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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Conic Sections

Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines Diliman

Mathematics 54Elementary Analysis 2

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Introduction

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Introduction

A conic section is a plane gure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane. Below are samples of conic sections.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Introduction

A conic section is a plane gure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane. Below are samples of conic sections.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Parabola

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Parabola
The set of all points in the plane whose distance from a xed point (focus) is equal to its distance from a xed line (directrix).

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Parabola
The set of all points in the plane whose distance from a xed point (focus) is equal to its distance from a xed line (directrix).

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P = (x, y) is on the parabola if

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P = (x, y) is on the parabola if distance of P to F

= distance of P to D

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P = (x, y) is on the parabola if distance of P to F (x p)2 + (y 0)2

= distance of P to D = x (p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P = (x, y) is on the parabola if distance of P to F (x p)2 + (y 0)2 (x p)2 + y 2

= distance of P to D = x (p) = x+p

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P = (x, y) is on the parabola if distance of P to F (x p)2 + (y 0)2 (x p)2 + y 2 (x p)2 + y 2

= distance of P to D = x (p) = x+p = (x + p)2

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P = (x, y) is on the parabola if distance of P to F (x p)2 + (y 0)2 (x p)2 + y 2 (x p)2 + y 2 x2 2px + p2 + y 2

= distance of P to D = x (p) = x+p = (x + p)2 = x2 + 2px + p2

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P = (x, y) is on the parabola if distance of P to F (x p)2 + (y 0)2 (x p)2 + y 2 (x p)2 + y 2 x2 2px + p2 + y 2 y2

= distance of P to D = x (p) = x+p = (x + p)2 = x2 + 2px + p2 = 4px


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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y2 = 4px focus: (p, 0) directrix: x = p

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y2 = 4px focus: (p, 0) directrix: x = p

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. .

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y2 = 4px focus: (p, 0) directrix: x = p

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. .

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y2 = 4px focus: (p, 0) directrix: x = p

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y2 = 4px focus: (p, 0) directrix: x = p

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y2 = 4px focus: (p, 0) directrix: x = p

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex. Its distance from the focus is p, which is its distance from the directrix.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y2 = 4px focus: (p, 0) directrix: x = p

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex. Its distance from the focus is p, which is its distance from the directrix. The line segment with endpoints on the parabola and parallel to the directrix that contains the focus is called latus rectum.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y2 = 4px focus: (p, 0) directrix: x = p

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex. Its distance from the focus is p, which is its distance from the directrix. The line segment with endpoints on the parabola and parallel to the directrix that contains the focus is called latus rectum.

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y 2 = 4px

F : (p, 0)

D: x=p

y 2 = 4px

F : (p, 0)

D : x = p

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

y 2 = 4px

F : (p, 0)

D: x=p

y 2 = 4px

F : (p, 0)

D : x = p

x2 = 4py

F : (0, p)

D: y=p

x2 = 4py

F : (0, p)

D : y = p

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 .

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution:

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 .

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3,

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3).

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3).

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3).

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3).

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3).

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3). Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3). Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3). Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Additionally, the directrix is the line y = 3.
Conic Sections 7/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3). Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Additionally, the directrix is the line y = 3.
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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution:

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 ,

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , 3

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at
1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at
1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at
1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at
1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at
1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at
1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Additionally, the directrix is the line x = 1. 3
Conic Sections 8/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at
1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Additionally, the directrix is the line x = 1. 3
Conic Sections 8/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

In general, if the vertex of a parabola is at the point (h, k), then it has either of the form

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

In general, if the vertex of a parabola is at the point (h, k), then it has either of the form

(y k)2 = 4p(x h)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

In general, if the vertex of a parabola is at the point (h, k), then it has either of the form

(y k)2 = 4p(x h)

(x h)2 = 4p(y k)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the right (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the right (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the right (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the right (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h + p, k)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the right (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h + p, k) latus rectum :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the right (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h + p, k) latus rectum : (h + p, k 2p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the right (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h + p, k) latus rectum : (h + p, k 2p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the right (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h + p, k) latus rectum : (h + p, k 2p) directrix :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the right (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h + p, k) latus rectum : (h + p, k 2p) directrix : x = h p

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h p, k)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h p, k) latus rectum :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h p, k) latus rectum : (h p, k 2p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h p, k) latus rectum : (h p, k 2p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h p, k) latus rectum : (h p, k 2p) directrix :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening to the left (y k)2 = 4p(x h) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h p, k) latus rectum : (h p, k 2p) directrix : x = h + p

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k + p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k + p) latus rectum :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k + p) latus rectum : (h 2p, k + p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k + p) latus rectum : (h 2p, k + p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k + p) latus rectum : (h 2p, k + p) directrix :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening upward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k + p) latus rectum : (h 2p, k + p) directrix : y = k p

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k p) latus rectum :

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k p) latus rectum : (h 2p, k p)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k p) latus rectum : (h 2p, k p)

Conic Sections

13/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k p) latus rectum : (h 2p, k p) directrix :

Conic Sections

13/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Parabola opening downward (x h)2 = 4p(y k) (p > 0)

vertex : (h, k) focus : (h, k p) latus rectum : (h 2p, k p) directrix : y = k + p

Conic Sections

13/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix.

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution:

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16,

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1,

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left.

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6). Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6). Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6). Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Also, the directrix is the line x = 5.
Conic Sections 14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6). Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Also, the directrix is the line x = 5.
Conic Sections 14/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1.

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola

Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution: We plot the focus and draw the directrix.

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix.

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix.

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at (3, 3), and the parabola opens downwards.

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at (3, 3), and the parabola opens downwards. Hence, p = 1 = 4p = 4.

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at (3, 3), and the parabola opens downwards. Hence, p = 1 = 4p = 4. Thus, the equation is (x 3)2 = 4(y 3).

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of a Parabola
Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at (3, 3), and the parabola opens downwards. Hence, p = 1 = 4p = 4. Thus, the equation is (x 3)2 = 4(y 3).

Conic Sections

15/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Conic Sections

16/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

An ellipse is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two xed points (focuses/foci) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections

16/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

An ellipse is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two xed points (focuses/foci) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections

17/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

An ellipse is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two xed points (focuses/foci) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections

18/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

An ellipse is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two xed points (focuses/foci) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections

19/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

An ellipse is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two xed points (focuses/foci) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections

20/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Conic Sections

21/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0)

Conic Sections

21/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0)

Conic Sections

21/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0) Endpoints of minor axis: (0, b) and (0, b)

Conic Sections

21/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0) Endpoints of minor axis: (0, b) and (0, b) Point P = (x, y) is on the ellipse if distance of P to F1 + distance of P to F2 = constant

Conic Sections

21/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0) Endpoints of minor axis: (0, b) and (0, b) Point P = (x, y) is on the ellipse if distance of P to F1 + distance of P to F2 = 2a

Conic Sections

21/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0) Endpoints of minor axis: (0, b) and (0, b) Point P = (x, y) is on the ellipse if distance of P to F1 + distance of P to F2 = 2a (x + c)2 + y 2 + (x c)2 + y 2 = 2a
Conic Sections 21/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Conic Sections

22/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

(x + c)2 + y 2

2a

(x c)2 + y 2

Conic Sections

22/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

(x + c)2 + y 2 x2 + 2cx + c2 + y 2

= =

2a

(x c)2 + y 2 (x c)2 + y 2 + x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

4a2 4a

Conic Sections

22/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

(x + c)2 + y 2 x2 + 2cx + c2 + y 2 4a (x c)2 + y 2

= = =

2a

(x c)2 + y 2 (x c)2 + y 2 + x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

4a2 4a 4a2 4cx

Conic Sections

22/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

(x + c)2 + y 2 x2 + 2cx + c2 + y 2 4a (x c)2 + y 2

= = = =

2a

(x c)2 + y 2 (x c)2 + y 2 + x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

4a2 4a 4a2 4cx

a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2

Conic Sections

22/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

(x + c)2 + y 2 x2 + 2cx + c2 + y 2 4a (x c)2 + y 2

= = = = =

2a

(x c)2 + y 2 (x c)2 + y 2 + x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

4a2 4a 4a2 4cx

a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2 a2 x2 2a2 cx + a2 c2 + a2 y 2

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2

Conic Sections

22/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

(x + c)2 + y 2 x2 + 2cx + c2 + y 2 4a (x c)2 + y 2

= = = = = =

2a

(x c)2 + y 2 (x c)2 + y 2 + x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

4a2 4a 4a2 4cx

a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2 a2 x2 2a2 cx + a2 c2 + a2 y 2 a2 c 2 x 2 + a2 y 2

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a2 a2 c 2

Conic Sections

22/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

(x + c)2 + y 2 x2 + 2cx + c2 + y 2 4a (x c)2 + y 2

= = = = = = =

2a

(x c)2 + y 2 (x c)2 + y 2 + x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

4a2 4a 4a2 4cx

a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2 a2 x2 2a2 cx + a2 c2 + a2 y 2 a2 c 2 x 2 + a2 y 2 y2 + 2 a2 a c 2 x2

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a2 a2 c 2 1

Conic Sections

22/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

x2 a2

y2 + 2 =1 a c2

Conic Sections

23/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

x2 a2

y2 + 2 =1 a c2

Notice that b2 = a2 c2 .

Conic Sections

23/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

x2 a2

y2 + 2 =1 a c2

Notice that b2 = a2 c2 . Thus, we have x2 a2 y2 + 2 = 1. b

Conic Sections

23/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0)

Conic Sections

24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0) length of major axis = 2a

Conic Sections

24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (0, b)

Conic Sections

24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (0, b) length of minor axis = 2b

Conic Sections

24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (0, b) length of minor axis = 2b foci : (c, 0) where a2 b2 = c2

Conic Sections

24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (0, b) length of minor axis = 2b foci : (c, 0) where a2 b2 = c2

Conic Sections

24/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (0, a)

Conic Sections

25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (0, a) length of major axis = 2a

Conic Sections

25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (0, a) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (b, 0)

Conic Sections

25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (0, a) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (b, 0) length of minor axis = 2b

Conic Sections

25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse
Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (0, a) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (b, 0) length of minor axis = 2b foci : (0, c) where a2 b2 = c2

Conic Sections

25/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of Solution. x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence,

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5,

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3,

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0)

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0)

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3)

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3)

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3) c2 = a2 b2

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 32

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 32 = 16

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 32 = 16= 42

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 32 = 16= 42 foci : F1 (4, 0), F2 (4, 0)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of x2 y 2 + = 1. 25 9

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 32 = 16= 42 foci : F1 (4, 0), F2 (4, 0)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36.

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. Solution.

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence,

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3,

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2,

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0) c2 = a2 b2

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0) c2 = a2 b2 = 32 22

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0) c2 = a2 b2 = 32 22 = 5

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0) c2 = a2 b2 = 32 22 = 5= ( 5)2

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0) c2 = a2 b2 = 32 22 = 5= ( 5)2 foci : F1 (0, 5), F2 (0, 5)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0) c2 = a2 b2 = 32 22 = 5= ( 5)2 foci : F1 (0, 5), F2 (0, 5)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, suppose the graph of an ellipse is translated so that the center is at (h, k).

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, suppose the graph of an ellipse is translated so that the center is at (h, k). The equation of the ellipse has either of the form (A) (x h)2 a2 + (y k)2 b2 =1 or (B) (y k)2 a2 + (x h)2 b2 = 1.

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, suppose the graph of an ellipse is translated so that the center is at (h, k). The equation of the ellipse has either of the form (A) (x h)2 a2 + (y k)2 b2 =1 or (B) (y k)2 a2 + (x h)2 b2 = 1.

Major Axis A B horizontal vertical

Vertices (h a, k) (h, k a)

Minor Axis (h, k b) (h b, k)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, suppose the graph of an ellipse is translated so that the center is at (h, k). The equation of the ellipse has either of the form (A) (x h)2 a2 + (y k)2 b2 =1 or (B) (y k)2 a2 + (x h)2 b2 = 1.

Major Axis A B horizontal vertical

Vertices (h a, k) (h, k a)

Minor Axis (h, k b) (h b, k)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0.

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution.

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence,

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5,

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1,

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2).

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2).

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2).

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12 = 24

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12 = 24= 2 24

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12 = 24= 2 24 foci : F1 (0, 2 + 24), F2 (0, 2 24)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Ellipse
Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12 = 24= 2 24 foci : F1 (0, 2 + 24), F2 (0, 2 24)

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution:

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution:

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center :

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2)

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4 b=3

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4 b=3 The major axis is horizontal.

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4 b=3 The major axis is horizontal. Thus, the equation is

Conic Sections

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Introduction Parabola Ellipse

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4 b=3 The major axis is horizontal. Thus, the equation is (x + 1)2 (y 2)2 + = 1. 16 9

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