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Project Title
To Design and Manufacture a Semi Automatic

Pneumatic Bench Press

Project Supervisor

Mr. Aftab Iqbal


Group Members

Syed Sarmad Iftikhar Asim Dil Nawaz Khan Adnan Sarwar Fida Hussain

Department of Mechanical Engineering


WAH ENGINEERING COLLEGE, WAH CANTT

Wah Engineering College

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AKNOWLEDGEMENT
Initiating with the Name of Almighty ALLAH, the Lord of Universe, who is the entire source of all knowledge and wisdom endowed to mankind. The authors wish to express their deepest thanks and gratitude to HOD Mechanical Lt. Col (R) Hafiz Sibghat Ullah Fazil for his moral support, guidelines, and pain taking task of reviewing this report. Our project advisor Engr. Aftab Iqbal, Eminent Educationist & Researcher, generously helped us in the Design and Manufacturing of Pneumatic Bench Press and accomplishment of this report. His valuable suggestions, and guidelines kept us abreast with latest knowledge and Engineering practices invogue so vital for our project. All this made it possible to maintain the timeline and complete the project with ease otherwise it would have been a far more arduous labor. We would also like to place on record our appreciation for all those who contributed by anyway in completion of this project. Last but not the least, we are highly indebted to our parents and no words can describe our gratitude we owe to them for their moral support and prayers, that helped us to reach this mile stone.

Authors

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ABSTRACT
This Semi Automatic Pneumatic Bench Press is Designed for Pressure Die / Moulding of small common use components, out of Thermosetting Plastic, like Buttons, Knobs, or window handles. The powder is filled in the Die / Mould and then adjusted specific pressure required for the component is exerted by the pneumatic press on the Die / Mould, for a Specific Time. Concurrently Die heating to melt the powder is achieved through separate electrical heating circuit. Synchronization and system integration is so carried out to keep the component cycle time as minimum possible for economical production. This Pneumatic press becomes more useful for numerous specific applications where hydraulic Press cant be used. For instance Explosive powder pressing in Detonators can only be accomplished through this kind of Pneumatic Bench Press.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Topics: CHAPTER # 1 IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM

Page No:

1.1 Problem Identification.......................................................................................... 8 1.2 List of components ............................................................................................... 8 1.3 Project Timeline ................................................................................................... 9

CHAPTER # 2 INTRODUCTION 2.1 History of press .................................................................................................. 11 2.2 Hydraulic Press .................................................................................................. 11 2.3 Pneumatic Press ................................................................................................. 11 2.4 Applications of Pneumatic Press........................................................................ 13 2.5 Selection Criteria................................................................................................ 13 .1 Cost ................................................................................................................. 13 .2 Size and Weight .............................................................................................. 13 .3 Type ................................................................................................................ 13 .4 Material ........................................................................................................... 13 2.6 Basic Components of Pneumatic Press .............................................................. 14 .1 Pneumatic Cylinder ........................................................................................ 14 .2 Press Body...................................................................................................... 15 .3 Mold or Die .................................................................................................... 15 .4 Control Panel.................................................................................................. 17

CHAPTER # 3 DESIGN OF PNEUMATIC PRESS 3.1 Force................................................................................................................... 20 3.2 Pneumatic Cylinder Design ............................................................................... 21 3.3. Column Design ................................................................................................. 23 3.4 Die ...................................................................................................................... 23
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3.5 Design Validation .............................................................................................. 25 .1 Column Design ............................................................................................... 25 3.5.2 Die ................................................................................................................... 27 3.6 Material Procurement Chart ............................................................................. 28

CHAPTER # 4 FABRICATION AND TESTING 4.1 Pillars ................................................................................................................. 30 4.2 Steel Plates ......................................................................................................... 31 4.3 Frame ................................................................................................................. 32 4.4 Die and Its Fixture.............................................................................................. 33 4.5 Control Panel...................................................................................................... 34 4.6 Cost Analysis ..................................................................................................... 36 4.7 Project Diagram ................................................................................................. 37 4.8 Installation Procedure ....................................................................................... 38 4.9 Safety Instruction ............................................................................................... 38 4.10 Operating Procedure ........................................................................................ 39

CHAPTER # 5 CONCLUSIONS 5.1 Conclusions ........................................................................................................ 44

REFRENCES ......................................................................................................... 45

APPENDIX ............................................................................................................. 46

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CHAPTER # 1

IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM

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1.1

Problem Identification

To Design and Manufacture a Semi Automatic Pneumatic Bench Press having working / line pressure of 0.7 MPa ( 103 psi /7 bar), as available at WEC Labs , and make its Dedicated use to apply Requisite adjusted pressure for a specific time to produce small components out of Thermosetting plastic Moulding by way of incorporating Die heating system as well. Ensure Design in built manual ease of Die feeding and Extraction of component for economic considerations, with Emphasis on followings: 1. Design of: a) Pneumatic Cylinder b) Supporting Frame c) Plates d) Die / Mould 2. Design Validation 3. Design economy & optimization 4. Material selection & procurement 5. Fabrication & testing

1.2

Components that can be manufactured

Some components that can be manufactured by using pneumatic press and different Die / Moulds are given below. Sr. # Item Temperature Setting Time Compression Pressure 10 MPa 10 MPa 10 MPa

1. 2. 3.

Snap Button coat Knob Burner Handle window

165oC 170oC 180oC

1min 2min 4min

The Snap Button coat has been selected to make dedicated use of press and corresponding Die / Mould Design .

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1.3

Project Timeline

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CHAPTER # 2

INTRODUCTION

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2.1

History of Press

A machine press is a device designed to apply very specific force for specific time to form, shape through hot or cold working, or compress solids and shearing of materials. Machine presses range in size from very small units that are operated by hand, to large Hydraulic or pneumatic powered industrial units used in manufacturing and assembly line applications. For example, a simple hand-press can be used to remove a bearing from a machine assembly, or a large press may be used to stamp sheet metal into the curved shapes used to construct automobile bodies. Most modern machine presses use a combination of electric motors and hydraulics to achieve the necessary pressure. Along with the evolution of presses ,came the evolution of Dies / Moulds Design and Metallurgy as well to achieve high volume, qualitative & economical production .Presses are generally hydraulic or pneumatic depending on type of work.

2.2

Hydraulic Press

Hydraulic presses are fundamentally chambers filled with some sort of liquid, usually oil. A piston presses into the chamber, causing the oil to shift position. Since the chamber is sealed, the oil exerts pressure on another, larger piston or base plate, which is in turn pressed downwards. Some types of Hydraulic Press are given as follow:

1. Shop Press: A simple frame, fabricated from steel, containing a bottle jack
or simple hydraulic cylinder. Good for general-purpose work in the auto mechanic shop, machine shop, garage or basement shops, etc. Typically 1 to 30 tons of pressure,, depending on size and expense. Classed with engine hoists and engine stands in many tool catalogs. 2. Forging Press: A forging press reforms the work piece into a three dimensional objects not only changing its visible shape but also the internal structure of the material. 3. Punch Press: A punch press is used to form holes. 4. Blanking Press: These presses are used for blanking purposes in all kind of sheet metal.

2.3

Pneumatic Press

Pneumatic presses are controlled by the manipulation of pressurized air. The air is forced into a tube which fills with the air and applies pressure that causes the press to move downwards. Once the press' stroke is finished, the air is evacuated through valves, and mechanical springs cause the pump to move upwards again. Some types of Pneumatic Press are given as follow:

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1. Stamping Press: A stamping press is a machine press used to shape or cut


metal by deforming it with a die. It generally consists of a press frame, a bolster plate, and a ram. 2. Press Brake: A press brake is a special type of machine press that bends sheet metal into shape. A good example of the type of work a press brake can do is the back plate of a computer case. Other examples include brackets, frame pieces and electronic enclosures just to name a few. Some press brakes have CNC / PLC controls and can form parts with accuracy to a fraction of a millimeter. Bending forces can exceed 4,000 KN (900,000 lbf). 3. Powder Compacting Press: This type of press is used along with a mould to compact thermosetting powder. 4. Coining Press: A coining press can cut coins from a sheet metal.

The comparison between Hydraulic and Pneumatic presses is appended here under: Hydraulic 1. Uses an incompressible fluid / hydraulic oil , as working fluid. 2. Used where High Pressure applications are required. 3. Pressure ranges up to 35 70 MPa (5,000 to 10,000 psi). 4. Most hydraulic presses generally consist of bigger components and use heavy Die /mould. Hence difficult to handle during operation and Maintenance. 5. Hydraulic system is quite complex to operate. 6. Any leakage in the system causes pollution. Pneumatic 1. Uses compressed air as working fluid 2. Used where Low Pressure applications are required. 3. Pressure ranges up to 0.7 MPa (100 psi) more or less. 4. Pneumatic applications generally use smaller components hence they are easy to handle.

5. Pneumatic system is easy to operate. 6. Pneumatic system is clean and environmental friendly.

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2.4

Applications of Pneumatic Press

Pneumatic design of press suites working pressure up to 1 MPa (145 psi) whereas for high pressure hydraulic design presses are more favorable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cutting Coining Drawing Blanking Stamping Detonator Filling Powder metallurgy compaction techniques

2.5

Selection Criteria

The proper selection depends on following factors.

2.5.1 Type
The type of press depends upon manufacturing speed and maintenance. For example pneumatic press move ten times faster than hydraulic press. There are also differences as far as maintenance. Hydraulic presses require more care, and have more components attached to them for this purpose, making them more complicated. Pneumatic presses require less time and energy for maintenance.

2.5.2 Size and Weight


It mainly depends upon the type of application that is needed from the press. Presses can be of small as well as large capacity.

2.5.3 Material
A variety of Steels are available from which the press can be manufactured, but normally Mild Steel is used for making different parts of the press.

2.5.4 Cost
Budgetary limitations usually play an important role in the selection of pneumatic press. The operation and maintenance cost of the pneumatic press are also important consideration in assessing the overall cost.

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2.6

Basic Components of Pneumatic Press


1. Pneumatic Cylinder 2. Press body Specific usage of press depends on a type of tool/die design compatible with press.

The basic components of the pneumatic press are:-

a.

Pneumatic Cylinder

Pneumatic cylinders (also known as linear actuators) are mechanical devices which utilize the power of compressed air to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion. Pneumatic cylinders use the stored potential energy of compressed air, and convert it into kinetic energy as the air expands in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. This air expansion forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to be moved. We prefer to use pneumatic cylinder because they are quieter and cleaner.

Types
Although pneumatic cylinders will vary in appearance, size and function. Main two types of pneumatic cylinder are:1. Single acting cylinder 2. Double acting cylinder 1. Single Acting Cylinder: Single acting cylinders (SAC) use the pressure imparted by compressed air to create a driving force in one direction (usually out), and a spring to return to the "home" position.

2. Double Acting Cylinder: Double Acting Cylinders (DAC) uses the force of air
to move in both extends and retracts strokes. They have two ports to allow air in, one for outstroke and one for in stroke.

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b.

Press Body

Pneumatic cylinder, mold or die and all other accessories are mounted on the press body. It is supported by four rods. These four rods are used to support two plates on which pneumatic cylinder is mounted. Material used for manufacturing press body is mild steel.

Properties of Mild Steel


Mild steel is the most common form of steel because its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. Low carbon steel contains approximately 0.050.15% carbon and mild steel contains 0.160.29% carbon; therefore, it is neither brittle nor ductile. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable; surface hardness can be increased thorough carburizing. It is often used when large quantities of steel are needed, for example as structural steel. The density of mild steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm3 (7850 kg/m3 or 0.284 lb/in3). Young's modulus for mild steel is 210,000 MPa (30,000,000 psi).

c.

Mould or Die

A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material using a press. Like molds, dies are generally customized to the item they are used to create. Forming dies are typically made by tool and die makers and put into production after mounting into a press. The die is a metal block that is used for forming materials like sheet metal and plastic. For the forming of sheet metal, such as automobile body parts, two parts may be used, one, called the punch, performs the stretching, bending, and/or blanking operation, while another part, called the die block, securely clamps the work piece and provides similar, stretching, bending, and/or blanking operation. The work piece may pass through several stages using different tools or operations to obtain the final form. In the case of an automotive component there will usually be a shearing operation after the main forming is done and then additional crimping or rolling operations to ensure that all sharp edges are hidden and to add rigidity to the panel. Die operations are often named after the

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specific type of die that performs the operation. For example a bending operation is performed by a bending die.

Types of Dies
Operations are not limited to one specific die as some dies may incorporate multiple operation types. There are different types of dies; some of them will be discussed here.

1. Compound Die: Compound dies provide multiple metal stamping features

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

with each stroke of the press. Deep draw die: A Deep Draw Die is suitable for metal stamping parts when the material is required to flow or stretch, as opposed to being bent or formed Form Die: Form Dies are probably the most common metal stamping dies used in the industry. Progressive die: Progressive dies provide different stations for operations to be performed. Rotary Die: A rotary die is a circular shaped die that may be used in any manufacturing field. Two dies are used, one has cutting and creasing rules, while the other acts as the anvil. Steel Rule die: Steel-rule dies, also known as cookie-cutter dies, are used to cut sheet metal and softer webs, such as plastics, wood, cork, felt, fabrics, and cardboard.

Die Components
The main components of die toolset are:-

1. Die Block
This is the main part that all the other parts are attached to.

2. Guide / Back gage


These parts are all use to make sure that the material being worked on always goes in the same position, within the die, as the last one.

3. Pilot
This is used to keep the material being worked on in position.

4. Punch plate
This part holds and supports the different punches in place.

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5. Setting Block
This part is used to control the depth that the punch does into the die.

6. Stripper plate
This is used to hold the material down on the Blank/ Pierce Die and strip the material off the punches.

d.

Control Panel

Control panel consists of timer, solenoid valves, air flow regulator, thermostat and limit switches.

1. Timer
A timer is a specialized type of clock. A timer can be used to control the sequence of an event or process. Whereas a stopwatch counts upwards from zero for measuring elapsed time, a timer counts down from a specified time interval, like an hourglass. Timers can be mechanical, electronic (quartz), or even software as all modern computers include digital timers of one kind or another. When the set period expires some timers simply indicate so (e.g., by an audible signal), while others operate electrical switches, such as a time switch, which cuts electrical power. 2. Solenoid valves A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid in the case of a twoport valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold. Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluids. Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the materials used, low control power and compact design.

2. Air Flow Regulator


Air flow regulators are suitable on many applications where a constant flow of air is required. The flow regulator maintains a constant differential pressure across an orifice to maintain a flow rate that is independent of the inlet or outlet pressure. The orifice size is controlled with a needle valve thus providing simple adjustment of the required flow rate.

3. Thermostat
A thermostat is the component of a control system which regulates the temperature of a system so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired set point temperature. The thermostat does this by switching heating or
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cooling devices on or off, or regulating the flow of a heat transfer fluid as needed, to maintain the correct temperature.

4. Switches
A switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. circuit,

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CHAPTER # 3

DESIGN OF PNEUMATIC PRESS

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Statement To find Required Force, Cylinder Bore and To Design the Columns. Given Data: Working Pressure = 0.7 Mpa Before designing pneumatic press, following parameter must be calculated.

3.1

Force

The term force is related to cylinder sizing. Calculation of cylinder sizing for Thrust and Pulling force is to be done. The Theoretical Thrust (outstroke) of a cylinder is calculated by multiplying the effective area of the piston by the working pressure. The effective area for thrust is the full area of the cylinder bore D.

Thrust
Where

=F=

*P

................................(1)

D= Cylinder Bore P= Pressure F= Thrust The theoretical pull (in stroke) of a cylinder is calculated by multiplying the effective area of the piston by the working pressure. The effective area for pull is reduced by the cross section area of the piston rod diameter d.

Pull
Where

=F=

( )

*P

................................(2)

D= Cylinder Bore d= Piston Rod diameter P= Pressure F= Pull

The grade of Bakelite being used has the setting pressure of 10 MPa, and the available working / line pressure is 7 bar. Now calculating the bore diameter of the cylinder,

Bakelite compression Pressure


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= 10 MPa
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Dia of Button Area of Button

D A

= 16.4 mm = =
D 2 4

16.40 2 4
2

= 211.06 mm Pressure Force P F =

=P*A

As required pressure to compact Bakelite powder is 10 Mpa and (10 MPa = 10 N/mm2)

Force

F F

= 211.06 * 10 = 2110.62 N

3.2
a.

Pneumatic Cylinder Design


Cylinder Bore P =

Pressure

As available pressure is 7 bar


(7 bar = 0.7
2

Area of cylinder

2110 .62 0.7


2

= 3015.17 mm Cylinder Area Cylinder Bore A D =.


D 2 4

= 61.96 mm

Selection of Pneumatic Cylinder *Since pneumatic cylinders available in the market have standard Bore sizes like 60,65,70mm,as such we procured 65mm bore Dia pneumatic cylinder by applying 5% safety factor.
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Specifications of the procured cylinder


1. External Dia= 70mm 2. Internal/Bore Dia= 65mm 3. Shaft travel= 250mm 4. Maximum Pressure = 12 bars or 1.2 N/mm2

b. Thrust

Force Calculation F =
D 2 4

*P

In the formula, P is divided by 10 to convert bar to Newtons per square millimetre (1 bar = 0.1 N/mm2)

40

= 2323 N
As there are four pillars so this force will be divided on the four pillars such as

Force on each pillar

=.

2323 4

= 581 N
(Including the weight of plate above the pillars, this force becomes around 600N)

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3.3

Column Design

The maximum air pressure at which the pneumatic cylinder can operate is 12 bars /174 Psi so calculating force that will be produced

Force

D 2 4

*P

65 2 4

12 10

= 3982 N

yield for Mild Steel is 248 MPa or 248 N/mm .


Area A = =


3982 248

= 16.06 mm2
D 2 4

A
Diameter D

= 4.52 mm

After multiplying this diameter with factor of safety i.e. 3

Diameter Area

D A

= 4.52 * 3 = (13.56 mm) = 144.47 mm2

3.4

Die

For component manufacturing component die is required. So die for producing a Snap Button was designed.

a.

Material used for Manufacturing Die

A Special Purpose Grade of Tool Steel or simply referred as Die Steel is used for manufacturing of Mould. Its properties are mentioned below:
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Density (1000 3 kg/m )

Elastic Modulus (GPa)

Poisson's Ratio

Thermal Expansion -6 (10 /K)

Thermal Conductivity (W/m-K)

Tensile Strength (MPa)

Yield Strength (MPa)

Hardness (Brinell 3000kg)

7.728.0

190210

0.27-0.3

9.4-15.1

19.9-48.3

640-2000

380440

210-620

Table 3.1

b.

Material used for Manufacturing Items

Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite is widely used for making moulded products. It was the first thermo set plastic invented that held its shape after being heated. Electrical insulators are made of Bakelite because of its properties of insulation and heat resistance.

A few components that are being manufactured from this plastic by using Air Compression Technique are: 1. Plastic Jewelry 2. Cameras, Telephone Case 3. Clocks, Radios 4. Insulating Handles for pans 5. Billiard Balls

Bakelite Grades
Sr. # Type 1 Classification Grade Features and Applications Suitable for making handles or spare parts PF2A1of daily household articles, inclusive of 131 Snap Buttons.

Household (R) General Type(A)

Enhanced electric leakage resistance, can be Electric PF2A2used to make insulating structures for low Appliance (D) 131 voltage electric appliances.

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With better electric leakage resistance than PF2A2- D131, can be used to make insulating structures for low voltage electrical 141 appliances. With better electric leakage resistance than PF2A2- D141, can be used to make insulating structures for low voltage electrical 151 appliances. Similar to PF2A2, but with good water Hot and PF2A4- absorbency, suitable for making insulating structure for low voltage electrical Humid (H) JS appliances and meters in hot and humid area. Heat-resisting, suitable to make insulating Heat-resisting PF2C3structure of low voltage, igniter or spark (C) 431 plug of mobiles and motorcycles. Low medium waste, improved absorbency, PF2E6- suitable to make insulating parts for telecommunication and radio, igniter of 985 mobiles and motorcycles. PF2S1- High wearable property, used to make spare 5802 parts for gas meters. Table 3.2

7 Special Type Electrical Type (E)

Wearresisting (S)

Properties of selected grade PF2A1-131


Volumetric coefficient Relatively density Flexueal strength Impact strength with gap Impact strength without gap Dissipation factor Hot distortion temperature Water absorbency Contractility Fluidity _ _ MPa KJ/(m2) KJ/(m2) (1mhz) o C mg _ mm

(Ref.

Sr. # 1, Table 3.2)

2. 7 - 3.0 0. 60 - 1. 40 70 - 140 1. 5 - 1. 8 4. 5 - 7. 0 0. 02 - 0. 08 140 - 180 15 - 35 2% - 3% 80 140

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3.5

Design Validation

3.5.1 Column Design

yield for Mild Steel is 248 MPa.


Allowable Stress

allow

= yield / F.O.S = 248 3

= 82.67 Mpa

(N/mm2)

a.

Buckling Load = (allow x Area) = 144.47 x 82.67 = 11.94 KN

Maximum load

The maximum load exceeds the force exerted by the cylinder i.e. 600 N on each pillar, hence the design is safe. It was more economical to buy mild steel rod of 1.25 diameter. Now calculating maximum load that pneumatic cylinder will exert on these rods Dia of Pillar = 1.25 Now, The maximum allowable stress on one pillar of the press body:-

yield for Mild Steel is 248 MPa allow = yield / F.o.S = 248 / 5 = 49.6 Mpa (N/mm2)

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Area of Pillar

A
Maximum Load = (allow x Area)

= 791.7 mm2

= 39.3 kN
3.5.2 Die
Main aim was to Design and Manufacture working model of pneumatic press. However, in view of economic aspect die for single Snap Button instead of multiple Buttons was designed and manufactured. The contraction allowance for Bakelite is 2.5% hence while designing the die; the dimensions of the component are kept slightly bigger than the original dimensions to compensate for the contraction that occurs when the component cools down to room temprature.

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Male Mating Part

Female Mating Part

3.6 Sr # 01 02 03 04 05 06 07

Material Procurement Chart Part name


Pneumatic Cylinder Sheet Metal Angle Arm Plywood board Rods Machining Charges Mold + Heater Panel Total

Material
Mild Steel Mild Steel Mild Steel Die Steel -

QTY
01 02 01 01 04 01 -

Dimensions
15 x 15 18 6 x 6 7 (Dia = 1.25) 5 x 5 (Thickness=1.5)

Cost PKR
11750 6000 2500 500 4000 15000 5000 5000 49750

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CHAPTER # 4

FABRICATION AND TESTING

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Fabrication process was started in 2nd week of May. During fabrication phase following processes were used to manufacture parts of pneumatic press. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cutting Threading Welding Drilling Grinding Painting

4.1

Pillars

Mild steel rod of 6 ft length and dia 1.25 were procured. These rods were cut and were divided into four equal parts of 16 length. Then threading on both ends of the pillars was done and finally chrome plating was done to save them from rusting.

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4.2

Steel Plates

Two steel plates of dimension 12 x 12 and 1 thick were procured. Then grinding of these plates was done to make their surface smooth. Four holes were drilled in upper plate to support the pillars and 5 holes to hold the pneumatic cylinder. Four holes were drilled in lower plate to support pillars and one hole to fasten the die and then the plates were painted.

These plates were coated with red oxide layer to protect these plates from corrosion;

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These plates were finally painted with green colour.

4.3

Frame

The angle arm was cut in to the designed length and then welded together to form the supporting frame. Holes were drilled for supporting the plates, pillars and panel. Then grinding of inner and outer surface was done and finally paint was applied.

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4.4

Die and Its Fixture

The mold was made from steel by a Die Maker. Then a fixture for the mold was cut and grinded. Two holes were drilled ant a nut was welded in the center to attach it with the shaft of the pneumatic cylinder. *The fixture guides the male part of die on the pillars in order to keep it aligned towards the female die part.

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4.5

Control Panel

Then control panel was made having circuitry that would turn the press on/off and control the actuating valves of the pneumatic cylinder.

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Circuit Diagram

Solenoid Valve 3

Relay

Solenoid Valve 1 Filter

Solenoid Valve 2

Air Flow Regulator Compressor

Guage

Pneumatic Line Diagram


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4.6

Cost Analysis

Sr. Item #
1 2 Pneumatic Cylinder Frame (Raw Material + Machining) Mold Control Panel Transportation

Material

Source
Local

Estimated Cost
Rs. 12,000/Rs. 15,000/-

Actual Cost
Rs. 11,750/Rs. 12,500/-

Mild Steel

Local

3 4 5

Stainless Steel

Local Local

Rs. 8,000/Rs. 4,000/-

Rs. 4,000/Rs. 5,000/Rs. 10,000/(Appx.) Rs. 43,250 /-

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4.7 Project Diagram

2 5 3

4 7

1 2 3 4

Pneumatic Cylinder Columns Die Frame

5 6 7 8

Control Panel Ejector Air Filter Pressure Guage

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4.8

Installation Procedure

The pneumatic press should be positioned and leveled on a flat surface like a workbench. Operate able air pressure required from compressor is 100 psi or 650 kPa. Lubricate the guide way of the die so that it can move smoothly.

4.9

Safety Instructions

Instructions should be read before operating equipment. 1. Ensure that the machine is operated just in a safe and functional way. 2. Before working on pneumatic parts for check up or repair, disconnect the Pneumatic Press from the air line. 3. Keep work area clean. 4. Cluttered areas and benches invite accidents. 5. Keep work area well lighted. 6. Keep children away.

7. All visitors should be kept at a safe distance from work area. Do not force equipment. 8. It will do the job better and safer at the rate for which it was designed.

9. Wear proper apparel. 10. Do not wear loose clothing, gloves, neckties, rings, bracelets or other jewelry to get caught in moving parts. 11. Always use safety glasses. Everyday eyeglasses only have impact resistant lenses, they are not safety glasses.

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4.10 Operating Procedure


Following procedure should be followed to operate this pneumatic press:

a. Air Inlet
Connect the air supply with the air compressor unit and make sure it is fasten tightly and pressure gage is indicating the required pressure (100 psi).

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b. Preheating
Set the thermostat at 200 C, the timer at 5 minutes and push the start button.
o

c. Feeding
Before the feeding process lubricate the die then pour the measured quantity of o Bakelite powder into the female part of the die and set the temperature to 170 C.

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d. Pressure Application
Set the timer to 1.5 minutes and push the start button.

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e. Extraction
When the stroke is completed, push the ejector lever and extract the component.

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CHAPTER # 5

CONCLUSION

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5.1

Conclusion

The press can be used for various applications like Stamping, Blanking, Cutting, etc.. The Press body is capable of supporting a Pneumatic Cylinder of a bigger capacity. Further on the feeding system can also be made automatic instead of manual.

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References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Britannica.com: Pneumatic Press Buzzle.com: Mild Steel Degarmo, Black & Kohser 2003, pp. 430431 eHow home: Pneumatic Press vs. Hydraulic Press Jimtrade.com: Hydraulic Press vs. Pneumatic Press Newworldencyclopedia.org: Bakelite Wikipedia: Die_(manufacturing) Wikipedia: Pneumatic Cylinder

Wah Engineering College

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Appendix

Wah Engineering College

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Wah Engineering College

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Wah Engineering College

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Wah Engineering College

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Wah Engineering College

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