although extending over a longer period of time (this term, this year), is not permanent. The present simple is therefore not used because the sentences do not express a general or habitual action. b) The present progressive is used to denote a developing or changing activity, a transition from one state to another, which therefore implies limited duration. It usually occurs with adverbials of degree and adjectives expressing gradual comparison, such as more and more, faster and faster, gradually, increasingly, etc.: The weather is getting colder and colder. More and more people are giving up smoking.

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He is working less and less. Christmas is becoming increasingly commercialized: shops see it merely as a way of making money. c) The present progressive is sometimes used in subordinate clauses of time and condition to refer to an action that may be going on at any time: I dont like to be disturbed when Im working. She looks lovely when she is smiling. (3) The present progressive has a stylistically marked use in combination with a frequency adverb such as always, forever, continually, constantly, all the time, incessantly. Such adverbials usually combine with the present simple to express the concept of repetition (habitual present): He always comes late. When the progressive form is used with these adverbs it expresses the constant repetition of an event: an action permanently characterizing the subject, a habit that annoys or causes a strong feeling of some kind in the speaker. The construction has a subjective connotation, an emotionally coloured tone of annoyance, irritation, disapproval: He is always coming late. the construction expresses disapproval of an action which, in the speakers opinion, happens too often. Hes always getting into trouble. That child is continually crying. He is forever finding fault with whatever I do. He is complaining about his neighbours all the time. (4) Future time reference: planned or arranged future action The present progressive with future time reference is used in a much wider range of situations than the present simple. The present progressive is the most usual way to express a persons immediate plans, intentions or definite arrangements in the near future. An adverbial of time is always used to indicate the time of the action, as otherwise there might be confusion between present and future meanings. He is coming to see us tomorrow/next weekend, I gather. Were going to the cinema tonight. Theyre having a football match this afternoon. What are you doing this evening? As compared to the present simple with future time reference, the anticipated event expressed by the present progressive is less certain; the plan or arrangement may be altered. The present progressive is used when the future action is the result of a personal arrangement (somebodys arrangement for a future activity), planning, intention on the part of the subject, while the present simple is used when the future activity is regarded as part of a fixed timetable, schedule, decision. The difference between the present progressive and the present simple can be seen in the following sentences: Im leaving tonight. (would imply that I have decided to leave) I leave tonight: could mean that this is part of a plan not necessarily made by me the present simple is more impersonal than the present progressive. Im starting work tomorrow: the present progressive suggests that the speaker expects or intends to start work. I start work tomorrow: The present simple suggests that tomorrow is the time fixed for him to start. The fact that the present progressive expresses personal arrangement in the future, restricts its use to verbs having animate [+ human] subjects: Tom is rising at 5 oclock tomorrow. * The sun is rising at 5 oclock tomorrow. It is for the same reason that in the following pair of sentences the first sentence is correct while the second is not: Examinations start tomorrow. - *Examinations are starting tomorrow.

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3.2. THE PAST TENSE 3.2.1. THE PAST TENSE SIMPLE Form: a) Regular verbs form their past tense simple by adding ed to the short infinitive: to work I / you / he worked b) Irregular verbs form their past tense in various ways: sing - sang (internal vowel change); lend lent (change in the last consonant); cut cut (invariable forms); go went (different roots: suppletive forms). The past tense of such verbs is the second form listed in dictionaries or grammars. Uses and values: (1) The basic use of the past tense simple is to describe actions / events completed in the past at a definite time. Therefore, the past simple combines two features of meaning: - an event/state that took place in the past, with a gap between its completion and the present moment (i.e., the event has no longer any connection with the present moment) - the speaker/writer has in mind a definite time at which the event / state took place. The past tense expresses an action that took place at a definite past moment. The definite past moment denoted by the verb in the past simple may be expressed explicitly or may be implied from the context. a) The definite past moment is expressed explicitly by time markers (adverbials of definite time): yesterday, combinations with last (last night, last week), combinations with ago (two days ago, three years ago, a long time ago), once, formerly, the other day; specific points in time introduced by in, at, on (in 1980, at 5 oclock, on Monday); questions introduced by when, what time (because we expect the answer to contain the precise date when the action took place): I called on him yesterday. Byron died in 1824. (the definite time is given). He started working for his firm 3 years ago. Tom phoned me at 6 oclock/as soon as he got home. When did you see him? - the definite time is asked about. The past simple is also used for actions which occupied a period of time in the past (now terminated): He spent his childhood in a little village. She worked as a secretary from May through August. b) The definite past moment is implied from the context: it is not necessary for the past simple to be accompanied by an explicit indicator of time (a time adverbial). Actions completed at a definite point in the past which is not given but implied or understood as past time occur in several cases: - in the narrative style: The past tense is used to narrate situations that happened at a time before NOW, but which is not given. In fact, the past tense simple is the narrative tense par excellence, a tense normally used for the description and narration of past events, when there is a series of events occurring in a sequence: I knocked at the door, went in and sat down on the sofa. I got up, switched off the radio and sat down again. Ann went into the station and bought a ticket. - the place of the action is specified/is given: I bought this book in London (the definite time in the past is identified by the adverbial of place which, indirectly, states when the action took place). I met him outside the museum. - the past simple is used for an action whose time is not given but which occupied a period of time now terminated or occurred in a period of time now terminated: He lived in London for a long time. (but he is not living there now) Did you ever hear Maria Callas sing? - Sometimes the time becomes definite as a result of of a preceding verb in the present perfect: A sentence or conversation often begins with the present perfect (which denotes an indefinite time) but normally continues in the past tense. This is because the action first mentioned (by the present perfect) has now become definite in the minds of the speakers. The fact that by using the past tense the speaker has a definite time in mind differentiates this use of the past simple from the indefinite use of the present perfect. According to G. Leech (1978: 144), a

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parallel can be established between the past tense / present perfect pair and the definite / indefinite article pair. The difference between: I saw him and I have seen him is therefore parallel to that between the man and a man. Just as, at the beginning of a narrative, the definite article tends to be preceded by the indefinite article, which establishes the initial framework of reference, so the past tense tends to presuppose a framework of time reference already established by the present perfect (G. Leech, 1978: 144). Both tendencies can be observed in the following utterance: I have just spoken to a man and his wife. The man wanted to know whether there was any work hereabouts. Where have you been? Ive been to the theatre. Did you enjoy it? Bill has passed his examination. He got an A in the oral and a B in the written paper. Ann has just become engaged: it took us completely by surprise. (2) Habitual / repeated past actions: The past simple expresses habitual, repeated past actions, i.e. actions that regularly happened in the past but no longer happen. The past simple is usually associated with a time expression (an adverbial of frequency) such as always, never, often, frequently, regularly): We often spent hours on end talking about poetry. I always got up at six in those days. / Every day he went to the park. Repeated actions in the past may also be rendered by means of used to + Infinitive or would + Infinitive. Used to + infinitive can render: a) Past habit: with dynamic verbs it expresses repeated actions in the past (something that regularly happened in the past but no longer happens), i.e. a discontinued habit which contrasts with the present. A time expression is not necessary: Do you go to the cinema very often? Not now, but I used to. Many people who used to frequent the cinema now prefer watching television. Did you use to eat a lot of sweets when you were a child? I used to get up at six, but now I get up at eight. When I was a child I used to go skating every winter. Father doesnt go in for sport now but he used to play football when he was younger. b) Used to + the infinitive of state verbs can also describe past states (a permanent state in the past, a state which no longer exists: His hair used to be jet-black but it is white now. I used to own a horse. Iceland used to belong to Denmark. He used to be a football fan when he was in is teens. He used to have a beard but he shaved it off. The construction used to + the infinitive of state verbs can be paraphrased by once + past tense: His hair was once jet-black I owned a horse once. Iceland once belonged to Denmark. Would is used to describe a persons typical activities in the past (habitual, repeated actions in the past) with the particular sense of characteristic, predictable behaviour: It can only be used to describe repeated actions (it is not used with state verbs): Every evening was the same. Jack would turn on the radio, light his pipe and fall asleep. He would walk to school whenever it was sunny. He would sit for hours in front of his house looking at the passers-by. On Sundays, when I was a child, we would get up early and go fishing. Would is typical of narrative style (mainly used in writing), but used to is more characteristic of spoken English. According to Celce-Murcia et al. (1999: 129), when used to and would occur together, used to tends to frame the discourse, and would serves to elaborate (the topic): When we were children, we used to swing on the lawn for hours. We would stop only when we were called for dinner. (3) The past simple with other temporal values Just as the present simple refers to events other than present ones, so the past simple is used to refer to events other than past (events which do not denote past time). Thus, the past simple can be used to refer to the present and, occasionally, to the future.

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a. The past simple with present time reference The past simple with the value of present is also called attitudinal past because this verbal form is related to the attitude of the speaker rather than to time. The past tense (instead of the present tense) of verbs like: hope, intend, want, wish, wonder is used as a marker of social distance, politeness, or indirectness. The past tense in these verbs is used to express a polite request or inquiry. This is because the past tense distances an event from the present, and distancing an event can make it more indirect. I wondered if you could lend me this book. Did you want to speak to me? I wanted to ask you about that. The effect of the past tense in a question such as Did you want to speak to me? is to make the inquiry indirect and therefore more polite than a question with the present tense: Do you want to speak to me? or I want to ask you about that. The present tense in this situation would seem rather brusque and demanding (G. Leech, 1978: 15) b. The past simple with the value of the past perfect The past simple may occur instead of the past perfect in clauses of time introduced by conjunctions like after (indicating that the event is prior in time to the event of the main clause): He went out to play after he finished / had finished his homework. c. The past tense with future time reference: - the past tense can refer to future actions in temporal and conditional clauses when the main verb is in the past: He asked me to call on him as soon as I arrived. He said he would go on the trip if the weather was fine. - The past simple with the value of an anticipated event: This value is possible only with the verb be in constructions like: be to, be going to, be about to expressing an event that was due to happen after a time in the past: They were to leave for London on Saturday but the flight was cancelled. 3.2.2. THE PAST TENSE PROGRESSIVE Form: The past tense progressive is formed of the past tense of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb: I was working, etc. Uses and values (1) Temporal frame use The past progressive is used to express an action in progress at some time in the past: it emphasizes duration of a single event, i.e. it is used for a single event or activity happening at a given past moment; the event continued for a temporary period (it continued for a certain time but not up to the present). The particular past moment (which is the time of reference for the verb in the past progressive) can be rendered explicitly or can be implied. a) The particular past moment is rendered explicitly by an adverbial of time or by a clause: - an adverbial of definite time: at 8 oclock, at that time, all day, this time last month/week/year, etc. The past progressive indicates that the action was in progress, was going on at the period of time denoted by the adverbial of time: At 8 oclock he was having breakfast: the past progressive implies that he was in the middle of the meal at 8 oclock, in other words, that he had started it before 8 oclock, was in progress at that time and probably continued after it. Compare with: He had breakfast at 8 oclock. (The past simple implies that he started it at 8clock) At 12.30 yesterday we were having a walk in the park. (an action in progress, going on precisely at that moment) It was raining at 6 oclock. What were you doing yesterday at 7 oclock? The past progressive can denote an action filling up (covering) a whole period of time in the past (when the action is considered in its progress). The period of time is denoted by adverbials such as: all day / morning, all day yesterday, at that time: It was raining all day yesterday. This time last year I was travelling.

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At that time we were living in the country. - The time expression is indicated by a clause which contains a verb in the past simple. With another action in the simple past it expresses an action that began and probably continued after the other (shorter) action which interrupted it: When I arrived Tom was talking on the telephone. (the action in the past progressive was talking - started before the action in the past simple arrived and probably continued after it). It was raining when I got up. While I was driving from Rome to Naples my car broke down. While I was jogging, a man stopped me and asked me the time. The past progressive is used as a kind of background / frame (a longer action) for the action rendered by the past simple (shorter one). The past progressive expresses that the action was in progress at the time when an other action (in the past simple) occurred; it began before the action in the past simple and probably continued after it. Therefore, the relationship of meaning between the past progressive and the past simple is one of inclusion: the action expressed by the past simple is included in that of the past progressive: When we arrived she was making tea: the past progressive tells us that the arrival took place during the tea-making. On the other hand, the relationship of meaning between two past simple forms is one of succession, i.e. the two actions are consecutive: When we arrived she made tea: the past simple tells us that the tea-making followed the arrival. When the two actions are in progress simultaneously parallel actions - the past progressive is used in both clauses: The boys were playing football while the girls were watching them. As I was driving to Rome I was listening to music on the car radio. While we were dining the band was playing. b) The past progressive may be used without a time expresion: the past moment may just be implied. This is frequently found in descriptions: the past progressive expresses durative actions in progress which contrast with non-durative, successive (consecutive) or completed actions (expressed by the past simple): I got off the bus and walked through the gate. Water was dripping from the bushes
past simple: consecutive/successive actions past progressive: temporary action in progress at a given moment in the past

that lined the drive that led to the hut.


past simple: permanent, non-temporary actions

It was a cold winter evening. Outside the wind was blowing. A fire was burning in the fireplace and a cat was sleeping in front of it. A man came in and went near the fire. (2) Past simple versus past progressive: The past progressive can be used instead of the past simple when we want to express some slight differences in meaning: a) Unlike the past simple which expresses a complete action in the past, the past progressive is used to express an incomplete action. Compare: I was reading a book last night (An incomplete act. I didnt finish it) I read a book last night. (A complete act) Especially with achievement verbs there is a sharp difference between the two variants: He was dying. / He died. He was drowning in the lake, so the lifeguard raced into the water. (incomplete) / He drowned in the lake. (complete) The variants with the past simple imply that the event actually took place (death, drowning), while in the variants with the past progressive the event did not take place if it was interrupted: He was drowning when somebody jumped into the water and saved him. b) Past simple sees the event as a totality with no room for change; past progressive indicates that an event has already begun and extends the event in time and thus allows for a change or its interruption: He left when I came in. He was leaving when I came in. (and so may have changed his mind and stayed. c) Permanent versus temporary state:

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They lived in London all their lives. (past permanent) They were living in London during the seventies. (past temporary) d) The past progressive is used if we are interested in the continuity of an activity; the past simple is preferred if the activity itself is the chief interest and if we want to emphasize that the action was complete: My knees shook. (this could mean my knees shook for a defined period of time e.g. a few seconds then stopped) My knees were shaking. (an ongoing process at the point in the past the speaker is referring to) What were you doing all morning? What did you do this morning? She was writing letters all afternoon. She wrote some /five letters in the afternoon. The past progressive is used for apparently continuous, uninterrupted actions. The past simple must be used if we indicate the number of times the action happened: She was solving problems all afternoon. She solved ten problems in the afternoon. e) The past progressive can be used as an alternative to a past simple form to indicate a more casual, less deliberate action: I was talking to John the other day. I talked to John the other day (the past simple expresses a deliberate action: it indicates that the subject I - took the initiative and started the conversation. f) The past progressive with the verb wonder has a polite meaning: I was wondering if you could help me. With the verb think the past progressive suggests uncertainty: I was thinking of having a party next week. 3. The past progressive is used with verbs of non-durative activity to express a frequently repeated action in the past, often an annoying habit. A frequency adverb is necessary: always, forever, continually, all the time, etc. When Tom was younger he was always getting into trouble Tom was always ringing me up late at night. She was asking questions all the time. 4. Anticipated event use Just as the present progressive can be used to express a definite future arrangement (I am leaving tonight), so the past progressive can express a definite future arrangement seen from the past (an action already arranged and sure to happen). It is the future in the past form of the present progressive. Dan was busy packing, for he was leaving the next day. He was leaving for the country on Saturday. The contest was taking place the next day. The verb is used with an adverb of future time: the next day, on Saturday express the future moment at which the action was anticipated to take place. The past progressive can refer to future in the past especially in indirect speech (the past equivalent of the present progressive): When I told Pam I was getting married next month she wouldnt believe me. 5. The past progressive sometimes refers to plans that did not materialize (unfulfilled past intention): I was coming to see you tomorrow but now I find I cant. More frequently we find the form going to instead: I was going to tell you myself (but I find you already know). The going to form would not be used in the sentence above for stylistic reasons we would not say *I was going to come to see you tomorrow.

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THE PERFECT TENSES The three perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect, future perfect) express the completion or perfection of an action before / by a given time or leading up to another time, e.g. present perfect leads to present, past perfect leads to past. 3.3. THE PRESENT PERFECT 3.3.1. THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Form: It is formed of the present tense of the auxiliary have and the past participle of the main verb: I have worked, etc. Uses and values: The present perfect describes a past event which is related in some way to the present time. This tense may be said to be a sort of mixture of present and past: it is used to relate events or states taking place in the past to a present time of orientation. it always implies a strong connection with the present and is chiefly used in conversation, letters, newspapers, television and radio reports. The present perfect simple is used to express the completion or perfection of an event before the present moment NOW. The event happened at an unspecified indefinite time in the past (the events are located somewhere before the moment of speaking). Within this very general use of the present perfect several subtypes can be identified: (1) Resultative use / value The present perfect is used to express an action which was completed in the past but which still has present significance / relevance. The value of the present perfect is called resultative because, although no longer continuing in the present moment, the verbal form implies the result, the effect of the respective action at the present time. With this value the present perfect does not require reinforcement by adverbials (it is used without any time adverbials): we are not interested when the action took place, we are interested only in the fact that the past action has some effect at the present time, has present relevance: Ive lost my key. (I cant find it) Hes recovered from his illness. (He is now well again) He has gone to Canada. (He is in Canada now). Have you seen my pen? (Do you know where it is?) I have read the instructions but I dont understand them. I cant write any more because my pen has run out of ink (2) Indefinite use This value is called indefinite because the time of the event is unspecified (the events happened at an unknown time in the past). The present perfect expresses indefinite events in a period leading up to the present time. This value is also known as perfect of experience: what has happened once or more than once within the speakers experience. The present perfect with an indefinite use is often accompanied by an adverbial of time: - adverbials of indefinite time and frequency: already, always, ever, never, often, seldom, just, lately, recently, so far, etc. The present perfect implies that the action happened at some indefinite moment within a period of time extending up to the present moment: Have you ever lost anything? He has never borrowed money in his life. I have already seen that movie. Ive been to France three times. They havent finished yet. He has never met her before (before is often used with both ever and never with the meaning before now) Notes: i. American English often uses the past simple with (n)ever, yet, already instead of the present perfect, e.g. Did you eat yet? ii. There is an idiomatic use of the past tense with always, ever and never to refer to a state or habit leading up to the present: I always said (= have said) that he would end up in jail. - Another category of time expressions is that denoting an incomplete, unfinished period of time, i.e. a period of time which includes the moment of speaking (present): today, this morning: today, this

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afternoon /week/ month/ year, during the 21st century etc. The present perfect is used to denote an action performed in an incomplete period of time: Ive smoked five cigarettes today. (Perhaps Ill smoke more before today finishes) Have you had a holiday this year? I havent seen Tom this morning. Have you? Tom hasnt studied very much this term. Note that the present perfect can be used with this morning only up to about one oclock, because after that this morning becomes a completed period and actions occurring in it must be put in the past simple. (3) Continuative use (state-up-to-the-present use) The verb in the present perfect denotes a state which began in the past and is still going on in the present. The verb expressing this use is compulsorily accompanied by an adverbial of duration. The usual adverbials of duration are those introduced by since (to denote the beginning of the period of time that continues up to the present moment); by for (to denote duration, the length of time that continues up to the present moment); other adverbials of duration are also expressed by long, how long. The present perfect simple has this meaning for those verbs that are not normally used in any of the continuous forms (state verbs): Weve had that TV set for fifteen years (fifteen years ago till now) Hes been here since 5 oclock. That house has been empty for ages. Hes been here for two hours. I have known him for several years. Have you been here long? or: How long have you been here? Since can be a preposition, adverb, conjunction: She has been ill since Monday. (preposition) When since is used as a conjunction, it introduces a clause of time with the verb in the past tense, i.e. the present perfect is used in the main clause while the past tense is used in the subordinate clause introduced by since: I have liked cowboy movies ever since I was a child. We have known each other since we were children. Ive lived in this town since I was born. But the present perfect is also used in the subordinate clause if the action expressed is still going on, i.e. if the two actions are parallel (with verbs such as be, live, stay): Ive known her since Ive lived in this town. I have never come across my friends since Ive stayed in this hotel. (4) The present perfect with other temporal values: Future The present perfect is used with future time reference in adverbial clauses of time which depend on a main clause expressing or implying future time (the verb in the main clause is in the future tense, present tense or imperative). The present perfect (in the adverbial clause of time indicates that the action is completed before another future action (expressed by the verb in the main clause). In some contexts, if the meaning of anteriority is implied by the context either the present tense or the present perfect can be used: Ill leave as soon as the meeting ends. Ill leave as soon as the meeting has ended. However, in other contexts the choice between the present tense and the present perfect is not free. The present perfect must be used in those contexts in which the speaker wants to indicate that the action in the adverbial clause of time is completed before (i.e. anterior to) the other action in the main clause: Come over and see me when the guests leave (the present tense would suggest simultaneous actions) Come over and see me when the guests have left (anteriority) Youll feel better what you have had a rest. Can I borrow your dictionary for a moment? No, Im using it. Youll have to wait until Ive finished

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Comparison between present perfect and past tense The present perfect and the past tense are two important forms for expressing past time. In general, the present perfect relates a happening in the past to the present point of orientation NOW; the past tense relates a happening in the past to a past point of orientation THEN. (1) As a means of referring to the past, the present perfect differs from the past simple on three counts: a) Present result (resultative use) The present perfect has a resultative value, the past tense, by contrast, has no resultative value: Tom has injured his ankle. (It is still bad). Tom injured his ankle. (But now it is better) b) Indefinite time The present perfect is used for a temporally indefinite action while the past tense for a definite action. The present perfect is used when it is merely stated that an action took place without mentioning the definite moment when it occurred (the time of the action is not given and it is not important). The past tense is used when our interest falls not only on the occurrence but also on the time of the event (when there is specific indication of past time in the sentence). Ive (already) seen that film. I saw that film last week / on Sunday. Have you ever visited a mosque? Yes, I visited one when I was in Cairo, 2 years ago. Also: Ive bought a new car. (indefinite) I bought a new car last week. (definite time) I bought the car after all. (implied definite: the car we talked about) c) Continuation up to the present The present perfect implies that whatever was going on during the period in question may still go on or is still possible in the present; the past tense, by contrast, has no continuative value: Have you seen the Monet exhibition? (it is still open, running) Did you see the Monet exhibition? (it is closed now) Also: The English have produced few great sculptors. The Hittites produced few great sculptors. (The Hittites no longer exist) (2) The relationship between the tense forms (the present perfect / the past tense) and the time expressions (adverbials) which may accompany them. a) There are some adverbials which occur only with a certain tense: - The past tense goes with definite adverbials naming a specific time in the past: yesterday, in 1980, ago (three days ago), the other day, then, when, last week, on Sunday, what time - The present perfect goes with some indefinite adverbials describing a period up to the present: so far, until now, by now, up to now, yet, already, since, lately b) There are some adverbials (usually describing a period of time) which can occur with both the present perfect and the past tense but in different situations. With the present perfect the period of time continues up to the present (it includes the present), while with the past tense the period of time is completed (it excludes the present): ever, never, often, seldom, always, for two years, all life, today, this morning, how long: Ive never been to the circus (in my whole life, up to now) I never went to the circus when I was a child (but I do now) He lived in London for 10 years. (He no longer lives there) He has lived in London for 10 years. (He still lives there) His sister was an invalid all her life (she is dead now) His sister has been an invalid all her life (she is still alive) Did you see him this morning? - the question is asked later in the day, perhaps in the afternoon or evening the speaker considers the period of time this morning completed. Have you seen him this morning? - the question is asked when it is still morning the period of time this morning is not over yet. I once lived in London. (once = on a certain occcasion, at one time) Ive been there once. (once = contrasting with twice) How long has he been ill? (he is still ill) How long was he ill? (he has recovered)

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3.3.2. THE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Form: It consists of the present perfect of the auxiliary be + the present participle of the main verb: I have been working, etc. Uses and values: (1) Temporary situation up to the present use The present perfect progressive expresses an action which began in the past and is still continuing at the moment of speaking or has only just finished. The period / length of time that has elapsed before the present time is indicated by an adverbial phrase introduced by since (when the starting point is given), for (when the duration is given), all, long: It has been raining since early morning (it began raining early morning, it is still raining and will perhaps do so for the rest of the morning). She has been doing her homework for an hour (she started an hour ago and shes still doing it) Ive been living in this house for five years. Ive been waiting for you for three hours! Ive been reading all afternoon. Im sorry Im late. Have you been waiting long? How long have you been working on this paper? When since is a conjunction it introduces an adverbial clause of time with the verb in the past tense: He has been working in a bank since he left school. Hes been playing the guitar since he was 16. So, whats been happening since the last time we met? The present perfect is used in the subordinate clause if the verb denotes an action begun in the past and continued into the present. Compare: We have been working hard since we came here. We have been working hard since we have been here. The boys have been playing since their mother went out The boys have been playing since their mother has been away. It expresses an incomplete activity: Ive been cleaning the house but I still havent finished. (2) When this tense is used without any specific mention of time, it expresses a general activity in progress. The adverbials recently, lately are implied. Ive been thinking about changing my major. John has been doing a lot of work on his thesis. He should be finished by May. (3) Resultative use: The present perfect progressive indicates a recently finished action which explains a present result (the results of the past action are still apparent). The verb is used without any adverbial of time: He has been running. Thats why hes out of breath. Her eyes are red: shes been crying again. Why are your hands dirty?Ive been repairing my bike (4) The present perfect progressive of non-durative verbs expresses repeated actions: He has been asking me that silly question for almost a month. They have been meeting like this for years on their way to work. Comparison between the present perfect simple and progressive There are contexts in which both verbal forms are possible but with some slight shades of (different) meaning: (1) An action begun in the past and still continuing can, with certain verbs, be expressed by either present perfect simple or the present perfect progressive. Verbs which can be used in this way include: live, stay, learn, study, i.e. verbs having, in themselves, longer duration. The use of the progressive aspect instead of the simple aspect merely emphasizes the idea of duration, the uninterrupted character of the action: He has lived in London for ten years. He has been living in London for ten years. How long have you learnt English? How long have you been learning English?

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(2) The present perfect simple indicates completion, a recently finished action while the present perfect progressive indicates an unfinished, incomplete action. He has done some research for a book for about a year. (this sees the action more as a completed event, and could mean the action is finished) He has been doing some research for a book for about a year. (continuing from a year ago till now and possibly into the future) Ive worked on my composition since 5 oclock. (Ive finished it) Ive been working on my composition since 5 oclock (I havent finished it - Im still working) Theyve widened the road. (The job is finished) Theyve been widening the road (They are still working) (3) There may be a contrast between completion (a repeated action, especially if the number of items / actions completed is mentioned), expressed by present perfect simple and incompletion (a continuous, apparently uninterrupted action) expressed by present perfect progressive: Ive ironed five shirts this morning - completed: emphasis on achievement. Ive been ironing my shirts this morning - incomplete or recently completed: emphasis on duration. Ive written five letters since breakfast./ Ive been writing letters since breakfast. He has written fifty poems. He has been writing poems since he was a child. I have rung the doorbell 5 times but no one has answered. I have been ringing the doorbell for several minutes but no one has answered.

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3.4. THE PAST PERFECT 3.4.1. THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Form: It consists of the past tense of the auxiliary have and the past participle of the main verb: I had worked, etc. Uses and values: The past perfect simple indicates an action in the past which took place before a given past moment or before another past action. The past perfect simple is the past equivalent of the present perfect simple. The past perfect and the present perfect tenses express similar relationships although in different frames. The present perfect indicates a time earlier than the present tense. The present perfect is placed on the present axis, it refers to before NOW. The past perfect indicates a time earlier in the past than the past tense. The past perfect is placed on the past axis, it refers to before THEN. Compare: The whistle announces that the game has ended. The whistle announced that the game had ended. (1) The past perfect simple expresses an action completed in the past before another point of time in the past or before another activity in the past. In other words, it expresses a time further back than a certain point in the past. Time markers (which express a point of time or activity the past) may be rendered by: a) an adverbial phrase of time: usually expressed by the adverbs before, already, adverbial phrases introduced by the prepositions by, until. I had finished my homework by 10 oclock. Until yesterday I had never heard about it. I saw the play last week. I hadnt seen it before. We had bought the tickets a few days before. Note: Compare the use of ago and before: I booked the room two weeks ago. He said he had booked the room two weeks before. b) a clause which contains a verb in the past tense. We particularly need the past perfect when we wish to emphasize the previousness, anteriority of an earlier action: the action expressed by the past perfect was completed before another action in the past (expressed by the past tense). Syntactically, the verb in the past perfect occurs in: - The main clause contains a past perfect while the clause of time a past tense. The clause of time is usually introduced by the conjunctions before, by, when: All the guests had left by the time we arrived. By the time I got to the station the train had left. She had studied English thoroughly before she went to England. I had finished my homework by the time they came. The adverbs already, just, hardly, scarcely, no sooner are often used with the past perfect to emphasize that the action expressed by the past perfect simple is completed immediately before the other past action expressed by the past tense: When The Titanic hit an iceberg the passengers had just gone to bed I had just / scarcely got into the room when the phone rang. I had hardly got into the room when the phone rang. When Tom arrived at the station the train had already left They had no sooner got on the train than it left. Hardly, scarcely, no sooner can be placed in initial position. This emphatic position requires inversion of subject and auxiliary: No sooner had they got on the rain than it left. - The main clause contains a past tense while the subordinate clause contains a past perfect: i. in adverbial clauses of time introduced by after, until, as soon as, when: The secretary left the office after she had turned off the lights. The passengers got out as soon as the train had stopped. I didnt realize my mistake until Id handed in the test.

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When he had had his supper he went to bed. Simple Past versus Past Perfect: The past tense is commonly used instead of the past perfect in temporal clauses introduced by after, until, before owing to the lexical meaning of these conjunctions (the past perfect is not necessary since the time relationship of anteriority is made clear through the conjunctions): After he (had) graduated he got a job: the past perfect is not necessary since the time relationship of anteriority is made clear through the conjunction after. The driver started the car after he (had) checked the engine. He didnt leave until he (had) received a definite answer. ii. in adverbial clauses of cause/reason the past perfect is used to express the cause of a past effect: The watch stopped because I hadnt wound it up. Tom couldnt get into the house because hed lost his key. He didnt want to come to the cinema with us because he had already seen the film twice. iii. In reported speech (object clauses). The past perfect replaces both the present perfect and the past tense when the reporting verb is in the past tense. The past perfect refers to actions that had already happened when the conversation or thoughts took place. The past perfect is used after reporting verbs like: said, asked, told, explained, thought, etc: Direct speech: Ive spoken to her about it. I spoke to her last week. Indirect speech: Tom said he had spoken to her about it. He added that he had spoken to her the week before. (2) Continuative use: The past perfect simple denotes a past action that took place over a period of time; the action began before a given past moment and continued up to that past moment. The past perfect simple has this value for those verbs which cannot be used in the progressive aspect. A verb having this continuative value is usually associated with two time markers: - A time marker introduced by for or since to show the length/period of time or the starting point of time - A time marker to express the past point of time / action The divers came across a wreck that had lain on the seabed for over 200 years. He had been in the classroom for ten minutes when the teacher came in. He had been ill for 2 weeks when I learnt about it. In 1990 we had known each other for ten years. Bill was in uniform when I met him. He had been a soldier for 20 years, since he was 18. (3) The past perfect simple with other temporal values: Future. The past perfect simple occurs in subordinate clauses of time and corresponds to the similar value of the present perfect simple, i.e. it expresses a future action which is accomplished, completed before another future action (expressed by a verb in the future in the past): He said that as soon as he had raised the money he would let her have it. He said that he would marry her when / after he had finished his studies. (4) With the verbs hope, intend, mean, expect, suppose, think, want, the past perfect simple indicates that the action did not materialize (was not fulfilled): He had intended / meant to call but was prevented by some unforeseen business. I had hoped to catch the 8:30 train but found it was gone. The same idea can be expressed by the past tense of these verbs + perfect infinitive: He intended to have called 3.4.2. THE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Form: It is formed of the past perfect of the auxiliary be and the present participle of the main verb: I had been working, etc. Uses and values: The past perfect progressive bears the same relation to the past perfect simple that the present perfect progressive bears to the present perfect simple with the difference that the time of reference is not the time of speech NOW, but some point in the past THEN. (1) The past perfect progressive indicates an action which began before a point in the past, continued right up to it and may have continued after. The past perfect progressive emphasizes the

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duration of an activity that was in progress before another point of time or before another activity in the past. Two time markers are required: - an expression of time (a prepositional phrase) introduced by for or since usually accompanies the past perfect progressive to emphasize the duration of an action that was in progress before the start of another period or action in the past. - The past point of time or activity before which the action expressed by the verb in the past perfect progressive takes place. This past point of time may be indicated by: i. an adverbial phrase introduced by the preposition by: By that time he had been studying English for 10 years. By May 1st I had been working (for) 3 years at my book. ii. a clause of time (the verb in the Past Tense): I had been waiting for my friend since 5 oclock when he finally turned up. I had been waiting for my friend for an hour when he finally turned up. How long had you been waiting for the bus when I met you? Paul finally came at 7 oclock. I had been waiting for him since 5 oclock. The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him. How long had Mr. Brown been working before he retired? The present perfect progressive or past tense progressive become past perfect progressive in reported speech after a verb in the past tense in the main clause: I have been reading for thee hours. He said he had been reading for thee hours. Note: In temporal clauses the past tense is not changed: When I was attending the secondary school I often met Dan. He said that when he was attending the secondary school he (had) often met Dan. (2) Resultative use: The past perfect progressive expresses an action begun before a given past moment but no longer going on at that moment. The verb in the past perfect progressive explains the cause of an effect which is expressed by a verb in the past tense. The verb in the past perfect progressive usually occurs in adverbial clauses of cause or reason (introduced by because) to express a previous action whose result was obvious at a certain past time: John had a black eye because he had been fighting with the other boys. I was very tired when I arrived home. Id been working hard all day. He saw the doctor because he had not been feeling well. He was carrying a hammer and nails because he had been mending the fence. (3) A continuous, repeated action in the past: He had been trying to get her on the phone. He had been writing poems for 2 years when I met him. The past perfect progressive is only used when we emphasize the continuity of the action, not the number of times the action was performed. If the number of times is given, the past pefect simple is used: He had tried five times to get her on the phone. He had written fifty poems when I met him. Also: How long had Ann been watching TV by 10 oclock? She had been watching TV for an hour. How many programmes had she watched by 10 oclock? She had watched two programmes.

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3.5. THE FUTURE Future time reference is achieved in English in several ways and the so-called future tense is only one of them. The different means which can be used to express the idea of future have their own shades of meanings and are therefore not always interchangeable. There are five chief ways of expressing future time in the English verb phrase. The five means of referring to future time can be arranged along a scale of certainty in the following way: simple present (most certain), simple future, continuous future, be going to (least certain), present progressive (least certain) (G. Leech, 1978: 65) The future values expressed by simple present and present progressive were dealt with in the respective chapters. The simple present tense indicates definite plans for the future as part of a timetable or programme. The present progressive indicates personal plans for the future. Why are you packing? Im leaving tomorrow. The train leaves at 8:30 a.m. The future tense differs from the tenses analysed so far on two counts: one is the existence of other devices which mark future time. The other is the fact that the future auxiliaries shall and will fulfil other functions besides those of mere indicators of future time, viz. they act as modal auxiliaries. It seems that the double function of shall and will as future auxiliaries and as modal auxiliaries lies in the very nature of futurity. We cannot be as certain of future happenings as we are of events past and present and for this reason even the most confident prognostication must indicate something of the speakers attitude and so, be tinged with modality. (Leech, 1978: 52) When discussing futurity, a distinction is made between future with intention and future without intention (Thomson & Martinet, 1969: 168). - Future with intention: a form which expresses a future action which will be undertaken by the speaker in accordance with his wishes. Shall/will + infinitive, be going to- form, present progressive can be used in this way. - Future without intention: a form which merely states that a certain action will happen. The present simple and future progressive can be used in this way. 3.5.1. THE FUTURE SIMPLE (SHALL / WILL FUTURE) Form: This tense is formed of the auxiliaries shall / will followed by the short infinitive of the main verb. Shall is normally used in the 1st person sg./pl. This use is more frequent in formal British English, while in informal contexts, as well as in American English it is often replaced by will. Will is used in the 2nd and 3rd persons sg./pl. Uses and values: (1) The future simple is used to denote actions to be performed in the future (i.e. after the present moment). Thus, the future simple is used for predictions about the future (i.e. describing something we know or expect will happen), for announcements of future plans. The performance of a future action or the occurrence of an event in the future may be caused by objective circumstances or may depend on a condition: I shall / will be 20 next week (formal / colloquial English) My horoscope says that next year will bring me success and happiness. Hell come back next week. It will be windy tomorrow. There will be rain in places. Will they open the exhibition tomorrow? Syntactically, the future simple is particularly common in: - the main clause of temporal and conditional sentences (the future is not used in the subordinate clause of time and condition. The present tense is used instead): When it gets warmer, the snow will start to melt. She will forgive you if you apologize to her. You will feel better if you take your medicine regularly - Object clauses introduced by verbs which express the speakers opinion or assumption about the future: believe, expect, hope, suppose, think, Im sure, Im afraid: I suppose theyll sell their house. Do you think it will rain? / I promise Ill be on time.

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Common time markers (time expressions) with future simple are adverbials of future time such as: tomorrow, combinations with next (next week/month), prepositional phrases introduced by in (in the future, in two years, in ten days time), expressions with from now (two weeks from now) etc. (2) Apart from expressing pure futurity, shall and will can acquire modal value when used in other persons than specified above, or when used in some special constructions (interrogative, negative). Thus, Shall acquires special values: a) in the 1st person sg/pl. interrogative sentences it expresses: - request for advice or suggestion: Where shall I put the books? What shall we do this afternoon? Lets go for a walk. Ive lost my bag! What shall I do? - making an offer: Shall I open the door? (= Do you want me to open the door?) Shall we carry those bags for you? b) in the 2nd and 3rd persons sg/pl. shall expresses: the speakers (subjects) intention to perform a certain action as well as a command. Both these uses are rather formal, oldfashioned and are normally avoided in spoken English. - the speakers intention to perform a certain action: They shall have my support (promise, determination) You shall have your money by the end of the week. They shall not pass (We wont allow them to come here) He shant come here (I wont let him come). Note: Modal shall is replaced by suitable equivalents in reported speech: He said They shall have my support. He promised them his support - command, formal instruction: Each competitor shall wear a number. All students shall attend classes regularly. Applicants shall fill in a form. This construction is chiefly used in regulations, legal documents, or older texts (e.g. the Bible Thou shalt not kill). In less formal English must, have to or be to would be used instead of shall in the above sentences. The same modals replace shall in reported / indirect speech Each competitor shall wear a number The regulations say that each competitor must/ has to/ is to wear a number The regulations said that each competitor must / had to / was to wear a number. Will expresses modal values: a) in the 1st pers. sg/pl. will expresses unpremeditated intention, immediate decision: Can somebody help me? I will. Its hot in here. Ill open the window. Ive said it before, but now I really will stop smoking. b) in the 2nd, 3rd pers. sg/pl/, interrogative sentences will expresses willingness: request, invitation: Will you do me a favour? (request) Will you give me a helping hand? Will you come in please? (invitation) c) in negative sentences will expresses absence of willingness, i.e. refusal. Compare: I wont see him again. (= I refuse to see him again) I shant see him again. (There will be no opportunity for another meeting) 3.5.2. THE FUTURE PROGRESSIVE Form: It is formed of the future simple of the auxiliary be + the present participle of the main verb: I shall/will be working Uses and values: a) It denotes an action in progress at a given time in the future: Like the past progressive, the future progressive is generally used to set up a background or frame activity that is in progress at a certain

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future time or when another action takes place. Time markers to indicate the specific / given future time are expressed by: - an adverbial phrase denoting a point of time: at 5 oclock, this time tomorrow / next week etc.: What will you be doing at 7 oclock tomorrow? Ill be working. This time tomorrow Ill be taking my written exam in German. Is it all right if I come at about 8:30? No, dont come then. Ill be watching the match on TV. With an adverbial expressing a period of time: all day tomorrow, every day next week the future progressive denotes an action in progress over a period of time: Ill be working all day tomorrow. Ill be working late every day next week. - a subordinate clause of time (the verb is in the present tense): Ill be working when you get home: the action of working will begin before this time marker when you get home and will be in progress at that particular time in the future. Ill be waiting right here when you come out of the examination room. Youll recognize her when you see her: shell be wearing a red dress. This time next year shell be running her own business. Dont phone me at 7 oclock. I shall be watching TV. b) Future-as-a-matter-of-course (future without intention) The future progressive refers to a future event which will take place as a matter of course. According to G. Leech, this usage has grown up through the need to have a way of referring to the future uncontaminated by factors of volition, intention, plan which enter into the future meanings of shall/will + infinitive, present progressive and be going to (Leech, 1978: 62). The future progressive suggests that the activity is part of the normal course of events, an activity without any implication of personal intention. The construction is particularly useful for avoiding the suggestion of intention in the simple will-construction. The fact that the future progressive indicates a future event without intention (i.e. an event which will happen independently of the will or intention of anyone concerned) can be seen in a comparison of the future simple and the future progressive. - In affirmative sentences: unlike the future simple which expresses the speakers intention of a future action, the future progressive does not express intention: I will write to Tom. (Ive made up my mind / I intend to write) I will be writing to Tom. (The future progressive expresses no intention: its a mere statement of fact). Ill be seeing him tomorrow morning. (Its part of the normal course of events; this happens every morning) The future progressive allows for the possibility of change with regard to some future event: Well go to Everglades National Park on our vacation. (definite plan) Well be going to Everglades National Park on our vacation. (less definite in that it allows for a change in plans; i.e. Well be going to Everglades National Park unless we run out of time) - In interrogative sentences: The distinction between the future simple and the future progressive is even more obvious in questions. The future simple expresses intention, request or invitation while the future progressive expresses a mere question about a future action: When will you visit us again? (is a question about the listeners intentions) When will you be visiting us again? (simply asks the listener to predict the time of his next visit) Will you bring the boxes in here? (polite request. Possible answer: yes, Sir! Will you be bringing the boxes in here? (a question about a future action. Possible answers: I think I will, or No, I think I will leave them in the hall.) Will you pass the chemists on your way to school? Will you be passing the chemistss on your way to school? How long will you stay in England? / How long will you be staying in England? - In negative sentences: the future simple expresses intention not to do a certain thing, absence of volition, i.e. refusal, while the future progressive merely states that a certain action will not take place: Ann says she wont come if Tom is driving. Well, tell her Tom wont be driving; hes had his licence suspended.

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c) The future progressive with other temporal values The future progressive can express supposition, strong probability referring to the present, virtual certainty in the present: Youll be wondering why I acted like that. Shell be sleeping now. Hell be asking himself what has happened. 3.5.3. THE FUTURE PERFECT 3.5.3.1. THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE Form: It consists of the future tense of the auxiliary have + the past participle of the main verb: I shall / will have worked Uses and values: a) The future perfect expresses a future action which will take place or will be completed before a certain future moment. The verb in the future perfect is used with a reference point (a time marker) to indicate the future moment / action before which this future action is seen as completed. The future moment from which the action is viewed as completed may be indicated by means of: - an adverbial phrase introduced by the prepositions by, before, in: By next Sunday he will have moved into the new house. They will have emigrated to Canada by Christmas. In two years time Ill have finished this book. I hope they will have repaired the road by next Sunday The snow will have disappeared before the end of March. In two years time he will have taken his degree. - a subordinate clause of time introduced by the conjunctions before, when, by the time (the verb is in the present tense): Compare: I hope they will have repaired this road by next Sunday. I hope they will have repaired this road by the time we come back. Also: By the time we get there, the film will have started. We are late. I expect the meeting will already have started by the time we get there. By the time we get to the airport the plane will have taken off. I will already have finished my lessons when they arrive. b) Continuative use With state verbs (i.e. verbs which cannot be used in the progressive forms), the future perfect simple expresses an action begun before a given future moment and still going on at that future moment. Usually, two time markers occur with the future perfect simple having a continuative use: - a time marker which expresses the reference point: a certain /given future moment - a time marker introduced by for to indicate the length of time (the duration) By the end of the year I shall have been here for 2 months. On October 1st I shall have been here for 2 months. Next February I shall have been here for 2 months. Tomorrow Jane and Ken will have been married twenty years. c) The future perfect with other temporal values The future perfect can be used to express supposition, strong probability, an assumption on the part of the speaker about an action performed at a previous moment (in the past). The verb is used in the 2nd or 3rd persons: No doubt you will have heard of this writer. (= I suppose you have heard of this writer) They will have left by now. (= I think they have already left) They will have got home by now ( = They have surely got home by now). d) Simple future versus future perfect As do the other perfect aspects, the future perfect marks an event/ activity that is complete prior to some other time (in this case, future), or complete prior to some other future event: By the year 2008, the information superhighway will have become accessible to all. Ann will have moved by the time she completes her studies. Simple future alone suggests that the event/ activity begins with the time mentioned: The information superhighway will become accessible to all by the year 2008.
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Ann will move when she completes her studies. Notes: i. With all perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect, future perfect) the adverb already emphasizes that the action expressed by the verb is completed immediately before another reference point: I have already finished my lessons. (implied reference point: NOW) I had already finished my lessons when they arrived. (expressed reference point: a past action arrived) I will already have finished my lessons when they arrive. (expressed reference point: a future action arrive) ii. The future perfect becomes the present perfect in temporal clauses: He wont go away till you have promised youll accept the invitation When the first buds have come out spring will not be very far away. 3.5.3.2. THE FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Form: It consists of the future perfect of the auxiliary be + the present participle of the main verb: I shall/will have been working. Use: It expresses an action begun before a given future moment and still going on at that future moment. It has the same value as future perfect simple continuative use. Two time markers are usually required with future perfect progressive: - a time marker introduced by the preposition for to indicate the length of time (duration) of the activity - a time marker which expresses the reference point (a given future moment). The given future moment can be expressed by: i. an adverbial phrase usually introduced by next, by: By his sixtieth birthday he will have been teaching for 35 years. By the end of the month he will have been living here for two years. By six oclock he will have been working for 8 hours. ii. a subordinate clause of time (with the verb in the present tense): When the bell rings we shall have been writing for 50 minutes. When Mr. Brown retires he will have been working in the same office for 45 years. 3.5.4. OTHER MEANS OF EXPRESSING FUTURITY (FUTURE TIME) Besides the future tense forms with shall and will discussed above, there are some other constructions which can be used to express futurity. 3.5.4.1. BE GOING TO Form: the be going to - construction is formed of the progressive form of the verb go + the long infinitive (infinitive with to) of the main verb. E.g. I am going to write, etc. In this structure, go loses its meaning as a verb of movement and becomes an empty grammatical word (an auxiliary) The going to construction has two values: - Intention: The be going to form expresses the subjects intention (plan, decision) to perform a certain future action (the future fulfilment of present intention). This use is found chiefly with human [+animate] subjects: What are you going to do tonight? Im going to stay at home and watch TV. They are going to leave tonight (theyve decided to leave). Im going to be a teacher when I grow up. Tom and Ann are going to get married in October. The be going to form can be used without a time expression. It then usually refers to the immediate or near future. Im going to read you some of my own poems. Were going to spend our holiday in the mountains. Do you remember that job I was talking about? Im going to accept it. - Prediction, i.e. the speakers feeling of certainty, strong probability, likelihood (the future fulfilment of present cause). The going to form expresses a future action which appears likely or inevitable due to present causes or circumstances. The construction is used without a time expression but usually refers to the near or immediate future. The construction is found both with animate and inanimate [+ animate] subjects.

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He has solved all the problems in his test; he is going to get a good mark. The horse is limping badly. He isnt going to finish the race. Those dark clouds mean its going to rain. (i.e. I can already see black clouds gathering) I feel dizzy Im going to faint. = I already feel ill. Comparison between the be going to form and other means of expressing futurity: Be going to form and present progressive Be going to form can be used with a time expression as an alternative to the present progressive for the near future. The present progressive, however, emphasizes that the arrangements have already been made, whereas be going to focuses more on the speakers plans or intentions Im going to meet them at the station at 5 oclock. Im meeting them at the station at 5 oclock. (the present progressive implies an arrangement) The present progressive is not likely to be used to express the future with stative verbs or where the subject is inanimate: *That tree is falling tomorrow. That tree is going to fall tomorrow. Be going to form and simple future (will + infinitive) Both forms express intention: The be going to form always implies planned, premeditated intention (the decision has been made before the moment of speaking). The simple future (will + infinitive) implies unplanned, unpremeditated intention: it is used for quick, on-the-spot decisions. I have bought some bricks and Im going to build a garage. Im thirsty. Ill fetch you a glass of water. When they occur together, the be going to tends to come first, to introduce the event, with details supplied with will: Tomorrow night were going to have a barbecue. Our guests will bring something to grill and well supply the rest. 3.5.4.2. BE TO + INFINITIVE The construction expresses the following meanings: - an arrangement which has been planned for the future, a future action which has already been arranged, decided upon, or is bound to happen. The meeting is to begin at 8 oclock. The President is to visit Japan next year. They are to be married in June. I am to move house soon. - an order, instruction, command, usually an indirect one: the speaker merely passes on orders issued by someone else. Its a construction expressing the will of someone other that the speaker: You are to be back by 10 oclock. You are to stay in bed for three days. Be to + passive infinitive is common in notices and instructions: The form is to be filled in and returned within 3 weeks. These tablets are to be kept out of the reach of children. - pre-destined future (a future action which is bound to happen): If he is to succeed in his new profession (dac-i e dat s) 3.5.4.3. BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIVE The construction expresses an immediate future action whose fulfilment is imminent. It is thus an equivalent to the be going to form and present progressive form. The construction is used with animate and inanimate subjects. Additional time markers are usually not required since the meaning of the construction itself is soon, or right away. Hurry up! The train is (just) about to leave. I feel that something terrible is about to happen. Look out! Youre about to step in the puddle. A similar construction which emphasizes the nearness of a future event is on the point/verge of: Her marriage is on the verge of splitting up. 3.5.4.4. PRESENT SIMPLE (with future meaning): an official plan or arrangement regarded as unalterable (future events which we cannot control, such as events in a timetable, programme): The play begins at 7 oclock this evening.

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The plane for Paris leaves at 9.45. 3.5.4.5. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (with future meaning): a future event anticipated by virtue of a present plan, programme or arrangement (fixed arrangements in the near future): Shes meeting her aunt this weekend. They are giving a party tonight. 3.5.4.6. FUTURE ACTIONS SEEN FROM PAST PERSPECTIVE (FUTURE IN THE PAST) Future in the past means a future action seen from a viewpoint in the past. There are several ways (verb forms) in English for describing future actions viewed from a point further in the past: would + infinitive; was/were + infinitive; was/were going to + infinitive; was/were about to + infinitive; past tense progressive. Would + infinitive and was/were to + infinitive are the only examples of constructions which refer to the fulfilled future in the past. But in this sense they are rather literary in style: a) would + Infinitive (it is confined to literary narrative style): Two years later he would prove a sculptor of genius. The time was not far off when he would regret his decision. The building of the bridge was an important event which would be remembered for many years to come. b) was / were to + infinitive. The construction is used in the literary style to express: - plan, arrangement: The meeting was to be held the following week. The professor was to speak at a conference that day (= The professor was scheduled to speak ) - predestined future (formal): They said good-bye, little knowing they were never to meet again. He was later to regret his decision. When we said good-bye, I thought it was for ever. But we were to meet again many years later under very strange circumstances. Was / were going to + infinitive, was / were about to + infinitive usually carry the knowledge that the anticipated event didnt take place. c) was / were going to + infinitive expresses intention which may or may not have been fulfilled (i.e. something which was intended to happen did not happen). The phrase can thus be used to talk about failed future plans from a past perspective. Tom was going to play tennis this weekend, but he sprained his ankle. Why didnt you telephone me? I was going to telephone you but I didnt have time. He was going to invite me to the cinema (but he didnt). The contest was going to take place the next Sunday. d) was / were about to + infinitive (= be on the point of): I was about to go to bed when there was a knock at the door. The priceless tapestry was about to catch fire but the firemen saved it. e) Past tense progressive expresses an action according to plan, arrangement: He was leaving town the next day I was meeting him in the same place the next day. Tom left the meeting early because he was flying to London the next morning. The future in the past is particularly common in indirect speech: it is used mainly in reporting the past words or thoughts of someone, in a story, etc. All the future forms dealt with so far can be turned into a future in the past by substituting should or would for shall or will respectively (if the person remains unchanged): I shall see you tomorrow I told him I should see him the next day. I shall be seeing her tomorrow He said he would be seeing her the next day. He asked the nurse if his father would soon be better. At that time I thought Id never see them again. He hoped that by the time he came back she would have forgiven him.

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4. THE CATEGORY OF VOICE 4.1. Voice is the grammatical category that concerns not only the verb phrase but also other constituents in the sentence. Voice expresses the relationship between the verb (the predicate) on the one hand and the subject and object of the verb, on the other. Voice gives information about the roles of different participants (agent or recipient) in an event (Carter, 2006: 929). There are two voices in English: the active and the passive. The active voice is the most common and unmarked form of voice. The grammatical subject and the agent / doer of the action are one and the same. Consider the following sentences: The thief had stolen all my money. Darwin studied the fauna of the Galapagos Islands. Tom wrote the letter. The cat chased the mouse The active voice shows that the grammatical subject (the thief, Darwin, Tom, the cat) performs the action (the grammatical subject is the agent, or doer of the action); the grammatical subject is also the logical subject of the sentence. The passive voice, as illustrated by the sentences: All my money had been stolen by the thief. The fauna of the Galapagos Islands was studied by Darwin. The letter was written by Tom. The mouse was chased by the cat. indicates that the grammatical subject (All my money, The letter, the mouse) is the goal/ recipient, receiver, or undergoer of the action; the grammatical subject is no longer the logical subject of the sentence. The by-phrase (by the thief, by Tom, by the cat) indicates the agent, doer of the action. Although the factual content of the two sentences (active and passive) remains the same, there are certain differences in the emphasis of these sentences. In point of meaning, an active sentence places the emphasis on the agent, the doer of the action. In a passive sentence, the emphasis is placed on the recipient of the action, on the thing done, rather than on its doer (on what happens to someone not on who does it). A passive construction gives less prominence to the agent. 4.2. The active passive relation (also known as the passive transformation or passivization) involves three grammatical levels: I. the morphological level, i.e. the form of the verb; II. the syntactic level: the changes in the position and status of the active subject NP and object NP; III. the semantic pragmatic level. 4.2.1. The morphological level: the form of the verb. (1) The passive form of the verb phrase consists of the auxiliary be (or get in some cases) + the past participle of the main verb. The auxiliary (be / get) marks the categories of person, number, tense aspect, mood. A passive verb has forms for the finite moods as well as the non-finite forms. It has forms corresponding to the active voice for all the tenses of the indicative mood, simple aspect. The conjugation of a verb (to help - 3rd person sg.) in the passive voice, indicative mood: The simple aspect: present tense: he is helped; past tense: He was helped; present perfect: He has been helped; past perfect: He had been helped; future simple: He will be helped; future perfect: He will have been helped. No crime has been committed. We were rung up by one of these consumer survey companies. As far as the progressive aspect is concerned, the English verb has passive forms for only two tenses: the present and past. Present progressive: He is being helped; past tense progressive: He was being helped. They are repairing the bridge. The bridge is being repaired. They were carrying the injured player off the field The injured player was being carried off the field. (2) Although be is the prototypical auxiliary verb of the passive, it is possible to have other verbs fulfil this function:

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Get is another auxiliary which can be used to form a passive construction. Unlike be which expresses a state, get expresses an action. Get is used as a resulting, dynamic auxiliary to emphasize the idea of change, to draw attention to the result, rather than to the action. i. With verbs of result such as break, burn, catch, hurt, lose, kill, steal, stick, etc., the auxiliary get expresses a detrimental meaning: actions that happen suddenly, unexpectedly or by accident: My money got stolen. How many people get killed in road accidents? All my glasses got broken when we moved. As I passed by, my coat got caught on a nail. The auxiliary get is usually restricted to constructions without an expressed object of agent. Compare: The window was broken by my younger son. I dont know how the window got broken. ii. A number of sentences look superficially like passives but cannot be derived from active sentences: with verbs like dress, engage, marry, mix, the auxiliary get implies actions that we do to ourselves. The actions are reflexive rather than passive. They got married last week. I have to get dressed before 8 oclock. I dont want to get mixed up with the police again. iii. With some other verbs, the passive with the auxiliary get indicates involvement of the grammatical subject. Compare: He was invited to the party. (< Someone invited him to the party) He got invited to the party. (< He managed to be invited) One important structural difference to note between the be-passive and the get-passive is that get does not function as a true auxiliary in questions and negatives the way that be does. As a result of this, do must serve as an operator for get in questions and negatives: be-passive get-passive A: Was Tom arrested? A: Did Tom get arrested? B: No, he wasnt even caught. B: No, he didnt even get caught. Become is occasionally used as an auxiliary for the passive. Become expresses a more gradually achieved result, it stresses the change from one condition to a new condition: The production of this factory is becoming increasingly specialized. This newspaper has already become widely read in the community. Past Participles: Adjectives or Passive? Most of the time the distinction between a past participle functioning as a passive verb and one serving as an adjective will be obvious. However, the distinction is not always clear-cut. In a sentence such as:The windows were broken. the past participle broken could be regarded as either adjectival or passive. The house was a mess. The paintwork was peeling and the windows were broken (participle is adjectival) The windows were broken by the force of the explosion. (participle is passive). According to Celce-Murcia & Larsen-Freeman (1999: 349), in the first interpretation, the past participle is descriptive, or stative, and thus adjectival. In the second, the past participle is dynamic and thus passive. In cases of ambiguity, the only distinguishing sentence-level feature we are left with is the use of by with a noun phrase to mark an agent in the passive voice, if there is one: The beans were refried. - by someone (passive) - present state of the beans (adjective) 4.2.2. The syntactic level (the clause level): At the clause level changing from the active to the passive involves the transformation in the position and status of the subject NP and the object NP: - the subject of the active construction becomes an object of agent introduced by the preposition by; - the object of the active construction becomes the subject in the passive sentence. The active passive correspondence (passive transformation) can be expressed by the following formula: NP1 + Vactive + NP2 NP2 + Vpassive (+ By NP1) (S) (P) (O) (S) (P) (O Agent)

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The prepositional object of agent (the by-phrase) is generally an optional element. The object of agent is only expressed when it is important to mention, when it conveys relevant information: Edison invented the electric bulb The electric bulb was invented by Edison. Passives without an agent phrase Passives frequently occur without an agent phrase and are called agentless passives (Carter & McCarthy, 2006: 798). There are a number of reasons why such a choice might be made. The entity responsible for an action may not be known or may not be considered relevant, or may simply be obvious. The agentless passive enables focus to fall on the process. What is or is not done, or what happens, is important. Thus, the prepositional object of agent is not expressed (it is omitted) when: - it is unknown to the speaker: Those pyramids were built around 400 A. D. The bank was robbed yesterday. - it is indefinite: the subject of the sentence would be expressed by an indefinite noun or pronoun (people, they, someone, one). In such cases the passive is generally preferred and the resulting object of agent is omitted: They / people speak English all over the world English is spoken all over the world. They opened the new theatre last month The new theatre was opened last month. My car was stolen last night (the object of agent, which would be by someone is not necessary to be expressed since it does not convey any relevant information). - it is redundant (it can be recovered from the context): Jack fought Mike last night and Jack was beaten (the object of agent by Mike is understood from the context) - the speaker/writer is being tactful or evasive: Ann was given some bad advice about selecting courses. An error was made in the budget. - Get-passives occur more frequently with no agent phrase than be- passives: Shes been a bit nervous ever since she got burgled. He got conscripted into the army and had to go to Belgium. 4.2.3. Passive-like causatives (pseudo-passives): in causative constructions with have (or get) the doer of the action is often omitted, i.e. the object of agent. Such constructions are not true passives because they do not contain the auxiliary be, but the main verb is in the past participle: Mr. Brown cant type. His secretary types his letters for him Mr. Brown has his letters typed. His fruit was stolen before he had a chance to pick it He had his fruit stolen before he had a chance to pick it. The have pseudo-passives: The have-passive is more formal than the get-passive, e.g. We got our car radio stolen twice on holiday. (or: We had our car radio stolen twice on holiday) I have my hair done about once a month.(or: I get my hair done about once a month). 4.2.4. Types of verbs used in passive constructions 4.2.4.1. Transitive verbs: Transitive verbs, i.e. verbs that can take an object, represent the largest class of verbs which allow passivization. Within this large class of verbs we can identify several subclasses: a) transitive verbs + one object (monotransitive verbs): According to the general rule, any transitive verb followed by a direct object can be passivized (the direct object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive): The board has already discussed the matter. The matter has already been discussed by the board. The watchmaker has skilfully repaired the clock. The clock has been skillfully repaired by the watchmaker. Note: In perfective tenses (present perfect, past perfect, future perfect) which contain two auxiliaries - have for the perfective and been for the passive - adverbs of indefinite time (just, already, never, often) follow the first auxiliary, while adverbs of manner (e.g. skilfully) follow the second auxiliary (they are placed before the past participle).

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Voice constraints: Some transitive verbs do not occur (at least in some senses) in the passive: contain, fit, have, hold, lack, possess, resemble. Most of them are stative /state verbs, i.e. they refer to states not actions and they often have no continuous forms. Thus, the following active sentences have no passive correspondent: He lacks confidence. ; John resembles his father. With some verbs, the passive is not possible when they refer to states, but it is possible when they refer to an activity: hold: This jar holds sugar. *Sugar is held by this jar. The police held the thief. The thief was held by the police. possess: The king possessed great wealth *Great wealth was possessed.. The enemy soon possessed the city. The city was soon possessed by the enemy. have: They have a nice house. *A nice house is had by them. You can have dinner at any reasonable time. Dinner can be had at any reasonable time. Besides the meaning of the verb, co-reference between a subject and a NP object blocks the passive correspondence. This constraint occurs with: - Reflexive pronouns: John could see Paul in the mirror. Paul could be seen in the mirror by John. John could see himself in the mirror. *Himself could be seen in the mirror. - Reciprocal pronouns: We could hardly see each other in the fog.*Each other could hardly be seen in the fog. - Possessive pronouns (when they are co-referential to the subject) The woman shook my hand. My hand was shaken by the woman. The woman shook her head. *Her head was shaken by the woman. b) transitive verbs with two objects (ditransitive verbs) i. a small number of verbs - ask, teach, envy are followed by two objects: a [+animate] object and a [-animate] one. The [+animate] object usually becomes the subject in the passive: They asked the pupils some questions The pupils were asked some questions. ii. Verbs like allot, allow, award, deny, grant, hand, lend, offer, pay, present, promise, recommend, refuse, send, show, tell are followed by two objects: a [+animate] indirect object and a [-animate] direct object. These verbs can have two passive forms: either the indirect object or the direct object can become the grammatical subject of the passive verb: They offered Tom a very good job. - the direct object becomes the subject of the passive construction: in such cases the NP expressing the indirect object (the retained indirect object) is usually preceded by the preposition to: A very good job was offered to Tom. - the indirect object becomes the subject of the passive construction: Tom was offered a very god job. The passive construction with the indirect object as subject is more frequent than the one with the direct object as subject. There is a semantic explanation for this preference, viz. it is preferable to use a person (a being), rather than a thing as the subject of the passive construction. Also: The best students are awarded special scholarships. The boy had been promised a bike for his birthday. c) Transitive verbs + a that-clause: Verbs of physical perception, mental cognition as well as declarative verbs believe, consider, expect, know, hear, say, suppose, think are followed in the active voice by a that-clause or by an accusative + infinitive construction: They consider that dolphins are very intelligent. ~ They consider dolphins to be very intelligent. They say that a cigarette-end was the cause of the fire. These sentences normally have two passive constructions: - an impersonal construction: it is only the main clause that undergoes passivization while the rest of the sentence is left unchanged: It is considered that dolphins are very intelligent. It is said that a cigarette-end was the cause of the fire. - a Nominative + Infinitive construction: Dolphins are said to be very intelligent. A cigarette-end is said to have been the cause of the fire.

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4.2.4.2. Intransitive verbs a) Some intransitive verbs such as live, sleep, sit accompanied by a prepositional object (prep. + NP) may be used in the passive. The nominal element (NP) of the prepositional object becomes the subject while the preposition is retained by the verb, even though in the corresponding active voice the preposition is less closely associated with the verb. Nobody has slept in the room. The room has not been slept in. The house is not lived in any longer. b) Prepositional and phrasal verbs: There are some verbs (account for, agree upon, deal with, laugh at, look after / for, listen to, refer to, rely on, send for, etc.) which in the active voice are followed by an obligatory preposition + NP (syntactically, the prep. + NP is a prepositional object). Through passivization, the nominal element of the prepositional phrase becomes subject while the preposition is kept together with the verb: They will deal with the matter at once. The matter will be dealt with at once. He looked after the children well. The children were well looked after. I hate people laughing at me I hate being laughed at. Some prepositional verbs (look into, go into, arrive at) accept the passive only when they have an abstract, figurative use. Compare the following sentences: They eventually arrived at the station * The station was arrived at. (concrete, spatial use) They eventually arrived at an agreement An agreement was arrived at. (abstract, figurative use) The engineers went carefully into the tunnel * The tunnel was gone into. The engineers went very carefully into the problem The problem was very carefully gone into. Phrasal verbs: They will have to put off the meeting. The meeting will have to be put off. Phrasal Prepositional verbs represent combinations of verb + adverbial particle + preposition: put up with, do away with, etc). Through passivization, the object of the preposition becomes the subject while the verb retains both the particle and the preposition: We cant put up with this noise. This noise cant be put up with. This piece of legislation has been done away with. Prepositional verbal phrases such as lose sight of, make fun of, make use of, pay attention to, put an end to, take notice of can be used in the passive. Because of the close connection of the verb with the noun within the verb phrase the latter is not normally separated from the verb (and it is not used as the subject of the passive construction). Through passivization the object of the preposition becomes subject while the verb retains the preposition. You must put a stop to this silly business. This silly business must be put a stop to. The hayrick had been set fire to. He could not bear being made fun of. Nevertheless, with some verbal phrases such as pay attention to, take notice of, take care of an alternative passive construction is possible with the noun within the verb phrase as subject: They took great care of his books i. His books were taken great care of (object of the preposition as subject); ii. Great care was taken of his books (noun within the VP as subject) 4.3. Semantic and pragmatic aspects of the passive: Pragmatics refers to the study of communication in relation to the intended meanings of particular utterances within particular situations. The passive is far more common in English than in other languages. The following observations may serve as a general guide when to use the passive: i. The passive voice is especially useful when the doer, agent of the action is unknown or unimportant (when the active form would involve the use of an indefinite or vague pronoun / noun as subject (The object of the agent is not expressed): I have been robbed (<Someone has robbed me). The building had to be demolished (< They had to demolish the building) Existential there allows an indefinite subject to be placed later in a passive clause. This has the effect of creating greater focus on the passive subject.

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ii. Detached/impersonal styles: Agentless passives are conventionally associated with impersonal style (in academic, technical/scientific and official writing), where the question of who performs the action described by the verb is unimportant or irrelevant, when processes are the focus of attention, also when the author does not want to draw attention to himself: Heat was applied until the mixture came to the boil. The new methods that have been introduced Vitamin tablets should be taken daily. Such impersonal uses often involve reporting verbs such as believe, consider, find, say, think: What is poverty? Much of the debate centres on what level of income is considered to be the poverty level. iii. The passive provides a means of avoiding an awkward change of a subject in the middle of a sentence: The Prime Minister arrived back in London last night and was immediately besieged by reporters. instead of: The Prime Minister arrived back in London last night and reporters immediately besieged him.

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5. THE CATEGORY OF MOOD 5.1. Mood is the grammatical category by means of which modality is expressed, i.e. the attitude of the speaker towards the action denoted by the verb. By means of this category, the speaker can present the action as being: i. [+ real], i.e. actual, factual, existing in fact; ii. [- real], i.e. not real, non-factual, hypothetical: possible, probable, necessary, desirable, etc. Moods can be studied from the point of view of their meaning or from the point of view of the forms themselves.Traditional grammars distinguish four finite moods: the indicative, the subjunctive, the conditional, the imperative. Some grammar books (see Carter, 2006: 911) distinguish three moods: - indicative, to express a factual meaning: She enjoys her new job. - imperative, to express a directive meaning: Enjoy your meal! - subjunctive, to express a non-factual meaning: We insist that he enjoy the meal first before making his speech. Other modern grammars limit the number of moods to only two: the indicative and the subjunctive. According to modern grammarians, the conditional should be analysed as a type or subtype of the subjunctive on account of its form and its meaning. From the point of view of its form, the conditional is identical with some forms of the analytical subjunctive (in that it uses the auxiliaries should and would); in point of meaning, just like the subjunctive, the conditional expresses hypothetical values. The imperative is not only a verbal form, but also a form of the sentence (a sentence type) whose function is to express orders, commands, or requests. Therefore, from this functional point of view, the imperative is to be analysed within the chapter of syntax (Sentence types): declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory. In this respect, the imperative is opposed to the declarative pattern not to the indicative mood. These two moods the indicative and the subjunctive are seen as the two basic propositional modalities of English. The characteristic meaning of the subjunctive is best revealed by means of a comparison between the indicative and the subjunctive. The indicative mood is the mood of assertion, it presents the action as real (or in close relation to reality) or as factual (i.e. as existing in fact). It is the most frequent form and involves all he choices of person, number, tense, aspect, modality and voice. The tenses of the indicative mood cover all the divisions of time on the temporal axis: past, present or future (discussed in the chapter: the tenseaspect system of English). The subjunctive mood is non-assertive, it presents non-factual, hypothetical statements. By using the subjunctive, the speaker considers the action not as real (as existing in reality) but as hypothetical (as existing in his mind as a possibility, necessity, supposition, doubt, wish, purpose, etc). Unlike the indicative clauses, the subjunctive clauses lack deictic temporal orientation, i.e. they are not actualized in time. The synthetic subjunctive has forms for the present, past, perfect. An important thing that must be pointed out is that the so-called tenses of the Subjunctive are improperly called so, since they do not mark temporal distinctions as the indicative mood does. The tenses of the subjunctive are used to indicate remoteness from reality in various degrees. The present and past subjunctive are both employed for present time reference with the difference that the present subjunctive expresses a greater degree of probability than the past subjunctive (which expresses doubt). It is necessary that he be here. (present time reference) I wish he were here. (present time reference) Also in the analytic(al) subjunctive: It is a pity you should miss such an opportunity. It is a pity you should have missed such an opportunity. (anteriority with respect to a reference point) The absence of these temporal distinctions in the subjunctive mood helps us understand why the subjunctive describes only possible, not yet actualized (courses of) events. 5.2. THE FORMS OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE.

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The subjunctive mood is represented by two forms: the synthetic forms, referred to as the synthetic subjunctive; the analytic(al) forms, referred to as the analytic(al) subjunctive or periphrastic subjunctive. 5.2.1. THE SYNTHETIC SUBJUNCTIVE This form is called synthetic on account of the fact that it does not contain other means, i.e. auxiliaries in its composition. The synthetic subjunctive is usually defined as a form which is dying out as an independent mood. Indeed, the simple synthetic forms have lost most of their distinctive endings, so they cannot always be distinguished from the forms of the indicative mood. The synthetic subjunctive has forms for the present, the past, the perfect. 5.2.1.1. THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE (THE OLD FORM) Form: it is identical in form with the base form of the verb (short infinitive): ask, be. Its meaning shows an event which can be fulfilled in time and which is thus assumed possible. Distribution: The present subjunctive occurs in both independent sentences and subordinate clauses. a) Independent Sentences (Formulaic subjunctive) The present subjunctive in independent sentences is not a productive, living form in modern English. It occurs in some set phrases (formulaic expressions): i. wishes: Long live peace!; God bless you! Heaven help us! The living, productive form of expressions of this concept is may + verb: God save the Queen! = May God save the Queen! ii. oaths, curses: The devil take him!; Damn you! iii. Expressions denoting urge, advice: So be it!; Suffice it to say that; Far be it (from me to criticize you) b) Subordinate clauses (Mandative subjunctive) i. The present subjunctive is used in nominal that-clauses (subject, object, attributive-appositive clauses) when the main clause contains an adjective, a verb or a noun which expresses the meaning of order, demand, suggestion: (1) Subject clauses, after constructions of the type: It is + adjective (advisable, essential, necessary, important, etc): It is essential that the mission not fail. It is / was necessary that he go there. (2) Object clauses, after verbs like demand, desire, insist, order, propose, recommend, require, suggest, urge, etc.: They demand / demanded that the committee reconsider its decision. He proposed that they hold a meeting. We insist that he not make the telephone call. In subjunctive clauses, a negation element is always placed directly before the main verb; thus, no addition of the do operator is possible. (3) Attributive-appositive clauses, after abstract nouns belonging to the same semantic field: demand, request, suggestion, proposal: There was a proposal that he be elected chairman. ii. The present subjunctive is also used in some adverbial clauses: (4) Adverbial clauses of condition: If any person be found guilty he shall have the right of appeal. If this be error and upon me proved/I never wrote nor no man ever loved (Shakespeare) (5) Adverbial clauses of concession: Though everyone desert you I will not. Whatever be the reasons for it, we cannot tolerate disloyalty. (= Whatever the reasons for it may be) The use of the present subjunctive is found in older English and in formal (official and legal) style, e.g. in treatises, resolutions, regulations, also in elevated prose and poetry. The present subjunctive is quite frequently used in American English. 5.2.1.2. THE PAST SUBJUNCTIVE

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Form: It is identical in form with the past tense indicative mood, e.g. asked, wrote. The past subjunctive is preserved as a form distinct from the past tense indicative only in the verb be, which has an invariable form for all persons: were. Though in everyday speech there is a tendency to replace the invariable subjunctive form were with was in the 1st and 3rd person sg, so as to follow the paradigm of the past tense indicative. Meaning. It expresses a hypothetical meaning: an unreal event or state taking place at present. The event or state supposed to be happening at the present time is not taking place: it is imaginary, or it runs counter to present reality. Distribution. The past subjunctive occurs in subordinate clauses. (1) Subject clauses: The past subjunctive occurs after the construction It is (about / high) time: Its time we went / were off. Its high time you made up your mind. Its about time we were leaving. An equivalent construction of the past subjunctive after It is time is (for -) to Infinitive. Its time to go. (when no subject is expressed) Its time for us to go. There is a slight difference in meaning between the two constructions: The subjunctive (Its time we went) implies that it is already a little too late; the infinitive (Its time for us to go) implies that the correct time has arrived to do a certain thing. (2) Object clauses: The past subjunctive occurs after the verbs wish, would rather, would sooner. After wish the past subjunctive expresses an unreal situation in the present, regret about a present action which does not occur. The past subjunctive denotes that what we would like to happen does not take place: I wish he were here. = Im sorry/ I regret he isnt here. I wish he were coming with us. = I regret he isnt coming. He wishes he knew her address = He is sorry he doesnt know. He wished he knew her address. = He was sorry he didnt know. Would rather, would sooner are two constructions expressing preference = would prefer. They are followed by a that-clause (with past subjunctive) when the subjects are different: the person expressing the preference is not the subject of the action that follows: S1 + would rather + S2 + past subjunctive: Id rather you stayed at home than went out. She wants to fly but Id rather she went by train. Would rather/sooner is followed by an infinitive when the subjects of the two actions are identical: Id rather stay at home than go out. (3) Conditional clauses: The past subjunctive occurs in conditional clauses of unreal condition which refers to the present or future to express an imaginary, unreal situation contrary to present fact (Type2 conditional clause): If I saw him I would give him your message. If he were here he would speak for us. Were is felt as rather formal and is replaced by was in colloquial English: If he was here Were persists, however, in some special forms: - In the expression: if I were you Id be a bit more careful if I were you. - In the construction: were + (to) infinitive: If I were to see a flying saucer Id find it difficult to believe The past subjunctive after if only expresses regret about an action contrary to present reality (if only is used in a similar way to wish): If only I were still your age! Hes up to something: if only I knew what it is. (4) Adverbial clauses of unreal comparison (introduced by as if, as though). The past subjunctive expresses improbability or doubt with reference to a present action, or a hypothetical situation simultaneous with the action in the main clause: She treats him as if he were a child (unreal meaning: He is not a child). He talks as if he knew everything (But he doesnt).

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He talked as if he knew everything (But he didnt). He felt awkward as if everyone were looking at him. (5) Adverbial clauses of concession (introduced by even if, even though): Even though he were ill he wouldnt miss school. The past subjunctive is used in both the literary and the colloquial style. 5.2.1.3. THE PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE It is identical in form with the past perfect indicative mood: had asked. Meaning. It expresses events running counter to past reality. Distribution: The perfect subjunctive occurs in subordinate clauses to express counterfactive meaning (a situation contrary to fact). (1) Object clauses: After the verbs wish, would rather, the perfect subjunctive expresses regret about a past situation or about an action contrary to past reality: what we would have liked to happen did not take place: I wish I hadnt spent so much money (= Im sorry I spent) He wishes he had studied French at school. I wish you had written to him. (= Im sorry you didnt write) I wished you had written to him. (= I was sorry you hadnt written) Id rather you hadnt done it. (2) Conditional clauses: The perfect subjunctive occurs in conditional clauses of unreal condition which refers to the past (Type 3): If he had been here he would have helped us In clauses introduced by if only the perfect subjunctive expresses the same meaning of regret about an action which did not occur in the past as wish: If only I had listened to her (= I wish I had listened to her) If only youd been driving more carefully! (3) Clauses of comparison introduced by as if, as though. The perfect subjunctive expresses improbability or doubt with reference to a past action: I remember the movie as if I had seen it yesterday. He talks / talked about London as though he had been there himself. (4) Clauses of concession introduced by even if, even though: Even if the work had been twice as difficult, I wouldnt have refused it. 5.2.2. THE ANALYTIC(AL) SUBJUNCTIVE Since some forms of the synthetic subjunctive are falling more and more into disuse because of the loss of distinctive endings, such forms are in many cases replaced by periphrastic constructions (or subjunctive equivalents) also known as the analytic subjunctive. The subjunctive equivalents are, in essence, other means of expressing hypothetical values at the level of the verb phrase, e.g. wishes, presuppositions, concessions, conditions, etc. The forms of the analytic subjunctive (subjunctive equivalents) represent combinations of modal verbs used as auxiliaries + the short infinitive (present or perfect) of the main verb (The present infinitive for simultaneity or subsequence to the action in the main clause, the perfect infinitive for anteriority). The modal auxiliary verbs used for the analytic subjunctive are: should, may / might, can / could, will / would. The distribution of the modal-auxiliary verbs: 5.2.2.1. SHOULD The modal-auxiliary should occurs in: (1) Independent sentences or main clauses: a) to form the present/perfect conditional in the 1st person singular and plural: I should like to see him. / I should have liked to see him. I should help him if he asked me. I should have helped him if he had asked me. b) in (direct or indirect) questions introduced by who, what, why (rhetorical questions), as well as exclamations to express an emotional attitude of surprise, irritation, annoyance: Why should we quarrel over such a trifle? Whats Toms phone number/ How should I know? (= How can you expect me to know?) Who should come in but the mayor himself! (2) Subordinate clauses:

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a) Subject clauses: - After the construction It is + adjective (advisable, essential, desirable, important, necessary, etc) the analytic subjunctive with should is usually an alternative to the synthetic subjunctive present or to forto infinitive: It is essential that he should be prepared for this. that he be prepared for this. for him to be prepared for this. It is important that he should not make a mistake. It is only fair that you should know. - After the construction It is + adjective (amazing, odd, strange, surprising), or It is + noun (a pity, a shame, a surprise, a wonder) the analytic subjunctive with should (i) is an alternative to the indicative mood (ii): i. It is surprising that he should resign. ii. It is surprising that he has resigned / is resigning i. It is a pity that he should have missed such an opportunity. ii. It is a pity that he has missed such an opportunity. The difference between the sentences (i.) and (ii.) is the difference conveyed by the two moods: subjunctive and indicative. The subjunctive mood stresses the evaluation of a possible event while the indicative mood stresses the description of a real, actual event. According to G. Leech (1978: 72), the subjunctive with should conveys a non-factual meaning which leaves open the question of the truth or falsehood of the statement. In the forms with the subjunctive the very idea is stressed, the evaluation of a possible event, while in the forms with the Indicative the actual fact is expressed (the description of a real, actual event). Thus, the subjunctive form should have missed stresses a supposition, an idea, that of missing an opportunity; we dont know whether he missed the opportunity or not. By resorting to the indicative (has missed), the speaker expresses a factual meaning: it is a fact that he missed the opportunity. This use of should used to represent something as a neutral idea rather than as a fact is termed putatative. b) Object clauses: - After verbs expressing command, decision, order, suggestion like agree, command, demand, insist, order, propose, recommend, suggest, etc. the analytic subjunctive with should is an alternative to the synthetic subjunctive present: We insist / insisted that a meeting should be held. He proposed that we should postpone our departure. - After some verbs insist, agree either the subjunctive or the indicative is used: i. Johns father insists that he shouldnt smoke. ii. Johns father insists that he doesnt smoke. i. When the verb insist introduces an indirect command, order, the subjunctive is used (insist = demand): Johns father has ordered John not to smoke. ii. When the verb insist introduces a statement, assertion, the indicative is used (insist = claim): Johns father is of the opinion that his son does not smoke. Note: Depending on the main verb, other structures can be used in these clauses: - Object + infinitive structure: He ordered them to go. - Possessive + -ing form: He insisted on their leaving in time. c) Attributive-appositive clauses. The subjunctive with should occurs after abstract nouns such as demand, desire, intention, order, proposal, reason, request, suggestion, wish, etc. There is no reason why he should be late. His suggestion that we should postpone our journey was accepted. d) Conditional clauses: The analytic subjunctive with should occurs in conditional clauses as an alternative to the present tense indicative mood (type1 cond. cl.), or to the synthetic subjunctive past (Type 2 cond. cl.) in order to express a higher degree of improbability, more uncertainty (an action less likely to occur): Type 1: If he comes we shall let you know. (Indicative mood)

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If he should come we shall let you know (subjunctive with should = If he happens to come If by any chance he comes..) or: Should he come we shall let you know. Should the pain return take one of these pills. Type 2: If you were offered the job would you accept it? If you should be offered the job would you accept it? Should you be offered e) Clauses of purpose. The analytic subjunctive occurs in: i. some clauses of affirmative purpose: They advertised the concert so that everyone should know about it. ii. Clauses of negative purpose introduced by so that (+ negative verb, pronoun), lest, for fear, in case (+ an affirmative verb): He spoke slowly so that there should be no mistakes. They set a strong guard lest anyone should escape. He hurried for fear he should be late. He left early in case he should miss the last train (= so that he shouldnt miss it) Note: Since both clauses of purpose and clauses of result are introduced by the same conjunction so that -, it is the form of the verb that distinguishes them: the verb in the clause of purpose is in the analytical subjunctive (with modal auxiliaries), while the clause of result normally contains a verb in the indicative: He slept with the money under his pillow so that no one should steal it. (Purpose) He slept with the money under his pillow so that no one stole it. (Result) 5.2.2.2. MAY / MIGHT The modal-auxiliary may / might occurs in: (1) Independent sentences exclamatory sentences to convey a wish, such as desire for peoples health, happiness, or success. It is the living, productive form instead of the synthetic subjunctive present: May you live long! May you both be happy! May he rest in peace! (prayer for a dead person) (2) Subordinate clauses. If the verb in the main clause is in the present tense, either may or might can be used in the subordinate clause (might suggests a higher degree of uncertainty); if the verb in the main clause is in the past tense only might is used. May / might occurs in: a) Subject clauses after the construction It is + adjective (possible, probable, likely) as an alternative to the indicative mood: It is possible that humans might one day live on other planets. It is likely that it may/will rain this afternoon. b) Object clauses after be afraid / apprehensive, fear: Im afraid the news may upset her. I fear that he may catch cold. He was afraid that I might turn down his offer. He felt apprehensive of what might happen. c) Clauses of concession. The analytic subjunctive with may/might is used instead of the indicative mood to express a supposition, a more uncertain, hypothetical event. The clauses are introduced by compound conjunctions in -ever (whoever, whatever, etc), by the phrase no matter (who, what etc.), as: Whatever he may say we must not change our plan. However hard he may try, hell never win. No matter what bright ideas he may have, hes always short of money. Try as he may, he will not pass the exam. Because of its strong hypothetical content may + the adversative coordinating conjunction but can express the idea of concession: Although your job is very demanding, at least it is not boring. Your job may be very demanding, but at least it is not boring. Although he has promised to come, I dont think he will.

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He may have promised to come but I dont think he will. d) Clauses of affirmative purpose (introduced by so that, in order that): He is saving money so that he may /might buy a car. Builders worked day and night in order that the house might be finished in time. This is a rather literary structure and in modern English it is more common to use can / could, will / would in such cases. 5.2.2.3. WILL / WOULD Will / would occurs in: (1) Independent sentences or main clauses to form the present or perfect conditional in the 2nd and 3rd persons singular and plural: She would like to see him. She would have liked to see him. (2) subordinate clauses: a) Object clauses after wish: i. It expresses a not very hopeful wish about the future: I wish it would stop raining (= but I dont think it would) I wish you wouldnt smoke so much. ii. preference: we want something to happen or somebody to do something: I wish you would turn down the music. b) Conditional clauses introduced by if only: Oh, if only it would rain! c) Clauses of purpose introduced by so that: will is used when the verb in the main clause is in the present tense, present perfect, imperative; would is used when the main verb is in the past tense: Send the letter airmail so that he will receive it right away He wrote the notice in several languages so that the foreign tourists would understand it. I hurried so that I wouldnt be late. d) Clauses of concession introduced by as: Try as you will you wont manage it. 4.2.2.4. CAN/COULD Can / could occurs in clauses of purpose as an alternative construction to may / might. The difference between the two modal auxiliaries is that may / might is more formal and indicates a higher degree of uncertainty; can / could occurs in spoken English and usually indicates a more real action. He was saving money so that he could buy a car.

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6. MODALITY AND MODAL VERBS Modality refers to a speakers or a writers attitude towards, or point of view about, a state of the world. It is centrally concerned with the expression of certainty, volition, possibility and obligation. Core modal verbs (can, could, may, might, will, shall, would, should, must) and semi-modals (dare, need, used to) are the principal way in which modal meanings are expressed (Carter, 2006: 910) The modal verbs are a special group of verbal forms which were originally past tenses but have come to have the meaning of the present tense: can, may, dare, shall were past indicatives; will, must, ought were past subjunctives. Irrespective of their origin and the form in which the modals have been handed down to us, at present they are a limited number of (closed-system) items which have the same formal characteristics. 6. 1. Formal characteristics a) The modal verbs are uninflected: they dont add -s for the 3rd person singular, i.e. all persons have the same form, presumably due to their being felt as subjunctives. b) They are anomalous verbs: the interrogative and negative patterns are similar to the auxiliary be, namely without do (they are modal-auxiliaries). Thus, the interrogative is formed by inverting the subject and the modal verb, the negative is formed by putting not after the modal). c) There are gaps in the tense-aspect-mood paradigms of modal verbs. They are modal defective verbs, i.e. some of their forms are missing: i. They have no non-finite forms (infinitive, -ing forms); ii. They cannot be conjugated in all tenses or moods, e.g. they do not occur in the perfect and future tenses. Furthermore, some, apparently past tense forms such as could, might do not always indicate past time: time reference is sometimes indicated by context. d) The modal verbs are verbs of incomplete predication. That is why they are always followed by a main verb in the infinitive (present or perfect infinitive). Most of the verbs are followed by the short infinitive (without to) except ought to. 6. 2. Semantic characteristics: The modal verbs make up a system of items specialized for expressing the speakers attitude towards the action of the sentence: the action is seen as possible, necessary, probable, befitting. The modals are also used if we want to make requests, offers, suggestions, to be polite and tactful or to express our wishes and intentions. The modal verbs are polysemantic words: each modal verb has at least two meanings, a semantic property also reflected by the syntax of these verbs. Modal verbs can be divided into two main types: a) modal verbs which have deontic (or root i.e. primary) values: modal verbs referring to permission, necessity or obligation: You may go now (permission) I must be careful what I say (necessity/ obligation) b) modal verbs which have epistemic (Gk. episteme = knowledge, i.e. cognitive) values: those which assert the degree of likelihood, probability regarding the truth of the statement. Epistemic modality is concerned with the speakers judgement about the certainty, probability or possibility of something. It involves an assessment of potential facts: I might see you later. (it is possible, not certain) Ill see you tomorrow. (the speaker is certain) This distinction into deontic / epistemic is not confined to the semantic level but it is also reflected in the syntactic behaviour of the two kinds of modal verbs as well: each value deontic / epistemic is associated with a different set of syntactic environments: i. regarding subject selection: Deontic modals select a [+animate] subject only, while epistemic modals have no selectional restrictions on the subject: John must go there at once (deontic). John must be very tired (epistemic). The book must be very interesting (epistemic). ii. regarding co-occurrence with aspect markers: deontic modals do not occur in the progressive aspect, while epistemic modals do: The child may play in the garden (deontic = permission) The child may be playing in the garden (epistemic = probability)

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He must sleep now (deontic = obligation). He must be sleeping now (epistemic= probability) 6.2.1. ABILITY The modal verbs can / could express physical or mental ability to perform a certain action. Can + present infinitive has present or future time reference: Can you lift this box? He can speak several languages. Can you come to the meeting tomorrow? Can is used with verbs of physical perception (feel, hear, see, smell) and mental cognition (remember, understand) to express a physical sense or mental experience that is going on at the present moment, i.e. to form a kind of substitute for the progressive tense: Can you see Tom anywhere in the audience? I can see him over there. I can remember London during the war. (C. P. Snow) Could + present infinitive expresses: i. Present or future time reference with a subjunctive reading (= present conditional), i.e. it expresses a hypothetical value: I could help him (now / tomorrow). I dont know how he works 14 hours a day. I couldnt do it. ii. Past reference: could implies permanent / general ability in the past, i.e. potential performance of an action, not the actual performance. As a rule, there is another past element in the sentence (an adverb, another verb in the past): He could play like a professional when he was young. He could play like a professional ten years ago. When I was young I couldnt decide what I wanted to do. Particular past ability is expressed by could in negative sentences only: I ran but I couldnt catch the bus. The problem was too difficult: he couldnt solve it. Particular past ability, i.e. a particular event which was successfully performed in the past (in affirmative sentences) is expressed by was able, managed to, succeeded in (could is not used): I ran and I was able to catch the bus (a particular event which actually happened on a definite occasion). Although the problem was difficult he was able / managed to solve it very quickly. Could + perfect infinitive expresses past ability with a subjunctive reading (perfect conditional). It implies that the subject had the ability or the opportunity to do something, but he didnt do it: He could have helped us (= he was able to help us but he didnt). The missing forms of can / could are supplied by the appropriate forms of be able / unable to: This is all the information Ive been able to get so far. He said he had lost his passport and hadnt been able to leave the country. By the time he finishes his course he will be able to speak English correctly. If the bad weather continues, the climbers will be unable to reach the top of the mountain. Id like to be able to help you. Other linking verbs as well as be, especially seem or feel are followed by able to: No one seemed able to help. Other verbs which can provide an alternative form for the concept of ability are: manage, succeed in, be capable, know how: He is capable of keeping a secret if he wants to. My grandfather is over 80, but he is still able to drive a car. My grandfather is over 80, but he is still capable of driving a car. 6.2.2. PERMISSION This concept is expressed by may / might, can / could. Asking and giving permission is a matter of politeness, so the forms we use vary in different situations. Can / could is used in less formal situations (in familiar colloquial speech) than may / might to express permission. (1) Requests for permission: When making requests, usually a modal is used in an interrogative sentence:

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Can / could I make a suggestion? More formal requests are expressed with may / might: May / might I use your pen? I wonder if I might have a little more coffee. The forms might, could express a more polite, respectful request for permission than may, can. They indicate some hesitation on the part of the speaker. (2) Giving permission (someone is allowed to do something): a. Present or future reference: Can is used in less formal situations than may to express permission (it is used in familiar colloquial speech): You can borrow that pen if you want to. You may borrow that pen if you want to (in more formal situations) As might and could suggest respect, they are more natural in questions, in requests for permission than in giving it: Could I ask you something if you are not too busy? Of course, you can. Might I trouble you for a light? You may indeed. May is chiefly used to express permission given by the speaker: You may park here means I give you permission to park. It does not normally mean you are allowed to park (by another authority) or You have a right to park. If the speaker has no authority in the matter he will say: You can park here or You are allowed to park here. Can has a wider use than may, for it can be used not only to express permission given by the speaker, but also to express the idea of having permission. In You can park here can expresses both meanings: i. permission given by the speaker (I give you permission); ii. the idea of having permission (You have a right to park/you are allowed to park). Also, in You can take two books with you can means: i. I allow; ii. The library allows it. Refusal of permission is expressed by may not, cannot, or by the stronger modal must not (prohibition): May I go out? No, you may not. / No, you must not. b) past reference, i.e. permission in the past is expressed by might, could only in reported / indirect speech after a past reporting verb: I asked if I might/could invite my friends over next Saturday. He assured me that I might come whenever I liked. The missing forms are supplied by to (be) allow(ed) to, to (be) permit(ted) to: Nobody was allowed to enter the room. Since his accident he hasnt been allowed to drive a car. Shall we be allowed / permitted to use a dictionary in the test? He wants to be allowed to open a bank account. Other means of expressing permission are: i. give / have permission: We were allowed / permitted to go out for an hour. = We had permission to go out for an hour. The manager allowed his typist to leave early. = The manager gave his typist permission to leave ii. to mind: May I smoke in here? or: Do you mind if I smoke here? / Do you mind my smoking here? / Would you mind if I smoked here? 6.2.3. OBLIGATION Obligation is expressed by must, need, shall, should, ought to. 6.2.3.1. Must expresses: (1) Present/future time reference. Several distinctions can be made within the concept of obligation: a) internal / external obligation: - internal obligation, i.e. obligation imposed by the speaker, or derived from the speakers conviction, viewpoint is expressed by must. Must denotes a personal feeling of duty, compulsion, strong advice. - external obligation, i.e. obligation that arises from outside (external authority, circumstances, regulations, orders issued by someone else) is expressed by have to: You must be back by 10 oclock. (obligation imposed by the speaker) You have to be back by 10 oclock (have to conveys obligation generally, without specifying who does the compelling)

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I must go (its my decision). I have to go (obligation imposed by circumstances, e.g. the shops are closing). I have to work from 9 a.m. till 5 p.m. (obligation coming from a regulation, order) b) habitual / limited obligation: - habitual obligation (obligation to perform a habitual action) is expressed by have to; - limited or single obligation (one particular occasion) is expressed by have got to: I have to be at the office at 8 oclock a.m. (habitual). Sorry, Ive got to go now (single obligation). You just got to help me. (have is left out in very informal style) c) in negative sentences a distinction is made between obligation not to do something (prohibition, interdiction), expressed by must not and absence, lack of obligation expressed by dont have to, neednt: You mustnt move any of my papers on my desk. Books must not be taken away from the library. I dont usually have to work on Sundays. (habitual obligation) I havent got to work tomorrow: (limited, single obligation) We havent got to answer all the questions in the examination paper, have we? Must I write the whole text? No, you neednt You neednt work tomorrow if you dont want to. (2) Past time reference after a past reporting verb: I told her she must be more careful. He told us we must all be ready at 9 oclock. The missing forms of must are supplied by have to: The crew had to leave the sinking ship. Did you have to tell her that? Have you ever had to go to hospital? As he was too busy, he had had to decline the invitation. We shall have to hurry or we shall be late. I might have to go to hospital. 6.2.3.2. Need can be treated as a lexical verb or as an auxiliary verb: a) as a lexical verb, need means require and as such it is regular: it takes s in the 3rd pers. sg; it forms interrogative and negative sentences with the aux. do; there is a full range of verb tenses and moods (it is conjugated in all tenses and moods); it is followed by a noun or by the long infinitive of another verb; it is used in all types of sentences (affirmative, interrogative, negative): It needs to be done carefully. He did not need to be told twice. b) As a modal verb, need has no -s in the 3rd person sg; it forms questions and negations without do; it has no perfect or future forms; it is followed by the short infinitive of a main verb; it occurs only in interrogative and negative sentences. (1) Need + present infinitive expresses: i. Present / future time reference: in interrogative sentences must and need are quite similar in meaning, but the use of need instead of must shows that the speaker expects a negative answer: Need I get up early tomorrow? (I hope not). In negative sentences neednt is synonymous with dont have to (it expresses absence of obligation): You neednt come if you dont want to. He neednt worry: Everything will be all right. ii. Past time reference after a past reporting verb: I assured him that he neednt worry. (2) Need + perfect Infinitive expresses absence of obligation of an action which was nevertheless performed (an action which took place in the past but was unnecessary): He neednt have hurried (an action i.e. of hurrying- which is thought unnecessary but nevertheless performed = he hurried but it was not necessary) You neednt have lent him your dictionary: he has one of his own.

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Didnt need to + present infinitive expresses absence of obligation of an action which was probably not performed (an action was unnecessary and presumably did not occur). It is synonymous with didnt have to: He didnt need to hurry (it was unnecessary for him to hurry and probably he didnt hurry). 6.2.3.3. Should and ought to are less categorical, forceful equivalents of must in the sense of obligation. Both modals denote recommendation, advisability, duty rather than obligation (they mean it is proper, it is advisable). Therefore they are preferred in those contexts in which must would sound too peremptory. Although should and ought to have very similar meanings, there is however a slight difference between them. When we use should we give our subjective opinion, whereas ought to has a rather more objective force and it is used especially when we are talking about a persons duty, or moral obligation. (1) Should / ought to + present infinitive expresses: a) present or future time reference: Youve watched enough television: you should go to bed (direct personal statement). Young people ought not to watch too much TV. (impersonal statement). You should stop smoking. (its bad for your health) People ought not to drive when they are tired. b) Past time reference after a past reporting verb: He said that all eligible people should vote. He told me I ought to be ashamed of myself. (2) Should / ought to + perfect infinitive expresses a past obligation which was not carried out; regret or strong reproach of non-fulfilment is implied: You shouldnt have laughed at his mistakes. You ought not to have used his pen without his permission. They should have telephoned to say they were not coming. 5.2.3.4. Other verbs which can express obligation are: (1) Shall in the 2nd and 3rd persons (it has future time reference). The construction is chiefly used in formal style (official regulations, legal documents): Each competitor shall wear a number. Books shall be returned within 10 days. In less formal English, as well as in indirect speech must, have to, or be to is used instead of shall in such sentences: Regulations say that each competitor must / has to / is to wear a number. (2) Be to expresses an order, instruction given in an impersonal way. The obligation is usually imposed by an authority other than the speaker. No one is to leave the room until the examination ends. You are to be there at 8 oclock: when used in the 2nd person the verb often implies that the speaker is passing on a formal order, instruction issued by someone else. Was to + present infinitive is used: - With the value of past arrangement, plan: She was to meet him on the following day. - After past reporting verbs: Mother told me I was not to speak to strange men. Was to + perfect infinitive implies an unfulfilled arrangement, plan or the fact that instructions, arrangements were not carried out: We were to have received our passports last week. She was to have given the letter to the manager but she forgot. In spoken English suppose + present infinitive is often used instead of was + perfect infinitive: She was supposed to give the letter to the manager. (3) The verbs oblige, compel: The crew was / were obliged to leave the sinking ship. He was compelled by illness to give up his studies. (4) Had better expresses the meaning of advisability, strong recommendation. It is usually stronger than should, ought to: Hed better stay here = He ought to stay here; he would be wise to stay here.

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Youd better see a doctor. (5) Adjectives: obligatory, compulsory, necessary, bound: Military service is necessary in many countries. We felt bound to tell her that her son had been taking drugs. (6) Nouns: necessity, compulsion, obligation, need: Is there any need for haste? 6.2.3.6. Prohibition can be thought of as the negation of permission (He is not allowed to do something) or, in a different sense, as the negation of obligation (He is obliged not to do something). Can and may (= permission) and must (= obligation) can all have the meaning of prohibition with a negative: Can the children play here? No, Im afraid they cant. You may not go swimming. (= you are not allowed to) You mustnt keep us all waiting. A weakened prohibition (more like negative advice) can be indicated by oughtnt to (Br.E), shouldnt, had better not: You oughtnt to waste money on smoking. He shouldnt be so impatient. Id had better not wake them up. 6.2.4. POSSIBILITY Possibility is expressed by may / might, can / could. (1) present or future time reference: a) affirmative sentences: may is used to denote factual, actual possibility (i.e. the actual chances of something happening), while can is used to denote a more general, theoretical possibility: Why isnt Tom in class? I dont know he may be ill. They may be moving to Bucharest next year. It may rain tonight. Anyone can make mistakes. Accidents can happen. Can in general statements of possibility has roughly the same meaning as sometimes: Lightning can be dangerous. = Lightning is sometimes dangerous. Compare: I may fly to London next week. One can travel to England by boat or by air. The road may be blocked (= it is possible that the road is blocked). The road can be blocked (= it is possible to block the road). Might and could express a hypothetical possibility, i.e. a more remote possibility or a higher degree of uncertainty, doubt than may, can. Why isnt Tom in class? I dont know he might be ill What you say might be true. If you poured hot water into the glass it might crack. Tom might ring. If he does, could you ask him to ring later? Unlike can, could refers to both theoretical and actual possibility and can be used instead of may, might: I wonder where Tom is. He may /might /could be in the library. (= perhaps he is in the library) It could be true. Dont drive so fast: you could have an accident. b) Interrogative sentences: can is very common in interrogative and negative sentences where may is rather infrequent; may does not normally occur in questions: in the interrogative may is replaced by can / could, is it likely: Where can he be now? Who can that be at the door? Can it be John? (but not in affirmative sentences: *It can be John - in affirmative sentences can expresses theoretical possibility) It may be true. Can it / this be true? He may come today. Is he likely to come? / Do you think he will come today? It may rain tonight. Is it likely to rain, do you think? Do you think it will rain? c) Negative sentences. May / might occurs in negative sentences only when the scope of negation

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excludes the meaning of the modal (the modal verb is not negated), i.e. may not means it is possible that something does not happen: He may not be at school. = It is possible that he isnt at school. They may not bother to come if it rains. = It is possible that they will not come. In negative sentences with can / could the scope of negation includes the modal, i.e. cannot means it is not possible, it is impossible: He cant be at school = It is not possible, it is impossible that he should be at school. That cant be true. He cant be older than fifty. Note the difference between may not and cannot: She may not be at home. (= It is possible that she isnt at home) She cant be at home. (= It is not possible, it is impossible that she should be at home) (2) Past time reference: a) Might and could are used: i. after a past reporting verb: Ann says: We may get married soon. Ann said they might get married soon. He said it might rain. I thought he might like the concert so I bought 2 tickets. ii. If there is an adverb denoting past time: In those days a man could be sentenced to death for a small crime. b) may / might / can / could + perfect infinitive express speculations about past actions, i.e. the construction expresses the possibility that an action happened in the past. i. in affirmative sentences may, might, could are normally used (can + perfect infinitive does not occur in affirmative sentences): I wonder how Tom knew about it. He may / might / could have heard it from John. He could have gone off with some friends. You were stupid to try climbing up there: you could have broken your leg. In certain contexts may denotes the fact that the possibility of the past action still exists, while might expresses the idea that a past action was possible but did not happen (non-fulfilment): Im really worried. He is already an hour late. He may have had an accident (= perhaps he had an accident; the possibility exists; we dont know yet) The child came home alone. You shouldnt have let him do that: he might have got lost (but he didnt). Might + present / perfect infinitive has an additional, derived meaning: it expresses criticism, reproach about a present / past action: You might ask before you borrow my books. Honestly, Tom: Ive been worried to death. You might have telephoned me to say youd be late. ii. in interrogative and negative sentences can, could are frequently used: - interrogative: She is two hours late. What can have happened? Where can he have gone? Can they have missed the train? Yes, they may have. Could the bank have made a mistake? - negative: She cant have gone to school. Its Saturday. He cant have said that. In the negative, the meanings between might not and could not differ: Ann might not have seen Tom yesterday (= perhaps she didnt see him). Ann couldnt have seen Tom yesterday (negative deduction about a past event). Other means of expressing the concept of possibility: a) adjectives: possible, impossible, likely: Its possible that hell come tomorrow (= he may come) Its impossible that he should have said that. / Its impossible for him to have said that. (= He cant have said that) b) adverbs: possibly, maybe, perhaps: Perhaps / maybe hell come tomorrow (= he may come)

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Possibly he has not heard the news yet. (= He may not have heard the news) c) nouns: possibility: Theres a possibility that hell come tomorrow / of his coming tomorrow. 6.2.5. PROBABILITY Probability, supposition, likelihood, assumption, logical deduction, i.e. what we infer or conclude to be the most likely interpretation of a situation or event is expressed by must, ought to, will, would. 6.2.5.1. Must is used to indicate strong likelihood, a high degree of certainty. Must + present infinitive indicates logical deduction, supposition, about a present action: That church must be very old. The children must be playing in the garden. I see a man with a white cane walking down the street: he must be blind. All the lights in Toms flat are turned off: he must be sleeping. Must + perfect infinitive indicates logical deduction, assumption about a past action: He must have left his umbrella on the bus (= I suppose he left it). This house must have been built over 100 years ago. Tom is behaving very strangely: he must have been drinking. Must is used to express logical deduction only in affirmative sentences. In interrogative and negative sentences can is used instead: He must be at least 60.He cant be as old as that. Theres the doorbell. It must be Tom. It cant be Tom. Its only 5 oclock. Conclusions: Diagram showing must (obligation - deontic) and must (deduction - epistemic) must / \ Obligation Deduction Present must (be) must (be) Past: had to (be) must (have been) - In the present, the same form must + present infinitive is used for both obligation and deduction. - In the past the forms are different: had to is used for obligation; must + perfect infinitive is used for deduction. - Must for obligation can be used in the affirmative, interrogative and negative sentences. Must for deduction can be used in the affirmative only. 6.2.5.2. Should and ought to are weaker equivalents of must in the sense of probability, deduction: they express a lesser degree of certainty than must: Our guests must be home by now. (I am certain) Our guests should / ought to be home by now. (They probably are, but Im not certain) Should / ought to + present infinitive have present time reference: they express supposition with reference to the present: Judging by his accent he should be a foreigner. They ought to be (at) home by now. Should / ought to + perfect infinitive have past time reference: they express assumption about a past action: They should have finished by now. 6.2.5.3. Will is another modal verb used to express suppositions about an action. Will + present infinitive expresses a supposition, prediction about a present state of affairs: That will be the hotel we are looking for (= That is probably the hotel). Theres a ring at the door: that will be John. Is his name Brown? Then he will be English. Youll be wondering why I asked you to come. This sort of prediction with will often occurs with conditional sentences: If litmus paper is dipped in acid, it will turn red. Will + perfect infinitive expresses a present supposition about a past state of affairs: They will have arrived by now = Im sure they have arrived by now You will have heard the news = You have probably heard I met them soon after the war. Oh, yes, that will have been in 1946, I suppose. 5.2.5.4. Would is weaker than will in expressing suppositions: Would + present infinitive expresses a tentative assumption, supposition about a present state of affairs:

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Would your name be Brown, by any chance? I dont understand the article in the newspaper. No, you wouldnt. (I didnt expect you would. It is unlikely that you would understand it perhaps because it is too difficult or perhaps because youre too stupid.) Would + perfect infinitive expresses supposition with reference to past time: I met a charming girl at your party last night Ah, that would have been my cousin Mary. Other means of expressing probability are: a) adjectives: likely, probable, sure, certain, positive b) adverbs: probably c) nouns: probability, chance, likelihood d) verbal expressions: expect, suppose, daresay, be going to: Its quite probable / likely that they didnt receive the letter. He is probably the best chess-player in the country. Youre tired, I daresay (= You must be tired). Take an umbrella. Its going to rain (it will probably rain) Negation: improbability can be expressed by shouldnt, oughtnt to, or it is improbable / unlikely that: It is unlikely that there will be any difficulties. There shouldnt be any difficulties. 6.2.6. VOLITION, WILLINGNESS Volition, willingness is expressed by will, would, shall. 6.2.6.1. Will expressing strong volition, determination is stressed and cannot be contracted to ll. It can be used with all persons: a) With a 1st person subject, the speaker makes his own volition and determination felt: Can somebody help me? I will. I will lend you the book if you need it. I will go to the dance and no one shall stop me. (determination) b) With a 2nd person subject, will expresses volition in: i. conditional clauses (Type I). Will has present time reference: it is used to express a polite request or invitation: If you will help me we can finish in time. (= if you are willing to help me, If you are so kind as to help me) If you will wait a moment Ill bring the book you need. ii. questions expressing invitation or request. Will has present time reference: Will you come in, please? Will you help me? Wont you come in and sit down? (the negative form wont expects a positive answer and is, to that extent, more persuasive). c) with a 2nd and 3rd person subject will expresses obstinate determination, insistence (strong volition). It has present time reference and it is always stressed: You 'will have your way. He will go out without an overcoat although the weather is cold (He obstinately insists on going out) d) in negative sentences will not (usually contracted to wont) expresses absence of willingness, i.e. refusal. It has present time reference: I wont do it (= I refuse to do it). He wont take any notice (= He refuses to take) They wont accept our offer. 6.2.6.2. Would expresses volition, willingness in the following contexts: a) With a 2nd person subject would expresses more polite, more tentative willingness than will. It has present time reference and occurs in: i. conditional clauses (Type 2) expressing offers and requests: If you would lend me the book I would be grateful to you. We would be delighted if you would accept our invitation. ii. questions expressing polite invitation or request (would is more tactful than will):

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Would you come to dinner tomorrow? Sometimes the request does not sound polite enough and must be supplemented with other polite expressions like please, kindly, be so kind as to, be good enough to, mind: Would you kindly hold this, please? Would you be good enough to post this letter for me? Would you be so kind as to help me with these parcels? Would you mind typing this letter? b) With a 2nd and 3rd person subject would indicates obstinate determination. It has past time reference: She would come though we warned her it would be rough. (= She insisted on coming) c) In negative sentences would not expresses absence of willingness, i.e. refusal. It has past time reference: He was angry because I wouldnt give him the book (= I refused) When I asked them to help they wouldnt lift a finger. We all tried to stop him but he wouldnt listen to us. The speech act of request can be realized by can/could, will/would, would you like, would you mind in interrogatives: Will you get me a glass of water? Would you take this letter to the post for me? 6.2.6.3. Shall used in the 2nd and 3rd persons expresses volition, determination on the part of the speaker: She shall get her money. He shall finish his work no matter what he says. 6.2.7. HABIT The concept of habit, or repetition, which denotes a customary, repeated action or state (i.e. what is characteristic under certain circumstances) is expressed by will, would, used to. 6.2.7.1. Will + present infinitive has present time reference. It expresses present repeated, habitual actions or characteristic, predictable behaviour. The construction is used when we wish to emphasize the characteristics of the performer rather than the action performed. With this value will is used especially in the 3rd person: Hes so strange: hell sit for hours without saying anything. When nobodys looking shell go into the kitchen and steal cookies. A lion will attack a man only when hungry. Oil will float on water. Children will be children. Accidents will happen. As the construction with will is normal for the 3rd person, the present tense simple is used when reference is made to the other persons: I often sit for hours The present simple is also used when repetition is stated merely as a fact: He often writes to his parents. 6.2.7.2. Would + present infinitive has past time reference: it expresses habitual, repeated actions in the past or predictable behaviour in the past: On Sundays, when I was a child, we would get up early and go fishing. When pressed for an answer he would say it was none of his business. Primitive men would grind cereal grain with the help of two stones. When he had a problem to solve he would work at it until he found an answer. In these sentences we could use the simple past tense or used to instead of would with little change except for a loss of emphasis: When he had a problem to solve he worked (or: used to work) at it until he found an answer. Past tense simple is often used for repetition stated merely as a fact: He often wrote to his parents. 6.2.7.3. Used to + present infinitive has only past time reference. It expresses a customary, repeated action in the past which has now ended. Unlike would, used to implies strong contrast with the present (it contrasts a past state of affairs with the present). Used to expresses: a) an action that was repeated regularly in the past (past routine). With this value used to is synonymous with would:

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When I was a child my mother used to read me a story every night before bedtime. /mother would read me a story When we were children we used to go skating every winter. He used to walk to his office every morning but now he goes by car. Tom used to play football regularly (but now he doesnt) b) a state that existed in the past (to contrast a past and present state). Would may not be used as an alternative: There used to be a house here. I used to think that all Belgians spoke French but I know better now. In interrogative and negative sentences used to displays both patterns (of a modal verb and a lexical one): - the pattern of a modal verb which forms the interrogative and negative without do (did): Used you to play tennis at school? I used not to like opera but now Im getting interested (or contracted form: usednt [ju:snt]) - the pattern of a lexical verb which forms the interrogative and negative with the auxiliary do (did). This pattern is common in spoken, colloquial English: Did you use to play tennis at school? I didnt use to like opera but now Im getting interested. Did he use to live in Cardiff? Yes, he did. You used to live here, didnt you? Notes: - The modal verb used to should not be confused with be used to in which used is an adjective (= accustomed to) after a link verb: be / get / become. This adjectival construction can be used in the present, past or future and can be followed by a noun or a gerund: He is not used to hard work. He is not used to working hard. I could never get used to living in the country. - The adjectival construction be / get used to should not be confused with the passive form of the lexical verb to use, i.e. to be used: He was used to digging so he did not find it hard work. (= was accustomed to) The spade was used to dig a hole in the ground. 6.2.8. Dare is a semi-modal verb, since it behaves like a lexical verb or like a modal verb: a) As a lexical verb, dare takes an s in the 3rd person singular. It forms questions and negations with the auxiliary verb do / did; it is conjugated in all tenses and moods; it is followed by the long infinitive of another verb; it is used in all types of sentences (affirmative, interrogative, negative): He dared to criticize the Prime Minister. He didnt dare to leave the house in case they phoned. No one in the house would have dared to question my fathers statements. As a lexical transitive verb dare occurs with the meaning of challenge: He dared me to compete with him. I dared Tom to jump the fence but he didnt dare. b) As a modal auxiliary, dare is used without s in the 3rd person singular; it forms questions and negations without do; it is followed by the short infinitive of another verb; it is used only in interrogative and negative sentences: How dare you say such a thing? Dare he come without an invitation? I feel afraid up here. I dare not even look out. Past time reference is expressed by: i. dared + present infinitive: He dared not tell his father what he had done. ii. dare + perfect infinitive: He dare not have come if you hadnt asked him. A mixture of the two constructions (lexical and modal) is sometimes found in the case of dare: it is formed with the auxiliary do but followed by the short infinitive: Dont you dare tell lies. I didnt dare say anything to them.

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Nobody would dare predict. MODAL VERBS Ability Permission Obligation Possibility

MODAL

Deduction

Volition

CAN COULD MAY MIGHT MUST SHALL SHOULD OUGHT WILL WOULD

X X

X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X

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THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB (VERBALS) The non-finite forms of the verb do not express the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, mood; syntactically, they cannot be used as predicates in a sentence. The non-finite forms of the English verb are the infinitive, the ing forms (gerund and present participle), the past participle (-ed participle). The non-finite forms combine the characteristics of a verb with those of other parts of speech: a) verb characteristics: - they have the categories of aspect (continuous and perfective) and voice. - syntactically, they can have their own subject, object, adverbial modifier, just as the finite forms. b) nominal characteristics: the infinitive and gerund have traits in common with the noun, i.e. they may have syntactic functions typical of the noun (they can function as subject, object in a sentence); the participle can have adjectival traits. Non-finite clauses contain a verb which does not indicate tense, for example, an infinitive: How can faculty improve their teaching so as to encourage creativity? An -ed participle: You should read the parts highlighted in yellow. An ing form: Coming round the corner, we spotted the old house. 7. THE INFINITIVE 7.1. The forms of the infinitive: a) The infinitive, the base form of the verb, names the action or the state expressed by it, without reference to person, number, tense or mood. The infinitive occurs in two forms: i. The long infinitive / the to-infinitive (the verbal form preceded by the particle to) is generally used after verbs of full lexical meaning, e.g. I want to study. The to-infinitive usually has nominal and adverbial functions in the sentence (it can have the function of a subject, object, adverbial modifier): To know him is to love him. ii. The short / bare infinitive (the verbal form without the particle to) is generally used after verbs either totally or partly devoid of lexical meaning: - Auxiliary and modal verbs (do, will, shall, can, may, etc.): I dont know him. - Modal phrases (had better, would rather, would sooner, rather/ sooner than): Wed better wait for him. Id sooner stay at home. They determined to die rather than surrender. - After some classes of verbs in the accusative + infinitive construction: verbs of physical perception (feel, hear, see); some verbs of permission (let, have); some causative verbs (have, make): They saw him leave. The book was so sad, that it made me cry. When these verbs are in the passive, they are followed by the to-infinitive: He was seen to leave. - In two infinitive structures joined by the conjunctions and, but, or, having the same function, the particle to is placed before the first infinitive only: I want to write and post the letter today. Do you want to have lunch now or wait till later? But the particle to is repeated if emphasis or contrast is intended: To be or not to be that is the question. b) The split infinitive refers to the use of an adverb or other item between the particle to and the infinitive form of the verb: I want you to seriously consider his resignation.

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Some people have objections to this usage on stylistic grounds. Nevertheless, the construction is quite common in informal style: e.g. to flatly refuse, to fully realize, to clearly understand, etc. In Standard English, the split infinitive is absolutely necessary in order to avoid ambiguity or for the sake of clarity. Consider the following sentence: Your job is to really make the plan a success. (Really intensifies the meaning of the infinitive make) While in: *Your job is to make really the plan a success (the sentence is incorrect because of wrong word order) in: Your job is really to make the plan a success. (the sentence would mean: The real purpose of your job is.) He was too miserable to really care about anything at all. He decided to flatly refuse the invitation. c) The implicit infinitive: the particle to is used alone, without the verb if the latter is clearly understood from the preceding context. The implicit infinitive is used in colloquial English to avoid the unnecessary repetition of the verb. This is chiefly done after such verbs as hope, tell, want, wish as well as after some modal verbs such as ought to, used to: Would you like to come with us? Yes, Id love to (= Id love to come with you). He bought the book although I had told him not to. Did you visit the British Museum when you were in London? No, I wanted to, but there wasnt time. The particle to is not expressed when like, want are used in subordinate clauses: Come when you want. 7.2. The grammatical categories of the infinitive The infinitive has the grammatical categories of aspect and voice, represented by the following forms: 7.2.1. The category of aspect is represented by: a) The present infinitive vs. the perfect infinitive: Present infinitive: indicates that the action expressed by the infinitive is simultaneous with that of the finite verb: I am glad to meet you. I was glad I will be glad Perfect infinitive: indicates that the action expressed by the infinitive is anterior to the action expressed by the finite verb. The perfect infinitive is used after: - auxiliary and modal verbs (will, shall, can, could, may, might, must etc). The modal verbs + perfect infinitive express an unfulfilled action: He should have helped her. (But he didnt) - seem, appear, happen, pretend, mean, expect, hope, would like: He seems to have been a great writer. (= It seems that he was a great writer). With to like both patterns are possible to express an unfulfilled wish: I should like to have seen it. I should have liked to see it. - adjectives: glad, pleased, happy, sorry: I am sorry to have been of so little assistance. = I am sorry that I was of so little assistance. b) The simple infinitive vs. the progressive infinitive: The present progressive infinitive indicates an action in progress going on at the same time as the action of the main / finite verb. The present progressive infinitive is used after: - some auxiliary and modal verbs: He may be waiting at the station. (Perhaps he is waiting) - after the verbs seem, appear, happen, pretend, hope: He seems to be following us. (= It seems that he is following us) He pretended to be reading. (= He pretended that he was reading) The perfect progressive infinitive: It is used chiefly after auxiliary (modal) verbs and after seem, appear, happen, pretend:

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He seems to have been waiting for you (= It seems that he has been waiting for us) 7.2.2. The category of voice The infinitive (present and perfect infinitive) has distinct forms for both active and passive voice. The forms of the present / perfect passive infinitive are used when the action denoted by the infinitive is undergone by the subject of the finite verb. a) Indefinite / present passive infinitive: He hopes to be elected chairman. He didnt expect to be invited to the party. The passive infinitive may vary with the active infinitive after certain constructions with be: i. Be + long infinitive: The house is to let (= to be let). Nobody was to blame for the accident (= to be blamed). ii. Be + adjective + long infinitive: The food is not fit to eat (= fit to be eaten). The question is too difficult to answer (=to be answered) iii. There is / was + NP + long infinitive: There was no time to lose / to be lost. There was a lot of work to do / to be done. b) Perfect passive infinitive: The poem seems to have been written in the 18th c. He is thrilled to have been chosen for the tennis team 7.3. The subject of the infinitive: The subject of the infinitive may be deleted (i.e. omitted, not expressed) or may be expressed. (1) The subject of the infinitive is deleted when: a) the subject is co-referential with some NP in the sentence: I tried (I) to read. b) the subject is indefinite or generic: To see is to believe (the underlying subject is the indefinite pronoun one) (2) The subject of the infinitive is expressed / retained in two forms: a) As a NP in the nominative (the nominative + infinitive construction): The Romanian sportsmen / They are said to have won the competition b) As a NP in the accusative: i. The accusative + infinitive construction: I want him to study English. ii. The for to-infinitive construction: the construction contains an infinitive which is in predicate relation to a noun / pronoun preceded by the preposition for: It is necessary for him to go there. It was unusual for him to write such a long letter. iii. The of to-infinitive construction, after adjectives like nice, kind, foolish, brave etc.: It was kind of him to invite her. 7.4. The syntactic functions of the infinitive 7.4.1. The infinitive (complement) as subject The infinitive is used as the subject of: i. Some transitive verbs: require, take (need, require): To play tennis takes skill. ii. Some intransitive verbs: be, remain: To obey the laws is everyones duty. To have made the same mistake again was unforgivable. The infinitive can be placed first in the sentence (as in the examples above), but in contemporary English it is usually moved to the end of the sentence and the sentence begins with the pronoun it (called preparatory or introductory-anticipatory it). The transformation is called extraposition of the infinitive. It takes skill to play tennis. It is everyones duty to obey the laws. It remains to choose the method.

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Complex constructions (complex subject): The infinitive as subject of the sentence may have its own subject expressed by a NP in the nominative or accusative. a) a NP in the nominative (the nominative with infinitive): The construction expressed by a NP in the nominative + to- infinitive has the syntactic function of complex subject, being equivalent to a subject clause. In the case of nominative + infinitive construction, the nominative and the infinitive make up one semantic unit, one clause, which can be paraphrased using an indicative that-clause: Tom appears to speak fluent English. It appears that Tom speaks fluent English. The nominative is semantically related only to the infinitive verb, and in no way depends on the main clause verb. The most common verbs that trigger this pattern (that can have a complex subject expressed by a NP nom. + infinitive) are: i. transitive verbs in the passive voice (i.e. most verbs which in the active voice are followed by an accusative + infinitive): - verbs of mental activity: believe, consider, expect, imagine, know, suppose, think, understand: T. S. Eliot is considered to be one of the greatest English contemporary poets. (The subject of the predicate is considered is a complex construction expressed by a NP in the Nominative - T. S. Eliot and an Infinitive - to be = It is considered that T.S Eliot is one of the greatest English contemporary poets. In this sentence the relation between the NP in the Nominative and the Infinitive is that of logical subject and logical predicate). The manuscript is believed to have been written in the16th c. = It is believed that the manuscript was written in the16th c. - verbs of physical perception: feel, hear, notice, observe, see: They were heard to have a heated argument. Birds are sometimes seen to fly in flocks. - declarative verbs: announce, declare, report, say, rumour, allege: He is said to be a miser (=It is said that he is) These lands are said to have been discovered as early as the 12th century. The old man was reported to have disappeared. It has been noted that this is a class of verbs which do not accept the accusative + infinitive construction, but nevertheless accept a nominative + infinitive structure as well as a that-clause construction. Thus: He is said to have been a great leader. It is said that he was a great leader. *They say him to have been a great leader. - verbs of command, permission as well as causative verbs: allow, make, order: He was ordered to come at once. She was made to do the exercise again. The children were allowed to stay up late. ii. Intransitive verbs (in the active voice): appear, seem, chance, happen, prove, turn out: Tom appears to speak fluent English. He seems to have left. (= It seems he has left). Do you happen to know Suzies phone number? I just happened to be passing so I dropped in. (= It so happened that I was passing) Verbs such as appear to, seem to, happen to, come to, get to, fail to, tend to, followed by a lexical verb make up catenative verb phrases. These verbs have meanings similar to some of the modal verbs or meanings similar to those indicated by aspect choices. However, unlike modal and auxiliary verbs, they behave like lexical verbs in that they construct their complex forms with auxiliary do, be and have. The catenative verbs express modal meanings, indicating whether something is probable or certain, or aspectual meanings, indicating whether something is achieved or completed: You appear to be a man of many parts, she said. (could also be expressed with a modal adverb such as: You are probably a man of many parts.)

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The quasi-modal meanings of catenative verbs may be illustrated by the fact that they can be removed without any major change to the meaning: Do you happen to know Toms phone number? (or: Do you know Toms phone number?) iii. Nominal predicates expressed by the link verb be + adjective (certain, sure, likely, unlikely): He is certain to carry out his intentions (= It is certain he will carry out his intentions) We are unlikely to get there in time. (= It is unlikely that we will get there in time) b) a NP in the accusative, preceded by prepositions: i. For + NP acc. + to-infinitive (the subject of the infinitive is expressed by a NP in the accusative preceded by the preposition for): For me to believe such a thing is difficult / It is difficult for me to believe such a thing. (In either case with or without extraposition the subject of the predicate is difficult is a complex construction expressed by the infinitive to believe + its own subject me preceded by the preposition for: for me to believe). The complex subject for + NP acc + to-infinitive occurs when the predicate of the sentence is expressed by a link verb (be) + adjective (advisable, difficult, easy, essential, important, impossible, necessary) It is advisable for him to learn foreign languages. It is important for a witness to speak the truth. ii. Of + NP acc + to-infinitive (the subject of the infinitive is expressed by a NP in the accusative preceded by the preposition of). This complex subject occurs when the predicate is expressed by a link verb (be) + adjective (which denotes human qualities: brave, clever, foolish, kind, nice, sensible, silly, stupid, wise): It was nice of him to help her. It was foolish of her to drive without a licence. c) A special construction is represented by the infinitive as subject of a predicate expressed by be + adjective (difficult, easy, hard, interesting, nice, pleasant, tough, etc). These adjectives can be used in two related patterns: i. With the introductory pronoun it and extraposition of the infinitive: It is difficult to learn the poem. It is not easy to understand relativity theory. It is very nice to talk to her. It is not easy to get on with John. What these sentences have in common is the fact that the infinitive as subject is followed by an object (direct, indirect, prepositional object). ii. Such sentences may undergo a transformation according to which the object of the infinitive becomes the new subject of the sentence: - The direct object becomes the subject: The poem is difficult to learn. Relativity theory is not easy to understand. - The indirect/prepositional object becomes the subject (the infinitive retains the preposition): She is a nice person to talk to. John is not an easy person to get on with. 7.4.2. The infinitive as predicative (complement): The infinitive is the nominal part of a predicate expressed by the link verb be: His wish is to become a pilot. Her goal is to get good marks. The subject of the infinitive can be expressed through the construction for to-infinitive: The best thing is for him to agree. The tendency is for instruction to be more specialized. This construction alternates with a that-clause with should: The best thing is that he should agree. 7.4.3. The infinitive as attribute (noun modifier): Many nouns have their meaning completed by means of an infinitive. The infinitive can function as an attribute after the following classes of nouns (NP antecedents):

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a) The infinitive as an appositive complement, after some abstract nouns (derived from verbs or adjectives): ambition, attempt, decision, desire, difficulty, intention, order, reason, wish, etc: He announced his decision to resign. His ambition to be an actor was never fulfilled. A serious attempt is made to remedy the situation. (The infinitive may be separated from its noun by a verb). b) The infinitive is a reduction of a relative clause after the following classes of NP antecedents: i. NPs determined by a superlative, an ordinal numeral (the first, the second, the last, etc.), the only: Amundsen was the first man to reach the South Pole (the first man who reached). He is the second man to be killed in this way. The best place to go to is the Danube Delta. This is the coldest winter to have occurred within living memory. The ticking of the clock was the only sound to be heard. ii. NPs determined by indefinite determiners (a, some, many) or expressed by indefinite pronouns. The infinitive is a reduction of a relative clause which, if expressed, would contain a modal verb (can, must, should): I have a lot of letters to answer. (= which I must answer) There were so many problems to settle. (= that had to be settled) The infinitive retains the preposition which would have occurred in the relative clause: One of the problems in some areas is that children have no parks to play in (= no parks in which they can play) I need a pen to write with. I need a sheet of paper to write on. We have more important things to worry about. The subject of the infinitive can be expressed through the construction for to-infinitive: The first thing for him to do is to ring them up. There was a chance for her to turn over a new leaf. There are plenty of toys for the children to play with. 7.4.4. The Infinitive as object Infinitives often function as direct objects after some transitive verbs: a) Transitive verbs followed by an infinitive only: afford, fail, manage, prepare, threaten: I cant afford to buy the car. He managed to finish his work early. b) Transitive verbs followed by an infinitive or a that-clause: i. verbs of communication: claim, pretend, promise, swear: He claimed to be the owner of the land. (= He claimed that he was the owner...) I promised to wait. (= I promised that I would wait) He swore to have his revenge. ii. verbs such as agree, arrange, decide, forget, hope are followed by an infinitive if the subjects are co-referential or by a that-clause if there are different subjects: They have decided to repeat the experiment. They have decided that the experiment should be repeated. I arranged to meet John. I arranged that John should meet the delegation. c) Transitive verbs followed by an infinitive or a wh-clause Verbs such as explain, know, show, tell are followed by a wh-clause (introduced by an interrogative pronoun or adverb when, where, what, who, why, how). Such a clause is reduced to an infinitive provided the subject of the wh-clause is co-referential with some NP in the main clause: I dont know what I should do. I dont know what to do. Tom told me where I could find it. Tom told me where to find it. But in: I dont know what you should do the wh-clause cant be reduced to an infinitive because the subject of the clause is not co-referential with any NP in the main clause. The verbs know, learn, teach are followed by how to- infinitive: She knows how to captivate her audience. He taught me how to catch butterflies.

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d) Certain adjectives: afraid, glad, happy, pleased, sorry, surprised can be followed by an infinitive, a that-clause or a prepositional object: I am glad to hear the news. I am glad that you have succeeded. I am glad of your success. f) Complex constructions (the accusative + infinitive construction: the complex object) Some transitive verbs are followed by a NP in the accusative + infinitive. The NP acc. is the grammatical object of the finite verb and at the same time the logical subject of the infinitive. In this case the relation between the NP acc. and the infinitive is similar to that of subject and predicate. The construction has the syntactic function of complex object and it occurs after the following classes of transitive verbs: - Verbs expressing physical perception: feel, hear, notice, observe, see, watch (the verbs are followed by the short infinitive): I saw him get off the bus (= I saw that he got off She felt her hands tremble. I heard the bomb explode. Note: When the verbs see, feel indicate mental not physical perceptions they cannot be followed by an accusative + infinitive but take an object clause: I see (that) you dont understand me. I felt that he disliked it. - Verbs expressing wishes, feelings (verbs of liking and disliking): like, love, prefer, want, wish (the verbs are followed by the long infinitive): I dont want him to go there. Would you like me to wait till he comes? I dont want there to be any mistakes. - Verbs expressing mental activity: assume, believe, consider, expect, imagine, know, suppose, think, understand (the verbs are followed by the long infinitive): They didnt expect his poems to be such a success. I expect there to be no argument about this. They believed his intentions to have been misrepresented by his enemies. With most of these verbs the accusative + infinitive construction is found in the formal style, while a that-clause is preferred in spoken English: They consider him to be the best candidate (formal) They consider that he is the best candidate. (colloquial) - Verbs expressing permission, order: allow, permit, have, let, force, order (the long infinitive is used except after have and let): Some people let their children stay up late. Let there be an end of this misunderstanding. I wont have you speak like this (have = allow, permit) They dont allow people to smoke in the library. The captain ordered his soldiers to advance. - Causative verbs: cause, determine, get, have, make (the long infinitive is used except after have and make): What makes you think so? Ill have him answer for his carelessness. I had my friend drive me to the station. He tried to get me to sign an agreement but I refused. - The infinitive has its own subject expressed by a NP in the accusative preceded by for + toinfinitive construction. It occurs after: i. Be + adjective (anxious, delighted, pleased, sorry): They were anxious for him to begin the experiment. I would be sorry for you to think that. The same meaning can be expressed by a that-clause: They were anxious that he should begin the experiment. ii. Verbs + the obligatory preposition for (arrange, long, provide, wait):

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They arranged for him to come. She longed for him to say something. We cannot wait for the weather to change. 7.4.5. The infinitive as adverbial modifier As will be seen, the infinitive is frequently used in adverbial clauses that express potential rather than real action. It is thus used in adverbial clauses of purpose, adverbial clauses of result, as well as in a few other cases, for instance, unreal comparative clauses, conditionals, clauses of exception. 7.4.5.1. Adverbial modifier of purpose The to-infinitive qualifies a verb expressing the function of adverbial modifier of purpose: He ran to get to school in time. He bought a book to read on the train. The infinitive may qualify a whole sentence and, in this case, it usually has initial (front) position: To obtain good results, the treatment must be repeated daily. In writing and formal style the idea of purpose may be emphasized by in order to or so as placed before the long infinitive: He ran in order to get to school in time. I left early so as to catch the train. In negative sentences in order not to, so as not to are preferred to the long infinitive alone: Youd better repeat the words every day in order not to forget them. He came in quietly so as not to wake the child. The complex construction for+ to-infinitive is used when the action expressed by the infinitive has its own subject different from that of the finite verb: He bought a book for me to read on the train. The policeman blew his whistle for the cars to stop. She closed the window for the children not to catch a cold. 7.4.5.2. Adverbial modifier of result There are several patterns in which the infinitive has this function: a) The subject of the finite verb is also the subject of the infinitive (the infinitive has an active meaning): i. Too + adj. / adv. + infinitive (the adverb too implies a negative result): He is too young to understand (= He is so young that he cant understand) Grannie is too old to travel. The news is too good to be true. ii. Adj./ adv.+ enough+ infinitive (enough implies a positive result): I am strong enough to lift that box. He spoke slowly enough to be understood. We can comment on a sentence as Ann passed the test yesterday in two ways: Ann was too clever to fail the test. Ann was clever enough to pass the test. iii. So + adj./ adv. + as + infinitive: The rain was so heavy as to make our picnic impossible. His demeanour was so cold as to be almost inhuman. He was not so stupid as to give you the money. The last two patterns (ii. and iii.) are also quite common as a request form i.e. in questions expressing a polite request: Would you be kind enough to open the window? Or: Would you be so kind as to open the window? b) The subject of the finite verb is the object of the infinitive (the infinitive has a passive meaning): The coffee is too hot to drink. = The coffee is so hot that it cant be drunk. / The coffee is so hot that one/we cant drink it. c) The subject of the finite verb is (at the same time) the prepositional object of the infinitive: The grass was too wet to sit on. (= The grass was so wet that we / one couldnt sit on it.) The light was too weak to read by. = The light was so weak that one / we couldnt read by it. d) The complex construction for + to-infinitive is used when the infinitive has a subject of its own: The box was light enough for me to carry. =The box was so light that I was able to carry it.

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The teacher spoke slowly enough for everyone to understand. The book was too difficult for me to read. He spoke too quickly for them to understand. e) The infinitive can express unexpected consequences, mainly with such verbs as find, hear, learn, see. The finite verb and the infinitive are in relation of coordination or subordination (temporal clause): He awoke with a start to find the whole house on fire. = When he awoke he found the whole house on fire. He returned home to learn that his daughter had just become engaged. If preceded by only, the infinitive emphasizes unpleasant consequences, a disappointing sequel: The pilot survived the crash only to die in the desert. = coordination: The pilot survived the crash but died in the desert. 7.4.5.3. Adverbial modifier of condition: To hear him talk, youd think he knows all about the subject. 7.4.5.4. Adverbial modifier of comparison i. after than, as: He liked nothing better than to be the first with bad news. ii. unreal comparison, after as though: She opened her lips as though to speak. 7.4.5.5. Adverbial modifier of exception He did nothing but laugh. 7.4.6. The infinitive in parenthetic constructions. These constructions modify the whole sentence: to be honest, to be (quite) frank, to be honest, to tell the truth, to be sure, to begin with, to make a long story short, to put it mildly: To tell the truth, I dont like her. To be honest, I hate the man. There are too many difficulties: to begin with, where is the money to come from?

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THE ING FORMS The ing forms are derived from a base form of a verb by means of the suffix ing. There are two homonymous ing forms: the gerund and the present participle. Although identical in form, they have different functions according to the contexts in which they occur. Thus, the gerund has nominal functions, while the participle serves as a verb or an adjective, e.g. a sleeping pill, i.e. a pill for sleeping (gerund); a sleeping child, i.e. a child who sleeps (participle). Note: The ing forms of the verb should not be confused with the ing nouns and ing adjectives. Thus: i. The ing nouns often have plural forms: feeling (s), building(s); they can be determined by the definite/indefinite articles (the/a), by an adjective or a noun: the / her beautiful singing, an oil painting. ii. The ing adjectives are often determined by adverbs of degree such as very, quite, so, too: very / quite surprising; so charming. 8. THE GERUND In some grammar books (see Carter & McCarthy, 2006: 905), the term gerund refers only to the verb form ending in ing which functions as a noun (also termed verbal noun or ing noun, e.g. Smoking is hazardous to health; No eating or drinking in the library). 8.1. The characteristic feature of the gerund is its double function: nominal and verbal. a. Nominal characteristics: A gerund has most of the syntactic properties of a noun: i. It may be accompanied, i.e. modified by some noun determiners: possessive or demonstrative adjectives, nouns in the synthetic genitive: Her / Anns coming in interrupted our discussion ii. It is used after prepositions: There are two ways of solving the problem. iii. The gerund can perform the syntactic functions of subject or object in the sentence. b. Verbal characteristics: i. A gerund may be determined by an adverb, adverbial phrase, and in the case of transitive verbs it may take an object: Id suggest leaving earlier (adverb) Reading books is a useful pastime (object) ii. It may have a subject of its own: He insists on your seeing him. iii. It has the grammatical categories of aspect and voice. 8.2. The grammatical categories of the gerund. The gerund has the grammatical categories of aspect (perfective) and voice. Thus, it has the following forms: Active: Indefinite gerund: helping; Perfect gerund: having helped Passive: Indefinite gerund: being helped; Perfect gerund: having been helped. The indefinite gerund (whether active or passive) denotes an action simultaneous with the finite verb (which may be in the present, past, future). Active: He enjoys reading novels. Passive: He insisted on being admitted. I object to being treated like a child. The perfect gerund (active or passive) denotes an action anterior to that of the finite verb: He admitted having read very little about the subject. (= that he had read very little ) He denied having taken the book. The safe showed no signs of having been touched. After some verbs excuse, forgive, remember, thank anteriority may be expressed by means of the indefinite gerund:

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I cant remember doing / having done this exercise before. I thanked him for helping / having helped me. With some verbs wont / doesnt bear, deserve, need, require, want (= require), be worth the active gerund is used with a passive meaning. The verbs can be followed by an active -ing form structure although the grammatical subject is the affected participant of the process denoted by the verb, thus creating a meaning similar to a passive voice structure: The pictures dark, very dark. It needs restoring (= it should be restored) Your jacket wants cleaning (= it should be cleaned) My shoes need / want mending. That book isnt worth reading. His opinions wont bear repeating in public. 8.3. The subject of the gerund may be deleted (i.e. omitted) or may be retained. (1) The subject of the gerund is deleted: a) When it is co-referential with some NP in the sentence: He insists on seeing you. I am glad of having met you. b) It is indefinite, generic (the underlying subject is the indefinite pronoun one): Playing with fire is dangerous. (2) The subject of the gerund is retained (i.e. it is expressed) if it is different from that of the finite verb. The subject of the gerund takes the form of: a) a NP in the possessive case: a possessive determiner or a noun in the synthetic genitive. The construction is used only with animate nouns. The possessive form is used particularly when the gerund is the subject of the sentence: Toms / His coming home so late must have worried you b) a NP in the objective case: a personal pronoun in the accusative or a noun without s. This form occurs: - in colloquial, informal English, if the gerund functions as the grammatical object of the sentence: Do you mind my / me making a suggestion? (formal / informal English). It all depends on Johns / John coming in time. - with certain types of NPs which cant take the s: inanimate nouns, demonstrative pronouns, compound constructions, the formal subject there etc: He couldnt bear the idea of the house being sold. I dont remember any of them saying that. I remember a friend of mine going on such a trip. 8.4. The distribution of the gerund (The syntactic functions of the gerund): The gerund may occur in all the functions of the ordinary noun. 8.4.1. The gerund as subject: a) The gerund has an unspecified, indefinite subject one: Smoking is not allowed in the lecture hall. Reading poetry improves the mind. Beating a child will do more harm than good. b) The subject of the gerund is expressed by means of a NP in the possessive case: His/Johns arriving so late must have worried you. His/Toms refusing to help his friend amazed us. Your trying to convince him was obvious. From the syntactic point of view the NP in the possessive case + gerund construction has the function of a complex subject. Gerunds as subject often acquire a factive interpretation: they can be paraphrased by the construction: the fact that= The fact that he / Tom refused to help his friend amazed us. c) Comparison between the gerund and the infinitive: i. Since both the gerund and the infinitive can act as subject in a large number of cases either form is used: Reading French is easier than speaking it. It is easier to read French than to speak it. Finding a job is difficult.

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It is difficult to find a job. It is difficult to formulate hard and fast rules of choice between the two forms, but it is often suggested that the gerund is of a more general, abstract character than the infinitive; the infinitive refers to something restricted to a particular moment, situation: Lying is a vice. (general) To lie about it would only make matters worse. (particular) ii. Extraposition of the gerund: Most infinitives having the function of a subject are usually extraposed. Extraposition of gerunds is not applied due to the high degree of nouniness of gerunds: the gerund evinces features characteristic of a noun in a higher degree than the Infinitive: It isnt easy to learn a foreign language / Learning a foreign language isnt easy. Nevertheless, extraposition of the gerund is allowed with certain constructions: be + adjective / noun (nice, useless, good, worth (while); use, pleasure). The gerund is introduced by the introductory anticipatory it: It was nice seeing you. Its no use asking her: she doesnt know anything Its no good worrying. Its not worth mentioning. Its been a pleasure meeting you. 8.4.2. The gerund as predicative (complement): The gerund is used as the nominal part of a predicate (the link verb be): Our aim is mastering English. Her favourite pastime is reading magazines. Seeing is believing. 8.4.3. The gerund as premodifier: dining room; sleeping car; walking stick; blotting paper; swimming pool. 8.4.4. The gerund as object: The gerund is used as a direct object after a large number of transitive verbs. Since some of these transitive verbs also accept the infinitive as object or a that-clause, they can be divided into the following classes: a) Transitive verbs followed by the gerund only: avoid, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, forgive, cant help (=have no control over), keep (=continue), risk, cant bear / stand: You must avoid being late in the future. My parents kept encouraging me. He narrowly escaped being run over. I cant help laughing at his jokes. Fancy meeting you here. I cant stand being interrupted in my work. No one enjoys being disturbed in the middle of the night. Some transitive verbs (excuse, forgive) are followed by a complex object (NP in the possessive + gerund)) or by an objective case + prep. + gerund: Please excuse my being / coming late. 0r: Please excuse me for being / coming late. Forgive my interrupting you. Forgive me for interrupting you. b) Some transitive verbs such as admit, deny, imagine, mind, suggest are followed by a gerund or a that-clause: He admitted having read very little about the subject. (= He admitted that he had read very little about the subject ) They suggested his applying for the job. (=They suggested that he (should) apply for the job) c) Verbs followed by either the gerund or the infinitive. These verbs constitute an interesting class since this syntactic difference sometimes correlates with a difference in the meaning of the two constructions:

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- After the aspectual verbs begin, cease, continue, start the gerund and the infinitive are interchangeable in a large number of contexts: It started raining / to rain. He started giving / to give a long explanation to the police officer. Our business has continued expanding / to expand during the last two years. When begin, start are used in the progressive forms, the infinitive is preferred (to avoid the repetition of ing): Its beginning to rain. Nevertheless, the gerund is preferred when we refer to a deliberate action, while the Infinitive refers to an involuntary action (with verbs of mental activity: know, realize, understand): He began writing / studying. (deliberate action). He began to understand / to realize his mistake. (involuntary action) - After verbs denoting likes and dislikes (adore, hate, like, love, prefer), the infinitive indicates an action referring to a particular occasion, a single event while the gerund indicates a general action (the gerund is more general in meaning): I hate saying good-bye. I hate to say it but I dont like your plan. I like reading novels when I have time. Id like to read a novel now. I prefer staying quietly at home to going out. Come and see a film tonight. No, thanks. I prefer to stay at home. When love, like, prefer are used in the conditional (would love / like / prefer) the verbs are followed by the infinitive. - After the verbs forget, remember, regret the gerund points to the past (it refers to an action anterior to that of the finite verb). The gerund has a factive interpretation, i.e. it may be paraphrased by the fact that. The infinitive points to the future: it refers to an action that happens after the action of the finite verb: I remember giving him the book. (= I remember that I gave him the book) I must remember to give him the book. I shall never forget attending the performance. Dont forget to phone him tonight. I regret saying it wasnt true. (= I regret that Ive said it) I regret to say that it wasnt true (= Im sorry but I must now say) - to try is followed by an infinitive when it means to make an attempt/effort; it is followed by the gerund when it means to test, to make an experiment: I once tried to learn Japanese. Try cleaning the stain with petrol. Try putting in some vinegar that might make the salad taste better. - to stop is followed by an infinitive when it means to halt (it indicates the purpose of the action); it is followed by a gerund when it means to cease: He stopped to smoke a cigarette. (the infinitive indicates that he stopped whatever he was doing in order to smoke a cigarette) He stopped smoking on his doctors advice. (the gerund after stop indicates the cessation of an action: he didnt smoke any more) While I walked down the street, I ran into an old friend. I stopped to talk to him. (= I stopped walking in order to talk to him) When the teacher entered the room the pupils stopped talking. - to mean is followed by an infinitive when it means intend; it is followed by a gerund when it means involve, signify, entail, result in. It is used with an impersonal subject such as it, that: He had never really meant to write that letter. I want to stop smoking even if it means gaining weight. d) Verbs followed by the gerund or the infinitive but in different patterns: - deserve, need, require, want (= need) can be followed by an active gerund or by a passive infinitive. The gerund is the more usual construction; in this case, the grammatical subject of the finite verb is at the same time the logical object of the gerund:

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The car needs repairing. / The car needs to be repaired. The grass wants cutting. / The grass wants to be cut. - advise, allow, forbid, permit, recommend can be followed by an accusative + infinitive or a gerund: When an object (noun / personal pronoun) is present these verbs take an infinitive; if the object is not mentioned the gerund is used: The librarian didnt allow us to talk /didnt allow talking. My father forbids me to smoke in the house / forbids smoking. 8.4.5. The gerund as prepositional object. The prepositional context is the most characteristic environment for gerund complements, being the only context that they do not share with infinitives or that-clauses. Unlike other types of complements (infinitives or that-clauses), gerunds behave like NPs with respect to prepositions, i.e. the preposition is not deleted (omitted) before gerunds and NPs: I was surprised at his excellent knowledge of the subject. I was surprised at his knowing the subject so well. I was surprised (to see) that he knew the subject so well. The Gerund occurs after: a) Verbs with obligatory preposition: abstain from, apologize for, approve of, congratulate on, consent to, look forward to, object to, prevent from, succeed in etc: You should apologize for not having sent the book. The manager approved of the problem being discussed in detail. Does anyone object to his / him being appointed chairman? These measures contribute to strengthening peace. Are you looking forward to going on holiday? Some verbs - aim at, decide on, long for can be followed by either a preposition + gerund or by an infinitive: In the end she decided on buying the green coat. / In the end she decided to buy. The book aims at giving a description of the structure of present-day English. / The book aims to give a description of the structure of present-day English. Some verbs such as insist on can be followed by a preposition + gerund or by a that-clause: I insist on his coming with us/I insist that he should come. b) Adjectives with obligatory preposition: angry at, astonished at, capable of, fond of, good at, keen on, interested in, surprised at, tired of, used to etc: He was angry at being kept waiting. She is used to working at night. A few adjectives like afraid of, ashamed of, delighted at, pleased at, sorry for, surprised at etc can be followed by a preposition + gerund or by an infinitive / that-cause: I was surprised at seeing him there. / I was surprised to see him. I was surprised at there being no one to meet me/I was surprised that there was no one to meet me He felt ashamed of having done so little / He felt ashamed that he had done so little. He was afraid of making mistakes (= that he might make) He was afraid to jump (= He was too frightened to perform the action). 8.4.6. The gerund as prepositional attribute. The gerund occurs after nouns with preposition: difficulty in, doubt about, objection to, opportunity of, pleasure of, cause /reason for, thought of: Some students have difficulty in spelling English words. He has a lot of experience in teaching. There is no harm in working hard. I have no objection to his coming a little later. He did not explain his reason for leaving earlier. I had the pleasure of travelling with them. A few nouns like intention, honour can be followed either by preposition + gerund or by infinitive: She had no intention of going. / She had no intention to go. 8.4.7. The gerund as adverbial modifier: a) Adverbial modifier of time: The gerund is preceded by the prepositions after, before, on:

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The police claim he died after falling and hitting his head. After being rubbed amber obtains the ability of attracting light objects. New drugs are usually tested on animals before being tried on human beings. On waking up he found himself in a hospital ward. On leaving the house he asked me to look after the child. According to Carter & McCarthy (2006: 31), the verb in the ing form is many times more frequent in writing than in speech. In informal speech there is a strong preference for a full finite clause. b) Adverbial modifier of manner: The gerund is preceded by the prepositions by, in, without: He turned off the tape-recorder by pushing the top button He ended his speech by thanking everybody. He resembles you in spending his spare time reading. He left the room without being seen. c) Adverbial modifier of cause: The gerund is preceded by the prepositions because of, for, with: The little boy was scolded for going out in the rain. He soon got out of breath with running. d) Adverbial modifier of concession: The gerund is preceded by the prepositions in spite of, despite: In spite of starting late, he arrived in good time. Im still thirsty in spite of having drunk a cup of tea. e) Adverbial modifier of purpose. The gerund, preceded by the preposition for is used to express the general purpose of things: A corkscrew is a tool for taking corks out of bottles A knife is a tool for cutting with. This is a case for keeping records in. But when we are considering a particular purpose we use the infinitive: I want a knife to cut bread with. Im looking for a corkscrew to open this bottle with I want a case to keep my records in.

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9. THE PARTICIPLE There are two participle forms in English: the ing participle which denotes a continuous action or state (it has an active meaning) and the past participle which denotes an action as a result (it has a passive meaning). 9.1. THE ING PARTICIPLE Unlike the gerund, the (present) participle has verbal features exclusively. 9.1.1. The grammatical categories of the participle: The participle has the grammatical categories of aspect and voice. Aspectual distinctions are made between the present and perfect participle. Voice distinctions are made between the active and passive participle. Thus it has the following forms: Active voice: Indefinite / present participle: asking; Perfect participle: having asked; Passive voice: Indefinite / present participle: being asked; Perfect participle: having been asked. The indefinite / present participle (active, passive) expresses an action simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb: Turning the corner, he ran into an old friend of his. Running across the park he heard someone call his name The perfect participle (active, passive) expresses an action anterior to that denoted by the finite verb: Not having read the book he did not know what it was about (= As he hadnt read the book he did not know what it was about) Having finished the book he went to bed. The patient having been advised by his doctor to stop eating sweets, made every effort to do so. (perfect aspect and passive voice) 9.1.2. The distribution of the participle (the syntactic functions of the participle): (1) With the auxiliary be, the ing participle is used for the progressive forms of the verb: I am working; He was reading (2) The participle is used as a noun modifier: As a noun modifier (attribute), equivalent to a relative attributive clause, the participle can be placed either before or after the noun it determines: a) Before the noun (premodifier): If the participle has no other determination (e.g. object or adverbial) it is placed before the noun. When the present participle is used as an attribute, it usually refers to a characteristic feature of the thing referred to by the noun: rising temperature = temperature that rises; improving conditions = conditions that improve; an insulting remark; Two men were trapped in the blazing house. All sleeping babies are beautiful. Some present participles have become mere adjectives: an interesting book, a charming lady, an amusing story Unlike the gerund, the participle determining a noun can be expanded into a relative attributive clause. Compare: a 'sleeping car(riage) = a (railway) car(riage) for sleeping (gerund) a 'sleeping 'child = a child who is sleeping (participle) Note the difference in pronunciation (stress): When a gerund modifies a noun only the gerund is stressed; when the participle modifies a noun both words are stressed. b) After the noun (postmodifier), if the participle has its own determiners: Do you know the girl talking to Tom? (= who is talking) He looked at the children playing in the garden (= who were playing) The teams playing in the Olympics wear special uniforms. The phone was answered by someone speaking with a Scottish accent.

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As the participle clause does not have tense, it can be interpreted according to the context as past, present or future: When you enter please hand your tickets to the man standing at the door = who is standing / who will be standing). The ing participle clause need not carry the meaning of the progressive aspect: All articles belonging to the institute must be returned = All articles that belong to Children needing medical attention = Children who need medical attention (3) Complex constructions: a) The nominative + participle construction: The nominative with the participle consists of a NP (noun / pronoun) in the nominative case and a participle. It is basically a passive construction, analogous to the nominative with the infinitive construction from which it differs in that it generally implies a continuous (incomplete) action/ state. Syntactically, the construction has the function of a complex subject. The nominative with the participle is used after: - Verbs of physical perception: hear, notice, observe, see (used in the passive voice): The baby was heard crying. A telephone was heard ringing in the next office. The ship was seen sailing out of the harbour. - The verbs catch, find, keep, leave: We were left waiting outside. The ship was found drifting in the North Sea. b) The accusative + participle construction: The accusative with the participle represents a combination of a noun / pronoun in the accusative and a participle. Syntactically, the accusative with participle has the function of a complex object after transitive verbs: - Verbs denoting physical perception: feel, hear, notice, see, smell, watch: I saw flames rising and heard people shouting. He felt his heart beating wildly. I could smell the wood burning. He watched the sun rising from behind the hill. Since the verbs of perception can also be followed by a short infinitive, the accusative + participle construction is anologous to the accusative + infinitive construction, the difference between them being one of aspect. The infinitive suggests a completed action or merely states the fact of an action; The participle implies an action in progress, therefore an incomplete action. Compare: I saw Tom get into his car and drive away. the infinitive suggests that the speaker saw the whole action. I saw Tom waiting for his bus the participle suggests that the speaker saw part of it (an incomplete action). Also: I saw him cross the street (complete action: from one side to another). I saw him crossing the street (incomplete action: on the way to the other side). - The causative verbs get, have: My car is stuck in the mud. Could you help me to get it moving? In five minutes the comedian had them all laughing. The instructor will have her driving after a couple of lessons (= as a result of his lessons shell be driving). Have in negative sentences has the meaning of allow (this use is restricted to the 1st person): I wont have him cleaning his bicycle in the kitchen (= I wont allow him to clean). I wont have you smoking at your age. - The verbs catch, find, leave, keep, send, set: The teacher caught the pupil cheating. They kept me waiting for half an hour. Dont leave the water running. The search party found the climbers clinging to a rock. (4) The ing participle as adverbial modifier: This function is expressed by the participle alone or by an absolute participial construction. The absolute participial construction contains a participle which stands in predicate relation to a noun /

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pronoun in the nominative case, but the noun / pronoun is not the subject of the sentence. The absolute participial construction is quite frequent in literary English. Participial constructions may express the following adverbial values: a) Adverbial modifier of time: Participial constructions may reduce adverbial clauses of time. The present participle can express actions performed at the same time as the finite verb (actions simultaneous with the finite verb): Arriving at the station he started looking for his friend (= when he arrived at the station he started looking for his friend). Passing the shop he saw his friend inside. The perfect participle expresses an action performed before that of the finite verb. The perfect participle can replace the present perfect or past perfect in adverbial clauses of time and emphasizes that the action is completed before the second one starts: Having received their final medical check-up the astronauts boarded their spacecraft. (= When they had received their final medical check-up the astronauts boarded...) Having eaten his dinner he rushed out of the house (or: After eating his dinner ). Absolute participial constructions: Dinner being ready, the family sat down round the big table (= When dinner was ready, the family sat down round the big table.); The authorities having arrived the ceremony began. (= When the authorities had arrived the ceremony began) The participle may be preceded by the conjunction it used to introduce the adverbial clause of time: when, while (the temporal value of the participle may often be defined by the preceding conjunction): While I was walking down the street I ran into an old friend. or: While walking down the street I ran into an old friend. or: Walking down the street I ran into an old friend. He doesnt feel quite well when travelling by plane. He wrote his greatest novels while working as an ordinary seaman. He always sings while shaving. b) Adverbial modifier of reason: Being thirsty, the boy asked for a glass of water = As he was thirsty Feeling unwell, he went to bed early. Being a man of strong views he resigned. Not knowing the language and having no friends in the country he found it impossible to get a job. Having read the book he was able to comment on it = As he had read the book he was able to comment on it. Not having read the book he did not know what it was about. Having failed twice he did not want to try again. Having been weakened by successive storms, the bridge was no longer safe. Absolute participial constructions: The lift being out of order, I had to walk upstairs. The day being fine we decided to go swimming. The weather being unsettled, we had to postpone our trip. There being no further business, the meeting was concluded. He felt exhausted, his self-control having been strained to breaking-point = As his self-control had been strained to breaking-point he felt exhausted. All the money having been spent, he started looking for work. c) Adverbial modifier of manner / means: Using a sharp axe, he broke down the door. (= By using) The participle can express means or manner with respect to the subject: He went out slamming the door. The children came into the room laughing loudly. The manager greeted us smiling politely. The participle is sometimes interpreted as a predicative after the verbs lie, sit, stand: They stood there for an hour discussing what to do.

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He stood gazing at the brightly lit shop windows. The participle is often equivalent to a coordinate clause: Opening the drawer he took out a pen = He opened a drawer and took out a pen. Part of an aircraft fell on to a Somerset village today narrowly missing a group of pupils = Part of an aircraft fell on to a Somerset village today and narrowly missed a group of... The participle can be introduced by as: He is sometimes portrayed as belonging to another century. Absolute participial constructions. The subject of the participle is often introduced by with: A car roared past with smoke pouring from the exhaust. d) Adverbial modifier of concession: Even admitting his explanation, his behaviour cannot be excused. e) Adverbial modifier of condition: Absolute participial constructions: Weather permitting we shall go to the beach tomorrow =If the weather permits we shall go f) Adverbial modifier of comparison: He behaved as if seeking encouragement. g) The participle is equivalent to a coordinate clause: When two actions immediately follow one another, the first action is often expressed by a participle: He opened the drawer and took out a pen Opening the drawer he took out a pen. 9.1.3. Related and unrelated participial constructions. a) Related participial constructions: Normally, the participle relates to a noun / pronoun which is subject or object of the sentence: Holding his drill, the dentist examined the patient. The typist looked at the man dictating the report. b) Unrelated participial constructions: In a number of expressions, the participle does not refer to any particular word in the sentence (as related participles do). Such a construction is called an unrelated participial construction or a parenthetic construction. An unrelated participle is often found in the following contexts: - With certain verbs, when the subject of the participle is understood to be the indefinite pronoun one: He did quite well, taking everything into consideration (= He did quite well, when / if one takes everything into consideration). Judging from recent events the government appears to be gaining in popularity (= If one judges from recent events the government appears to be gaining in popularity). Considering his abilities, he should have done better. - In certain stereotyped phrases: roughly speaking, generally speaking, strictly speaking, judging by appearances: Judging by appearances, nobody is to blame. Strictly speaking, the Isle of Man is not part of the United Kingdom. c) Misrelated Participles: A participle linked to the wrong noun / pronoun is said to be misrelated (it may occur in careless writing): Waiting for the bus, a brick fell on my head. The sentence makes it appear that the brick was waiting for the bus, which is nonsense. The sentence should be rewritten: As I was waiting for the bus, a brick fell on my head Conclusions: Comparison between the participle and the gerund a) If the ing form determining a noun can be expanded into a relative clause, it is a participle, if it cant, it is a gerund: a sleeping child = a child who is sleeping (participle) a sleeping car =a car for sleeping (gerund) b) The action denoted by the participle is carried out by the subject of the sentence, while the gerund is itself the subject of the sentence: Driving around, I met John (participle) Driving at night is tiresome (gerund). 9.2. THE PAST PARTICIPLE

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The term past participle is confusing since it does not always refer to past time. For this reason modern grammarians prefer the term en participle. Compared with the ing participle, its meaning is (relatively) passive: it is resultative in meaning (it denotes an action as a result). The past participle has verbal and adjectival characteristics. 9.2.1. The form of the past participle: i. The past participle of regular verbs is formed by adding (e)d to the base form of the verb: asked. ii. The past participle of irregular verbs is the 3rd form of the verb. 9.2.2. The uses of the past participle: 9.2.2.1. Together with a form of the auxiliary verb have, the past participle is used to form the perfective aspect, i.e. the perfective forms of the verb (present perfect, past perfect, future perfect, perfect infinitive, perfect gerund, perfect participle: has written, had written, will have written, to have written, having written). 9.2.2.2. Together with a form of the auxiliary verb be, the past participle is used to form the passive voice: is written etc. 9.2.2.3. The past participle as noun modifier: The past participle is equivalent to an attribute/attributive clause: i. The past participle as premodifier (placed before the noun): fallen leaves, a written report, a deserted village. A few old past participles survive as adjectives (attributes) in a form different from that of the verbal use: drink, melt, rot, shave, shrink, sink. When used as attributes, the past participle of these verbs ends in en: drunken, molten, rotten, shaven, shrunken, sunken. Drink: adjective (attribute) A drunken man is not pleasant to look at. verbal use (predicate) He has drunk too much wine. Melt: adj. molten lava / steel; pred. The steel has melted. Rot: adj. rotten wood; pred. The wood has rotted. Shave: adj. (clean) shaven cheeks; pred. He has shaved. Shrink: adj. shrunken linen/cheeks; pred. The shirt has shrunk. Sink: adj. sunken eyes / cheeks; The sunken wreck of a ship blocked the entrance to the harbour; pred. the ship has sunk. The past participle of some regular verbs aged, beloved, blessed, cursed, dogged, learned is pronounced with a syllabic [id] when the past participle is adjectival: He is an aged ['eidid] man. He has aged ['eidd] considerably. Dogged ['dogid] determination. He is dogged [dogd] by misfortune. He is a learned [['l:nid] man. He has learned [l:nt] ii. The past participle as postmodifier (after a noun): The past participle is a postmodifer similar in meaning to a passive relative clause: Most of the people invited to the party didnt turn up = Most of the people who had been invited to the party didnt turn up. The man injured by a bullet was taken to a hospital = The man who had been injured 9.2.2.4. The past participle as part of a complex object: The construction made up of a NP in the accusative and a past participle has the syntactic function of a complex object. The construction is used after the following verbs: a) Verbs of physical perception see, hear, feel: We could see towns destroyed by bombing. I heard his name called. b) The verbs find, keep, leave, like, make, order, want: He found the house deserted. I shall keep you informed.

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He left his bicycle propped against the wall. They made their influence felt. I want this work finished quickly. This is a shorter construction instead of the accusative + passive infinitive which also occurs after some of these verbs like, order, want: I want it done at once = I want it to be done at once. c) The verbs have, get followed by accusative + past participle can have two meanings: i. A causative meaning = to cause sb./sth. to be, to employ sb. to do sth. The construction expresses that something is done by someone else for the benefit of the person denoted by the subject of the sentence. The person performing the action denoted by the past participle is either not mentioned or is indicated by a by-phrase: I had my hair cut = I employed someone to do it. I had my flat painted last year. I must have these shoes repaired. If he wont behave Ill have him locked up by the police. When have is used in this construction, the negative and interrogative of the present and past tense are formed with do/did: Do you have your windows cleaned every month? I dont have them cleaned, I clean them myself. Did you have your car repaired? Have can be used in the progressive forms: I cant ask you to dinner this week as Im having my house painted at the moment and everything is upside down. Get can be used in the same way as have but is more colloquial: Get the prescription made at the chemist. Im getting my bike repaired tomorrow. ii. Experience, suffer (usually some accident or misfortune): Have/get + NP acc. + past participle can be used colloquially to replace a passive verb (usually one concerning some accident or misfortune): His fruit was stolen before he had the chance to pick it. The sentence can be replaced by: He had his fruit stolen before he had the chance to pick it. He had his licence suspended for reckless driving. The cat got her tail singed through sitting too near the fire. It will be seen that whereas in i. the subject is the person who orders the things to be done, in ii. the subject is the person who suffers as the result of the action. 9.2.2.5. Adverbial modifier: The past participle construction is a reduction of an adverbial clause. This function can be expressed by a past participle alone or by an absolute participial construction (the past participle is preceded by a NP functioning as its subject). a) Adverbial modifier of time: Cleared, the site will be very valuable = When it is cleared the site will be very valuable The past participle is usually preceded by the conjunctions when, until, once: When asked about it, he refuses to speak. Once taken, the drug has a deadly effect. Once deprived of oxygen, the brain dies. Absolute participial construction: Both sides signed the agreement. That done, the chairman brought the meeting to an end = After that was done, the chairman brought the meeting to an end. This done, he locked the door and went to bed. This task performed, he left the office. The shopping done, they returned home. b) Adverbial modifier of condition: Given time, hell make a first class tennis player = Provided he is given time, hell make a first

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class tennis player. Cleared, this site would be very valuable = If it were cleared, this site would be very valuable. Used economically, this tin will last for at least 6 weeks. The past participle is sometimes preceded by the conjunctions if, unless: If distilled, water becomes quite tasteless. If firmly planted in rich soil, the tree will grow quickly. Unless told otherwise, students should answer all questions on the examination paper. Absolute participial construction: All things considered, it is not such a bad bargain. c) Adverbial modifier of concession: The past participle is usually introduced by the conjunction though: Though unmasked he refused to recognize the facts. d) Adverbial modifier of cause/reason: Weakened by successive storms, the bridge was no longer safe. Accused of dishonesty by the media, the minister decided to resign. e) Adverbial modifier of manner: There are three forms of adverbial modifiers of manner: i. proper; ii. of comparison; iii. attending circumstances i. proper: He bought the house unrepaired and unpainted. ii. of comparison introduced by the conjunctions as if, as though: He kept silent, as if puzzled by my words. iii. of attending circumstances, sometimes introduced by the preposition with. Absolute participial construction: He stood still, his eyes fixed on the ground. The child ran up to his mother, with his face bathed in tears. Participial constructions are not very much used in speech. They are preferred in formal style, in writing: they allow us to express the same ideas as a finite subordinate clause, but with fewer words.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Azar, Betty Schrampfer. 1981. Understanding and Using English Grammar, London: Prentice Hall. Bdescu, Alice. 1984. Gramatica limbii engleze, Bucureti: Editura Stiinific i Enciclopedic. Biber, Douglas, Conrad, Susan and Leech, Geoffrey. 2002. Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman. Broughton, Geoffrey. 1990. Penguin English Grammar for Advanced Students, London: Penguin. Budai, Laszlo, 1997. Gramatica limbii engleze: Teorie i practic. Bucureti: Editura Teora. Carter, Ronald, McCarthy, Michael. 2006. Cambridge Grammar of English. A Comprehensive Guide: Spoken and Written English Grammar and Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Celce-Murcia, Marianne, Larsen-Freeman, Diane. 1999. The Grammar Book. An ESL/EFL Teachers Course. 2nd edn. Heinle & Heinle Close, Randolph A. 1975. A Reference Grammar for the Students of English. London: Harlow, Longman. Crystal, David. 1985. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, Oxford: Blackwell. Downing, Angela, Locke, Philip. 1992. A University Course in English Grammar. Prentice Hall. Duescu Coliban, Taina. 1986. The Grammatical Categories of English, Bucureti: T.U.B. Gleanu, Georgiana, Comiel Ecaterina. 1982. Gramatica limbii engleze pentru uz scolar, Bucureti: Editura didactic i pedagogic. Graver, B. D. 1975. Advanced English Practice. London: Oxford University Press Greenbaum, Sidney, Quirk, Randolph. 1990. A Students Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman Leech, Geoffrey N. 1978. Meaning and the English Verb, London: Longman. Leech, Geoffrey N. 1989. An A Z of English Grammar and Usage, London: Nelson. Leech, Geoffrey, Svartvick, Jan. 1993. A Communicative Grammar of English, London: Longman. Leech, Geoffrey, Deuchar, Margaret, and Hoogenrad, Robert. 2006. English Grammar for Today. A New Introduction. 2nd edn. London: Palgrave. Levichi, Leon. 1970. Limba englez contemporan, Morfologie, Bucureti: E.D.P. Lock, G. 1996. Functional English Grammar, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Murar, Ioana. 2004. The English Verb, Craiova: Editura Universitaria. Palmer, Frank. 1988. The English Verb, 2nd edn. London: Longman. Quirk, Randolph, Greenbaum, Sidney. 1978. A University Grammar of English, London: Longman Stefnescu, Ioana. 1984. Lectures in English Morphology. The Nominal and Verbal Categories of English, Bucureti: T.U.B. Swan, Michael. 1980. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Thomson, A.J., Martinet, A.V. 1969. A Practical English Grammar, London: Oxford University Press. Wilcox Peterson, Patricia. 1992. Changing Times, Changing Tenses. A Review of the English Tense System. Washington.

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