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1 Stiintele Comunicarii Facultatea de Jurnalism si Stiintele Comunicarii Universitatea din Bucuresti Specializarea Stiintele Comunicarii Nivel licenta Strategii

ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Semestrele I si al II-lea Titular de curs: asist. univ. Drd. Aurelia Ana Vasile Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 2 Stiintele Comunicarii Acest material este protejat prin Legea dreptului de autor si a drepturilor cone xe nr. 8 din 1996, cu modificarile ulterioare. Dreptul de autor i apartine Aureliei Ana Vasile. Facultatea de Jurnalism si Stiin tele Comunicarii, Universitatea din Bucuresti, are dreptul de utilizare a acestu i material. Nici o parte a acestui material nu poate fi copiata, multiplicata, stocata pe or ice suport sau distribuita unor terte persoane, fara acordul scris al detinatoru lui dreptului de autor. Citarea se face numai cu precizarea sursei. Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 3 Stiintele Comunicarii INTRODUCERE Cursul Strategii eficiente ale comunicarii n limba engleza urmare?te sa dezvolte abilitati de comunicare publica si de masa eficienta n limba engleza, n domeniile jurnalism, relatii publice si publicitate, prin nvatarea unor tehnici adecvate, a unor repere generale ale eficien?ei n comunicarea publica si de masa. Prezentare generala: Strategii eficiente ale comunicarii n limba engleza este un curs practic, mpletind aspecte care tin de domeniul lingvistic (structuri gramaticale, elemente de voc abular si de stil specifice jurnalismului de limba engleza) cu cele care se refe ra la specificul cultural al presei, relatiilor publice si publicitatii n limba e ngleza. In cadrul mai larg al planului de nvatamnt pe parcursul studiilor universitare, cu rsul este de tip introductiv urmarind sa i familiarizeze pe studenti cu trasaturi dominante ale presei de limba engleza n functie de tipologia media. NOTA: Toate exercitiile si temele prevazute in cadrul tutoratelor vor fi efectua te si prezentate de catre studenti la datele la care sunt planificate aceste tut orate si rezidentiate. Temele predate cu intarziere nu vor mai fi luate in consi derare la notare, rezultnd n imposibilitatea participarii la examen, fiind condi?i e de intrare n examen a studentului. Va doresc SUCCES! Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet Unit 1. THE MEDIA SPHERE PLANET 1. PRINT AND BROADCAST JOURNALISM CUPRINS Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare nr. 1 1.1 Cunoasterea n limba engleza a conceptelor fundamentale din domeniul comunicarii e ficiente n mass media. 1.2 Cunoa?terea unor structuri lingvistice specifice comunicarii mass media eficient e. 1.3 ntelegerea, cunoasterea si aplicarea unor principii si tehnici ale comunicarii ef iciente n limba engleza. Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare 1 Dupa studiul acestei unitati de nvatare studen?ii vor reusi ? Sa defineasca/ sa n?eleaga n limba engleza notiuni si concepte fundamentale spec ifice comunicarii eficiente n mass media.

? Sa nteleaga, sa cunoasca si sa aplice principii si tehnici ale comunicarii efic iente n limba engleza. ? Sa cunoasca vocabular ?i modalita?i de exprimare specifice n limba engleza pent ru domeniul mass media. Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 5 Unit 1. THE MEDIA SPHERE PLANET 1. PRINT AND BROADCAST JOURNALISM Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting n ews regarding current events, trends, issues, and people. Those who practice jou rnalism are known as journalists. News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the "first rough draft of his tory" (attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often record important ev ents, producing news articles on short deadlines. While under pressure to be fir st with their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proofread their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organization's standards of accu racy, quality and style. Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holdi ng government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable. Reporting Journalism has as its main activity the reporting of events stating who, what, w hen, where, why and how, and explaining the significance and effect of events or trends. Journalism exists in a number of media: newspapers, television, radio, magazines, and, most recently, the World Wide Web, i.e., the Internet. The subject matter of journalism can be anything and everything, and journalists report and write on a wide variety of subjects: politics on the international, national, provincial and local levels, economics and business on the same four l evels, health and medicine, education, sports, hobbies and recreation, lifestyle s, clothing, food, pets, sex and relationships.... Journalists can report for ge neral interest news outlets like newspapers, news magazines and broadcast source s; general circulation specialty publications like trade and hobby magazines, or for news publications and outlets with a select group of subscribers. Journalists are usually expected and required to go out to the scene of a story to gather information for their reports, and often may compose their reports in the field. They also use the telephone, the computer and the internet to gather information. However, more often those reports are written, and are almost alway s edited, in the newsroom, the office space where journalists and editors work t ogether to prepare news content. Journalists, especially if they cover a specific subject or area (a "beat") are expected to cultivate sources, people in the subject or area, that they can comm unicate with, either to explain the details of a story, or to Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet provide leads to other subjects of stories yet to be reported. They are also exp ected to develop their investigative skills to better research and report storie s. Print journalism Print journalism can be split into several categories: newspapers, news magazine s, general interest magazines, trade magazines, hobby magazines, newsletters, pr ivate publications, online news pages and others. Each genre can have its own re quirements for researching and writing reports. For example, newspaper journalists in the United States have traditionally writt en reports using the inverted pyramid style, although this style is used more fo r straight or hard news reports rather than features. Written hard news reports are expected to be spare in the use of words, and to list the most important inf ormation first, so that, if the story must be cut because there is not enough sp ace for it, the least important facts will be automatically cut from the bottom. Editors usually ensure that reports are written as tightly as possible. Feature stories are usually written in a looser style that usually depends on the subje ct matter of the report, and in general granted more space (see Feature-writing

below). News magazine and general interest magazine articles are usually written in a di fferent style, with less emphasis on the inverted pyramid. Trade publications ca n be more news-oriented, while hobby publications can be more feature-oriented. Broadcast journalism Radio journalists must gather facts and present them fairly and accurately, but also must find and record relevant and interesting sounds to add to their report s, both interviews with people involved in the story and background sounds that help characterize the story. Radio reporters may also write the introduction to the story read by a radio news anchor, and may also answers questions live from the anchor. Television journalists rely on visual information to illustrate and characterize their reporting, including on-camera interviews with people involved in the sto ry, shots of the scene where the story took place, and graphics usually produced at the station to help frame the story. Like radio reporters, television report ers also may write the introductory script that a television news anchor would r ead to set up their story. Both radio and television journalists usually do not have as much "space" to present information in their reports as print journalist s. Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 7 Journalism's Role In the 1920's, as modern journalism was just taking form, writer Walter Lippmann and American philosopher John Dewey debated over the role of journalism in demo cracy. It is important to understand their differing philosophies. Walter Lippmann understood that journalism's role at the time was to act as a me diator or translator between the public and policymaking elites. The journalist became the middleman. When elites spoke, journalists listened and recorded the i nformation, distilled it, and passed it on to the public for their consumption. His reasoning behind this was that the public was not in a position to deconstru ct a growing and complex flurry of information present in modern society, and so an intermediary was needed to filter news for the masses. Lippman put it this w ay: The public is not smart enough to understand complicated, political issues. Furthermore, the public was too consumed with their daily lives to care about co mplex public policy. Therefore the public needed someone to interpret the decisi ons or concerns of the elite to make the information plain and simple. That was the role of journalists. Lippmann believed that the public would effect the deci sion making of the elite with their vote. In the meantime, the elite (i.e. polit icians, policy makers, bureaucrats, scientists, etc.) would keep the business of power running. In Lippman's world, the journalist's role to the public informed of what the elites were doing. It was also to act as a watchdog over the elites as the public had the final say with their votes. Effectively that kept the pub lic at the bottom of the power chain, catching the flow of information that is h anded down from experts/elites. John Dewey, on the other hand, believed the public was not only capable of under standing the issues created or responded to by the elite. In fact, it was in the public forum that decisions should be made after discussion and debate. When is sues were thoroughly vetted, then the best idea would bubble to the surface. Dew ey believed that journalists not only had to inform the public, but should repor t on issues differently than simply passing on information. In Dewey's world, a journalist's role changed. Dewey believed that journalists should take in the in formation, then weigh the consequences of the policies being enacted by the elit es on the public. Over time, his idea has been implemented in various degrees, a nd is more commonly known as " community journalism ." This concept of Community Journalism is at the center of new developments in journalism as it takes the c lassical approach to the news up to a totally new level. In this new level, jour nalists are able to engage citizens and the experts/elites in the proposition an d generation of content. Connections are essential. In order to create this news room environment everyone must be on the same level, underscoring the importance of equal footing. It's important to note that while there is an assumption of e

quality, Dewey still celebrates expertise. Dewey believes that the shared knowle dge of many is far superior to the one's individual knowledge. Experts and schol ars are welcome in Dewey's framework, but there is not the Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet hierarchical structure present in Lippman's understanding of journalism and soci ety. According to Dewey, conversation, debate, and dialogue lay at the heart of a democracy. John Dewey's thoughts are rendering the term audience in the past, as "audience" implies a passive role in the spread of information. Lippman's journalistic philosophy is ideal in the field's conventional model, ho wever, Dewey's approach is more likely to sustain the profession. 2. HEADLINES AND LEADS A headline is text at the top of a newspaper/magazine article/story, indicating the nature of the article below it. Headlines may be written in bold, and are written in a much larger size than the article text. Headline conventions include normally using present tense, omitti ng forms of the verb to be as auxiliary (and omitting auxiliaries) in certain cont exts actually, omitting auxiliaries -- and removing short articles like "a" and " the". Most newspapers feature a very large headline on their front page, dramati cally describing the biggest news of the day. A headline may also be followed by a smaller secondary headline which gives a bit more information or a subhead (a lso called a deck or nutgraf/nutgraph in some areas). Headlines are generally written by copy editors, but they may also be written by the writer, the page layout designer or a news editor or managing editor. Occasionally, the need to keep headlines brief leads to unintentional double mea nings. For example, if the story is about the president of Iraq trying to acquir e weapons, the headline might be IRAQI HEAD SEEKS ARMS. Or if some agricultural legislation is defeated in the United States House of Representatives, the title could read FARMER BILL DIES IN HOUSE. In headlines short and emotive words are preferred. Make them unique and specific brief, catchy, to the point Each headline must be unique; choose specific details which describe a unique ne ws event. Make them short Headlines are as short as possible. Therefore, articles and auxi liary words are usually dropped Use verbs A headline is at its essence a sentence without ending punctuation, an d sentences have verbs (should be active). Use downstyle capitalisation Downstyle capitalisation is the preferred style. On ly the initial word and proper nouns are capitalized. Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 9 In upstyle headlines, all nouns and most other words with more than four letters are capitalized. Downstyle: "Powell to lead U.S. delegation to Asian tsunami region" Upstyle: "Powell to Lead U.S. Delegation to Asian Tsunami Region". Write in a rather neutral point of view headlines should not be biased in tone or word choice Tell the most important and unique thing Article titles should consist of a desc riptive and enduring headline. As a series of stories on a topic develop, each h eadline should convey the most important and unique thing about the story at tha t time. For example, "Los Angeles bank robbed" is an unenduring headline because there w ill likely be another bank robbery in Los Angeles at some point. Instead, find t he unique angle about the story you are writing and mention that: "Thieves commi t largest bank robbery in Los Angeles history", or "Trio robs Los Angeles bank, escapes on motorcycles". Use present tense Headlines (article/story titles) should be preferably written with verbs in the present tense (even when they are about people who died: X Dies at 85 ). Man confesses to killing 7 in Missouri Associated Press 21 Aug. 2006

The infinitive is used to express future meaning: Police in Britain Thwart Plan To Blow Up Flights Headed to the U.S.; Secretary Chertoff Holds Press Conference , Aired August 10, 2006 - 08:00 ET on the CNN TV station Past Tense: Suspected killer nabbed near Va. Tech, Associated Press /22Aug.2006 Use active voice - News is about events, and generally you should center on the doers, and what they are doing, in your sentence structure. Active voice is "Lea der goes to shops" whereas passive voice, to be avoided, would be "Shops visited by leader". A quick check is try to word your sentences to avoid verbs ending in 'ing' and l ook for 'be verbs', e. g. : 'are going to' can easily be converted to 'will' or simply 'to'. Rather than "More criminals are going to face execution in 2005", i f we put "More criminals to face execution in 2005" or "More criminals face exec ution in 2005" a better sense of immediacy is conveyed. Try to attribute any action to someone "Insurgents shoot U.S. troops in North Ba ghdad" is better than "U.S. troops shot in North Baghdad". Avoid jargon and meaningless acronyms Avoid uncommon technical terms, and when r eferring to a country or organization, use its full name rather than acronym, un less the acronym is more common than the full name (e. g. : NASA, CIA, AIDS) or length is prohibitive. Use comma, not 'and' or '&' Often the word 'and' may be substituted with a comma ','. Example: "Powell and Annan set Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet international goals for aid" could be written: "Powell, Annan set international goals for aid" Headline Vocabulary Newspaper word Meaning aid help, assistance alert warning to be on the lookout for smb. attack criticize axe cut, remove back support bar exclude, forbid ban prohibition be off decrease, appear less than expected bid attempt bite power blast explosion blaze fire blitz investigation blow set-back disappointment boom increase boost incentive, encourage boss / head manager, director bug disease, infection, virus call (for) demand clash dispute cop policeman crook criminal curb restrain, limit cut reduction dash hurried journey Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 11 deadlock failure to reach agreement deal agreement disagreement drama tense situation decry condemn publicly

drive campaign, effort eye look at eagerly, as an objective, or to investigate envoy ambassador fear anxious expectation fight disagreement flee to run away from smth. gems jewels go-ahead approval go to be knocked down; sold (of property); dismantled (of institutions) haul quantity of smth which has been gained, stolen, seized or gathered hike, a hike increase, especially in costs hit affect badly, criticize hold to detain in police custody horror horrifying accident hurdle obstacle jail to imprison key essential, vital kid child killing incident of manslaughter, murder lag, a lag delay, slow down lash to attack verbally link connection loom to approach (of smth. threatening) Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet mob large gang, uncontrolled crowd move step towards a desire end muscle power net to capture no refusal, rejection nuke nuclear ordeal painful experience oust push out overhaul repair/change the necessary parts in a system necessary changes/repairs in a system (noun) panel commission peril danger plea strong request pledge to promise ploy clever activity plunge dramatic fall poll election/public opinion survey press to insist on smth. probe investigation punch power quit leave, resign raid to enter and search rap strong criticism, reprimand riddle mystery, puzzling incident rocket increase row disagreement, argument scare alarm, panic seek to request, look for, try to obtain shock unpleasant surprise shun deliberately avoid Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 13 slam, slate to criticize severely slash reduce, cut an extreme degree smash to break up, destroy

snub to turn down, to reject soar to increase dramatically spark cause, initiate, like the beginning of a fire stance publicly stated opinion storm violent disagreement strife conflict stun to surprise greatly, to shock swoop investigation talks discussions teeth power threat danger toll number of people killed tout praise tragedy fatal accident ending in death urge to recommend strongly vow promise, threaten wed marry win to gain, to achieve woo to try to win the favor of GRAMMAR STRUCTURES The Noun: children, ox oxen, man men, woman women, foot feet, t ? irregular plural of nouns (child ooth teeth, goose geese, louse lice, mouse mice; ); ? spelling irregularities (Nouns which receive -es at the plural form, end in : Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet a)-sh: flash flashes; b)-ss: kiss-kisses; c)-ch: watch-watches; d)-x: box-boxes; e)-z: buzz-buzzes; f)-consonant + o:tomato-tomatoes; g)-consonant + y (y?i):fly-flies; h)-f/-fe (f?v): wife-wives, leaf-leaves. ? nouns borrowed from Latin and Greek (datum-data, addendum-addenda, thesis-thes es, synthesis-syntheses, analysis-analyses, basis-bases, focus-foci, genius-geni i, stimulus-stimuli, trauma-traumata, schema-schemata, phenomenon-phenomena, cri terion-criteria, matrix-matrices, appendix-appendices); nouns that have the same form both in the singular and in the plural: series-series, species-species, me ans-means. Irregular Verbs: understand, be, make, give, think, have, read. PRONUNCIATION: inherent [in'hi?r?nt], coherent [k?u'hi?r?nt] Auxiliaries BE, DO, HAVE I)BE SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST I am I was You are You were He/She/It is He/She/It was We are We were You are You were They are They were II.)DO

SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 15 I do I did You do You did He/She/It does He/She/It did We do We did You do You did They do They did III.)HAVE SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST I have I had You have You had He/She/It has He/She/I had t We have We had You have You had They have They had The Simple Present Use: Habitual, repeated actions in the present; Permanent situations; General truths; Timetables/ official programmes (with future meaning). Time Expressions: (expressing frequency) never, always, sometimes, often, usuall y, seldom (rarely); every day/week . Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet Practice: Article writing: headlines and leads A. Translate the following headlines into Romanian, and mention the English head line specifics that you may identify for each of them. Use a dictionary if neede d. Headline Romanian translation Specifics 1. Suspected killer nabbed near Va. Tech 2. Iran wants to talk but keep nuke program 3. Police in Britain Thwart Plan To Blow Up Flights Headed to the U.S.; Secretar y Chertoff Holds Press Conference 4. U.S. says Iran proposal falls short 5. Annan snubbed, ignored in Iran meeting 6. Turkey pledges peacekeepers for Lebanon 7. Bush touts progress since 9/11 attacks 8. Hurricane Lane roars toward Baja 9. Negotiations on terror legislation snag 10.Thailand's PM ousted in military coup Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza

17 11.Gen. says U.S. may boost forces in Iraq 12.Abducted newborn found; Woman arrested 13.Congress unlikely to pass wiretapping 14.White House said to bar hurricane report 15.NYC mulls ban on trans fats in eateries 16.Footage of Irwin's death will never air, says wife Suggested structure of a story/an article: a. Headline : brief, catchy, to the point b. Deck: optional, possibly a blurb, adds important/interesting info c. Lead: the 5/6 special questions answered (bigger font type) d. Nut graph: (focus graph) par that explains the point of the story what the st ory is about, sometimes replaced by a summary lead e. More Wh- questions answered B. Write a lead for the facts below: Who: Three boaters What happened: two killed, the third injured when boat capsized When: Sunday Where: Lake Harney, Florida Why: High winds and waves How: explained later in the story C.Article no.2 1. He has also resigned from the judicial committee of the governing Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet body of the RAC motorsports council. 2. Magistrates at Blandford in Dorset were told Aspinall had a blood alcohol lev el of 122mg. The legal limit is 35mg. He admitted drink-driving and was fined 1,8 00 and told his ban could be cut by six months if he takes driver-rehabilitation course. 3. Now his career is in tatters. He has resigned as a crown court recorder, a pa rt-time judge, and faces a Bar Council disciplinary hearing which could mean bei ng suspended from practising as a barrister or even thrown out of the profession . 4. In Who s Who he lists his recreations as motor sports and being with my wife and f riends at the Drax Arms the country pub near his home in Spetisbury, Dorest, where he is a popular regular. 5. Aspinall, 50, who worked as a lorry driver before becoming a lawyer, was more than three times over the limit when he caused a crash on Good Friday. 6. A judge s entry in Who s Who listed his passions as cars and drinking with friend s. Yesterday these twin interests landed John Aspinall QC in court, where he was banned from the road for two and a half years for drink-driving. Right order of paragraphs: 1st 2 3 4 5 6th Practice Grammar Structures Insert the missing noun forms (either plural or singular) in the table below: SINGULAR PLURAL analysis addenda diagnoses

priority process Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 19 hypothesis foci phenomena genius , schema appendices datum life teeth woman children stimulus phone-booth letter-box series millenium Arrange the expressions of time in the right place on an axis which has at one end, and 100% at the other end, to express frequency. 100% always ... ... 0% Form: Affirmative (no auxiliary !): Add -s or -es to the short infinitive of the ver b, at the 3rd person singular. Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet Verbs which receive -es at the 3rd person singular, end in : a)-sh: wash washes; b)-ss: miss-misses; c)-ch: search-searches; d)-x: mix-mixes; e)-z: buzz-buzzes; f)-consonant + o:do-does; g)-consonant + y (y?i):fly-flies. 0% marked

Give the simple present third person singular form of the following verbs: smile ; fix; travel; match; go; caress; cry; pray; teach; crash; fry; do; scratch; try ; admit; deny; say; hiss. Interrogative: Do/Does + Subject + Verb ? Negative: Subject + do/does + not + Verb (short form: don t/doesn t). PRACTICE (bibliography) Grammar exercises from: G. Galateanu, Exercitii de gramatica engleza, Editura Al batros, 1980 (sau reeditari mai recente), paginile 6-7, sau V. Evans, Round-up 4 , Longman, 1993, paginile 3-8, sau N.Coe, Grammar Spectrum 3, Oxford Univ. Press , 1995, paginile 6-7, sau alte volume cu exercitii de gramatica. 1.Choose the most appropriate words underlined: A person s life consist/consists of series of responses to stimuluses/stimuli. Each area of human relationship requires/require intensive and extensive study b ased on some hypothesis/hypotheses. The psychologist s functions is/are to discover the basic principles of psychologi cal phenomena/phenomenons. The research datums/data shows/show overt symptoms of maladjustment. 1.Write/Say at least four things that you usually, often, always do, and other f our that you don t do/never do. Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 21 2.Make up affirmative, interrogative or negative sentences as suggested by the h ints below: She/always/approach/a hypothesis/thoroughly. /his parents/approve of/ his behaviour? What kind of data /she/obtain/whenever/she/apply/such a test? A child/ not evolve/normally in an aggressive environment. He/seldom/speak/in terms of/his own life experience. A researcher/usually/show/special interest in the adjustment problems. PRACTICE I. Match the abbreviations in column A to their explanations in column B: A B BBC Bachelor of Arts GOP Object Linking and Embedding TB General Meeting LP Doctor of Philosophy UN Television FBI The United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organisation TV Very Important Person BA British Broadcasting Corporation UNESCO Long-playing record MSN Program Information File IBM The Microsoft Network Hi-Fi Basic Input/Output System Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. The Media Sphere Planet PIF

International Business Machines BIOS Tuberculosis VIP The United Nations GM The Federal Bureau of Investigation PhD High fidelity URL Portable Document Format OLE Uniform Resource Locator (address of a document on the web) PDF Grand Old Party (The Republican Party in the U.S.A., George W. Bush s party) Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 23 THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE Use: The present progressive is used to express: an action in progress at the moment of speaking; a temporary action in the present (I am attending an English course.); fixed arrangements in the near future (She s flying to Paris the day after tomorro w.) annoyance or criticism (with always ): He s always talking too much. Time Adverbials: now; at the/this moment. Form: Affirmative: Subject + am/is/are + verb-ing . Interrogative: Am/is/are + Subject + verb-ing..? Negative: Subject + am/is/are + not + verb-ing (short form: isn t/aren t). Practice: 1. Talk about things that are happening now. 2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets: We (go) on a camp to the mountains next weekend. The birds (sing) ., the sun (shine), and I (feel) .intoxicated now that I (think) coming holidays. Some neighbours .always (make) . too much noise. She (work) ..at the new project this month. 1.The Media Sphere Planet Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 24 Test de autoevaluare 1 2. Arrange the paragraphs below in the right order so as to make up news article s. Start with the lead. Think about a headline and a deck for the article. Article no. 1 (exercise 1) 1.Jack Moore was playing with his friends near his home in Nevilles Cross Road, Hebburn, South Tyneside, when curiosity got the better of him and he crawled int o the eight-inch space under the building, where he became firmly wedged. 2. Firemen used airbags to raise the cabin before Jack was freed and taken to ho spital, where he was treated for cuts and bruising and allowed home. His mother, Lisa, said: He is a little shaken and bruised but apart from that he seems all r ight. 3.A six-year old boy was rescued after he became wedged under a portable buildin g being used as a polling station. Right order of paragraphs: 1st 2nd 3rd Raspunsuri si comentarii la Testele de autoevaluare

Right order of paragraphs: 3 1 2 1st 2nd 3rd 1.The Media Sphere Planet 25 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1.3. Lucrare de verificare Unit 1 The Media Sphere Planet A. Arrange the paragraphs below in the right order so as to make up a news artic le. Start with the lead. Think about a headline and a deck for the article. Whic h of the 13 pars can be erased by the editor in case there is not enough space i n the newspaper. 1. The woman, in her early 20s, scrambled from the Ford Fiesta as it crashed thr ough a low stone wall at the edge of a car park at the Beacon, St Agnes, on the north Cornwall coast. 2. The woman raised the alarm and coastguards launched a rescue operation which at its height involved a Navy helicopter, divers, two lifeboats and a cliff resc ue team. 3. He saw some clothing and the inshore lifeboat was able to pick up the girl s bag floating in the water. 4. Insp Paul Whetter of Devon and Cornwall police said the woman had managed to get out just before the car went over the cliff. 5. The search was called off at 5pm because the situation had become too dangerou s for rescue workers. It was to be resumed at first light today. 6. A neighbour looking after the missing man s mother at her home in the village s aid: She has just lost her only son. 7. We sent our cliff man down to a point about 60ft above the waves, where the cl iff became a sheer drop, said Mike North, sector manager with HM Coastguard. He wa s able to keep an eye on the scene and spotted a lot of debris from the car. 8. A spokesman for RNAS Culdrose added: The first diver in the water said it was too dangerous for others to go in. He was being pounded by pieces of wreckage fr om the car which was being smashed on to the rocks at the bottom of the cliffs. 9. The search operation was hampered by worsening weather and a Navy diver had t o be pulled out of the sea. The St Agnes and St Ives inshore lifeboats could not get close to the spot. 10. She was treated for shock at the scene by paramedics before being taken to T reliske Hospital in Truro. 11. Mr Dunklin is understood to have been giving his girlfriend a driving lesson on Beacon Road, a remote and little-used track near the cliffs. They may have d riven into the gravel-surfaced car park to practise reversing or three-point tur ns. 12. A man was feared dead last night after his car ran off a 150ft clifftop into rough seas when his girlfriend lost control while he was giving her a driving l esson. 13. Andrew Dunklin, 25, from St Agnes, was trapped in the vehicle as it rolled o ver the cliff. It is thought he was thrown through the windscreen into the sea. The car came to rest in 30ft of water and immediately began to break up. 1.The Media Sphere Planet Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 26 Right order of paragraphs: 1st 2nd 13th Bibliografie Unit 1 Belch, George, Introduction to Advertising and Promotion, Irwin, Boston, 1993, p p. G1/Glossary left column, G12/Glossary left column, (IV 82, Library /Biblioteca F.

J.S.C.). Forsdale, Louis, Perspectives on Communication, Addison-Wesley Publishing Compan y, Massachusetts, 1981; Frost, Chris, Reporting for Journalists, Routledge, London, U.K., 2002, (III 163 5, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C. , check the glossary of terms at the end, pp.153154); Dooley, Jenny; Evans, Virginia, Grammarway 4, Express Publishing, London, U.K., 1999 (Biblioteca FJSC/Library) (The Indicative Tenses, Emphasis and Inversion); Hybels, Saundra; Weaver, Richard L., Communicating Effectively, Random House, Ne w York, 1986; Moen, Daryl R., Newspaper Layout and Design, Iowa State University Press, Ames, U.S.A., 2000 (IV 239, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C., check the glossary of terms a t the end, pp.219-224); Newsom, Doug, This Is PR, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, U.S .A., 1993, p.3, (III 689, Library/ Biblioteca F.J.S.C.); Nysenholc, Adolphe si Gergely, Thomas, 1991, Information et Persuasion. Argument er, Bruxelles: De Boeck- Wesmael; Rich, Carole, Writing and Reporting News, International Thomson Publishing, Belm ont, California, U.S.A., 1994, pp.289-295 (III 911, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C.) . Samovar, Larry A.; Porter, Richard E., Communication between Cultures, Wadsworth Thomson, Belmont, 2004; Smith, Fred L. Jr. si Castellanos, Alex, 2006 (2004), Field Guide for Effective Communication, Washington DC: Competitive Enterprise Institute & National Media Inc.; www. IQads.ro; www. Bestads.com; www.britishpress.com. 2. PR, Publicity, Advertising Basic Terms. Press Releases 27 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 2. PR, PUBLICITY, ADVERTISING BASIC TERMS PRESS RELEASES CUPRINS Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare 2 2.1 Dezvoltarea abilitatilor de comunicare publica si de masa eficienta, n domeniile jurnalism, relatii publice si publicitate, n limba engleza. 2.2 Dezvoltarea abilitatilor de receptare ?i producere de structuri lingvistice spec ifice comunicarii media n limba engleza. 2.3 Dezvoltarea capacitatii de a formula n limba engleza headlines/titluri pentru rec lame, pentru articole de presa ?i comunicate de presa. 2.4 Valorificarea potentialului creativ si formarea unor abilitati de comunicare de succes n limba engleza. Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare 2 Dupa studiul acestei unitati de nvatare studentii vor reusi sa: ? Sa defineasca/ sa n?eleaga n limba engleza notiuni si concepte fundamentale spec ifice comunicarii eficiente n mass media. ? Sa nteleaga, sa cunoasca si sa aplice principii si tehnici ale comunicarii efic iente n limba engleza. ? Sa cunoasca vocabular ?i modalita?i de exprimare specifice n limba engleza pent ru domeniul mass media. Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image. One of the earliest definitions of PR was coined by Denny Grisword, publisher of Public Relation News . According to her, "Public Relations is a management functio n which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies and procedures of an or

ganization with the interest and executes a program of action to earn public und erstanding and acceptance". According to two American PR professionals Scott M. Cutlips and Allen H. Center, "PR is a planned effort to influence opinion through good character and respons ible performance based upon mutual satisfactory two-way communication". 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 28 Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an org anization and its key publics to build, manage, and sustain its positive image. Public relations involves: ? Evaluation of public attitude and opinions. ? Organisational procedures and policies keeping public in mind. ? Communication programmes ? Developing relationships, good-will through a two way communication process. ? Relationship between organization and its target publics. Publicity is the deliberate attempt to manage the public's perception of a subject. The su bjects of publicity include people (for example, politicians and performing arti sts), goods and services, organizations of all kinds, and works of art or entert ainment. From a marketing perspective, publicity is one component of promotion. The other elements of the promotional mix are advertising, sales promotion, and personal selling. Promotion is one important component of marketing. Publicity is a tool of public relations. Whereas public relations is the managem ent of all communication between the client and selected target audiences, publi city is the management of product - or brand -related communications between the firm and the general public. It is primarily an informative activity (as oppose d to a persuasive one), but its ultimate goal is to promote the client's product s, services, or brands. A publicity plan is a planned programme aimed at obtaini ng favorable media coverage for an organization's products - or for the organiza tion itself, to enhance its reputation and relationships with stakeholders. A basic tool of the publicist is the press release, but other techniques include telephone press conferences, in-studio media tours, multi-component video news releases (VNR s), newswire stories, and internet releases. For these releases to b e used by the media, they must be of interest to the public (or at least to the market segment that the media outlet is targeted to). The releases are often cus tomized to match the media vehicle that they are being sent to. Getting noticed by the press is all about saying the right thing at the right time. A publicist is continuously asking what about you or your company will pique the reader's cu riosity and make a good story? The most successful publicity releases are relate d to topics of current interest. These are referred to as news pegs. An example is if three people die of water poisoning, an 4. PR Kit, News Releases 29 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza alert publicist would release stories about the technology embodied in a water p urification product. But the publicist cannot wait around for the news to present opportunities. They must also try to create their own news. Examples of this include: ? Contests ? Art exhibitions ? Event sponsorship ? Arrange a speech or talk ? Make an analysis or prediction ? Conduct a poll or survey ? Issue a report ? Take a stand on a controversial subject ? Arrange for a testimonial

? Announce an appointment ? Celebrate an anniversary ? Invent then present an award ? Stage a debate ? Organize a tour of your business or projects ? Issue a commendation The main advantages of publicity are low cost, and credibility (particularly if the publicity is aired in between news stories like on evening TV news casts). N ew technologies such as weblogs, web cameras, web affiliates, and convergence (p hone-camera posting of pictures and videos to websites) are changing the cost-st ructure. The disadvantages are lack of control over how your releases will be used, and f rustration over the low percentage of releases that are taken up by the media. Publicity draws on several key themes including birth, love, and death. These ar e of particular interest because they are themes in human lives which feature he avily throughout life. In television serials several couples have emerged during crucial ratings and important publicity times, as a way to make constant headli nes. Also known as a publicity stunt, the pairings may or may not be truthful. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 30 Publicists A publicist is a person whose job is to generate and manage publicity for a prod uct, public figure, especially a celebrity, or for a work such as a book or movi e. Publicists usually work at large companies handling multiple clients. Advertising "Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted; the trouble is, I John Wannamaker, father of modern advertising. don't know which half." Advertising is the business of drawing public attention to goods and services, a nd performed through a variety of media. It is an important part of an overall p romotional strategy. Other components of the promotional mix include publicity, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards , street fur niture components, printed flyers, radio, cinema and television ads, web banners , web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, taxicab doors and roof mounts, musical stage shows, subway platf orms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, stickers on apples in supe rmarkets, the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the bac ks of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising. Covert advertising embedded in other entertainment media is known as product pla cement. Press Releases 1. When to Send a Press Release We would not be surprised if you are keen to get started and actually write a ne ws release for your company. Excitement aside, you can save yourself time and mo ney if you assess the viability of your release before you start. First, consider when it is appropriate to issue a news release. A news release c an be used when you open a new office; win an award; introduce a new product or service; sponsor an event; or any other such happening. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 31 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza The purpose of the news release is to connect with the media. In fact, the news release is the expected first communication with a media outlet. Perhaps you are looking for a story, interview, or a TV appearance -- the news release is the r ight place to start. However, even if your company meets the above criteria ther e is no guarantee that the media will use your release. Questions to Consider before You Get Started Before getting started, consider the following questions. Don't worry about writing down answers to these questions, as those that relate

to writing the release will be addressed again later in this workshop. Instead, use these questions as a general guide when deciding whether or not it is approp riate to issue a news release. What results do we hope to produce from our news release? Perhaps your company h opes to generate media interest in a new product, or to promote an event that yo u are sponsoring. Outlining your goals from the start will help you assess their viability, and will give you direction when it comes time to prepare to write t he release. What audience will my news release speak to? Business people usually have their company at the front of their mind when considering the news release. However jo urnalists will have the interests of their audience at the top of their consider ations. To be effective, consider this question from the journalist's perspectiv e. Is their anything unusual or noteworthy about the release our company will issue ? Your news release will be more effective if it has a good angle. In a stack of dozens of news releases, is there something about my news release that would catch the attention of the media? Journalists must wade through dozen s of news releases on a daily basis. You can help your release to stand out by e nsuring that it is well written and presented. However you will also want to mak e sure that the content of your release is worth notice. How will our company distribute the release (wires, mail, fax, email, etc.)? You will invest a lot of time into crafting a good news release, and it is importan t to make sure the you have the distribution network to support it. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 32 It is up to you to consider your answers and assess whether or not a news releas e would enable you to achieve your goals. After reading this you may find that y ou are not yet prepared to do a news release, in which case we would suggest tha t you return and go through this workshop at a later date when it is appropriate . (Remember to bookmark this page so you can find it later.) 2. Rules for Writing a Release Now that you have assessed the viability of your news release, consider how to c reate a news release with impact. This advice will help you make your release st and out from the crowd! We've divided our tips into three main section: content, format, and presentation. Content The content that you include in your release, as well as the way the release is written, will play an important role in the success of your news release. Conten t Hints: Style Answer the questions: who, what, where, when, and how. Ensure that your writing is clear, concise, and without jargon. Organize information from most important at the beginning through progressively less important information (the media may only use the first paragraph or two an d they don't have time to wade through several paragraphs to get to the meat of the story!) Write about yourself in the third person, using "he/she" rather than "I". News releases are meant to be informational, not flowery or written like adverti sements. Stick to the facts. Content Hints: Headline The headline should capture the reader's attention and is therefore very importa nt. This may be the one factor that gets the reader to read the rest of the rele ase. Here are some tips to help you create a catchy heading: Alliteration: "Florist fashions fountain from flowers" Use colons: "Wedding Flowers: A new look for an old custom" Offer business or consumer tips: "Local florist offers tips on making Christmas wreathes" Content Hints: Directing your news release 4. PR Kit, News Releases

33 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Ensure you think about the reader or viewership of the media you send the releas e to. Write for that audience. A large news or TV outlet is unlikely to be inter ested unless there is something truly unique about your business. Research the media before you send out your release. See what kind of stories th ey air or publish. When you write your release approach your subject as though you are a news repor ter, emphasizing the news aspect and the facts. When you send your release to a television or radio outlet keep in mind that the re are two factors to be considered: sight and sound. You should therefore consi der writing a different slant into each news release to appeal to the different kinds of media. Content Hints: Tips to make your release more interesting If you can support the fact that your event is the largest or first, for example , you can use these superlatives in your news release. Use quotes and reactions. Look for ways to sell your story: a new angle or detail may help. For example, t hink of the times you have seen a story about someone who graduated from a unive rsity. It doesn't happen, does it? Unless that person is a senior citizen or has ten children or suffers from a disability. Bring your unique angle into your ne ws release. Human interest aspects can sometimes be used to spark interest. Format Layout, formatting, and attention to detail are all important components of your release. Journalists are accustomed to a standardized news release format, and chances are good that this is not the time to do your own thing. Formatting Hints: Layout Use a minimum of one-inch margins on each side of the page, with the body of the text of your release centred on the page. Double-space your press release. Complete the paragraph on one page rather than carrying it over onto the next. Use only one side of each sheet of paper. Formatting Hints: Length 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 34 Make it short. Two pages is maximum, and one page is better. Formatting Hints: Format Do not use abbreviations or acronyms when you first refer to someone or somethin g. Instead, spell out the full name - Home Improvement Services - and then put H .I.S. after it in brackets. The next time you refer to it you can say H.I.S. When you use someone's name say: "Miss Joanne Armstrong" the first time and then "Miss Armstrong" in further references. Use the names of both the city and the province the first time you refer to a lo cation. When you mention a day use the date and year. Type 'more' at the bottom of the page when there is more than one. Presentation You are sending your news release to busy journalists, where courtesy and presen tation do make a difference. Presentation Tips: Keep the release neat and attractive ('easy on the eyes'). Use good quality paper. Print the release on your company letterhead or special news release paper. Proofread the release not once, but several times. Reading the release out loud will often help you find the mistakes you've missed; having someone else read ov er your release is even better. 3. Preparing Basic Information Use the following worksheet to help you prepare y our News Release. Jot down answers to each question, and use your answers to hel

p you write the actual release. 1. What is the most important fact you wish to get across? One technique is to i magine what headline you would like to see if the media picks up your story. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 35 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 2. What is the: - Who? - What? - Where? - When? - How? - Why? of your story? 3. Is there a cost attached to your product or service or to your sponsorship of an event? 4. What special features are attached to your product, service, or event? Is it free? Half-price? The most expensive? Are you part of the fastest-growing indust ry? Is the award for the oldest citizen? The first through the turnstile? The fi rst mutual fund of its type? 5. Are there any restrictions, activities, or hours? 6. Are there any other newsworthy aspects of your event, announcement, activity, product, or service? You should now be ready to write your release, keeping in mind the tips from pas t sections and answers to questions that you have asked yourself. Grammar Structures The Adjective 1.Irregular Adjectives Positive Comparative Superlative good better (than) (the) best ill/bad worse worst much more most many more most little less least 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 36 far further/farther furthest/farthest old older/elder oldest/eldest near nearer nearest/next 2.Short Adjectives (1-2 syllables) Positive Comparative Superlative fast Faster (than) (the) fastest nice

Nicer nicest heavy Heavier heaviest thin Thinner thinnest 3..Adjective + enough Long enough Big enough Strong enough 4. Than versus then E.g.: more than , better than (the comparative); then to express time (afterwards) 5..Adverbs which end in -ly Adjective + -ly : beautifully, successfully; freely; deeply. 6.Simple Past Use: Activities in the past; 4. PR Kit, News Releases 37 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Past state or habit; Past actions which happened one after the other. Time Expressions: (the day before) yesterday; last Sunday/week/month/July/year; three years/a fortnight ago; in 1985; on the 1st of December 1918; then; When ? ; How long ago ? Form: Affirmative: Regular verbs: Subject + verb-ed (spelling: short verbs; verbs which end in cons . + y) Irregular verbs: Subject + verb at the 2nd form Interrogative: Did + S + verb(short infinitive) ? Negative: S + did + not (didn t) + verb I.HABITUAL PAST used to + verb Use: to talk about things we did in the past, but we no longer do in the present . II.FREQUENTATIVE WOULD Use: to talk/write about habitual/frequent activities in the past Prepositions: along, over. Prepositions that show time, place and manner. (see V irginia Evans, Round up 4, Longman 1992, pages 122-125; or Grammar Spectrum, O.U .P., 1995, pages 84-86 or other similar books). Emphatic do in affirmative sentences (imperative, simple present, simple past). E.g.: Please, do come in! The Past Progressive: 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 38 Use: to express: an action in progress at a certain moment in the past; an action that was in the middle of happening at a stated time in the past; two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past (simultane ous actions);

to describe the background to the events in a story. Time Expressions: ? yesterday at 5 p.m.; ? at this time last Monday; ? then; ? at that time; ? the day before yesterday, from 10 to 12 a.m.. Form: Affirmative: Subject + was/were + verb-ing . Interrogative: Was/Were + Subject + verb-ing ? Negative: Subject + was/were + not + verb-ing .(short form: wasn t/weren t). Practice 7. Fill in the third column of the table below to match each headline to a corre sponding lead: 4. PR Kit, News Releases 39 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Headline Lead Headline order number matches lead order letter 1. Suspected killer nabbed near Va. Tech Iran said Tuesday it was ready for "serious negotiations" on its nuclear program , offering a new formula to resolve a crisis with the West. A semiofficial news agency said the government was unwilling to abandon uranium enrichment the key U .S. demand. (a) 2. Iran wants to talk but keep nuke program Asked in an interview with the ABC News program "20/20" whether the footage of I rwin's September 4 death would ever be aired on television, Terri Irwin was blun t and emphatic. "It won't be. No. No. What purpose would that serve,' she said, adding that she had not looked at the footage of her husband's death. (b) 3. Police in Britain Thwart Plan To Blow Up Flights Headed to the U.S.; Secretar y Chertoff Holds Press Conference The U.N. chief got little satisfaction Sunday at the close of his trip to Tehran , snubbed by Iran's leader over international demands to stop enriching uranium and ignored i n warnings not to incite hatred by questioning the Holocaust. (c) 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 40 4. U.S. says Iran proposal falls short For those of you who are just joining us at the top of the hour, here is what we know at this hour. Police in Britain say they have thwarted a plan to blow up f lights headed from the U.K. to the U.S. Airlines mentioned as possibly being tar geted are United, Continental, and American Airlines. Also, there are reports th at the destinations for those flights were New York, Washington, D.C., and Calif ornia. Twenty-one people in custody. Police say most of them were arrested aroun d London. None of those arrests apparently coming from any of London's main airp orts. And the arrests, the culmination of major covert counterterrorism operatio n that seems to have lasted several months. (d) 5. Annan snubbed, ignored in Iran meeting The Bush administration said Wednesday a proposal by Iran for nuclear negotiatio ns falls short of U.N. demands that it cease uranium enrichment, and the U.S. be gan plotting unspecified "next moves" with other governments. (e) 4. PR Kit, News Releases

41 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 6. Turkey pledges peacekeepers for Lebanon (f) The Bush administration has blocked release of a report that suggests global warming is contributing to the frequency and strength of hurricanes, the journa l Nature reported Tuesday. 7. Bush touts progress since 9/11 attacks A manhunt for an escaped convict suspected in the slayings of a hospital guard a nd a sheriff's deputy shut down the Virginia Tech campus on the first day of cla sses Monday as sharpshooters were posted on university rooftops and students scr ambled for safety. (g) 8. Hurricane Lane roars toward Baja Turkey on Tuesday became the first Muslim country with diplomatic ties to Israel to pledge troops to an expanding international peacekeeping force that will mon itor a fragile cease-fire between Israel and Hezbollah. (h) 9. Negotiations on terror legislation snag Three years after the city banned smoking in restaurants, health officials are t alking about prohibiting something they say is almost as bad: artificial trans f atty acids. (i) 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 42 10.Thailand's PM ousted in military coup Terrorists today would have a tougher time plotting and carrying out attacks lik e the ones of Sept. 11 because of security improvements in the past five years, President Bush said Thursday. (j) 11.Gen. says U.S. may boost forces in Iraq (k) The White House and three powerful GOP senators reached an impasse Wednesday over a Bush administration plan to allow tough CIA interrogations, underscoring election-season divisions among Republicans on the high profile issue of securi ty. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 43 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 12.Abducted newborn found; Woman arrested Tropical Storm Lane became a Category 2 hurricane Friday as it roared toward the tip of the Baja California Peninsula, lashing Mexico's Pacific coast, flooding port cities and causing a landslide that killed a 7-year-old boy. (l) 13.Congress unlikely to pass wiretapping The U.S. military is likely to maintain and may even increase its force of more than 140,000 troops in Iraq through next spring, the top American commander in t he region said Tuesday in one of the gloomiest assessments yet of when troops ma y come home. (m) 14.White House said to bar hurricane report A newborn abducted after her mother was slashed was found alive Tuesday in excel lent condition, and a woman who had recently miscarried was arrested, officials said. (n) 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 44 15.NYC mulls ban on trans fats in eateries Congress is unlikely to approve a bill giving President Bush's warrantless wiret apping program legal status and new restrictions before the November midterm ele

ctions, dealing a significant blow to one of the White House's top wartime prior ities. (o) 16.Footage of Irwin's death will never air, says wife (p) In the dead of night and without firing a shot, Thailand's military overthre w popularly elected Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra on Tuesday amid mounting c riticism that he had undermined democracy. PRACTICE 1.Provide the required forms (as specified above the arrow) of the following: comparative 1 a) old 4. PR Kit, News Releases 45 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza b) old comparative 2 superlative c) ill comparative d) many superlative e) many comparative f) hot superlative g) easy superlative h) little adverb i) improper noun j) occupy adverb k) good superlative l) good adjective m) success adverb n) success adjective o) use adverb p) use past (second form) q) do 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 46 past (second form) r) have past (second form) s) be past participle (third form) t) be 2.Match the words in the two columns below to make up the appropriate set phrase s (structure: as + adjective + as + noun): as adjective as a noun

a) Mad 1) Lightning b) Proud 2) Toast c) Quick 3) Feather d) Light 4) Ice e) Heavy 5) Hatter f) Warm 6) Lead g) White 7) Peacock h) Sweet 8) Snow i) Cold 9) Gold j) Good 10) Honey Example: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 5 PRACTICE I. Find (by skimming through the text) the verbs in the Past Tense and write the m under the right heading : Regular Verbs Irregular Verbs . 4. PR Kit, News Releases 47 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza II. Answer the questions : How do you Usually/often/sometimes/always spend Your weekends? did --------------------------------------spend Last weekend? III. Put the time expressions in italics under the right heading in the table be low (to say what verb tense each is used with): Usually; a fortnight ago; now; seldom; rarely; in 2000; nowadays; the day before yesterday; never; on April the first 1992; When ?; these days; How long ago...?; often; every other day; now and then; sometimes; last Sunday; at the moment, the n. PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE IV. Ask questions and give answers according to the hints below (add any necessa

ry words): 1) When / meet / Carly ? Fortnight ago. 2) You / have a good time / together? Yes, 3) Helen / join you? No, / can / because / have to / baby-sit / for her nephews. How long ago / last / go to a fair? Long enough. / 1995 / when / graduate from high school. Practice: Write about, and then tell the other students at least three things that you use d to do in the past, but no longer do. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 48 E.g.: When I was a child I used to Practice: Give the emphatic form of: a) He prefers playing on the computer. b) Help yourselves, please. c) They liked their new neighbourhood. The + comparative the + comparative : E.g.: the sooner, the better. ; The more, the merrier. Practice Bibliography: Grammar exercises from the already mentioned volumes. 1. Fill in the blanks with the right forms of the words in brackets: Kitty Genovese s case supports the theory that the (many) ..1 the bystanders, the (lit tle) 2 likely to help the victim. When she (be attacked) ..3 in the middle of the street, while she (cry out) ..4for he the criminal (stab) ..5 her, many bystanders (watch) .6 passively. Eventually, th e killed) . 7 It (turn out) . 8 that whenever such things (happen) . 9 no one would take the respo of helping because everybody (expect) .10 others to act. 2. What were the bystanders thinking? (express at least three ideas) They were thinking that: 1 .. 2 .. 3 .. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 49 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Bibliografie Belch, George, Introduction to Advertising and Promotion, Irwin, Boston, 1993, p p. G1/Glossary left column, G12/Glossary left column, (IV 82, Library /Biblioteca F. J.S.C.). Forsdale, Louis, Perspectives on Communication, Addison-Wesley Publishing Compan y, Massachusetts, 1981; Frost, Chris, Reporting for Journalists, Routledge, London, U.K., 2002, (III 163 5, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C. , check the glossary of terms at the end, pp.153154); Dooley, Jenny; Evans, Virginia, Grammarway 4, Express Publishing, London, U.K., 1999 (Biblioteca FJSC/Library) (The Indicative Tenses, Emphasis and Inversion); Hybels, Saundra; Weaver, Richard L., Communicating Effectively, Random House, Ne w York, 1986; Moen, Daryl R., Newspaper Layout and Design, Iowa State University Press, Ames, U.S.A., 2000 (IV 239, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C., check the glossary of terms a t the end, pp.219-224); Newsom, Doug, This Is PR, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, U.S .A., 1993, p.3, (III 689, Library/ Biblioteca F.J.S.C.); Nysenholc, Adolphe si Gergely, Thomas, 1991, Information et Persuasion. Argument er, Bruxelles: De Boeck- Wesmael;

Rich, Carole, Writing and Reporting News, International Thomson Publishing, Belm ont, California, U.S.A., 1994, pp.289-295 (III 911, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C.) . Samovar, Larry A.; Porter, Richard E., Communication between Cultures, Wadsworth Thomson, Belmont, 2004; Smith, Fred L. Jr. si Castellanos, Alex, 2006 (2004), Field Guide for Effective Communication, Washington DC: Competitive Enterprise Institute & National Media Inc.; www. IQads.ro; www. Bestads.com; www.britishpress.com. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 50 4. PR Kit, News Releases 51 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Unitatea de nvatare 3 3. INTERVIEWING IN JOURNALISM, PUBLIC RELATIONS, AND ADVERTISING CUPRINS Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare 3 2.1 Dezvoltarea abilitatilor de comunicare publica si de masa eficienta, n domeniile jurnalism, relatii publice si publicitate, n limba engleza. 2.2 Dezvoltarea abilitatilor de receptare ?i producere de structuri lingvistice spec ifice comunicarii media n limba engleza. 2.3 Dezvoltarea capacitatii de analiza a eficien?ei comunicarii n diverse tipuri de p roduse media. 2.4 Dezvoltarea unei atitudini pozitive privind specificul cultural anglofon n comuni carea eficienta n limba engleza n mass media. Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare 3 Dupa studiul acestei unitati de nvatare veti reusi sa: ? Sa defineasca/ sa n?eleaga n limba engleza notiuni si concepte fundamentale spec ifice comunicarii eficiente n mass media. ? Sa nteleaga, sa cunoasca si sa aplice principii si tehnici ale comunicarii efic iente n limba engleza. ? Sa cunoasca vocabular ?i modalita?i de exprimare specifice n limba engleza pent ru domeniul mass media. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 52 ARTICLE WRITING STRUCTURE "WHEN THE CAP DOESN'T FIT a. Headline : brief, catchy, to the point b. Deck: optional, possibly a blurb, adds important/interesting info c. Lead: the 5/6 special questions answered (bigger font type) d. Nut graph: (focus graph) par that explains the point of the story what the st ory is about, sometimes replaced by a summary lead e. More Wh- questions answered Tema de reflectie 1. Write a lead for the facts below: Who: Three boaters What happened: two killed, the third injured when boat capsized When: Sunday Where: Lake Harney, Florida Why: High winds and waves

How: explained later in the story 2.What does CAP in the headline stand for/+suggest? What can be commented on the deck choice? *sub- and superscript .What is the structure/outline of the article? Identify: the lead and how many pars it is made of; the bridge and its structur e [summary pars, (in-)direct quotes]; same for the development and the conclusio n of the article. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 53 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 3.Write a blind lead and a bridge (to match) for this article, on your own. 4.Write a brief based on the information in this article (i.e.,"Trim" the articl e.). Do not forget about the byline. 5.What characteristics can you notice and mention about the house style of the E conomist, as it emerges from the article above? Style guides generally give guidance on language usage. Some style guides also c onsider or focus on elements of graphic design, such as typography and white spa ce. Website style guides often focus on visual or technical aspects. A publishing company's or periodical's house style is the collection of conventi ons set out in its internal style guide, or manual of style. "Style" in this context therefore does not refer to the writer's voice. Traditionally, a style guide (often called a style manual or stylebook) dictates what form of language should be used. These style guides are principally used b y academia and publishers. In such works, style can have two meanings: Publication conventions for markup style, such as whether book and movie titles should be written in italics; expression of dates and numbers; how references sh ould be cited. Literary considerations of prose style, such as best usage, common errors in gra mmar, punctuation and spelling; and suggestions for precision, fairness and the most forceful expression of ideas. Some modern style guides are designed for use by the general public. These tend to focus on language over presentation. Style guides don t directly address writers individual style, or voice, although writ ers sometimes say style guides are too restrictive. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 54 Like language itself, many style guides change with the times, to varying degree s. For example, the Associated Press stylebook is updated every year. Test de autoevaluare "WHEN THE CAP DOESN'T FIT"/ The Economist, December 10th 2005, p.13 Cloze: Fill in the gaps with suitable words/phrases from the ones below, so that they m atch the context: (and/or fill in the table below with the right letters) The European Union Budget WHEN THE CAP DOESN'T FIT Tony Blair has ducked the challenge of reforming the European Union's finances One of the odder features of the European Union is its six-monthly rotating pres idency. This puts pressure on whichever political leader happens to be in the ..1n ot merely to preside efficiently, but also to 2a string of "achievements". That expla ins why Britain's Tony Blair, whose current EU presidency culminates .3 in Brussels on December 15th and 16th, has spent the past week ..4 Europe in a desperate ..5 for al, any deal, on the EU budget for 2007-13. In June, when Mr Blair rejected a compromise ..6 by the previous Luxembourg EU presid ency, he set out some ..7 for future negotiations. After the rejection of the EU cons titution by French and Dutch voters, the Union ..8 for reform. Mr Blair spoke of mo dernisation, a "reality check" and a " . "9; he noted that a modern EU budget would no t be one that spent 40% of its money on the common agricultural .10(CAP); and he rep eated that he would put the British ..11, won by Margaret Thatcher in 1984, on the t able ..12 there was more CAP reform.

The British presidency finally put forward its own proposal for 13 on December 5th. Set against the ambitions Mr Blair laid out in June, it is .14 mainly for its timidi ty. At French insistence, the plan leaves the CAP 15 until 2013: indeed, it raises i ts share of the budget to 44%. Far from 16 EU spending on research and innovation, th e British compromise cuts it .17 . Despite getting so little on the CAP, Mr Blair's p roposal makes .18 in the British 4. PR Kit, News Releases 55 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza rebate, ..19 smaller than those suggested by Luxembourg in June. And to make the nu mbers ..20, he suggests trimming regional aid to new EU .21 from central Europe by 10%, a plan fully meriting the European Commission's 22 about a new "sheriff of Notting ham" who takes from the poor to give to the rich. .23, Mr Blair's compromise has run into a ..24 around Europe. The commission said it a budget for a "mini-Europe"; several countries called for new proposals, which the British have now promised. In fact, the original plan is tactically .25 . By cut ting the ..26 of the budget, it appeals to big net payers, such as the Germans and t he Dutch. Leaving the CAP intact ought to please the French, who remain atavisti cally attached to farm subsidies. Even the central Europeans, though angry about their budgeted assistance being cut, might sign up, partly because Mr Blair pro poses .27 the conditions they have to meet to get their money, and partly because the ir fear that further ..28 could cost them even more. Next week's summit promises mu ch noisy fist-banging, and Mr Blair may have to put more of the British rebate o n the table -- but a deal .29 be done. Strategically, however, the British budget compromise is already a failure. It d oes nothing to shift spending from a ..30 emphasis on farming and regional transfers t more forward-looking support for industries of the future. Although more CAP re forms will surely be required by world trade negotiations, this plan makes no mo ve towards them. The French 31, Jacques Chirac, insists that deal struck in October 2 002, endorsed by all EU leaders, to keep CAP spending unchanged until 2013, must be respected. Not for the first time, Mr Blair must be kicking himself for ever accepting that deal -- and wondering if he, and his successors, really will hav e to wait until 2013 before reopening it. a)provided, b)in a summit, c)put forward, d)chair, e)sensible parameters, f)notc h, g)was crying out, h)quest, i)rebate, j) flailing around, k)wake-up call, l)po licy, m) significant cuts, n)untouched, o)members, p) storm of opposition, q)str iking, r)albeit, s)sharply, t)delay, u)add up, v)to ease, w)a budget compromise, x)predictably, y)jibe, z)size, A)could, B) backward-looking, C)astute, D)presid ent, E)boosting. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 56 16 17 18

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Key to exercises: Solutions to 1.: 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 E s m r u o y x p C z v t A B D Test de autoevaluare Find equivalent words/phrases in the article for the following: (Use a dictionar y, to look for the new words in the story, in case you feel it is needed.) a) to avoid= ., b) search for, pursuit= .., c) to lash around, to drive on as if with a whip= , d) rapidly increasing= .., e) though, even if= .., f) to agree/express consent about= ., g) shrewd, clever, ready-witted, cunning= , h) remove a portion of a charge= ., i) rational= .., j) to record (as if by notches/scratching signs)=

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 d f b j h c e g k l i a w q n 4. PR Kit, News Releases 57 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Raspunsuri si comentarii la Testele de autoevaluare Solutions To duck, quest, to flail, boosting, albeit, to jibe about, astute, rebate, sensi ble, to notch Info Box JOURNALISM ISSUES Vocabulary Blind lead= a lead in which a person is identified but not named until the secon d or third paragraph. Bridge= a transitional device for carrying the reader from the lead into the bod y of the story or from one part of a story/article to another. The bridge can be a word, a sentence or several sentences. Also called swing or transitional para graph. Brief= a short news story, usually two or three pars long. Newspapers often coll ect related short news stories under a single head (e.g.: Business Briefs). Lead= (also"leed") the first par(s) of a news story. Pars= paragraphs. Sidebar= a related story. A sidebar runs alongside another story and carries sec ondary details, background, colour or human interest aspects of the story. Speech Tag= device for attributing a quote or a fact to its source (e.g.: ,"poli ce says." Normal word order in a speech tag is name first, verb second. Story= news written for publication, a report or account of an event. Newspeople prefer the word story to article. Summary Lead= a lead that emphasises the five/six Ws and summarises concisely th e main facts of a news story. Trim= to tighten up a story, chiefly by eliminating superfluous words and replac ing loose phrases with single words that convey the same thought. GRAMMAR ISSUES WITH INTERVIEWING:

4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 58 Types of Questions in English (1.General~, 2. Special~, 3.Tag Questions), see, D ooley, Jenny & Evans, Virginia, 1998, Grammarway, Swansea: Express Publishing, p p.180-187 (strongly recommended), or Vince, Michael, Advanced Language Practice, NY: Macmillan Heinemann, pp.----, other book sources like Badescu, Alice, 1984, Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Bucuresti, Ed. Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, pp.615-6 25/Interogatia si negatia. Write/Ask orally five "Wh-" Questions for the lead of the story "WHEN THE CAP DO ESN'T FIT"/ The Economist, December 10th 2005. Ask a general question and a tag question for the second sentence in the same st ory. Info Box GRAMMAR ISSUES Phrasal Verb "LAY"(laying, laid, laid) ~ an axe ~ aside ~ away/by ~ bare ~ before ~ down ~ off ~ on ~ one's hand(s) on ~ out Begin to chop down Save, place aside for later use Accumulate/save/place in store Uncover Present for discussion/consideration Surrender, begin to construct, state authoritatively Discharge from employment temporarily Connect (water,electricity ) Be able to find at once Arrange, exhibit Fill in the gaps the right forms of the phrasal verb lay: 1. Dozens of miners lately because of last month's death toll. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 59 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 2. Many EU countries Ukraine gas pipes. 3. The fishy deal by the media yesterday. 4. The PM the new Law of Education before the Parliament an hour ago. 5. Fir-tree big forest areas .last Christmas. 6. The businessman an important amount of money in Swiss Banks. 7. The Museum exhibits in the Foreign Section rooms at the moment. 8. The police .on the burglar in no time because of the fingerprints that they found in the house. 9. All types of selected seeds (already) on the farm for the next year. 10. The new MP his goals and principles, so that no one would doubt his good will. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 60 INTERVIEW preparation: Info Box PR ISSUES* (Hybels, 1986) Interview= series of questions and answers, usually involving two people, which has the purpose of getting and understanding info about a particular subject or

topic. Policy info= data on how an organisation should be run. Factual info= data dealing with who, what, where, when, etc. Background info= about the interviewee, the topic, the angle (i.e., info on whic h we want to concentrate); narrowing down the topic. Primary questions= related to defining/identifying basic info on the topic/subje ct. Follow-up questions= questions that will arise out of the answers given by your interviewee. Open-ended questions= the ones that permit the person being interviewed to expan d on one's answer. Closed questions= those that can be answered briefly with a "yes" or "no" or "do n't know" Neutral questions= those that do not show how the interviewer feels about the su bject ("What do you think about ..?"). Leading questions= biased questions that lead the interviewee into a particular direction, manipulative questions. The interviewer already implies something, so mehow puts words into the interviewee's mouth. ("Men's sports get twice as much money as women's sports. Why is that?"). Asking such questions is "slippery"/ris ky for the interviewer. 1. Get background information: a) about British PM Tony Blair; b) about the CAP within the EU programmes, on the internet or from other sources of your own. 2. Write a sidebar based on the info you acquired above, at 1. It should match t he story/brief. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 61 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 3. Write what kind of information you would give to Mr Blair's office about the topic/questions in your interview, if your interview were on TV. (to respect one 's right to a public image, for the sake of a natural appearance to your intervi ew, ). 4. Analyse the interview with the well-known film director Steven Spielberg, in terms of the types of questions that he was asked. (vocabulary, grammar issues, interview structure may be commented on, as well)/Time magazine, December 12, 20 05, pp.62-63. 5. Write your questions and possible answers that PM Tony Blair you would (antic ipate) expect him to give. (at least five questions to stand for the types of qu estions in the PR Issues Info Box, and no more than ten questions). PHRASAL VERB "TURN" Homework Replace the words in bold with synonymous forms of the phrasal verb turn to get shorter newswriting style: (Use a suitable dictionary.) 1. The hurricane victims were refused help at the beginning, until the scope of the disaster was obvious. 2. Documents should be delivered to the IRS by May, 15th. 3. The thief was reported on by his gang to the police. 4. The parole programme changed the smuggler into a dependable citizen. 5. The bus changed direction on Chestnut Avenue. It had a bomb on board. 6. How would you copywrite for a promo to your interview with Mr Blair? (mind the e.g. in Don Cowley (Eds.), 1996 (1989), How to Plan Advertising, Londo n: Cassell, pp. 104-105. Copy available 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 62 Info Box Advertising ISSUES Advertising proposition, brand promise, positioning statement= the brand brief p resentation that identifies the brand for the market/public, that makes it jut o ut from among other similar products.

According to Cowley, 1996, consumers can differentiate between similar brands in a market in three ways: 1. by making decisions based on known factual product differences (price, flavou r, etc), 2. misdirected impression of consumers that there are significant product differ ences (because of advertising differences, or because of the history of the prod ucts on the market: they were different at the beginning, but not really differe nt now), 3. emotional underpinning of a brand, because of subjective impression of suitab ility for one's personality. 1. When analysing the ad for The Economist (Cowley, 1996), which of the three re asons for product differentiation (mentioned in the Info Box above) would make y ou decide that the weekly magazine is worth buying/getting? 2. What is the advertising proposition, brand promise, positioning statement tha t they used in this ad for The Economist? Would you use another brand promise if you were supposed to launch a similar product in your own product? Why? What wo uld it sound like? References: for Types of Questions in English (1.General~, 2. Special~, 3.Tag Questions), se e, Dooley, Jenny & Evans, Virginia, 1998, Grammarway 4, Swansea: Express Publishing , pp.180-187 (strongly recommended), or Vince, Michael, Advanced Language Practi ce, NY: Macmillan Heinemann, pp.----, other book sources like Badescu, Alice, 1984, Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Bucuresti, Ed. Stiintifica si En ciclopedica, pp.615-625/Interogatia si negatia. Hybels, Saundra & Weaver R.L.III, 1986, Communicating Effectively, NY: Random Ho use, pp. 181-197. (Biblioteca FJSC, cota: III 12)* on interviewing PR issues Hough, G.A., 1988, News Writing, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., pp. 75-86 & 491-5 01. (Biblioteca FJSC, cota: III 46) 4. PR Kit, News Releases 63 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Don Cowley (Eds.), 1996 (1989), How to Plan Advertising, London: Cassell, pp. 10 4-105. Time magazine, December 12th, 2005, pp.62-63. The Economist, December 10th 2005, p. 13. 1.The verb look + preposition: to look for = try to find; to look up/down to somebody = to respect, admire/to despise; to look after = to take care, protect ; to look out = to be careful. Practice Fill in the correct particle(s): My sister-in-law is looking ..1a good baby-sitter who would look ..2her two-year-o ld daughter. She looks .3 to irresponsible people even if they looked . 4to her. 2. Uncountable nouns: furniture; news; information; advice; luggage; bread; soap; flour 3.Partitive phrases used with uncountable nouns: an item of; a piece of; a bar o f; a loaf of .The Present Perfect Use: to express: an action before another present action or moment; a completed action whose results are effective in the present; actions which happened at an unstated time; personal experiences or changes which have happened; emphasis on number ; a recently completed action. Time Adverbials: ever, never, just, already, yet, lately, recently, so far, up t o/till now, this month/year , for ,since , How long ? Questions.

4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 64 Form Affirmative: S + have/has + 3rd form of the verb Interrogative: Have/Has + S + 3rd form of the verb ? Negative: S + have/has + not + 3rd form of the verb (short form: haven t/hasn t). The Present Perfect Progressive vs the Present Perfect Use: to express: an action which has started before another present action/moment, and has contin ued up to the moment of speaking, and may continue even afterwards; a finished action before another present action/moment, to emphasise the idea of duration; actions which have visible results in the present; irritation, anger, annoyance, explanation or criticism. Choose the right item: 1. Aunt Ellie is out of breath because she in the orchard for a couple of hours. a. worked; b. has worked; c. has been working. 2. She .many dozens of fruit so far. a. picked; has picked; has been picking. 3. She still .to lean the ladder against a tree, though she is tired. a. want; b. wants; c. wanted. 4. Dropping out is not her style. So, she .still her best to finish the job. a. has done; b. has been doing; c. is doing. Time Expressions: for, since, how long. Form: Affirmative: Subject + have/has + been + verb-ing Interrogative: Have/Has + Subject + been + verb-ing ? Negative: Subject + have/has + not + been + verb-ing . Practice 4. PR Kit, News Releases 65 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Write a letter to a friend telling him/her about the things that have changed in your life over the last year. 1.The verb catch + preposition. To catch Up with = Become equal to others on = become popular On to = understand Up on = bring/come up to date 2.The verb bring + preposition. To bring along = to fetch with on = cause out = produce up = educate/rear/raise children 3.The verb keep + preposition. To keep up = Go forward

on = continue off = maintain a distance In(with somebody) = remain on good terms with out = avoid Uses of MAKE and DO. MAKE DO An attempt Lessons Mistakes Homework 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 66 Noise Housework A complaint An exercise A fuss One s best Coffee/tea With(out) something Breakfast (meal) A favour Furniture (an object) Justice One s bed The washing up A decision The shopping An excuse One s correspondence Up one s mind One s hair An offer Good/harm A mess The cooking A phone call One s duty A fortune Business with someone Money The carpets Trouble One s room Plans The dishes A living Fine/well arrangements The grand/polite damage Do as you would be done. progress

How do you do Someone rich/poor wonders sense A speech 4. PR Kit, News Releases 67 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza An impression A will A wish A remark Room for A trip/journey/voyage A gesture/a discovery Somebody angry/happy A fresh/new start It one s business A guess at Oneself at home Sure of To make a mountain out of a molehill. To make both ends meet. To make haste slowly. Make hay while the sun shines. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 68 Lucrare de verificare Unitatea 3 Fill in the blanks with the suitable prepositions (mind the explanations in bold in the brackets): One strange happening caught ..(became popular) with dozens of people. Two tomatoes were jogging in the street. One of them, some steps behind the othe r, cried .(exclaimed), Keep .(continue) jogging! I ll keep .(maintain a distance) for a f seconds. And keep (avoid) trouble. I m a bit out of breath. I ll catch .(reach the sam you. The tomato ahead couldn t keep (remain in good terms) with the one behind--after thei r recent make up because a bike ridden astray brought ..(caused) a horrible accident that simply smashed the latter. [play on words: ketch up vs catch up ]. The Article: Definite ( the ); Indefinite ( a / an ); Zero. (see grammar reference). Fill in the blanks with a / an / the where an article is necessary: 1) He is .1undergraduate student. 2) He goes to .2university in .3morning every day from Monday to Friday. 3) His friend came to 4university yesterday to bring him .5keys that he had forgotte n at ..6home. 4) Fortunately, 7 T.M. University is not very far from 8district they live in. .The Past Perfect Tense Use: to express an action before another past action/moment. Time Expressions: before, for , since , after , just, already, yet, ever never, till /until, when, by, by the time. Form: Affirmative: S + had + 3rd form of the verb . Interrogative: Had + S + 3rd form of the verb .? Negative: S + had + not + 3rd form of the verb .(short form: hadn t). Choose the appropriate verb form: 1) He ..away the old worn out hat two weeks before he went shopping for another one. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 69 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza a. has thrown; b. had thrown; c. threw. 2) The client said he ..already a shrink before.

a. had seen; b. saw; c. has seen. 3) We cranky because of the bad weather yesterday. a. are; b. was; c. were. 4) The ozone layer ..thinner and thinner. a. gets; b. is getting; c. get. The Past Perfect Progressive Use: to express: ? an action continuing up to a specific time in the past; ? a continuous, past action which had visible results or effect in the past. Time Expressions: before, for.., since , after , just, aready, yet, ever never, ti ll/until, when, by, by the time. Form: Affirmative: S + had + verb -ing . Interrogative: Had + S + verb -ing .? Negative: S + had + not + verb -ing .(short form: hadn t). Choose the correct item: 1) She in a stable family before she got married in 2000. a. has been brought up; b. was brought up; c. had been brought up. 2) Harry ..an ugly accident a couple of years before they moved house. a. had; b. had had; c. has had. 3) He is weary. He .at the boring project all day. a. has been working; b. has worked; c. had worked. 4) They were worried. The police .for their kidnapped children for a fortnight without finding a clear lead. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 70 a. had looked; b. has been looking; c. had been looking. 5) He ..all the possible assumptions until yesterday morning when he had that illumina tion. a. had exhausted; b. had been exhausting; c. has exhausted. Expressing future time The Simple Future Use: to express: ? an action we are not sure about (use of probably ); ? hopes, fears, threats, on-the-spot decisions, offers, promises, warnings, pred ictions, comments (with expect, hope, believe, I m afraid, I m sure, I know, I think probably); ? a prediction or a future action or event which may or may not happen. Time Expressions: tomorrow, tonight, next week/year/.., in two days, the day aft er tomorrow, soon, in a week/fortnight, on the 1st of June, in 2003, a.s.o.. Form: Affirmative: S + shall/will + verb .(short form: ll). Interrogative: Shall/will + S + verb .? Negative: S + shall/will + not + verb .(short form: shan t/won t). The Future Progressive Use: to express: ? an action in progress at a certain time in the future. Time Expressions: tomorrow at 5 p.m., tonight from 7 to 9 p.m., a.s.o.. Form: Affirmative: S + shall/will + be + verb -ing .(short form: ll). Interrogative: Shall/will + S + be + verb -ing .? Negative: S + shall/will + not + be + verb -ing .(short form: shan t/won t). 4. PR Kit, News Releases 71 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Fill in the blanks using either MAKE or DO at the right tense. 1. She has already ..dinner. 2. It s hard to .a decision at such short notice. 3. Patience .wonders (miracles).

4. You shouldn t .the polite if you don t feel that way. 5. I hate the washing up. 6. .as you would be done. 7. I haven t up my mind as to what I should next. 8. She ..her hair at the hairdresser s last Wednesday. 9. Why haven t you your homework. 10. the housework is equivalent to chores (A.E.) / chares (B.E.). 11. She always .a mountain out of a molehill. 12. hay while the sun shines. 13. haste slowly. 14. yourselves at home. 15. Don t such a fuss! Basic Question Types There are 3 basic types of question: Yes/No Questions (the answer to the question is "Yes" or "No") Wh- Questions (the answer to the question is "Information") Tag Questions (the answer to the question is "Yes" or "No") 1. Yes/No (General) Questions Auxiliary verb Subject main verb Answer Yes or No Do you want dinner? Yes, I do. Can you drive? No, I can't. Has she finished her work? Yes, she has. Did they go home? No, they didn't. Exception! verb be simple present and simple past 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 72 Is Anne French? Yes, she is. Was Ram at home? No, he wasn't. 2. Wh- (Special) Questions question word auxiliary verb subject main verb Answer Information Where do you live? In Paris.

When will we have lunch? At 1pm. Who did she meet? She met Ram. Why hasn't Tara done it? Because she can't. Exceptions! verb be simple present and simple past Where is Bombay? In India. How was she? Very well. Exceptions! Questions for the prepositional object question word auxiliary verb subject main verb preposition placed at the end of the question What did he do that for? 3. Tag Questions (Irregularities*) Intonation: Use: 4. PR Kit, News Releases 73 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza ? Rising ? To ask for information ? Falling ? To ask for confirmation Positive statement Negative tag Type of Structure *I am weary, aren t I? *Cut down the expenses, will you?/won t you? Affirmative Imperative *Let s give it a try, shall we? Suggestions: Let s /Why not ?/How about ? *Everyone/Someone/Anyone admires an anchor like Joanne, do they? Indefinite subject: Everyone/Someone/Anyone Negative statement Positive tag Type of Structure * Do not procrastinate,

will you? Negative Imperative *Politicians hardly ever, seldom, rarely, scarcely, never can keep promises, do they? Adverbs with negative meaning: hardly ever, seldom, rarely, scarcely, never * No one enjoyed the switch in the chain of events, did they? Indefinite subject: No one Formal Letter Writing Letter Jumble (see also page 21, Practise Advanced Writing, Mary Stephens, Longm an, 1997, for further practice). 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 74 The letter of application below was sent by Ms Ioana Olaru along with her Resume to a Foundation. While in Ioana s room, her puppy called Fluffy, came across the letter and tore it away playing. Fortunately, Ioana found the pieces. Could you help her restore the letter by arranging the fragments below in the right order by filling in order numbers on the right side of each paragraph? IOANA OLARU Str.Garoafei nr.12, sector 5, Bucuresti Smiles Foundation Str. Coralilor nr.2, sector 2, Bucuresti Dear Sir/Madam, a. Needless to say, I would also be happy to be in charge of administrative or proj ect design work. b. As a somewhat experienced social worker, I am always ready to take on any job in the field, no matter how menial (low status) or unpleasant. c. I am also a member of the Romanian Association of Psychologists. d. During this time, I acquired significant experience in approaching children who are in distress. e. Consequently, I very much hope that my application will be selected. f. I look forward about hearing from you. g. I would therefore be thrilled to tackle such a position in your organisation. h. As my enclosed resume shows, I have worked as a school counsellor for three year s. i. I am writing to apply for the position of social 4. PR Kit, News Releases 75 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza

worker that was advertised on the Monster site on the internet. j. To sum up, the job you advertise would give me a good opportunity of a wider spe ctrum of expertise in a domain that I am very keen on. k. Moreover, I have always enjoyed looking after children and I feel I could be an asset for Smiles for that matter. Sincerely yours, Ioana Olaru 5.Write a cover letter to a human resource manager job entry advertised by the P roFM radio station in Cotidianul a week ago. 6.Write a fax (mind the format!) to the Central European University, Nador u. 9, Budapest, Hungary 1051, Tel: (361)3273069, Fax: (361)3273124, to Mrs. Gabriella Ivacs, to ask for information about the summer courses organised in the year 20 __ for postgraduate students. Journalistic jargon A.C.E. or Ace Assistant city editor agate Small type often used for statistical data on sports and stock pages. It is a ty pe size of approximately 5 1/2 points tall, a point being 1/72nd of an inch. B-copy The background of the story is outlined first without having the specific or maj or details of the story. Also called A matter. beat A reporter's topic area. Courts, religion, education and Macomb County are all b eats. Think of reporters covering their areas as a cop might walk a beat. box 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 76 A sidebar or extra information. break The part of a story that is continued on another page. Sometimes several breaks are gathered together on a "break page." Also called jumps. breakline A mid-sentence or paragraph that continues the story on the following page. Some times used to mean turnline. breakout (highlighted text box) The synopsis of the story. Key highlights of the story that stand out. brief A small or tiny story. brite or bright A funny, short story. broadsheet The size of most dailies, including the Wall Street Journal, New York Times, USA Today and the Free Press. Folded in half, it's a tabloid, or tab. budget The various news departments' proposals for what they want to put in the newspap er. Has to do with space and news, not dollars. bug A short bit of type, such as (AP). In this case, it would signify that the story is from the Associated Press. bulldog An edition timed to come out in the early evening, as soon as stock closings can be published. (Could also be the city editor.) bullet

Arrows, dots or squares that point out key topics of the story. byline The name of the writer, appearing at the top of an article. Artists and photogra phers typically get credits. When the reporter's name appears at the end, it oft en is preceded by a dash and is called a signer. chaser A late edition of the newspaper for which the presses are not stopped until the plates are ready. Those pages, then, are said to be "chasing" a running press. T he longer it takes for them to get there, the more papers are missed. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 77 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza cold type Type that is set photographically on paper, an advancement from type that was se t in hot lead. column inch One inch tall and one column wide. It is used to measure ads and articles. copy boy Obsolete term replaced in many papers with copy aide, these are men and women wh o keep the newsroom running by attending to various duties such as office machin es, handling phones, assembling paperwork and driving around town to retrieve ph otos and other material. copy desk The desk where articles are edited, headlines and captions are written, newspape r style is enforced and deadlines are either made or missed. cq Correct as is; lets copy editors know that something has been checked and needs no further checking. Usually, these letters are put just after the copy they ref er to. cutline A caption. The term comes from the day when engravings or "cuts" were used to ma ke the impression on the page. dateline The city or place designation at the beginning of a story. Some newspapers stric tly enforce a rule that the dateline must say where the reporter was when the st ory was gathered. A foreign story gathered by phone at home, then, might run wit h no dateline. deadline Every paper has dozens in a day for the hundreds of parts that go into it. You m ight ask what the deadline is for the piece you're working on, the deadline for the last type to be set or the time when the presses should start. double truck An ad or editorial project that covers two facing pages. If it prints across the gutter between the two pages, and if the pages are on the same sheet, rather th an two adjacent sheets, it might be called a "true" double truck. This name come s from the days when the heavy forms for newspaper pages, largely filled with le ad type, were rolled around the composing room floor on heavy carts called truck s. Two pages for one project meant a double truck. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 78 ears The little white spaces on either side of the newspaper's name on the front page . Some newspapers put weather or lottery information in them. (An expression som etimes heard in newsrooms, "Go stick it in your ear," has nothing to do with thi s.) embargo The time when something can be released. News may be released early so that news outlets can be ready to publish or air it, but there may be a restriction on wh en it can be released to the public. Breaking an embargo -- reporting informatio

n early -- may cause sources to be less willing to release news. first reference The first time someone is mentioned in an article, and generally should have the ir full name. flag The newspaper's name on page one. Also called the nameplate. FOIA Used as a noun or a verb (when it is done to balky government officials), it is the Freedom of Information Act. folio The page number, newspaper name and date appearing in the corner of a page. FTE Full Time Equivalent; an accounting term that refers to staffing. A full-time em ployee is one FTE; a two-day-a-week employee is .4 FTEs. A newsroom may have a b udget number of total FTEs that will be comprised of full- and part-time workers . G.A. Short for general assignment. A G.A. is a reporter who does not have a beat, but who might be called on to write about anything. graph A paragraph. gutter The space between two columns. hairline A .5-point rule. hot type 4. PR Kit, News Releases 79 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza From the days when type was set with molten lead, replaced with photographically produced cold type. HTK Head(line) to come. It means that the story has been edited and the headline wil l come later. inside Not on the front page, as in, "we'll run this story inside." jump The part of a story that continues on another page. Also called a break. The rea ders get directions from jump lines. justify Type that is aligned evenly on the left and the right. lead The start of a story, usually one to three paragraphs. Pronounced lede, and some times spelled that way, too. leading Refers to the spacing between lines of type. The size of the type plus the space to the next line. lede The start of a story. It is spelled this way to prevent confusion with lead, a m etal that was used extensively in hot-type days, and a term that refers to the s pacing of lines in a story. leg A column of type. A two-column headline will likely have two legs of type under it. mainbar Formed in a backward sort of way, a main bar is simply the main story, but state d this way to distinguish it from secondary sidebar stories. It's a little like calling the city's main library the main branch to distinguish it from the true, secondary branches. masthead This term is used to mean three things and can get confusing. It is used to mean

the name on page one, for the box on the editorial page with the names of top e ditors, and for the box of names, phone numbers and addresses that appears in th e first few pages of the newspaper morgue Outdated term for the library. mug 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 80 A mug shot or a small photo of someone. If someone says, "get me a mug," don't c ome back with coffee. nameplate The newspaper's name on page one, is also called the flag or masthead. nut graf /nut graph The paragraph in a story that tells readers what the story is about and why they should care. Some papers have rules about how close this should be to the top o f the story. oped Opposite of the editorial page. May contain columns and guest viewpoints. paginate The act of making a page on a computer screen. paraphrase To summarize or rewrite in your own words a quote. Paraphrasing should not have quote marks. pica A unit of measurement. There are six picas in an inch; each pica contains 12 poi nts. point A unit of measurement equaling 1/72nd of an inch. For measuring typographical el ements. pool A certain number of reporters or one reporter who goes out and represents everyo ne else. For example, a high-interest court case, a presidential appearance or a concert may not have room for all the journalists who want to cover it, so the organizers may restrict coverage to a press pool. Pool coverage is usually share d with other media outlets. proof Any printed copy before it goes to press. Usually made on a printer or photocopy machine. rag right, rag left Not justified. Uneven on either the right or the left. refer Pronounced reefer, but spelled this way, it refers readers to inside or related stories. At some papers, these have been called whips. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 81 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza rim The copy editors, collectively. Dates back to the days when the copy desk was a horseshoe-shaped piece of furniture with rim editors around the outside and slot editors on the inside, doling out and checking work. rule A straight line on the page, usually expressed with its width as in, "a 1-point rule." Don't call them lines, except in hairline. scoop As a noun, a story no one else has; as a verb, to do it to the competition. sidebar A story that accompanies the main story, detailing a particular angle or aspect, such as the hero's early childhood. single-copy sales

Newsstands, store sales. Anything not home delivered. slot One of the people on the copy desk who checks over the copy editors' work before committing it to type. Also used as a verb: "Hey, Terry, slot me on this, will you?" slug An internal name for a story, usually just one word. Elex might be the slug for a story on school elections. spike To kill something. At one time, when editors were finished with a piece of paper , such as a story, headline or page proof, they would slam it down on an upright nail on their desk. Then, they would know they were done with it, but could go back to it later if they needed to. Today, many newsroom computers have a "spike " key for killing a story or file. spot story A small story that is usually more specific, as opposed to a bigger story like a feature story. spread A package that goes across the crease of two facing pages to combine them. skybox A term for promotional boxes that are usually above the nameplate of the newspap er. Also known as a teaser. stet 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 82 A proofreading symbol that means leave it the way it is. stringer A writer or photographer who is not a full-time employee, but who is paid by the job. The term comes from the days when a writer would get paid by the column in ch and would measure his or her contribution by holding a string along the story to measure its length, knot it, measure the next column or story, and so on, re porting the final length for pay. strip A story that goes all the way across the top of the page -- or nearly so. Some p eople will call it a strip if it goes almost all the way across. Others will say it's not a true strip if there is anything above it, but will grudgingly conced e the point. stylebook The newspaper's book of rules and policies for handling copy. Can include everyt hing from spelling of local streets to policy for handling profanities and juven ile crime victims. tab Short for tabloid. Refers to any newspaper or section folded to that size. takeout A longer story that takes a step back from daily, breaking news stories to put a running story with frequent developments into context and perspective. thumb corner The upper, outside corner of pages. So-called because that's where a reader migh t grab them to turn to the next page. teaser Shows what is in the inside of the paper or previews a story or series. Same as a promo but smaller. turnline Tells you to go to the next page where the article continues. widow A short line of type, left at the top of a column. The worst: single words. Comp uterized typesetting makes them far more common than a fussy page makeup person would have tolerated. Some people use this term to refer to any short line at th

e end of a paragraph and trim stories deftly by eliminating just enough words to eliminate the widows. zone Part of a newspaper's circulation area. If the newspaper divides its circulation area into zones, advertisers may buy ads in just their local 4. PR Kit, News Releases 83 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza areas. Often, news coverage is zoned to complement zoned advertising. Online Ter minology clip - a segment of audio or videotape that's included in a story that is broadc ast on radio or television or on the Web. download - to take files from another computer or server for use on your own. encoding videos - the process of changing video camera footage into digital foot age which can be read and displayed by a computer. (i.e. RealVideo material) FTP - (File Transfer Protocol) This is a program used to upload files and webpag es from a personal computer to a server. After an individual creates a website, they must upload (transfer) this page to a server so that it can be viewed by ot hers. HTML - (Hyper Text Markup Language) HTML is the lingua franca for publishing hyp ertext on the World Wide Web. It is a non-proprietary format, based upon SGML an d can be created and processed in a wide range of tools from simple plain text e ditors to sophisticated wysiwyg authoring tools. HTML uses tags like <h1> and </ h1> to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, hypertext links and more . hyperlinks - The text you find on a Web site which can be "clicked on" with a mo use which in turn will take you to another Web page or a different area of the s ame Web page. Hyperlinks are created or "coded" in HTML. They are also used to l oad multimedia files such as AVI movies and AU sound files. hypertext -A system of writing and displaying text that enables the text to be l inked in 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 84 multiple ways, to be available at several levels of detail, and to contain links to related documents. It refers to a nonlinear system of information browsing a nd retrieval that contains associative links to other related documents. The Wor ld Wide Web uses hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) to provide links to pages an d multimedia files. info-bahn - the information super highway (info, as in information and bahn, as in German for highway). *.jpeg *.gif - These two file extensions are the most common types of picture fi les. If you were to scan a picture into a computer yourself, you would need to c onvert the file to one of these formats for use on a webpage. Real Video - The format of video files displayed on most Internet sites, such as SNN. search engine - a program used by an Internet browser to look for specific words and sort them for information. server - A computer in a network shared by multiple users. The term may refer to both the hardware and software or just the software that performs the service. For example, Web server may refer to the Web server software in a computer that also runs other applications, or, it may refer to a computer system dedicated on ly to the Web server application. There would be several dedicated Web servers i n a large Web site. upload - to transfer files from your computer to another computer or server. web cast - a video or audio broadcast that's transmitted over the World Wide Web . Headlines and Leads 1. Match the headlines in column A to the leads/introductions in column B. Inser t them as they correspond to one another in a table like the one below:

Excerpts from The Times, Friday, October 28, 2005 (www.timeonline.co.uk) Column A Column B 4. PR Kit, News Releases 85 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 1. It All Adds up a. An MP opposes selective education, then sends his children to private school. A vicar asks his flock to pay for the new church roof, then asks the parish to pay him for painting the vestry. A trader acquires stock he knows is about to ri se, then counts the profits. Such cases are, respectively, hypocritical, unethic al and illegal. The conflicts of interest are obvious. They would leave most peo ple aghast. Hence the natural concern about the Tate s purchase of a work by one o f its own trustees, Chris Ofili. 2. Lib Dems 2.4m Donor b. A report on the impact of the Stephen Lawrence inquiry on policing said that officers were less likely to stop and search ethnic minorities in case they were labelled as racist. Six years since the inquiry started into the death of Mr Lawrence, 18, who in Ap ril 1993 was stabbed to death by a group of five white youths in southeast Londo n, the study found that some minority ethnic police staff felt that any absence of racist language was largely cosmetic . The 100-page report by the Home Office, Assessing the Impact of Stephen Lawrence Inquiry said that the inquiry was an important lever for change in the police ser vice and there had been some significant improvements, but there remained a number of important caveats to this picture . [ ] Officers said the report, reported a climate after the inquiry in which people we re too afraid to stop and search for fear of being accused of racism . 3. DUNG HEAP The Tate Gallery Risks Tarnishing Its Image c. There are certain sentences that you long to hear. How I yearned yesterday fo r Patricia Hewitt to arrive at the Health Select Committee meeting, out of breat h and reeking of smoke. Sorry, she would say, her sallow skin looking even greyer under the fluorescent li ghts, but I was just having a fag. It s not that I want the Health Secretary to be unhealthy, per se. She doesn t have to be Fag Ash Pat, just a human being. Sadly, progress along those lines has bee n slow. Yesterday, as she bustled by, she said in her perfectly fake and modulat ed voice: I haven t taken up smoking. 4. Row over Tagging after Fresh Youth Crime Spree d. A police constable has been remanded in custody over allegations of rape and assault. The West Mercia officer, who has not been named, is to appear before Wo rcester Crown Court next month. He is charged with six counts of rape and a sing le count of assault between May last year and June this Year. 5.Searches e. Sir, Why do children learn about algebra and geometry but 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 86 Hampered by Lawrence Inquiry acquire no knowledge about shares, pensions and mortgages? asks Alison Uren. It is because those who fail to learn the basic disciplines at school are extrem ely unlikely to do so later, while those who mastered numeracy in the classroom can easily pick up an understanding of shares, pensions, mortgages, and similar subjects in later life. 6.PC Rape Charges f. Nine out of ten persistent young offenders on the Government s 100 million flags hip programme to tackle youth crime reoffended within two years. The damning findings are a huge blow to the credibility of a four-year-old schem e hailed by the Home Office as hands-on way of curbing offending by teenagers.

7. Not a Whiff of Humour as Pat Fails to Set Health Watchdogs Alight g. Teng Xingshan protested his innocence all the way to the execution ground. Bu t it was only this year, 16 years after his execution by gunshot, that the butch er was found to be not guilty of the murder of a waitress. She was alive and in jail. 8. China Curbs Courts Killing Too Many Innocent People h. Sir, Readers of all political persuasions must truly wonder why an entreprene ur with such a colourful past (reports and leading article, October 27) would de cide to draw attention to himself in the first place by making the single larges t political donation to the Liberal Democrats to date. 2. Which of the headlines and corresponding leads in exercise 1 are parts of let ters to the editor? 3. Which are the blind leads in exercise 1? 4. Which is a political sketch in exercise 1? 5. Which one has the appearance of an editorial? 6. Which of the headlines may function like a banner? VOCABULARY Aghast feeling or looking shocked by something you have seen or just found out ( stupefiat) Alight someone whose face or eyes are alight looks excited, happy, etc, set alig ht= burn(ing) bustle to move around quickly, looking very busy, bustle about/round etc caveat [ kae viaet] a warning that something may not be completely true, effective etc 4. PR Kit, News Releases 87 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza constable police agent counts to be allowed or accepted, or to allow or accept something, according to a standard, set of ideas, or set of rules; to consider someone or something in a particular way count somebody/something as something I don't count him as a friend anymore. You should count yourself lucky that you weren't hurt. don't count your chickens (before they're hatched) spoken used to say that you should not make plans that depend on something good happening, because it might not I wouldn't count your chickens, Mr Vass. I've agreed to sign the contract, but t hat's all. count your blessings spoken used to tell someone to be grateful for the good things in their life count the cost to start having problems as a result of your earlier decisions or mistakes We're now counting the cost of not taking out medical insurance. on all/several/both etc counts in every way, in several ways etc It was important that they secure a large and widespread audience. They failed o n both counts. at the last count according to the latest information about a particular situation At the last count, I had 15 responses to my letter. be out for the count a) to be in a deep sleep b) if a boxer is out for the count, he has been knocked down for ten seconds or more ?LAW?technical one of the crimes that someone is charged with Davis was found not guilty on all counts . count of theft/burglary/murder etc He was charged with two counts of theft Curb= to control or limit something in order to prevent it from having a harmful effect measures to curb the spread of the virus

an influence which helps to control or limit something 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 88 curb on, We are trying to keep a curb on their activities. American English the raised edge of a road, between where people can walk and ca rs can drive, British Equivalent: kerb, ?see also pavement, sidewalk Damning= proving or showing that someone has done something very bad or wrong damning evidence of her treachery a damning report (invinuitor) dung= solid waste from animals, especially cows Flagship (programme) the most important ship in a group of ships belonging to th e navy, [usually singular] the best and most important product, building etc that a comp any owns or produces the flagship of the new Ford range The firm has just opened a flagship store in Las Vegas. the company's flagship product Hamper= to make it difficult for someone to do something She tried to run, but was hampered by her heavy suitcase. An attempt to rescue t he men has been hampered by bad weather. (having a) fag= British English informal a cigarette, American English taboo inf ormal a very offensive word for a homosexual man. Do not use this word.; be a fa g= British English informal to be a boring or difficult thing to do; a young stu dent in some British public schools who has to do jobs for an older student heap =a large untidy pile of things lever= a stick or handle on a machine or piece of equipment, that you move to op erate it Pull this lever to open the gate. ?see also gear lever a long thin piece of metal that you use to lift something heavy by putting one e nd under the object and pushing the other end down, something you use to influence a situation to get the result that you want Rich countries use foreign aid as a lever to achieve political aims. Remand= the period of time that someone spends in prison before their trial on remand Evans committed suicide while on remand in Parkhurst prison. remand prisoners = British English to send someone back from a court of law, to wait for their tr ial 4. PR Kit, News Releases 89 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Smith was remanded in custody (=kept in prison) until Tuesday. He's been remande d on bail for a month (=allowed to leave the law court and go home to wait for t rial) . American English to send a case to be dealt with in another court The court remanded the case for trial. per se= used to say that something is being considered alone, not with other con nected things The color of the shell per se does not affect the quality of the egg. Row= to argue in an angry way row about They rowed about money all the time. Sallow= sallow skin looks slightly yellow and unhealthy, sallow face/skin/comple xion a woman with dark hair and a sallow complexion, ?sallowness noun [uncountab le] Spree= a short period of time when you do a lot of one activity, especially spen ding money or drinking alcohol, on a spree=They went on a drinking spree ., a sh opping spree Tag= also electronic tag[countable] British English a piece of equipment that yo u attach to an animal or person, especially someone who has just left prison, so that you always know where they are

Vestry= a small room in a church where a priest puts on his or her vestments and where holy plates, cups etc are kept Yearn for = to have a strong desire for something, especially something that is difficult or impossible to get, ?synonym long Whiff= a very slight smell of something Bibliografie Unit 3 Belch, George, Introduction to Advertising and Promotion, Irwin, Boston, 1993, p p. G1/Glossary left column, G12/Glossary left column, (IV 82, Library /Biblioteca F. J.S.C.). Forsdale, Louis, Perspectives on Communication, Addison-Wesley Publishing Compan y, Massachusetts, 1981; Frost, Chris, Reporting for Journalists, Routledge, London, U.K., 2002, (III 163 5, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C. , check the glossary of terms at the end, pp.153154); 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 90 Dooley, Jenny; Evans, Virginia, Grammarway 4, Express Publishing, London, U.K., 1999 (Biblioteca FJSC/Library) (The Indicative Tenses, Emphasis and Inversion); Hybels, Saundra; Weaver, Richard L., Communicating Effectively, Random House, Ne w York, 1986; Moen, Daryl R., Newspaper Layout and Design, Iowa State University Press, Ames, U.S.A., 2000 (IV 239, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C., check the glossary of terms a t the end, pp.219-224); Newsom, Doug, This Is PR, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California, U.S .A., 1993, p.3, (III 689, Library/ Biblioteca F.J.S.C.); Nysenholc, Adolphe si Gergely, Thomas, 1991, Information et Persuasion. Argument er, Bruxelles: De Boeck- Wesmael; Rich, Carole, Writing and Reporting News, International Thomson Publishing, Belm ont, California, U.S.A., 1994, pp.289-295 (III 911, Library/Biblioteca F.J.S.C.) . Samovar, Larry A.; Porter, Richard E., Communication between Cultures, Wadsworth Thomson, Belmont, 2004; Smith, Fred L. Jr. si Castellanos, Alex, 2006 (2004), Field Guide for Effective Communication, Washington DC: Competitive Enterprise Institute & National Media Inc.; www. IQads.ro; www. Bestads.com; www.britishpress.com. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 91 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Unitatea de nvatare 4 4. PR TOOLKIT, NEWS RELEASES CUPRINS Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare nr. 4 1.1 Dezvoltarea abilitatilor de comunicare publica si de masa eficienta, n domeniile jurnalism, relatii publice si publicitate, n limba engleza. 1.2 Dezvoltarea abilitatilor de receptare ?i producere de structuri lingvistice spec ifice comunicarii media n limba engleza. 1.3 ntelegerea, cunoasterea si aplicarea unor principii si tehnici ale comunicarii ef iciente n limba engleza. 1.4 Cunoa?terea unor structuri lingvistice specifice comunicarii mass media eficient e. 1.5 Asimilarea de vocabular ?i modalita?i de exprimare specifice n limba engleza pent

ru domeniul mass media. Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare 4 Dupa studiul acestei unitati de nvatare studen?ii vor reusi sa ? identifice, sa nteleaga si sa utilizeze structuri gramaticale si elemente de vo cabular si de stil specifice jurnalismului, relatiilor publice si publicitatii n limba engleza; ? distinga si sa analizeze aspecte culturale reflectate n produsele mass media de limba engleza; ? exprime (att n scris, ct si oral), n limbajul specific domeniului de studiu, idei personale referitoare la caracteristici ale presei, relatiilor publice si public itatii de limba engleza, pe baza exemplelor concrete; ? produca variante personale de exprimare orala si de scriitura n limba engleza n stil formal, semiformal si informal, n raport de context, de receptor(i). 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 92 NEWS RELEASES News Release Builder Write Your Press Release Online (and keep it online so that it is available for those who you have not contacted and deemed of as being a target for your press release, yet they might be interested and become part of your public). How our Press Release Tool works: Just enter your email address and a password, fill in the blanks and click submit to complete your press release. Your release will then be compiled and emailed to the email account that you have specified. Before getting started, ensure that you have all of the necessary information on hand. Double check that you have entered your correct email address. Build Your Press Release 1) Enter Your Contact Information* Name: Email address: 2) Add Your Press Release Details *** Document header: Add the completed news re lease to your stationary. If you are sending the release via email, include the words "Media Release" in the subject of your email and do not attach documents. Journalists prefer to receive plain text emails due to download times and virus concerns. NEWS RELEASE Top of Form 1 *** Each news release should begin with the words NEWS RELEASE positioned about two inches below the business heading. Use all in capital letters. Release Timing: *** Use FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE or HOLD FOR RELEASE UNTIL (date). Be warned that a hold request may not always be honoured. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 93 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Target: *** Enter the type of editor you wish to reach, for example ATTENTION BUSINESS E DITORS. Headline/Title: *** USE ALL CAPS HERE. Hints: keep your title short and catchy. Use alliteration s, colons, or offer tips. Sub-Headline: *** This is optional: many companies include a sub-title in addition to the main headline. Date: *** Enter the date that the release will be distributed on. For example, March 3 , 1998. Location: *** Enter the location that the release will be distributed from. For example, S touffville, ON, Canada.

Introductory Paragraph: *** Create an interest-catching introduction to your release that answers the qu estions: who, what, where and when. Second Paragraph: *** Include a brief description of the products, services, event, or company inc luding any facts supporting its significance. Subsequent Paragraphs: 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 94 *** Include less important facts and supporting information. For Further Information ... *** Tell the media who they can follow up with, and provide contact information here. About your company: *** A sentence that briefly describes your company and its central offerings. Fo r example, "Your company name is a company offering ... (3 key points, you might want to mention your industry here) ... ". Boilerplate: Identification data, your contact data -- so that journalists may contact you in case they need more info 5: Distributing Your Press Release Where should you send your news release, now that it is completed? The first thi ng you need to do is identify media outlets most likely to cover your story, and to build a media list. Building a Media List Building a targeted media list is an invaluable tool for most businesses. The be st way to build your list is to carefully watch track media publications and sho ws, and to identify reporters and producers who would be interested in your stor y. Call the media outlets to get the phone and fax number, and mailing address o f the journalists you would like to send your release to. Tip: Using a contact management software program such as ACT! or Maximizer for t his purpose can help you build and maintain relationships with the media. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 95 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza There are several sources online that will help you build your media list; howev er, keep in mind that not all of these sources will have up-to-date media inform ation. Distributing your News Release: the Wires Newswires distribute your press release directly to editors, other media outlets like Reuters and they also publish the press releases on their site on the web. Many journalists rely on newswire sites for information and story ideas. Wires are often used by larger companies and non-profit organizations. They have the a dvantage of immediately reaching a broad range of media outlets across the count ry. The cost is usually $275 - $600 (in Canada) to send a single release, with p ricing based on the number of words in your release (a minimum word count will u sually apply.) The main wires include: Business Wire PR Newswire PR Webb - this newswire uses an innovative approach. You can send a press releas e for free using their service, but they ask you to make a voluntary contributio n. They claim to be the "... largest Newswire catering to small and medium sized companies and organizations and one of the largest online press release newswir es. " Distributing your News Release: Mail, Fax, or Email You can send the news release directly to the media yourself, using the mail, fa x, or email. When in doubt about the best option, ask the journalists you will b e sending your release to. This can have the advantage of creating a more person

al connection with the people you send the release to. It can also be a more cos t-effective option if you are targeting a small list of journalists. Building a list of media contacts Newswires offer a fast way to send your press release to a large number of edito rs. However, you can also build your own list of media contacts using any of a n umber of media databases. Most charge either 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 96 a monthly, annual or per use subscription fee. Here are a few places you can use to get started. Timing your distribution It is best to send your news release early in the day and you will have a better chance of getting your story noticed if your release is not sent on a busy news day. For example, sending a news release out as a major strike or natural disas ter was taking place would not be good timing. Monday and Tuesdays are usually b usy news days and by Friday most assignments have been handed out as journalists get ready for the weekend. One of the best ways to get your news release noticed is to "piggyback" or "tag" your story on a popular current topic. Some example of themes that tend to come up on a regular basis include obesity in children and literacy. In Bucharest in 2004, and then in 2005 after the accident that brought the death of a Japanese ci tizen, the topic of dog bites became very "hot" with stories and letters to the editor being published on almost a daily basis. Many dog trainers got publicity for their businesses that they would not normally have received as journalists w ere looking for experts to comment on proposed legislation. These topics are oft en very time sensitive. Write a World-Class Release Make your next media relations piece stand out from the crowd. by Ann Wylie President, Wylie Communications Inc. Most press releases are pretty easy to parody. Just ask Benny Evangelista, a technology reporter for the San Francisco Chronicl e. In a Softletter survey of media professionals about the quality of public rel ations, Evangelista complained of an increase in the number of boilerplate press r eleases formulaic releases that all sound basically the same. Something like: XYZ Co. Inc., a leading supplier of the world s integrated real-time advanced software-aided microchips, announced today the availability of its lat est product, the XYZ 4.2, version 3, which will revolutionize the software-aided micro-technology chip industry. This will revolutionize the software-aided micro -technology chip industry, said Joe Blow, XYZ Co. Chief Executive Officer and Fou nder. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 97 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Why do PR professionals flock to the fill-in-the-blanks model? Certainly not bec ause it stands out in the crowd of all the other releases a reporter is likely t o get in a day. Instead of conforming to the conventional approach which is dated, formulaic and , let s face it, dull choose a better model to follow. Study the winners of PRSA s S ilver Anvil Award, the highest honor in the public relations business. Here are some great approaches I found in the latest crop: 1. Write a feature lead. Contrary to popular opinion, reporters don t hate feature leads. They hate crappy feature leads. Instead of the conventional today announced that lead, why not make your release s tand out from the crowd with a lead like this one, from Pfizer Animal Health: Imagine the first few hours in the recovery room following a hysterectomy or lig ament repair. Consider what post-surgical life has been like for some pets under going common surgical procedures; intense hours WITHOUT pain medication.

2. Lead with the benefits. Want to get your story into Forbes? Present the key element that explains how your story can benefit Forbes readers, s uggests Bruce Upbin, Forbes senior editor. No surprise, then, that many Silver Anvil winners lead with the reader benefits. This example is from UnumProvident: Employers now have a better way to measure, monitor and manage employee absences , thanks to UnumProvident Corporation s expanded online Comparative Reporting & An alysis information services. Beats by a mile the tired traditional approach: UnumProvident Corporation today a nnounced the expansion of its online Comparative Reporting & Analysis informatio n services. 3. Try a tipsheet. Take the benefits approach to the furthest extreme, and you wind up with a value -added, or service, piece. Explain how to, and watch the media pick up your releas e. Some Silver Anvil-winning approaches: Infuse your party with style: Tips and trends for a spectacular summer soiree, fro m VOX vodka 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 98 Interview opportunity: Tips on how people can get more use out of their health co verage, from Cigna UPS offers 10 tips for worry-free packing, shipping 4. Drag them in with your subject line. With print, at least they have to pick it up to throw it away, says Pat Jones, a c ommunicator at TDS Telecom. Not so when you re sending a pitch via e-mail. Online, you re just one click of the delete key away from obscurity. Your only chance to get the message read: the su bject line. A provocative subject line, like this one from Enterpulse, can get your message opened: New survey stats for Internet Death Penalty This brisk pitch outlines Internet usage trends, including a Silent Killer that ca n keep people from returning to a company s site. 5. Give great bio. Do your executive or director bios read like a resume? Snooze. Wake your bios up with human-interest details and storytelling. Here s a great exa mple from Embassy Suites hotels: It all started (when) Carlton Calvin (was) reading a brief item in the Los Angel es Times about the growing popularity of push scooters in Japan. With a spark of creative thinking, Carlton, president of Razor USA LLC, spawned the Razor scoote r, one of the hottest trends to hit the United States within the last two years. Hint: It all started when leads draw the reader in. The moment of creative inspira tion is a great place to start an executive or director bio or any story, for th at matter. 6. Use human interest. What s more compelling: an announcement about custom-fitted breast prostheses? Or a breast cancer survivor profile ? Let people tell your story with leads like this one, from ContourMed: In 1989, Elizabeth McCann of Spring, Texas, felt a knot in her left breast. Her physician told her that she needed a biopsy, but was 99 percent sure it would be benign. McCann kept putting it off until the pain in her breast woke her up at night. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 99 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Instead of just filling in the blanks, use any or all of these approaches when y ou write your next release or pitch. Make your copy creative and compelling, not

just one more clich. Task 1 Try to imagine what the press release must have been like, and write your own pr ess release according to the hints above, for the following article: Cuban TV airs video of ailing Castro By VANESSA ARRINGTON, Associated Press Writer Tuesday, August 15, 2006 HAVANA - Cuban state television on Monday aired the first video of Bottom of Form 1 Fidel Castro since he stepped down as president to recover from surgery, showing the bedridden Cuban leader joking with his brother and Venezuelan President Hug o Chavez. Castro appeared tired and pale, yet alert in the videotaped encounter, speaking quietly but clearly enjoying himself as he chatted with Chavez, his close friend and political ally. Acting president Raul Castro was also present for the encou nter on his brother's 80th birthday. As the men bantered back and forth, Castro's voice was inaudible. He was later s hown in animated conversation with Chavez, but music played over his words. Chavez told Castro he sat down to pray when he learned of the Cuban leader's ill ness and operation, and said "that was a horrible day." But the Venezuelan leade r also was optimistic, saying, "Your capacity to recover is impressive." The videotape showed the friends sharing a snack and looking at an album of phot ographs showing them together including one from a trip Castro took to Venezuela during an earlier birthday. Sentimental music accompanied the footage, which la sted about 10 minutes. The televised footage released after still pictures of the same encounter were p ublished in the Communist Party daily Granma earlier Monday appeared aimed at di spelling any lingering doubts about 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 100 Castro's recovery from intestinal surgery. Cuban officials have not released det ails of his condition or disclosed where he is being treated. "I was thinking the worst before," said 37-year-old Ernesto Fundora, who works a t a tobacco factory. "Now I don't have any doubt that he's alive. But still, he could go at any minute." Castro announced two weeks ago that he had undergone surgery for intestinal blee ding and was putting his brother in charge while he recuperates. On his birthday , he released a statement saying his recovery would be long, and warned Cubans t o prepare for "adverse news" advice perhaps aimed at helping them come to terms with his eventual death. While Castro's illness has made Cubans uneasy about the future, upbeat statement s from government officials and the two days of photographs have helped calm the ir nerves as they face up to his mortality. "It seems like he is getting better. He's a strong and healthy person and everyo ne wants him to get well," said Angela Ramirez, a 43-year-old cleaning woman. Whether Castro gets back on his feet or permanently cedes control to Raul Castro , some say they expect much to remain the same. "I don't think anything is going to change," said Valeria Ramos, 38, currently u nemployed as she takes care of her disabled child. "Our people are united, and e ven if Fidel's no longer here, all of us Cubans will be. "But I do hope he can keep guiding us," she added. Castro spent hours with his brother and Chavez on Sunday, eating, laughing and s haring anecdotes, according to Granma. A day earlier, the party's youth paper, J uventud Rebelde, released the first images of Castro since his July 31 announcem ent that he was temporarily ceding power to his brother. Tema de reflectie 1. Look for the words that are new to you in the dictionary and write down their English explanation. 2. Try to write/restore the news release issued by the Board of the National Ass

ociation of Evangelicals that the following newspaper story/article might have b een based on: Evangelical ousted amid gay sex scandal By KIM NGUYEN, Associated Press Writer2 hours, 14 minutes ago, 4. PR Kit, News Releases 101 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 5 Nov. 2006 An independent oversight board dismissed the Rev. Ted Haggard as senior pastor o f the megachurch he founded, determining the influential evangelist had committe d "sexually immoral conduct." The board's decision Saturday cuts Haggard off from leadership of the 14,000-mem ber New Life Church. He had resigned two days earlier as president of the National Association of Eva ngelicals, where he held sway in Washington and condemned homosexuality, after a Denver man claimed to have had drug-fueled trysts with him. He also placed hims elf on administrative leave from the New Life Church, but its Overseer Board too k the stronger action Saturday. "Our investigation and Pastor Haggard's public statements have proven without a doubt that he has committed sexually immoral conduct," the board said in a state ment. Haggard was informed of the decision and "agreed as well that he should be dismi ssed," the statement said. The Rev. Ross Parsley will lead the church until a permanent replacement is chos en by the end of the year, it said. A letter explaining Haggard's removal and an apology from him was to be read at Sunday services. Haggard, 50, on Friday acknowledged paying the Denver man, Mike Jones, for a mas sage and for methamphetamine, but said he did not have sex with him and did not take the drug. He did not answer his home or mobile phones Saturday. The Rev. Rob Brendle, an a ssociate pastor at New Life, said Haggard was out of town. "We are fully confident in the board's judgment and decision," Brendle said. "Ev eryone supports Ted and his family. We stand by him." Jones said news of Haggard's dismissal saddened him. "I feel really bad for his wife and family and his congregation. I know it's a s ad day for them, too," Jones said. "I just hope the family has peace and can com e to terms with things. I hope they can continue with a happy life." Haggard's situation is a disappointment to Christian conservatives, whom Preside nt Bush and other Republicans are courting heavily in the run-up to Tuesday's el ection. Many were already disheartened with the president and the Republican-controlled Congress over their failure to deliver big gains on social issues even before th e congressional page scandal involving former Rep. Mark Foley (news, bio, voting record). 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 102 Haggard, who had been president of the evangelical association since 2003, has p articipated in conference calls with White House staffers and lobbied Congress l ast year on Supreme Court nominees. The association has named President Leith Anderson, senior pastor of Wooddale Ch urch in Eden Prairie, Minn., as its interim president. Haggard founded New Life in the mid-1980s and held its first services in the unf inished basement of his Colorado Springs home. Jones, who said he is gay, said he was upset when he discovered who Haggard was a key issue i and found out that New Life had publicly opposed same-sex marriage n Colorado, with a pair of issues on Tuesday's ballot. Jones has denied selling drugs but said Haggard snorted methamphetamine before t heir sexual encounters to heighten his experience. Haggard told reporters he bought meth but never used it; he said he received a m

assage from Jones after being referred to him by a Denver hotel. Jones said that no hotel referred Haggard and that he advertises only in gay publications. Church member Christine Rayes, 47, said the congregation had hoped the allegatio ns "were all lies." "We all have to move forward now," she said. "This doesn't make what Ted accompl ished here any less. The farther up you are, the more you are a target for Satan ." ___ Associated Press writer Judith Kohler contributed to this report. Listening ? Listen to The Animal School fable and find the flaws that such a school has, fro m the points of view of equity and excellence (see the tape script). ? Also comment on The family that learns together, earns together. Tape script The Animal School Once upon a time, an animal meeting was held in the forest. The issue at stake w as animal education. The animals were going to 4. PR Kit, News Releases 103 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza set up a school. An Animal School Board was elected. Despite some stifled protest, the Animal School Board decided on a common curric ulum for all the animals. The four compulsory curriculum areas were: Running, Cl imbing, Swimming, and Flying. There were no optional subjects. All the animal st udents had to attend all these four types of classes. But, no matter how dedicated efforts the students made, some difficulties were e ncountered. The duck was very good at Swimming, even better than the teacher, but it got poo r grades at Flying; and the Running classes were a disaster as the duck hurt its legs because of over-exercise so that even the performance at Swimming got lowe r. The squirrel was excellent at Climbing but had some problems with taking off fro m the ground at Flying as it expressed preference to fly down from a tree. Becau se of the stress of all the Swimming lessons it had a nervous breakdown and drop ped out. Some similar experiences had the rabbit though it was a brilliant student at Runni ng. Eventually, it had to see an animal psychotherapist because of the enormous effort made at the other classes. Anyway, by the end of the school year, a common eel ended up valedictorian as it could swim well, was able to climb, crawl and fly a little, no matter how small and insignificant it was. (adapted from the fable quoted by Stephen Covey) ? Write a headline for a newspaper story (news or editorial, according to your p reference) based on the fable above. Then write a lead and the rest of a brief n ewspaper article. The Article: 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 104 Definite ( the ); Indefinite ( a / an ); Zero. (see grammar references/bbliography). Fill in the blanks with a / an / the where an article is necessary: He is .1undergraduate student. He goes to .2university in .3morning every day from Monday to Friday. His friend came to 4university yesterday to bring him .5keys that he had forgotten a t ..6home. Fortunately, 7 T.M. University is not very far from 8district they live in. The Past Perfect Tense Use: to express an action before another past action/moment. Time Expressions: before, for , since , after , just, already, yet, ever never, till /until, when, by, by the time.

Form: Affirmative: S + had + 3rd form of the verb . Interrogative: Had + S + 3rd form of the verb .? Negative: S + had + not + 3rd form of the verb .(short form: hadn t). The Past Perfect Progressive Use: to express: an action continuing up to a specific time in the past; a continuous, past action which had visible results or effect in the past. Time Expressions: before, for.., since , after , just, aready, yet, ever never, ti ll/until, when, by, by the time. Form: Affirmative: S + had + verb -ing . Interrogative: Had + S + verb -ing .? Negative: S + had + not + verb -ing .(short form: hadn t). 4. PR Kit, News Releases 105 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Test de autoevaluare 1. Choose the appropriate verb form: 1) He ..away the old worn out hat two weeks before he went shopping for another one. a. has thrown; b. had thrown; c. threw. 2) The client said he ..already a shrink before. a. had seen; b. saw; c. has seen. 3) We cranky because of the bad weather yesterday. a. are; b. was; c. were. 4) The ozone layer ..thinner and thinner. a. gets; b. is getting; c. get. 2. Choose the correct item: 1) She in a stable family before she got married in 2000. a. has been brought up; b. was brought up; c. had been brought up. 2) Harry ..an ugly accident a couple of years before they moved house. a. had; b. had had; c. has had. 3) He is weary. He .at the boring project all day. a. has been working; b. has worked; c. had worked. 4) They were worried. The police .for their kidnapped children for a fortnight without finding a clear lead. a. had looked; b. has been looking; c. had been looking. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 106 5) He ..all the possible assumptions until yesterday morning when he had that illumina tion. a. had exhausted; b. had been exhausting; c. has exhausted. Raspunsuri si comentarii la Testele de autoevaluare 1. 1) b, 2) a, 3) c, 4) b. 2. 1) c, 2) b, 3) a, 4) c, 5) a. BIBLIOGRAFIE RECOMANDATA/ orientativa: Belch, George E. & Belch, Michael A., Introduction to Advertising and Promotion, Burr Ridge, Illinois: Irwin, pp. 626-658 (PR, Publicity & Corporate Advertising ), (IV 82, Biblioteca FJSC) Dooley, Jenny; Evans, Virginia, Grammarway 4, Express Publishing, U.K., 1999; English Media Texts, Past and Present, Ed. F. Ungerer, F. Liebig Univ., 2000; Evans, Virginia, Successful Writing, Express Publishing, U.K., 1998; Frost, Chris, Reporting for Journalists, Routledge, U.K., 2002, (III 1635, Bibli oteca F.J.S.C.); Ledingham, John A. si Bruning, Stephen D., 2000, Public Relations as Relationshi p Management, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, pp.205-221 (III 15 16, Biblioteca FJSC) Moen, Daryl R., Newspaper Layout and Design, Iowa State University Press, Ames, U.S.A., 2000 (IV 239, Biblioteca F.J.S.C.);

Newsom, Doug, Scott, Alan si Vanslyke Turk, Judy, 1993, This Is PR, Belmont, Cal ifornia: Wadsworth Publishing Co., pp.194-224 (III 689, Biblioteca FJSC) Rich, Carole, Writing and Reporting News, International Thomson Publishing, Belm ont, California, U.S.A., 1994 (III 911, Biblioteca F.J.S.C.). 4. PR Kit, News Releases 107 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza www.writersmarket.com; www.fsu.edu/library/ http://www.canadaone.com/promote/newsrelease3.html (pentru unitatea 4 http://www.aboutpublicrelations.net/ucwylie.htm (pentru unitatea 4) Further reading on PROPAGANDA in Journalism and in PR: (pentru unitatea 5) Robert Cole. Propaganda in Twentieth Century War and Politics (1996) Robert Cole, ed. Encyclopedia of Propaganda (3 vol 1998) Nicholas John Cull, David Culbert, and David Welch, eds. Propaganda and Mass Per suasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present (2003) Garth S., and Jowett, Victoria, Propaganda and Persuasion (1999) Hindery, Roderick R., Indoctrination and Self-deception or Free and Critical Tho ught?(2001) Le Bon, Gustave, The Crowd: a study of the Popular Mind (1895) Kevin R. Kosar. *Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Bran ch Activities David R. Willcox. *Propaganda, the Press and Conflict (2005) John H. Brown. "Two Ways of Looking at Propaganda" (2006) References (for Glossary and Guidelines of Media Communication): Gary B. Larson of Seattle, Washington, style@garbl.com. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 108 Updated Sept. 10, 2005. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 109 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Unitatea de nvatare 5 PROPAGANDA IN ADVERTISING AND IN PUBLIC RELATIONS CUPRINS Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare nr. 5 1.1 Cunoasterea n limba engleza a conceptelor fundamentale din domeniul comunicarii e ficiente n mass media. 1.2 ntelegerea, cunoasterea si aplicarea unor principii si tehnici ale comunicarii ef iciente n limba engleza. 1.3 Dezvoltarea abilitatilor de receptare ?i producere de structuri lingvistice spec ifice comunicarii media n limba engleza. 1.4 Aplicarea unor tehnici adecvate, a unor repere generale ale eficien?ei n comunica rea publica si de masa. 1.5 Valorificarea potentialului creativ si formarea unor abilitati de comunicare de succes n limba engleza. Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare 5 Dupa studiul acestei unitati de nvatare studen?ii vor reusi ? Sa defineasca/ sa n?eleaga n limba engleza notiuni si concepte fundamentale spec ifice comunicarii eficiente n mass media. ? Sa nteleaga, sa cunoasca si sa aplice principii si tehnici ale comunicarii efic iente n limba engleza. ? Sa cunoasca vocabular ?i modalita?i de exprimare specifice n limba engleza pent ru domeniul mass media. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba

engleza 110 PROPAGANDA IN ADVERTISING AND IN PUBLIC RELATIONS Propaganda is a specific type of message presentation directly aimed at influencing the opi nions of people, rather than impartially providing information. Literally transl ated from the gerundive as "things which must be disseminated," in some cultures the term is neutral or even positive, while in others the term has acquired a s trong negative connotation. Its connotations can also vary over time. For instan ce, in English, "propaganda" was originally a neutral term used to describe the dissemination of information in favor of a certain cause. Over time, however, th e term acquired the negative connotation of disseminating false or misleading in formation in favor of a certain cause. Strictly speaking, a message does not hav e to be untrue to qualify as propaganda, but it may omit so many pertinent truth s that it becomes highly misleading. In English the term propaganda overlaps with distinct terms like indoctrination (ideological views established by repetition rather than verification) and mass suggestion (broader strategic methods). In practice, the terms are often used sy nonymously. Historically, the most common use of the term propaganda is in polit ical contexts; in particular to refer to certain efforts sponsored by government s, political groups, and other often covert interests. In the early 20th century the term was also used by the founders of the nascent public relations industry to describe their activities; this usage died out around the time of World War II. Individually propaganda functions as self-deception. Culturally it works wit hin religions, politics, and economic entities like those which both favor and o ppose globalization. At the left, right, or mainstream, propaganda knows no bord ers; as is detailed by Roderick Hindery. Hindery further argues that debates abo ut most social issues can be productively revisited in the context of asking "wh at is or is not propaganda?" Not to be overlooked is the link between propaganda , indoctrination, and terrorism. Mere threats to destroy are often as socially d isruptive as physical devastation itself. See also: religious terrorism . Indoctrination is instruction in the fundamentals of a science, or other system of belief (such as a philosophy religion). The National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual defines 4. PR Kit, News Releases 111 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza indoctrination as "the initial security instructions/briefing given a person pri or to granting access to classified information." Set within the contexts of rel igion, this would serve perfectly as a definition of the preparation for receivi ng esoteric knowledge not generally available to the world-at-large, a preparati on that is a prerequisite for initiation into a mystery religion. Princeton: the Cognitive Science Laboratory's "Word Net 2.0" defines "indoctrina tion" as "teaching someone to accept doctrines uncritically." Another serviceable partial definition is "To teach systematically partisan idea s propaganda." This definition opens the most basic difference between indoctrina tion and education: indoctrination teaches the doctrina (doctrine) that structures a subject, as observed from within, whereas educatio literally " leads out" from a subject, one that is being dispassionately observed from witho ut. Criticism Indoctrination, as deception by the other, coexists with self-deception at many ideological levels, which include politics, economics, and religion. Like viruse s it spreads itself with inexorable consequences. Noam Chomsky has been quoted saying, "For those who stubbornly seek freedom, there can be no more urgent task than to come to understand the mechanisms and practices of indo ctrination. These are easy to perceive in the totalitarian societies, much less

so in the system of ' brainwashing under freedom' to which we are subjected and which all too often we serve as wil ling or unwitting instruments." The subtle effects of a highly indoctrinated environment may rise unexpectedly t o the surface in examining a culturally-freighted term such as "knee-jerk skeptic ": the hearer recognizes immediately the cognate expression "knee-jerk liberal", describing a person considered to be thoughtlessly and inappropriately liberal, instinctively and on all occasions. Then the sub-text presents itself: it has b een assumed. As Robert Jay Lifton has argued, in his discussions about thought-r eform and totalism, the objective of these phrases or slogans is less to continu e reflective 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 112 conversations than to replace them with emotionally appealing phrases, for examp le, the opposing slogans "blood for oil" or "cut and run," both of which replace productive dialogue about objectives in the Iraq war. Purpose of propaganda A series of American propaganda posters during World War II appealed to servicem en's patriotism to protect themselves from venereal disease. The text at the bot tom of the poster reads, "You can't beat the Axis if you get VD". Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003.The aim of propaganda is to influence people's opinions actively, rather than merely to communicate the facts about something. For example, propaganda might be used to garner either su pport or disapproval of a certain position, rather than to simply present the po sition. What separates propaganda from "normal" communication is in the subtle, often insidious, ways that the message attempts to shape opinion. For example, p ropaganda is often presented in a way that attempts to deliberately evoke a stro ng emotion, especially by suggesting illogical (or non-intuitive) relationships between concepts. An appeal to one's emotions is, perhaps, a more obvious propaganda method than t hose utilized by some other more subtle and insidious forms. For instance, propa ganda may be transmitted indirectly or implicitly, through an ostensibly fair an d balanced debate or argument. This can be done to great effect in conjunction w ith a broadly targeted, broadcast news format. In such a setting, techniques lik e, "red herring", and other ploys (such as Ignoratio elenchi), are often used to divert the audience from a critical issue, while the intended message is sugges ted through indirect means. This sophisticated type of diversion utilizes the ap pearance of lively debate within, what is actually, a carefully focused spectrum , to generate and justify deliberately conceived assumptions. This technique avo ids the distinctively biased appearance of one sided rhetoric, and works by pres enting a contrived premise for an argument as if it were a universally accepted and obvious truth, so that the audience naturally assumes it to be correct. By m aintaining the range of debate in such a way that it appears inclusive of differ ing points of view, so as to suggest fairness and balance, the suppositions sugg ested become accepted as fact. Here is such an example of a hypothetical situati on in which the opposing viewpoints are supposedly represented: the hawk (see: h awkish) says, "we must stay the course", and the dove says, "The war is a disast er and a failure", to which the hawk responds, "In war things seldom go smoothly and we must not let setbacks affect our determination", the dove retorts, "setb acks are setbacks, but failures are failures." As one can see, the actual validi ty of the war is not 4. PR Kit, News Releases 113 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza discussed and is never in contention. One may naturally assume that the war was not fundamentally wrong, but just the result of miscalculation, and therefore, a n error, instead of a crime. Thus, by maintaining the appearance of equitable di

scourse in such debates, and through continuous inculcation, such focused argume nts succeed in compelling the audience to logically deduce that the presupposion s of debate are unequivocal truisms of the given subject. The method of propaganda is essential to the word's meaning as well. A message d oes not have to be untrue to qualify as propaganda. In fact, the message in modern propaganda is often not blatantly untrue. But eve n if the message conveys only "true" information, it will generally contain part isan bias and fail to present a complete and balanced consideration of the issue . Another common characteristic of propaganda is volume (in the sense of a large amount). For example, a propagandist may seek to influence opinion by attemptin g to get a message heard in as many places as possible, and as often as possible . The intention of this approach is to a) reinforce an idea through repetition, and b) exclude or "drown out" any alternative ideas. In English, the word "propaganda" now carries strong negative (as well as politi cal) connotations, although it has not always done so. It was formerly common fo r political organizations to refer to their own material as propaganda. Other la nguages do not necessarily regard the term as derogatory and hence usage may lea d to misunderstanding in communications with non-native English speakers. For ex ample, in Portuguese and some Spanish language speaking countries, particularly in the Southern Cone, the word "propaganda" usually means the most common manipu lation of information "advertising". Famed public relations pioneer Edward L. Bernays in his classic studies eloquent ly describes propaganda as the purpose of communications. In Crystallizing Publi c Opinion, for example, he dismisses the semantic differentiations ( Education is valuable, commendable, enlightening, instructive. Propaganda is insidious, disho nest, underhanded, misleading. ) and instead concentrates on purposes. He writes ( p. 212), Each of these nouns carries with it social and moral implications. . . . The only difference between propaganda and education, really, is in the point of vi ew. The advocacy of what we believe in is education. The advocacy of what we don t believe in is propaganda. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 114 The reason propaganda exists and is so widespread is because it serves various s ocial purposes, necessary ones, often popular yet potentially corrupting. Many i nstitutions such as media and government itself are literally propaganda-addicts , co-dependent on each other and the fueling influence of the propaganda system that they help create and maintain. Propagandists have an advantage through know ing what they want to promote and to whom, and although they often resort to var ious two-way forms of communication this is done in order to make sure their one -sided purposes are achieved. Special kt 10:37, 15 August 2006 (UTC) Types of propaganda U.S. Propaganda from WWII, urging citizens to increase production. The heads tha t appear are those of Adolf Hitler and Hideki TojoPropaganda shares techniques w ith advertising and public relations. In fact, advertising and public relations can be thought of as propaganda that promotes a commercial product or shapes the perception of an organization, person or brand, though in post-WWII usage the w ord "propaganda" more typically refers to political or nationalist uses of these techniques or to the promotion of a set of ideas. Propaganda also has much in c ommon with public information campaigns by governments, which are intended to en courage or discourage certain forms of behavior (such as wearing seat belts, not smoking, not littering and so forth). Again, the emphasis is more political in propaganda. Propaganda can take the form of leaflets, posters, TV and radio broa dcasts and can also extend to any other medium. In the case of the United States, there is also an important legal distinction b etween advertising (a type of overt propaganda) and what the Government Accounta bility Office (GAO), an arm of the United States Congress, refers to as "covert propaganda." Journalistic theory generally holds that news items should be objec tive, giving the reader an accurate background and analysis of the subject at ha

nd. On the other hand, advertisements generally present an issue in a very subje ctive and often misleading light, primarily meant to persuade rather than inform . If the reader believes that a paid advertisement is in fact a news item, the m essage the advertiser is trying to communicate will be more easily "believed" or "internalized." Such advertisements are considered obvious examples of "covert" propaganda because they take on the appearance of objective information rather than the appearance of propaganda, which is misleading. Federal law specifically mandates that any advertisement appearing in the format of a news item must sta te that the item is in fact a paid advertisement. The Bush Administration has co me under fire for allegedly producing and disseminating covert propaganda in the form of television programs, aired in the United States, which appeared to be l egitimate news 4. PR Kit, News Releases 115 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza broadcasts and did not include any information signifying that the programs were not generated by a private-sector news source.[1] Soviet Propaganda Poster during the Great Patriotic War. The text reads "Red Arm y Soldier - SAVE US!"Propaganda, in a narrower use of the term, connotates delib erately false or misleading information that supports or furthers a political ca use or the interests of those in power. The propagandist seeks to change the way people understand an issue or situation for the purpose of changing their actio ns and expectations in ways that are desirable to the interest group. Propaganda , in this sense, serves as a corollary to censorship in which the same purpose i s achieved, not by filling people's minds with approved information, but by prev enting people from being confronted with opposing points of view. What sets prop aganda apart from other forms of advocacy is the willingness of the propagandist to change people's understanding through deception and confusion rather than pe rsuasion and understanding. The leaders of an organization know the information to be one sided or untrue, but this may not be true for the rank and file member s who help to disseminate the propaganda. Brochure of the Peoples Temple, portraying cult leader Jim Jones as the loving f ather of the "Rainbow Family."More in line with the religious roots of the term, it is also used widely in the debates about new religious movements (NRMs), bot h by people who defend them and by people who oppose them. The latter pejorative ly call these NRMs cults. Anti-cult activists and countercult activists accuse t he leaders of what they consider cults of using propaganda extensively to recrui t followers and keep them. Some social scientists, such as the late Jeffrey Hadd en, and CESNUR affiliated scholars accuse ex-members of "cults" who became vocal critics and the anti-cult movement of making these unusual religious movements look bad without sufficient reasons. Propaganda is a mighty weapon in war. In this case its aim is usually to dehuman ize and create hatred toward a supposed enemy, either internal or external. The technique is to create a false image in the mind. This can be done by using spec ial words, special avoidance of words or by saying that the enemy is responsible for certain things he never did. Most propaganda wars require the home populati on to feel the enemy has inflicted an injustice, which may be fictitious or may be based on facts. The home population must also decide that the cause of their nation is just. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 116 Propaganda is also one of the methods used in psychological warfare, which may a lso involve false flag operations. The term propaganda may also refer to false information meant to reinforce the m indsets of people who already believe as the propagandist wishes. The assumption is that, if people believe something false, they will constantly be assailed by doubts. Since these doubts are unpleasant (see cognitive dissonance), people wi ll be eager to have them extinguished, and are therefore receptive to the reassu rances of those in power. For this reason propaganda is often addressed to peopl

e who are already sympathetic to the agenda. This process of reinforcement uses an individual's predisposition to self-select "agreeable" information sources as a mechanism for maintaining control. US Office for War Information, propaganda message: working less helps our enemie s. Propaganda can be classified according to the source and nature of the message. White propaganda generally comes from an openly identified source, and is charac terized by gentler methods of persuasion, such as standard public relations tech niques and one-sided presentation of an argument. Black propaganda is identified as being from one source, but is in fact from ano ther. This is most commonly to disguise the true origins of the propaganda, be i t from an enemy country or from an organization with a negative public image. Grey propaganda Is propaganda without any identifiable source or author. In scal e, these different types of propaganda can also be defined by the potential of t rue and correct information to compete with the propaganda. For example, opposit ion to white propaganda is often readily found and may slightly discredit the pr opaganda source. Opposition to grey propaganda, when revealed (often by an insid e source), may create some level of public outcry. Opposition to black propagand a is often unavailable and may be dangerous to reveal, because public cognizance of black propaganda tactics and sources would undermine or backfire the very ca mpaign the black propagandist supported. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 117 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Propaganda may be administered in very insidious ways. For instance, disparaging dis-information about history, certain groups or foreign countries may be encou raged or tolerated in the educational system. Since few people actually double-c heck what they learn at school, such dis-information will be repeated by journal ists as well as parents, thus reinforcing the idea that the dis-information item is really a "well-known fact," even though no one repeating the myth is able to point to an authoritative source. The dis-information is then recycled in the m edia and in the educational system, without the need for direct governmental int ervention on the media. Such permeating propaganda may be used for political goals: by giving citizens a false impression of the quality or policies of their country, they may be incit ed to reject certain proposals or certain remarks or ignore the experience of ot hers. See also in dictionaries: black propaganda, marketing, advertising Brief History of Propaganda U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on tro op movements (National Archives) Etymology In late Latin, propaganda meant "things to be propagated". In 1622, shortly afte r the start of the Thirty Years' War, Pope Gregory XV founded the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide ("Congregation for Propagating the Faith"), a committee of Card inals with the duty of overseeing the propagation of Christianity by missionarie s sent to non-Catholic countries. Therefore, the term itself originates with thi s Roman Catholic Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (sacra con gregatio christiano nomini propagando or, briefly, propaganda fide), the departm ent of the pontifical administration charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in non-Catholic countries (mission territory). The actual Latin stem propagand- conveys a sense of "that which ought to be spre ad". Originally the term was not intended to refer to misleading information. Th e modern political sense dates from World War I, and was not originally pejorati ve. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 118 Propaganda has been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence e

xists. The writings of Romans like Livy are considered masterpieces of pro-Roman state propaganda. The Behistun Inscription, made around 515 BC and detailing th e rise of Darius I to the Persian throne, can also be seen as an early example o f propaganda. 19th and 20th centuries' propaganda Gabriel Tarde's Laws of Imitation (1890) and Gustave Le Bon's The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1897) were two of the first codifications of propaganda te chniques, which influenced many writers afterward, including Sigmund Freud. Hitl er's Mein Kampf is heavily influenced by Le Bon's theories. Journalist Walter Li ppman, in Public Opinion (1922) also worked on the subject, as well as psycholog ist Edward Bernays, a nephew of Freud, early in the 20th century. During World W ar I, Lippman and Bernays were hired by then United States President, Woodrow Wi lson, to participate in the Creel Commission, the mission of which was to sway p opular opinion in favor of entering the war, on the side of the United Kingdom. The Creel Commission provided themes for speeches by "four-minute men" at public functions, and also encouraged censorship of the American press. The Commission was so unpopular that after the war, Congress closed it down without providing funding to organize and archive its papers. U.S. Propaganda from WW II, Depicting Hitler as foolish, The war propaganda camp aign of Lippman and Bernays produced within six months such an intense anti-Germ an hysteria as to permanently impress American business (and Adolf Hitler, among others) with the potential of large-scale propaganda to control public opinion. Bernays coined the terms "group mind" and "engineering consent", important conc epts in practical propaganda work. The current public relations industry is a direct outgrowth of Lippman's and Ber nays' work and is still used extensively by the United States government. For th e first half of the 20th century Bernays and Lippman themselves ran a very succe ssful public relations firm. World War II saw continued use of propaganda as a weapon of war, both by Hitler' s propagandist Joseph Goebbels and the British Political Warfare Executive, as w ell as the United States Office of War Information. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 119 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza In the early 2000s, the United States government developed and freely distribute d a video game known as America's Army. The stated intention of the game is to e ncourage players to become interested in joining the U.S. Army. According to a p oll by I for I Research, 30% of young people who had a positive view of the mili tary said that they had developed that view by playing the game. Russian revolution Russian revolutionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries distinguished two differe nt aspects covered by the English term propaganda. Their terminology included tw o terms: Russian: 0???? Russian: ???????? (agitatsiya), or agitation, and Russian: ???? (agitatsiya), or agitation, and Russian: ?????, or propaganda, see agitprop (agi tprop is not, however, limited to the Soviet Union, as it was considered, before the October Revolution, to be one of the fundamental activity of any Marxist ac tivist; this importance of agit-prop in Marxist theory may also be observed toda y in trotskyists circles, who insist on the importance of leaflets distribution) . Soviet propaganda meant dissemination of revolutionary ideas, teachings of Marxi sm, and theoretical and practical knowledge of Marxist economics, while agitatio n meant forming favorable public opinion and stirring up political unrest. These activities did not carry negative connotations (as they usually do in English) and were encouraged. Expanding dimensions of state propaganda, the Bolsheviks ac tively used transportation such as trains, aircraft and other means. Josef Stalin's regime built the largest fixed-wing aircraft of the 1930s, Tupole v ANT-20, exclusively for this purpose. Named after the famous Soviet writer Max im Gorky who had recently returned from fascist Italy, it was equipped with a po werful radio set called "Voice from the sky", printing and leaflet-dropping mach inery, radio stations, photographic laboratory, film projector with sound for sh

owing movies in flight, library, etc. The aircraft could be disassembled and tra nsported by railroad if needed. The giant aircraft set a number of world records . Soviet poster of the 1920s: The GPU thunderbolt strikes the counter-revolutionar y saboteur 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 120 A poster of the Russian Civil War period: "Long Live World October (revolution)! The workers conquered power in Russia and will conquer the entire world Bolshevik propaganda train. 1923 ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky" propaganda aircraft, accompanied by two Po-2s, in the Mosco w sky Nazi Germany Most propaganda in Germany was produced by the Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Propagandaministerium, or "Promi" (German abbreviation)). Josep h Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry shortly after Hitler took power in 1933. All journalists, writers, and artists were required to register with o ne of the Ministry's subordinate chambers for the press, fine arts, music, theat er, film, literature, or radio. The Nazis believed in propaganda as a vital tool in achieving their goals. Adolf Hitler, Germany's Fhrer, was impressed by the power of Allied propaganda during World War I and believed that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of mor ale and revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918 (see also: Dolchstolege nde). Hitler would meet nearly every day with Goebbels to discuss the news and G oebbels would obtain Hitler's thoughts on the subject; Goebbels would then meet with senior Ministry officials and pass down the official Party line on world ev ents. Broadcasters and journalists required prior approval before their works we re disseminated. Nazi propaganda before the start of World War II had several distinct audiences: German audiences were continually reminded of the struggle of the Nazi Party and Germany against foreign enemies and internal enemies, especially Jews. Ethnic Germans in countries such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, the Soviet Union, an d the Baltic states were told that blood ties to Germany were stronger than thei r allegiance to their new countries. Potential enemies, such as France and the United Kingdom, were told 4. PR Kit, News Releases 121 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza that Germany had no quarrel with the people of the country, but that their gover nments were trying to start a war with Germany. All audiences were reminded of the greatness of German cultural, scientific, and military achievements. Until the conclusion of the Battle of Stalingrad on February 4, 1943, German pro paganda emphasized the prowess of German arms and the supposed humanity German s oldiers had shown to the peoples of occupied territories. Pilots of the Allied b ombing fleets were depicted as cowardly murderers, and Americans in particular a s gangsters in the style of Al Capone. At the same time, German propaganda sough t to alienate Americans and British from each other, and both these Western bell igerents from the Soviets. After Stalingrad, the main theme changed to Germany as the sole defender of what they called "Western European culture" against the "Bolshevist hordes". The int roduction of the V-1 and V-2 "vengeance weapons" was emphasized to convince Brit ons of the hopelessness of defeating Germany. On June 23, 1944, the Nazis permitted the Red Cross to visit concentration camp Theresienstadt in order to dispel rumours about the Final Solution to the Jewish question. In reality, Theresienstadt was a transit camp for Jews en route to ex termination camps, but in a sophisticated propaganda effort, fake shops and cafs were erected to imply that the Jews lived in relative comfort. The guests enjoye d the performance of a children's opera, Brundibar, written by inmate Hans Krsa.

The hoax was so successful for the Nazis that they went on to make a propaganda film at Theresienstadt. Shooting of the film began on February 26, 1944. Directe d by Kurt Gerron, it was meant to show how well the Jews lived under the "benevo lent" protection of the Third Reich. After the shooting, most of the cast, and e ven the filmmaker himself, were deported to the concentration camp of Auschwitz. Goebbels committed suicide shortly after Hitler on April 30, 1945. In his stead, Hans Fritzsche, who had been head of the Radio Chamber, was tried and acquitted by the Nuremberg war crimes tribunal. Nazi poster portraying Adolf Hitler. Text: "Long Live Germany!" "This person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community 60,000 Reichs mark during his lifetime. Fellow German, that is your 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 122 money, too. Read 'New People', the monthly magazine of the race-political office of the NSDAP." see T-4 Euthanasia Program A 1941 poster by Boris Efimov countering Nazi propaganda about the Aryan race Cold War propaganda Soviet propaganda poster of Lenin from 1967The United States and the Soviet Unio n both used propaganda extensively during the Cold War. Both sides used film, te levision, and radio programming to influence their own citizens, each other, and Third World nations. The United States Information Agency operated the Voice of America as an official government station. Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, which were in part supported by the Central Intelligence Agency, provided grey propaganda in news and entertainment programs to Eastern Europe and the Soviet U nion respectively. The Soviet Union's official government station, Radio Moscow, broadcast white propaganda, while Radio Peace and Freedom broadcast grey propag anda. Both sides also broadcast black propaganda programs in periods of special crises. In 1948, the United Kingdom's Foreign Office created the IRD (Informatio n Research Department) which took over from wartime and slightly post-war depart ments such as the Ministry of Information and dispensed propaganda via various m edia such as the BBC and publishing. [4] [5] Large image of Joseph Stalin looms over Soviets.The ideological and border dispu te between the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China resulted in a number of cross-border operations. One technique developed during this period was the " backwards transmission," in which the radio program was recorded and played back wards over the air. (This was done so that messages meant to be received by the other government could be heard, while the average listener could not understand the content of the program.) Soviet propaganda appeared in Soviet Union education, as well. Propaganda went s o far in school that it sometimes even interfered with learning. When one learne d history, one would never learn any history except for Russia's, but even that was not at all valid. There were often lies spread about how life in America and other Western countries was, and how rich the U.S.S.R. was compared to them. Al so, the Soviets used classic novels, such as the American favorite Uncle Tom's C abin 4. PR Kit, News Releases 123 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza to spread communist propaganda. The overall motif and message was twisted to an anti-American message and was fed to the schools. In the Americas, Cuba served as a major source and a target of propaganda from b oth black and white stations operated by the CIA and Cuban exile groups. Radio H abana Cuba, in turn, broadcast original programming, relayed Radio Moscow, and b roadcast The Voice of Vietnam as well as alleged confessions from the crew of th e USS Pueblo. One of the most insightful authors of the Cold War was George Orwell, whose nove ls Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four are virtual textbooks on the use of prop aganda. Though not set in the Soviet Union, these books are about totalitarian r egimes in which language is constantly corrupted for political purposes. These n

ovels were used for explicit propaganda. The CIA, for example, secretly commissi oned an animated film adaptation of Animal Farm in the 1950s with small changes to the original story to suit its own needs.[1] Special kt 11:23, 15 August 2006 (UTC) Afghanistan In the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, psychological operations tactics were emplo yed to demoralize the Taliban and to win the sympathies of the Afghan population . At least six EC-130E Commando Solo aircraft were used to jam local radio trans missions and transmit replacement propaganda messages. Leaflets were also dropped throughout Afghanistan, offering rewards for Osama bi n Laden and other individuals, portraying Americans as friends of Afghanistan an d emphasizing various negative aspects of the Taliban. Another shows a picture o f Mohammed Omar in a set of crosshairs with the words "We are watching". Iraq U.S.PSYOP pamphlet disseminated in Iraq. Text: "This is your future al-Zarqawi" and shows al-Qaeda terrorist al-Zarqawi caught in a rat trap.During the 2003 inv asion of Iraq, the Iraqi Information Minister 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 124 Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf repeatedly claimed Iraqi forces were decisively winning every battle. Even up to the overthrow of the Iraqi government at Baghdad, he ma intained that the United States would soon be defeated, in contradiction with al l other media. Due to this, he quickly became a cult figure in the West, and gai ned recognition on the website. WeLoveTheIraqiInformationMinister.com[6] The Ira qis, misled by his propaganda, on the other hand, were shocked when instead Iraq was defeated. In November 2005, various media outlets, including The Chicago Tribune and the L os Angeles Times, alleged that the United States military had manipulated news r eported in Iraqi media in an effort to cast a favorable light on its actions whi le demoralizing the insurgency. Lt. Col. Barry Johnson, a military spokesman in Iraq, said the program is "an important part of countering misinformation in the news by insurgents", while a spokesman for Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said the allegations of manipulation were troubling if true. The Department of Defense has confirmed the existence of the program. More recently, The New York Times (see external links below) published an article about how the Pentagon has started to use contractors with little experience in journalism or public relat ions to plant articles in the Iraqi press. These articles are usually written by US soldiers without attribution or are attributed to a non-existent organizatio n called the "International Information Center." Planting propaganda stories in newspapers was done by both the Allies and Central Powers in the First World War and the Axis and Allies in the Second; this is the latest version of this techn ique.[7][8][9][citation needed] Techniques of Propaganda Generation in PR and in Advertising A number of techniques which are based on social psychological research are used to generate propaganda. Many of these same techniques can be found under logica l fallacies, since propagandists use arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid. An Italian poster from World War II using the image of Jesus to elicit support f or the fascist cause from the largely Catholic population. The portrayal of an A frican-American US Army soldier desecrating a church fosters racist sentiment. S ome time has been spent analyzing the 4. PR Kit, News Releases 125 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza means by which propaganda messages are transmitted. That work is important but i t is clear that information dissemination strategies only become propaganda stra tegies when coupled with propagandistic messages. Identifying these messages is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those messages are spread . That is why it is essential to have some knowledge of the following techniques

for generating propaganda: Appeal to authority: Appeals to authority cite prominent figures to support a po sition idea, argument, or course of action. Appeal to fear: Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling fear in the general population, for example, Joseph Goebbels exploited Theodore Kaufman's Ge rmany Must Perish! to claim that the Allies sought the extermination of the Germ an people. Argumentum ad nauseam: Uses tireless repetition. An idea once repeated enough ti mes, is taken as the truth. Works best when media sources are limited and contro lled by the propagator. Bandwagon: Bandwagon and inevitable-victory appeals attempt to persuade the targ et audience to take the course of action that "everyone else is taking." Inevitable victory: invites those not already on the bandwagon to join those alr eady on the road to certain victory. Those already or at least partially on the bandwagon are reassured that staying aboard is their best course of action. Join the crowd: This technique reinforces people's natural desire to be on the w inning side. This technique is used to convince the audience that a program is a n expression of an irresistible mass movement and that it is in their best inter est to join. Black-and-White fallacy*: Presenting only two choices, with the product or idea being propagated as the better choice. (E.g. : You can have an unhealthy, unreli able engine, or you can use Brand X oil) Common man: The "plain folks" or "common man" approach attempts to convince the audience that the propagandist's positions reflect the common sense of the peopl e. It is designed to win the confidence of the audience by communicating in the common manner and style of the 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 126 target audience. Propagandists use ordinary language and mannerisms (and clothe their message in face-to-face and audiovisual communications) in attempting to i dentify their point of view with that of the average person. Direct order: This technique hopes to simplify the decision making process. The propagandist uses images and words to tell the audience exactly what actions to take, eliminating any other possible choices. Authority figures can be used to g ive the order, overlapping it with the Appeal to authority technique, but not ne cessarily. The Uncle Sam "I want you" image is an example of this technique. Euphoria: The use of an event that generates euphoria or happiness in lieu of sp reading more sadness, or using a good event to try to cover up another. Or creat ing a celebrateable event in the hopes of boosting morale. Euphoria can be used to take one's mind from a worse feeling. i.e. a holiday or parade. Falsifying information: The creation or deletion of information from public reco rds, in the purpose of making a false record of an event or the actions of a per son during a court session, or possibly a battle, etc. Pseudoscience is often us ed in this way. Flag-waving: An attempt to justify an action on the grounds that doing so will m ake one more patriotic, or in some way benefit a group, country, or idea. The fe eling of patriotism which this technique attempts to inspire may diminish or ent irely omit one's capability for rational examination of the matter in question. Glittering generalities: Glittering generalities are emotionally appealing words applied to a product or idea, but which present no concrete argument or analysi s. A famous example is the American campaign slogan "Ford has a better idea!" Intentional vagueness: Generalities are deliberately vague so that the audience may supply its own interpretations. The intention is to move the audience by use of undefined phrases, without analyzing their validity or attempting to determi ne their reasonableness or application. The intent is to cause people to draw th eir own interpretations rather than simply being presented with an explicit idea . In trying to "figure out" the propaganda, the audience foregoes judgment of th e ideas presented. Their validity, reasonableness and application is not conside

red. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 127 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Saddam Hussein pictured as a decisive war leader in an Iraqi propaganda picture. Obtain disapproval or Reductio ad Hitlerum: This technique is used to persuade a target audience to disapprove of an action or idea by suggesting that the idea is popular with groups hated, feared, or held in contempt by the target audience . Thus if a group which supports a certain policy is led to believe that undesir able, subversive, or contemptible people support the same policy, then the membe rs of the group may decide to change their original position. Oversimplification: Favorable generalities are used to provide simple answers to complex social, political, economic, or military problems. Rationalization: Individuals or groups may use favorable generalities to rationa lize questionable acts or beliefs. Vague and pleasant phrases are often used to justify such actions or beliefs. Red herring: Presenting data that is irrelevant, then claiming that it validates your argument. Scapegoating: Assigning blame to an individual or group that isn't really respon sible, thus alleviating feelings of guilt from responsible parties and/or distra cting attention from the need to fix the problem for which blame is being assign ed. Slogans: A slogan is a brief, striking phrase that may include labeling and ster eotyping. Although slogans may be enlisted to support reasoned ideas, in practic e they tend to act only as emotional appeals. Opposing slogans about warfare in Iraq or the Middle East, for example, such as "blood for oil" or "cut and run," are considered by some to have stifled debate. On the other hand, the names of t he military campaigns, such as "enduring freedom" or "just cause", may also be r egarded to be slogans, devised to prevent free thought on the issues. Stereotyping or Name Calling or Labelling: This technique attempts to arouse pre judices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as some thing the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable. For insta nce, reporting on a foreign country or social group may focus on the stereotypic al traits that the 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 128 reader expects, even though they are far from being representative of the whole country or group; such reporting often focuses on the anecdotal. Testimonial: Testimonials are quotations, in or out of context, especially cited to support or reject a given policy, action, program, or personality. The reput ation or the role (expert, respected public figure, etc.) of the individual givi ng the statement is exploited. The testimonial places the official sanction of a respected person or authority on a propaganda message. This is done in an effor t to cause the target audience to identify itself with the authority or to accep t the authority's opinions and beliefs as its own. See also, damaging quotation Soldier loads a "leaflet bomb" during the Korean War. Transfer: Also known as association, this is a technique of projecting positive or negative qualities (praise or blame) of a person, entity, object, or value (a n individual, group, organization, nation, patriotism, etc.) to another in order to make the second more acceptable or to discredit it. It evokes an emotional r esponse, which stimulates the target to identify with recognized authorities. Of ten highly visual, this technique often utilizes symbols (for example, the Swast ika used in Nazi Germany, originally a symbol for health and prosperity) superim posed over other visual images. An example of common use of this technique in Am erica is for the President to be filmed or photographed in front of the American flag. Unstated assumption: This technique is used when the propaganda concept the prop agandist want to transmit would seem less credible if explicitly stated. It is i nstead repeatedly assumed or implied.

Virtue words: These are words in the value system of the target audience which t end to produce a positive image when attached to a person or issue. Peace, happi ness, security, wise leadership, freedom, etc. are virtue words. See "Transfer". See also: doublespeak, meme, cult of personality, spin, demonization, factoid 4. PR Kit, News Releases 129 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Techniques of propaganda transmission United States Army 312th PSYOP Company passes out leaflets and broadcasts messag es in Al Kut, Iraq on May 2, 2003. Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news reports, governme nt reports, historical revision, junk science, books, leaflets, movies, radio, t elevision, and posters. In the case of radio and television, propaganda can exis t on news, current-affairs or talk-show segments, as advertising or public-servi ce announce "spots" or as long-running advertorials. The magazine Tricontinental , issued by the Cuban OSPAAAL organization, folds propaganda posters and places one in each copy, allowing a very broad distribution of pro-Fidel Castro propaga nda. Ideally a propaganda campaign will follow a strategic transmission pattern to fu lly indoctrinate a group. This may begin with a simple transmission such as a le aflet dropped from a plane or an advertisement. Generally these messages will co ntain directions on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hotline, rad io program, et cetera. The strategy intends to initiate the individual from info rmation recipient to information seeker through reinforcement, and then from inf ormation seeker to opinion leader through indoctrination. A successful propagand a campaign includes this cyclical meme-reproducing process. The Propaganda Model The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky t hat alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. First presented in their 1988 book Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of the Mass Media, the propaganda model views the private media as businesses se readers and audiences (rather than news) to other businesses (ad lling a product vertisers). The theory postulates five general classes of "filters" that determi ne the type of news that is presented in news media. These five are: Ownership of the medium Medium's funding sources 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 130 Sourcing Flak Anti-communist ideology The first three (ownership, funding, and sourcing) are generally regarded by the authors as being the most important. Although the model was based mainly on the characterization of United States med ia, Chomsky and Herman believe the theory is equally applicable to any country t hat shares the basic economic structure and organizing principles which the mode l postulates as the cause of media biases. After the disintegration of the Sovie t Union, Chomsky stated that the new filter replacing communism would be terrori sm and Islam. Black propaganda is propaganda that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. It is typically used to vili fy, embarrass or misrepresent the enemy. It contrasts with grey propaganda, the source of which is not identified, and white propaganda, in which the real sourc e is declared. The term is also sometimes used as a synonym for particularly malicious wartime propaganda or falsification of information that is captured by an enemy. Black propaganda may be generated by altering genuine enemy propaganda in such a way as to distort its message. This is a particularly powerful tool if the targ

et audience has a poor understanding of the language of the enemy. The word flak can mean:Anti-aircraft gunfire, derived from the German Flugabwehrkanone, for "aircraft d efense cannon", during World War II. See also 88 mm gun Flak jackets are protective clothing worn by soldiers and others to protect them selves from debris and shrapnel criticism, as a metaphorical extension of the previous, e.g. "I'll have to take the flak for what that confounded reporter dug up." As a component of mostly Dutch, but also German and Scandinavian area place name s, flak and similar may mean "flat land" or "flat sandbank": e.g. Flakfortet Maa svlakte Goeree-Overflakkee: compare English "flake": a fictional Commanding Offi cer in the Advance Wars series. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 131 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Tema de reflectie 5 1. Who are the authors of the propaganda model theory? 2. What does the propaganda model theory postulate in terms of the five general classes of filters that determine the type of news that is presented in news media ? Specify these five classes. 3. Specify at least five Techniques of Propaganda Generation in PR and in Advert ising. 4. Compare black propaganda with the white an the grey ones. 5. Name two novels by George Orwell that are virtual textbooks on the use of pro paganda. * A fallacy is an erroneous argument. Practice The verb take + preposition: after = to resemble down = to write/record for = to mistakenly assume that sb/sth. Is sb./sth. else For granted = to assume as a fact that does not need any confirmation In = to receive, admit; to reduce the size of; to include/comprise off = to remove; to depart (aeroplanes) over = to take control/possesion of to = to adopt as a habit/practice/hobby 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 132 Practice Re-phrase each sentence below using the equivalent verbs/phrases for the preposi tional verbs in bold font: Jenny took for granted1 her wonderful genetic heritage she has an amazingly beauti ful voice. She took after2 her grandmother in almost everything that characteris es her, including this remarkable musical talent. Therefore, she took to3 singin g loudly at home, that I, in a condominium (=block of flats). When a manager hea rd her, he took her for4 a professional singer, and offered to obtain a good con tract. He took down5 her personal data in order to contact her later, because he was flying to Geneva. His plane took off6 half an hour later. So he was in a hu rry. He intended to take over7 Blues tune Records. Modal Verbs Expressing ability (skill and achievement).

Modal verb To express Examples CAN Ability in the present or future How well can you speak German? COULD/WAS ABLE TO Ability in the past Ability in the past for repeated actions Two years ago, Jane could hardly speak German, but now she can speak it very wel l. He could/was able to swim a lot when he was young. COULDN T/WASN T ABLE TO For repeated or single actions Grandma couldn t/wasn t able to find her wallet. I WILL/WON T BE ABLE TO Skill and achievement in the future I can t use the computer very well yet, but by the end of the university year I ll b e able to use it perfectly. If you keep up learning throughout the course, you ll be able to master English. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 133 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza COULD + PERFECT INFINITIVE For past ability, when the action was not performed; When we don t know whether it was performed or not; To express irritation at or reproach for the non-performance of an action. I could have given you a helping hand. Why didn t you let me know in due time? The cake has vanished ! Who could have taken it ? You could have anticipated it ! Practice Match the jumbled phrases to restore the proverbs: No news is Is lost. Out of sight, Without fire All that glitters Grow fonder. Where there is a will Leap. Look before you Before the horse. When in Rome Sorry. Make hay while Out of mind. Don t put the cart Good news. You can t have your cake and The best teacher. Better safe than Is not gold. Experience is Run deep. The more you have, Eat it. There s no smoke The more you want. Absence makes the heart There is a way. Still waters

While the sun shines. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 134 He who hesitates . Do as the Romans do. BIBLIOGRAFIE RECOMANDATA/ orientativa: Belch, George E. & Belch, Michael A., Introduction to Advertising and Promotion, Burr Ridge, Illinois: Irwin, pp. 626-658 (PR, Publicity & Corporate Advertising ), (IV 82, Biblioteca FJSC) Dooley, Jenny; Evans, Virginia, Grammarway 4, Express Publishing, U.K., 1999; English Media Texts, Past and Present, Ed. F. Ungerer, F. Liebig Univ., 2000; Evans, Virginia, Successful Writing, Express Publishing, U.K., 1998; Frost, Chris, Reporting for Journalists, Routledge, U.K., 2002, (III 1635, Bibli oteca F.J.S.C.); Ledingham, John A. si Bruning, Stephen D., 2000, Public Relations as Relationshi p Management, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, pp.205-221 (III 15 16, Biblioteca FJSC) Moen, Daryl R., Newspaper Layout and Design, Iowa State University Press, Ames, U.S.A., 2000 (IV 239, Biblioteca F.J.S.C.); Newsom, Doug, Scott, Alan si Vanslyke Turk, Judy, 1993, This Is PR, Belmont, Cal ifornia: Wadsworth Publishing Co., pp.194-224 (III 689, Biblioteca FJSC) Rich, Carole, Writing and Reporting News, International Thomson Publishing, Belm ont, California, U.S.A., 1994 (III 911, Biblioteca F.J.S.C.). www.writersmarket.com; www.fsu.edu/library/ http://www.canadaone.com/promote/newsrelease3.html (pentru unitatea 4 http://www.aboutpublicrelations.net/ucwylie.htm (pentru unitatea 4) Further reading on PROPAGANDA in Journalism and in PR: (pentru unitatea 5) 4. PR Kit, News Releases 135 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Robert Cole. Propaganda in Twentieth Century War and Politics (1996) Robert Cole, ed. Encyclopedia of Propaganda (3 vol 1998) Nicholas John Cull, David Culbert, and David Welch, eds. Propaganda and Mass Per suasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present (2003) Garth S., and Jowett, Victoria, Propaganda and Persuasion (1999) Hindery, Roderick R., Indoctrination and Self-deception or Free and Critical Tho ught?(2001) Le Bon, Gustave, The Crowd: a study of the Popular Mind (1895) Kevin R. Kosar. *Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Bran ch Activities David R. Willcox. *Propaganda, the Press and Conflict (2005) John H. Brown. "Two Ways of Looking at Propaganda" (2006) References (for Glossary and Guidelines of Media Communication): Gary B. Larson of Seattle, Washington, style@garbl.com. Updated Sept. 10, 2005. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 136 Unitatea de nvatare 6 6.RADIO JOURNALISM (BASIC VOCABULARY) CUPRINS Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare nr. 6 1.1 Cunoasterea n limba engleza a conceptelor fundamentale din domeniul comunicarii e ficiente n mass media. 1.2 ntelegerea, cunoasterea si aplicarea unor principii si tehnici ale comunicarii ef iciente n limba engleza.

1.3 Dezvoltarea abilitatilor de receptare ?i producere de structuri lingvistice spec ifice comunicarii media n limba engleza. 1.4 Aplicarea unor tehnici adecvate, a unor repere generale ale eficien?ei n comunica rea publica si de masa. 1.5 Valorificarea potentialului creativ si formarea unor abilitati de comunicare de succes n limba engleza. Obiectivele unitatii de nvatare 6 Dupa studiul acestei unitati de nvatare studen?ii vor reusi ? Sa defineasca/ sa n?eleaga n limba engleza notiuni si concepte fundamentale spec ifice comunicarii eficiente n mass media. ? Sa nteleaga, sa cunoasca si sa aplice principii si tehnici ale comunicarii efic iente n limba engleza. ? Sa cunoasca vocabular ?i modalita?i de exprimare specifice n limba engleza pent ru domeniul mass media. Radio Journalism (Basic Vocabulary) Here are some common terms in radio journalism and their definitions: actuality recorded segment of a newsmaker speaking, generally lasting from 10 to 20 seconds; this is what people outside of radio journalism often call a "sound bite" 4. PR Kit, News Releases 137 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza clock schedule of a broadcast hour, with precise time in minutes and seconds all otted for the various programming segments; for example, a clock might begin "00 :00-01:30 -- news," "01:30-02:30 -- spots," and so forth; often represented as a pie chart resembling an analog clock cut tape containing the recording of a voicer, wrap, actuality or nat sound; net works feed cuts to affiliates via satellite hourly network newscast beginning at the top of the hour; the cast generally con tains a commercial break at two and a half or three minutes past the hour and re sumes a minute or a minute and a half later; most hourlies conclude at five minu tes past the hour IQ "in cue" -- the first words recorded on a cut lead first sentence of a news story, which should concisely reveal the story's b asic events and provide an introduction to the details given in the rest of the story live shot report introduced by an anchor that has not been recorded but is read live by another journalist, often at a news scene lockout final words of a report spoken by a journalist in which the journalist's name and station call letters or frequency are given, such as "Corrie Carpenter , 990 News"; often a location is given as well: "In Middleville, Corrie Carpente r, 990 News" MOS abbreviation for "Man On the Street" interviews; that is, interviews of pass ers-by chosen at random in a public place and asked their opinions of events or people in the news nat or natural or raw sound "raw sound" is recorded sound that is not of a newsm aker speaking, such as the sound of an airplane landing or a marching band playi ng or a crowd cheering; sometimes known as "natural sound" or "nat sound," espec ially when the source of the sound is from nature, such as frogs croaking or gee se honking OQ "out cue" -- the last words recorded on a cut reader script of a news story in which no actualities are to be played; this scr ipt is read live on the air by the anchor; the recording of a reader by a report er is called a "voicer" 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 138

script written-out version of a news story, the text of which is read on the air ; a newscast is made up of a collection of scripts read by an anchor slug title of a script; used for reference purposes; wire-service stories are ea ch given one sounder recorded tune used to introduce segments of the broadcast, such as at th e beginning of a traffic report or sports; the networks use sounders at the begi nning of the hourlies spot recorded commercial advertisement tease brief phrase spoken by the anchor immediately before playing a spot or goi ng to traffic (or some other interruption of the newscast) to tell the listener about a story coming up later; the tease should intrigue the listener without ei ther misrepresenting the story or revealing it entirely voicer recorded report containing only the journalist's voice -- there is no act uality; can be understood as a recorded reader wrap recorded report in which a journalist's voice occurs at the beginning and e nd, and an actuality is played in between; the report is "wrapped around" the ac tuality zinger unusual and generally humorous feature story often placed at the end of a newscast Vox Pop(1932-1948 travelling America) INTRODUCTION One of the pioneering radio quiz programs, Vox Pop was the brainchild of one man , Parks Johnson, a former cotton broker, manager of a Texas oil company, veteran of World War I, and advertising salesman for radio station KTRH in Houston, Tex as. When Vox Pop began in November 1932, Johnson and KTRH station manager Jerry Belcher quizzed passers-by on the streets of Houston. However, Johnson was a kee n judge of the public taste and Vox Pop evolved from a quiz program heard locall y in Houston to an audience participation program heard nationally from location s across the country and around the world. Before going off the air in 1948, Vox Pop also experienced 4. PR Kit, News Releases 139 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza changes in co-hosts, sponsors, and networks, but one thing remained the same: Pa rks Johnson's dedication to bringing the voice of public to the radio airwaves. The information and photographs come from the VOX POP COLLECTION, information an d primary materials that Parks Johnson saved to document the show's history. HISTORY HOUSTON YEARS (1932-1935) In November 1932, on the eve of that year's Presidential election, Parks Johnson and Jerry Belcher began broadcasting from the streets of Houston, Texas over st ation KTRH. They challenged passers-by with trivia questions for cash prizes. Sp onsored by Metzger's Dairies. The program proved to be so successful that it was brought to the Soutwest Broadcasting System network in 1935. NEW YORK YEARS (1935-1939) In July 1935, Richard Marvin, a representative of the J. Walter Thompson Agency heard the program and brought it to New York as a summer replacement for Joe Pen ner on NBC. For the next four years, Vox Pop broadcast from locations all over N ew York City, including hotel lobbies, train stations, and the lobby of the NBC studios at Radio City. Its sponsorship also varied, first by Fleischman's Yeast, then Molle Shaving Cream, and finally Kentucky Club Tobacco. In 1936, co-host Jerry Belcher left the program and was replaced by the program's announcer Wally Butterworth. In 1939, Parks and Wally made frequent broadcasts from the New Yor k World's Fair and that same year, moved from NBC to CBS. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 140 WORLD WAR II

(1940-1945) The year 1940 was a turning point in the history of Vox Pop. Broadcasting from h otel lobbies in New York City had allowed Parks Johnson and his co-hosts to spea k to men and women as they travelled through New York from locations around the country, but beginning in 1940 and continuing until the program went off the air in 1948, Vox Pop brought its microphones to where people lived, to their hometo wns. Between 1940 and 1948, Vox Pop broadcast from 39 states and 6 foreign count ries, as well as Alaska and Washington, DC. In January 1940, they visited Rutger s University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the first of many visits they would m ake to college campuses. In February, Parks and Wally traveled to Hollywood, Cal ifornia to broadcast from the premiere of the Paramount Picture "Seventeen", the first of nineteen motion picture premieres Vox Pop would attend by 1948. The most significant period in the history of Vox Pop also began in 1940. In Jul y, they visited the Merchant Marine training ship "Empire State" in New London, Connecticut, beginning a practice of interviewing servicemen and women and other s involved in the war effort. By bringing the voices and experiences of the serv iceman to the American public, Vox Pop served an important role in maintaining t he nation's morale during the war. By the end of 1945, Vox Pop had visited over 200 military bases, hospitals, and warplants all over the country, highlighting members of the Army, Navy, Marines, Coast Guard, Army Air Force, as well as the women's service organizations, the WACS, WAVES,and SPARS. Wally Butterworth join ed in only a part of these visits. In 1942, he left the program and was replaced as co-host by 4. PR Kit, News Releases 141 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Warren Hull, a veteran radio announcer and motion picture actor. Warren would co ntinue with Parks until the final Vox Pop broadcast in 1948 and would later find fame as the host of the long-running television game show Strike It Rich. POST-WAR YEARS (1946-1948) After the war, Vox Pop continued to visit locations highlighting Ame rican culture. Problems with Lipton Tea. However under sponsorship of American E xpress Travelers Cheques on ABC, and with wartime travel restrictions lifted mad e trips to Alaska, London, and Paris. Final broadcast May 19, 1948. Tema de reflectie 6 A. student/or not-- or international actuality) 1. What subject (based on Romanian would you suggest/tackle for a vox pop on the radio ? 2. Write tapescript (of /non/-recorded material) or send recoded sound e-mail of a short (3 to 5 people) vox pop, and possible comments of your own (with regard to practical issues). B. 1. What is: (a) a lockout?; (b) a sounder?; (c) a voicer?; (d) a zinger? 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 142 2. What does a wrap have to do with an actuality? 3. Who was the pioneer of radio vox pops? Practice Match the headlines below to their corresponding leads that come afterwards: Associated Press and Reuters main headlines on Aug. 12th 2006: a. Security Council OKs Mideast peace deal By NICK WADHAMS, Associated Press Writer b. Police eye money trail in airliner plot By JENNIFER QUINN and PAUL HAVEN, Associated Press Writers 12 Aug, 2006 c. Terror plot probe under way in U.S. By LARA JAKES JORDAN, Associated Press Writer 12 Aug, 2006 d. 15 civilians die in Israeli airstrikes By ZEINA KARAM, Associated Press Writer e. Korean War soldier buried 55 years later

By DONNA DE LA CRUZ, Associated Press Writer f. Braves give the boot to conservative group at "Faith Day" By PAUL NEWBERRY, AP Sports Writer 4. PR Kit, News Releases 143 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza g. Caviar, oil targeted by Caspian protection plan By Alister Doyle, Environment Correspondent Corresponding leads 1. LONDON - Investigators on three continents worked to fill in the full, fright ening picture Friday of a plot to blow U.S. jetliners out of the Atlantic skies, tracking the money trail and seizing more alleged conspirators in the teeming t owns of eastern Pakistan. 2. ATLANTA (AP) -- The Atlanta Braves will mix baseball with the gospel when the y hold another "Faith Day" this weekend. But one of the country's most prominent Christian organizations has been tossed out of the game. Focus on the Family, a group founded by James Dobson, was barred from participat ing in Sunday's postgame activities after sponsoring the first such event at Tur ner Field last month. While the team wouldn't provide a reason for its decision, several gay rights gr oups on the Web bristled with speculation that Focus on the Family was given the boot for promoting its belief that homosexuality is a social problem comparable to alcoholism, gambling or depression. While the team wouldn't provide a reason for its decision, several gay rights gr oups on the Web bristled with speculation that Focus on the Family was given the boot for promoting its belief that homosexuality is a social problem comparable to alcoholism, gambling or depression. The Braves were the first major league team to hold "Faith Day," teaming up with Tennessee-based promoter Third Coast Sports to put on the event after a July 27 game against Florida. 3. UNITED NATIONS The U.N. Security Council adopted a resolution seeking a "full cessation" of violence between Israel and Hezbollah, offering the region its be st chance yet for peace after a month of fighting that has killed more than 800 people and inflamed Mideast tensions. 4. BEIRUT, Lebanon - Israeli missiles slammed into a village in southern Lebanon early Saturday, killing at least 15 civilians, Lebanese security officials said , while an attack in the north severed access to the country's last open border crossing with Syria. 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 144 5. WASHINGTON - Months after the Korean War started, heavy artillery hit Army Cp l. Edward F. Blazejewski's unit, killing the 25-year-old. When the unit had to m ove out, his body was left behind. His family waited 55 years for his remains to be recovered from Korean soil, ide ntified and, on Friday, finally buried at Arlington National Cemetery. 6. OSLO (Reuters) - Caviar lovers may benefit from a five-nation deal entering i nto force from Saturday meant to clean up the badly polluted Caspian Sea. The Caspian Convention -- grouping Russia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turk menistan -- is the first legally binding document on any subject adopted by the five shoreline states with widely differing political systems. The accord mirrors existing deals for the Mediterranean or Baltic seas and aims to stop pollution, protect wildlife, monitor the environment and work out joint responses to any emergencies. It formally goes into force on August 12. "The Caspian Sea's fragile environment is extremely vulnerable to the region's c urrent boom in oil and gas exploration," said Achim Steiner, head of the U.N. En vironment Programme (UNEP). 7. WASHINGTON - Federal investigators are pursuing leads in the United States re lated to the foiled plot to blow up flights from Britain but so far have found n o evidence of terrorist activity, Bush administration officials said Friday.

Expressing possibility and probability MAY Perhaps, very possible John may be back tomorrow. MIGHT Slight possibility They might come here for Christmas this year. MAY/MIGHT + Present Infinitive Possibility in the present or future He may/might visit his parents next summer. MAY/MIGHT + In speculations about past She may/might have gone on a trip 4. PR Kit, News Releases 145 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Perfect Infinitive actions to Ireland. COULD possibility Frank could still be in the library . He is a bookworm. COULD BE As an alternative of MAY/MIGHT BE I wonder the cat is. It may/might/could be in the kitchen with its paw in the fi sh bowl. CAN possibility I can t plunge in the swimming pool. There isn t enough water in it. CAN Occasional possibility Scarlet fever can be quite dangerous. CAN T It does not seem possible./I don t think. You have rested a lot lately. You can t be weary. MUST It is almost certain./I think. He looks cross. He must have problems at home. Practice 1. Abstract picture. What may be? might could can Expressing permission 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 146 Formal and informal ways of expressing permission. MODAL VERB USE EXAMPLES CAN Informal. Can I borrow your car, Dad ? COULD More polite Could I borow your car, Dad ?

MAY Formal May I use your phone ? MIGHT More formal Might I see your identity card, Sir ? COULD/WAS,WERE ALLOWED TO Permission in the past On weekends we were allowed to stay up late. MUSTN T Denying permission by law/norms/rules You mustn t stop your car here ! CAN T Refusing permission You can t enter unless you are wearing a tuxedo. Practice 1.Writing: You are in a university campus. Describe your life in the campus. Men tion at least five things you may do in the campus, and five that you may not/mu stn t do. 2.Situational Dialogue Draw an ideal/imaginary university campus. Place yourself somewhere in the campu s. Then, ask your peers to give you directions to another place in the campus. U se the phrases in the box below. Asking for directions Giving directions ? Excuse me, how can/could I get to ? I can t find my way in the campus. Could you tell me how to get to .. ? You may go straight ahead ? Turn right/left after the ? It s opposite the ? It s nearby the 4. PR Kit, News Releases 147 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza ? It s on the right/left side of the street. ? until you get to . Expressing obligation and necessity MODAL VERB USE EXAMPLES Must Strong obligation or personal feelings of necessity All citizens must observe the laws of a country. Have to External necessity I have to attend all the lectures and seminars.(others decide it is necessary). I ve got to Informal, it s necessary I ve got to finish my assignment today. Practice Re-phrase the following sentences using the modals in the table above: Drivers are supposed to stop the car when the traffic light is red. It is widely known that employees are expected to be punctual, industrious, good professionals. I need to do all the chores in the house on Saturday. Practice Read the newspaper story below: PROBE INTO AIR PLOT FOCUSES ON BROTHERS (COMPLETE STORY) 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza

148 By ROBERT BARR, Associated Press Writer LONDON - The investigation into a plot to blow up jetliners over the Atlantic ze roed in Saturday on brothers arrested in Pakistan and Britain, one named as a ke y al-Qaida suspect who left the family's home in England years ago and the other described as gentle and polite. British authorities, meanwhile, warned against complacency, saying the detention of several dozen suspects had not eliminated the danger. The terror threat leve l in Britain remained "critical" its highest designation and delays, flight canc ellations and intense security continued to greet travelers at London airports. "No one should be under any illusion that the threat ended with the recent arres ts. It didn't," Home Secretary John Reid told police chiefs at a breakfast meeti ng. "All of us know that this investigation hasn't ended." Among the questions British police are studying is whether any of the suspects h ad links to last year's London suicide bombers and how many visited Pakistan in recent months. They also are examining Internet cafes near the suspects' homes, looking into the possibility of tracking Web based e-mails or instant messages, Scotland Yard said. With U.S. authorities urgently investigating whether the British plotters had ti es in America, a news report said at least one of the men under arrest in Britai n had contact in Germany with the wife of Sept. 11 fugitive Said Bahaji. The rep ort in Focus, a German weekly, did not specify the suspect involved or say when the contact occurred. British investigators and officials have not said how close the plot was to frui tion when the arrests were made, but U.S. officials have said they would not hav e likely waited as long. In June, U.S. law enforcement officials arrested seven young men in Miami, claim ing they'd plotted to bomb the Sears Tower in Chicago and a federal building in Miami. "You want to go and disrupt cells like this before they acquire the means to acc omplish their goals," U.S. Attorney R. Alexander Acosta said. One intelligence veteran suggested cultural and legal differences could account for why British authorities are more willing than their American counterparts to watch and wait before making a move in a terror case. "It's just the way they work," said Stan Bedlington, of Arlington, Va., a former C.I.A., senior terrorism analyst who also served in the Special Branch intellig ence services of the British Colonial Police. "They (British) would always hope that they could turn somebody and use them to their advantage," he said. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 149 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza But he said he believed that the ability of the British to round up suspects wit hout bringing formal charges helped them wait longer. "In America, they're very much afraid of an operation going down before they can stop it. It's a matter of culture," Bedlington said. A swirl of attention has focused on the role that the brothers Rashid and Tayib Rauf may have played in the airliner plot. Their father, Abdul Rauf, immigrated to Britain from the Mirpur district of Pakistan several decades ago, and his fiv e children were all born in Britain, the family said. Rashid Rauf was arrested about a week ago along the Pakistan-Afghan border, and Pakistani officials have characterized him as a "key person" in the airline plot . They said evidence linked him to an Afghanistan -based al-Qaida connection" bu t gave no details. His 22-year-old brother, Tayib, was taken into custody in Britain during the swe eps that nabbed 24 people here, and unconfirmed reports said a third brother mig ht have been detained. A great-uncle of the Rauf brothers said Tayib is partially deaf due to a childho od illness. "He is very, very polite, the kindest person you could hope to meet," Qazi Amir Kulzum was quoted as saying in Saturday's edition of the Birmingham Post. "No on e can believe that he would be involved in such matters."

Neighbors and friends of the Raufs expressed shock that the brothers were caught up in the inquiry, but the devout Muslim family is no stranger to authorities. The Raufs' terraced home was first searched during a 2002 investigation into the fatal stabbing of Mohammed Saeed, an uncle of the brothers, police said. Rashid Rauf was reportedly a suspect in the slaying and is thought to have left Englan d for Pakistan shortly after the death. The house was searched again in connection with a murder during race riots in 20 05. British authorities have released little information about the brothers, or the course of their investigation into the alleged terror plot in general. There wer e no briefings Saturday for the second straight day, and senior government figur es stayed largely out of sight. The British government warned news media not to put the investigation at risk by publishing details about the plot. Reid, the home secretary, and Attorney Gener al Lord Goldsmith called for "considerable restraint" to avoid tainting any tria ls. They said the government was trying to "strike the balance between the need to p rovide necessary information to the public and to business 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 150 whilst avoiding prejudicing ongoing investigations or future proceedings." But in Islamabad, where authorities are eager to put a positive spin on a story that has again put Pakistan at the center of a major international terror invest igation, officials spent Saturday leaking details of their country's role in cra cking the case. Pakistan is questioning at least 17 people, including Rashid Rauf and one other British national whose name has not been released. A senior Pakistani security official told The Associated Press that Rauf's arres t prompted an accomplice in the southern city of Karachi to make a panicked phon e call to a suspect in Britain, giving the green light for the airliner plot to move forward urgently. "This telephone call intercept in Karachi and the arrest of Rashid Rauf helped a lot to foil the terror plan," the official said. A second intelligence official, who described the accomplice as "inexperienced," also said the caller "alerted his associates about the arrest of Rashid Rauf, a nd asked them to go ahead." Both officials agreed to discuss the investigation only if not quoted by name du e to the sensitive nature of their work. While authorities in Pakistan believe they have nabbed the main players in the p lot, the second intelligence official said two or three suspects remained at lar ge, including Matiur Rahman, a senior figure in the al-Qaida-linked Pakistani mi litant group Lashkar-e-Jhangvi. He said Rahman's name was mentioned by one of th e detainees during interrogation. British police on Friday released one of the 24 people originally arrested. No c harges have been filed yet against the others. Under tough new anti-terrorism la ws, authorities can hold suspects up to 28 days without charge, but pressure is likely to mount for police to disclose at least some of the evidence. Many in Britain's Muslim community are deeply distrustful of the police followin g high-profile blunders in the past, including the killing of a man mistaken for a suicide bomber and the shooting of another man in a raid that resulted in no charges. Prominent British Muslims, including three members of Parliament, complained in an open letter Saturday that Britain's intervention in Iraq and the failure to s ecure an immediate cease-fire in Lebanon and to get Israel to release jailed mil itants provided "ammunition to extremists who threaten us all." India's government, meanwhile, banned liquids from airliners and limited carry-o n luggage while intensifying security at airports and other public places Saturd ay.

4. PR Kit, News Releases 151 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza The move came a day after the U.S. Embassy sent an e-mail to Americans in India warning that foreign militants, possibly al-Qaida terrorists, could be planning bomb attacks there. India has been the target of terror attacks by extremists li nked to Islamic insurgents in Kashmir. Associated Press writers Munir Ahmad in Islamabad, Pakistan, Rob Harris in Birmi ngham, and Jennifer Quinn in London contributed to this report. Task 1: Shorten the article above by sticking to the main points of interest for Romanian readers. Task 2: Find synonymous words and phrases in the article above for: a) to prevent smth. bad that smb. is planning to do b) to catch /arrest smb. who is doing smth. wrong; to get smth./smb. quickly, es p. before anyone else can get them c) to prohibit, not to allow d) one of a group of people who fight against the government of their own countr y, or against authority e) a careless or stupid mistake f) a short attack on a place by soldiers, planes, or ships, intended to cause da mage but not take control g) to work hard on a case h) to balance i) if smth. bad taints a situation or person, it makes the situation/person seem bad; to damage smth. by adding an unwanted substance to it 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 152 Test de autoevaluare 6 / Self-appraisal 6 A. Explain the underlined journalese in the following: 1. City tax to be axed next month. 2. Kid unexpectedly saved from blast. 3. Teenagers blast indoor smocking ban. 4. Politicians face crowd hostility. 5. Three women charged for gems theft. 6. Manager nails employee on flirting at work. 7. Pitesti Mayor quits before Christmas. 8. Workers set to sway firm manager. 9. Fewer troops in Irak this year. 10. PM urges VAT increase. 11. House destroyed in blaze. 12. Romania in EU awaits boom in imports. 13. Students drop holiday plans because of exams. 14. Crin Antonescu as MP. 15. Yesterday I forgot to buy the press. 16. Calin Popescu Tariceanu is Romania s premier 17. Threat for Ferentari people who walk on streets at midnight 18. Top singer killed yesterday 19. Teacher vows big marks 20. .Government in alert because of pollution. 21. 300 bank branches face chop due to VAT 22. Alcohol price curbs 23. Family feud explodes into violence 24. Flare rampage to halt production 25. Last minute hitch delays sattelite lauch 26. Flood : new row looms 27. Moderates ousted in Union Electons 28. Mob kidnaps French envoy 29. Teachers' leaders storm out of meeting 30. Quake toll may be 5000 in Ulster

31. Six die in hotel blaze 32. India cuts trade bonds with Pakistan 33. Police to clamp down on speeding 34. City fears new slump 35. Cabinet split on prices policy 36. Quake toll may be 5.000 37. Steel plant blaze 38. Snowstorms hit transport 39. Last-minute hitch delays satellite launch 40. Picasso drawing goes for 5M B. Explain the words in bold type in each headline: 1. Last minute hitch delays satellite launch. 2. Government promises crackdown on drugs dealers. 3. MP nails Minister on pit closure plans. 4. PR Kit, News Releases 153 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 4. Bus driver spends 30,000 pounds in three-day credit card spree. 5. Jobless fi gures stun City. 6. PM rules out autumn election. 7. Export figures bolster City confidence. 8. Imports top last year's figures. 9. Woman alleges unfair treatme nt. 10.Hotel bars footbal fans New bar on immigrants. Raspunsuri si comentarii la Testele de autoevaluare A. 1. axe = abolish, close down; abolition, closure 2. blast = explosion 3. blast = criticise violently 4. face = be threatened by 5. charge = accusation (by police)/gems = jewels 6. nail = force somebody to admit the truth 7. quit = resign, leave 8. set to = ready to, about to/sway = persuade 9. troops = soldiers 10. urge = encourage/VAT = value added tax 11. alert - alarm, warning 12. blaze - fire 13. boom - big increase; prosperous period 14. threat - danger 15. premier - head of government 16. press - the newspaper 17. MP - Member of Parliament 18. drop - give up, get rid of 19. top - most important promise 20. vow 21. abolition, closure / because of / value added tax 22. are restricted 23. long-lasting quarrel, dispute 24. begin violently / riot / to stop 25. problem that causes a delay / send into space 26. noisy disagreement / threaten to happen 27. driven out, replaced 28. Mafia / ambassador 29. leave angrily 30. number killed / Northen Ireland 31. blaze = fire 32. bond = political/business association 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 154 33. clamp down on = deal firmly with (usually smth. illegal) 34. slump = fall (economic) 35. split = disagree(ment)

36. toll = number killed 37. plant = factory 38. hit = affect badly 39. hitch = problem that causes delay 40. go for = be sold for B. 1. problem that causes delay 2. a firm application of the law/ to firmly apply t he law 3. forces Minister to admit the truth about 4. wild spending expedition 5 . Shock, surprise 6. Rejects the possibility of 7. Give support/ encouragement t o 8. Exceed 9. Makes an accusation of 10. refuses to allow entry/ refusal to all ow entry BIBLIOGRAFIE RECOMANDATA/ orientativa: Belch, George E. & Belch, Michael A., Introduction to Advertising and Promotion, Burr Ridge, Illinois: Irwin, pp. 626-658 (PR, Publicity & Corporate Advertising ), (IV 82, Biblioteca FJSC) Dooley, Jenny; Evans, Virginia, Grammarway 4, Express Publishing, U.K., 1999; English Media Texts, Past and Present, Ed. F. Ungerer, F. Liebig Univ., 2000; Evans, Virginia, Successful Writing, Express Publishing, U.K., 1998; Frost, Chris, Reporting for Journalists, Routledge, U.K., 2002, (III 1635, Bibli oteca F.J.S.C.); Ledingham, John A. si Bruning, Stephen D., 2000, Public Relations as Relationshi p Management, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, pp.205-221 (III 15 16, Biblioteca FJSC) Moen, Daryl R., Newspaper Layout and Design, Iowa State University Press, Ames, U.S.A., 2000 (IV 239, Biblioteca F.J.S.C.); Newsom, Doug, Scott, Alan si Vanslyke Turk, Judy, 1993, This Is PR, Belmont, Cal ifornia: Wadsworth Publishing Co., pp.194-224 (III 689, Biblioteca FJSC) 4. PR Kit, News Releases 155 Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza Rich, Carole, Writing and Reporting News, International Thomson Publishing, Belm ont, California, U.S.A., 1994 (III 911, Biblioteca F.J.S.C.). www.writersmarket.com; www.fsu.edu/library/ http://www.canadaone.com/promote/newsrelease3.html (pentru unitatea 4 http://www.aboutpublicrelations.net/ucwylie.htm (pentru unitatea 4) Further reading on PROPAGANDA in Journalism and in PR: (pentru unitatea 5) Robert Cole. Propaganda in Twentieth Century War and Politics (1996) Robert Cole, ed. Encyclopedia of Propaganda (3 vol 1998) Nicholas John Cull, David Culbert, and David Welch, eds. Propaganda and Mass Per suasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present (2003) Garth S., and Jowett, Victoria, Propaganda and Persuasion (1999) Hindery, Roderick R., Indoctrination and Self-deception or Free and Critical Tho ught?(2001) Le Bon, Gustave, The Crowd: a study of the Popular Mind (1895) Kevin R. Kosar. *Public Relations and Propaganda: Restrictions on Executive Bran ch Activities David R. Willcox. *Propaganda, the Press and Conflict (2005) John H. Brown. "Two Ways of Looking at Propaganda" (2006) References (for Glossary and Guidelines of Media Communication): 4. PR Kit, News Releases Strategii ale comunicarii eficiente n limba engleza 156 Gary B. Larson of Seattle, Washington, style@garbl.com. Updated Sept. 10, 2005.