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42 (de) vizualizări246 paginiParabolas and Ellipses

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Parabolas and Ellipses

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42 (de) vizualizări

Parabolas and Ellipses

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Conic Sections

Conic Sections

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Introduction

Conic Sections

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Introduction

A conic section is a plane gure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane. Below are samples of conic sections.

Conic Sections

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Introduction

A conic section is a plane gure formed when a right-circular cone is cut by a plane. Below are samples of conic sections.

Conic Sections

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Parabola

Conic Sections

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Parabola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from a xed point (focus) is equal to its distance from a xed line (directrix).

Conic Sections

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Parabola

The set of all points in the plane whose distance from a xed point (focus) is equal to its distance from a xed line (directrix).

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

= distance of P to D

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

= distance of P to D = x (p)

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P = (x, y) is on the parabola if distance of P to F (x p)2 + (y 0)2 (x p)2 + y 2 (x p)2 + y 2 x2 2px + p2 + y 2

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Consider the directix and the focus situated this way:

A point P = (x, y) is on the parabola if distance of P to F (x p)2 + (y 0)2 (x p)2 + y 2 (x p)2 + y 2 x2 2px + p2 + y 2 y2

Conic Sections 4/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. .

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. .

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex. Its distance from the focus is p, which is its distance from the directrix.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex. Its distance from the focus is p, which is its distance from the directrix. The line segment with endpoints on the parabola and parallel to the directrix that contains the focus is called latus rectum.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

The line through the focus that is perpendicular to the directrix is called axis of symmetry or simply, axis. The intersection of the axis and the parabola is the vertex. Its distance from the focus is p, which is its distance from the directrix. The line segment with endpoints on the parabola and parallel to the directrix that contains the focus is called latus rectum.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

y 2 = 4px

F : (p, 0)

D: x=p

y 2 = 4px

F : (p, 0)

D : x = p

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

y 2 = 4px

F : (p, 0)

D: x=p

y 2 = 4px

F : (p, 0)

D : x = p

x2 = 4py

F : (0, p)

D: y=p

x2 = 4py

F : (0, p)

D : y = p

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 .

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution:

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 .

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3,

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3).

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3).

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3).

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3).

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3).

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3). Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3). Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3). Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Additionally, the directrix is the line y = 3.

Conic Sections 7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 12y = x2 . Solution: The equation can be written as 4(3)y = x2 . Here, p = 3, and the parabola opens up. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at (0, 3). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (6, 3) and (6, 3). Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Additionally, the directrix is the line y = 3.

Conic Sections 7/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution:

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 ,

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , 3

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left.

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin.

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Conic Sections

8/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Additionally, the directrix is the line x = 1. 3

Conic Sections 8/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 4x + 3y 2 = 0. Solution: The equation can be written as 4x = 3y 2 , or 4 1 x = y 2 . 3 Here, p = 1 , and the parabola opens to 3 the left. The vertex is at the origin. The focus is at 1 , 0 . 3 The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

1 1 , 2 and 3 , 2 . 3 3 3

Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Additionally, the directrix is the line x = 1. 3

Conic Sections 8/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

In general, if the vertex of a parabola is at the point (h, k), then it has either of the form

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

In general, if the vertex of a parabola is at the point (h, k), then it has either of the form

(y k)2 = 4p(x h)

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

In general, if the vertex of a parabola is at the point (h, k), then it has either of the form

(y k)2 = 4p(x h)

(x h)2 = 4p(y k)

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

vertex : (h, k)

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

vertex : (h, k)

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

vertex : (h, k)

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

vertex : (h, k)

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution:

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16,

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1,

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left.

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6).

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6). Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6). Hence, the graph is shown on the right.

Conic Sections

14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6). Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Also, the directrix is the line x = 5.

Conic Sections 14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example. Sketch the graph of y 2 + 4x + 8y = 0. Also, identify the focus, endpoints of latus rectum, and the directrix. Solution: The equation can be written as y 2 + 8y + 16 = 4x + 16, or 2 y (4) = 4(1)(x 4). Here, p = 1, and the parabola opens to the left. The vertex is at (4, 4). The focus is at (3, 4). The endpoints of the latus rectum are at (3, 2) and (3, 6). Hence, the graph is shown on the right. Also, the directrix is the line x = 5.

Conic Sections 14/ 30

Equation of a Parabola

Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution: We plot the focus and draw the directrix.

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

Conic Sections

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Equation of a Parabola

Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at

Conic Sections

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Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at (3, 3), and the parabola opens downwards.

Conic Sections

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Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at (3, 3), and the parabola opens downwards. Hence, p = 1 = 4p = 4.

Conic Sections

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Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at (3, 3), and the parabola opens downwards. Hence, p = 1 = 4p = 4. Thus, the equation is (x 3)2 = 4(y 3).

Conic Sections

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Example Find the equation of the parabola given that the focus is at (3, 2) and the directrix is the line x = 1. Solution:

We plot the focus and draw the directrix. Thus, the vertex is at (3, 3), and the parabola opens downwards. Hence, p = 1 = 4p = 4. Thus, the equation is (x 3)2 = 4(y 3).

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

An ellipse is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two xed points (focuses/foci) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

An ellipse is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two xed points (focuses/foci) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

An ellipse is a set of points in the plane whose distances from two xed points (focuses/foci) sum up to a constant.

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0) Endpoints of minor axis: (0, b) and (0, b)

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Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0) Endpoints of minor axis: (0, b) and (0, b) Point P = (x, y) is on the ellipse if distance of P to F1 + distance of P to F2 = constant

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0) Endpoints of minor axis: (0, b) and (0, b) Point P = (x, y) is on the ellipse if distance of P to F1 + distance of P to F2 = 2a

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Foci : F1 = (c, 0) and F2 = (c, 0) Vertices : V1 = (a, 0) and V2 = (a, 0) Endpoints of minor axis: (0, b) and (0, b) Point P = (x, y) is on the ellipse if distance of P to F1 + distance of P to F2 = 2a (x + c)2 + y 2 + (x c)2 + y 2 = 2a

Conic Sections 21/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

(x + c)2 + y 2

2a

(x c)2 + y 2

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

(x + c)2 + y 2 x2 + 2cx + c2 + y 2

= =

2a

4a2 4a

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

= = =

2a

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

= = = =

2a

a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

= = = = =

2a

a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2 a2 x2 2a2 cx + a2 c2 + a2 y 2

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2

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Equation of an Ellipse

= = = = = =

2a

a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2 a2 x2 2a2 cx + a2 c2 + a2 y 2 a2 c 2 x 2 + a2 y 2

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a2 a2 c 2

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

= = = = = = =

2a

a2 x2 2cx + c2 + y 2 a2 x2 2a2 cx + a2 c2 + a2 y 2 a2 c 2 x 2 + a2 y 2 y2 + 2 a2 a c 2 x2

a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a4 2a2 cx + c2 x2 a2 a2 c 2 1

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Equation of an Ellipse

x2 a2

y2 + 2 =1 a c2

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

x2 a2

y2 + 2 =1 a c2

Notice that b2 = a2 c2 .

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

x2 a2

y2 + 2 =1 a c2

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0)

Conic Sections

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Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

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Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

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Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (0, b) length of minor axis = 2b

Conic Sections

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Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (0, b) length of minor axis = 2b foci : (c, 0) where a2 b2 = c2

Conic Sections

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Ellipse with horizontal major axis An ellipse with horizontal major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form x2 a2 where (a > b) y2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (a, 0) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (0, b) length of minor axis = 2b foci : (c, 0) where a2 b2 = c2

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

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Equation of an Ellipse

Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (0, a)

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Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

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Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

Conic Sections

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Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (0, a) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (b, 0) length of minor axis = 2b

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Remark. An ellipse with vertical major axis An ellipse with vertical major axis and center at (0, 0) has the form y2 a2 where (a > b) x2 + 2 =1 b

vertices : (0, a) length of major axis = 2a minor axis: (b, 0) length of minor axis = 2b foci : (0, c) where a2 b2 = c2

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 5 3 Hence, a = 5, b = 3, and major axis is horizontal, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

26/ 30

Ellipse

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 32 = 16= 42

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 32 = 16= 42 foci : F1 (4, 0), F2 (4, 0)

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

vertices : V1 (5, 0), V2 (5, 0) minor axis : B1 (0, 3), B2 (0, 3) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 32 = 16= 42 foci : F1 (4, 0), F2 (4, 0)

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence,

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3,

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2,

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36. x2 y 2 Solution. The equation can be written as 2 + 2 = 1. 2 3 Hence, a = 3, b = 2, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 0).

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0) c2 = a2 b2 = 32 22 = 5= ( 5)2

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0) c2 = a2 b2 = 32 22 = 5= ( 5)2 foci : F1 (0, 5), F2 (0, 5)

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Ellipse

vertices : V1 (0, 3), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (2, 0), B2 (2, 0) c2 = a2 b2 = 32 22 = 5= ( 5)2 foci : F1 (0, 5), F2 (0, 5)

Conic Sections

27/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, suppose the graph of an ellipse is translated so that the center is at (h, k).

Conic Sections

28/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, suppose the graph of an ellipse is translated so that the center is at (h, k). The equation of the ellipse has either of the form (A) (x h)2 a2 + (y k)2 b2 =1 or (B) (y k)2 a2 + (x h)2 b2 = 1.

Conic Sections

28/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, suppose the graph of an ellipse is translated so that the center is at (h, k). The equation of the ellipse has either of the form (A) (x h)2 a2 + (y k)2 b2 =1 or (B) (y k)2 a2 + (x h)2 b2 = 1.

Vertices (h a, k) (h, k a)

Conic Sections

28/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

In general, suppose the graph of an ellipse is translated so that the center is at (h, k). The equation of the ellipse has either of the form (A) (x h)2 a2 + (y k)2 b2 =1 or (B) (y k)2 a2 + (x h)2 b2 = 1.

Vertices (h a, k) (h, k a)

Conic Sections

28/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4

Conic Sections

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Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence,

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5,

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1,

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3)

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Ellipse

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3)

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2)

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2)

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2)

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12 = 24

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12 = 24= 2 24

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12 = 24= 2 24 foci : F1 (0, 2 + 24), F2 (0, 2 24)

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Example. Sketch the graph of 25x2 + y 2 4y 21 = 0. Solution. The equation can be written as 25x2 + y 2 4y + 4 = 21 + 4 = 25x2 + (y 2)2 = 25 = (x 0)2 12 + (y 2)2 52 =1

Hence, a = 5, b = 1, and major axis is vertical, with center at (0, 2). vertices : V1 (0, 7), V2 (0, 3) minor axis : B1 (1, 2), B2 (1, 2) c2 = a2 b2 = 52 12 = 24= 2 24 foci : F1 (0, 2 + 24), F2 (0, 2 24)

Conic Sections

29/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1)

Conic Sections

30/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution:

Conic Sections

30/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution:

Conic Sections

30/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center :

Conic Sections

30/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2)

Conic Sections

30/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4

Conic Sections

30/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4 b=3

Conic Sections

30/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4 b=3 The major axis is horizontal.

Conic Sections

30/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4 b=3 The major axis is horizontal. Thus, the equation is

Conic Sections

30/ 30

Equation of an Ellipse

Example Find the equation of the ellipse with one vertex at (3, 2) and its minor axis has one endpoint at (1, 1) Solution: Center : (1, 2) a=4 b=3 The major axis is horizontal. Thus, the equation is (x + 1)2 (y 2)2 + = 1. 16 9

Conic Sections

30/ 30

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