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Odata ce am stabilit ca evaluarea performantelor este deosebit de necesara, urmatorul pas l constituie modul concret n care se va realiza aprecierea.

Putem copia practicile ntlnite n alte organizatii sau putem concepe acele tehnici de evaluare care sunt cele mai potrivite n functie de urmatoarele conditii: caracteristicile specifice organizatiei si domeniului ei de activitate, caracteristicile persoanei evaluate, dimensiunile relevante ale performantei si scopurile specifice urmarite la nivel individual, departamental si organizational. Tehnicile de evaluare practicate cu succes sunt: fisa de apreciere, scala grafica de evaluare, sistemul de comparare, tehnica incidentelor critice, scala comportamentului asteptat, scala comportamentului observat si centrul de evaluare. tehnica incidentelor critice se aplica pentru a diferentia comportamentele eficiente si ineficiente n munca. Evaluatorii nregistreaza periodic incidentele de comportament care influenteaza performantele angajatului. Punerea n practica a acestei tehnici nseamna parcurgerea a trei etape: colectarea incidentelor critice, scalarea si clasificarea acestora si construirea listei de comportamente. Un exemplu de incident critic bun pentru un vnzator ntr-un magazin de produse alimentare poate fi urmatorul: 25 mai - Mircea Popescu este politicos n relatiile cu clientii, prompt n servire, interesat de rezolvarea problemelor, raspunde imediat la solicitarile consumatorilor si are rabdare n fata plngerilor facute de acestia. Pe de alta parte un incident critic negativ poate arata astfel: 12 august - Mircea Popescu este agresiv, a refuzat pe un ton iritat sa dea informatii unui client, a acordat cu mare ntrziere documentele necesare pentru furnizarea unui volum important de marfa, atitudine care a adus prejudicii imaginii firmei. Evaluarea finala a performantelor prin incidentele critice se realizeaza n urma unui interviu care se desfasoara pe baza discutarii incidentelor consemnate de evaluator. Dezavantajul metodei este ca necesita un timp ndelungat pentru a consemna incidentele critice care vor permite evaluarea, nu face posibile comparatii ntre persoane, iar aprecierea unui comportament drept semnificativ este diferita de la evaluator la evaluator. Cu toate acestea, n organizatiile din occident, metoda este des utilizata n aprecierea conducatorilor de departamente avnd ca scop studierea potentialului individului si planificarea carierei sale. Tehnica incidentelor critice (urmrete identificarea principalelor tipuri de comportamente critice, speciale, neobinuite, erorilor i insuficienelor observate n realizarea sarcinilor, precum i influena pe care acestea o exercit asupra rezultatelor obinute, incidentul critic nu are semnificaia de conflict, ci aceea de aspect particular, pozitiv sau negativ al comportamentului deintorului postului sau a performanelor acestuia).

http://www.humanresources.hrvinet.com/critical-incident-technique-cit-model/ 1. Definition of critical incident technique Definition of critical incident technique (CIT model) What is critical incident technique (CIT model)? CIT model is method used for collecting observations of human behavior that are judged to be effective or ineffective in work, activities. Definition of critical incident by Computer Science at Virginia Tech Critical incident is an event that has a significant effect, either positive or negative, on task performance or user satisfaction, thus affecting usability. Definition of CIT model by wikipedia: The Critical Incident Technique (or CIT) is a set of procedures used for collecting direct observations of human behavior that have critical significance and meet methodically defined criteria Definition of CIT method / technique by Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique of job analysis is used to identify work behaviors that classify in good and poor performance Definition of CIT method / technique by Abbott & Schuster, 1984. Simply, critical incident involves the collection of observations of employee behaviors that are both effective and ineffective Example of critical incident: if a fashion salesman comments on the customers skin and the customer leaves the store in a huff, the behavior of the salesman may be judged as ineffective in fashion company. 2. History of CIT method / technique: This method was developed by Flanagan during World War II (Director of the Division of Aviation Psychology, United States Army Air Forces). He described critical incident technique as a set of procedures used to collect observations of human behavior. These observations are used to solve practical problems and develop psychological principles. 3. Application of CIT method / technique:

The critical incident technique has been applied in studying some sector as follows: Organizational development Large scale tasks and activity analysis of numerous occupations Health care. Market research etc. 4. Purpose of CIT method / technique: Built job descriptions, job specification and job standard. Create a list of good and bad behaviors which can then be used for performance appraisal. Testing the effectiveness of the job description and job specification. 5. Information source of CIT method / technique: Sources for critical incidents include: Workers co-workers supervisors, managers, Customer External and internal suppliers And others.

http://www.management.ase.ro/reveconomia/2003-2/20.pdf

2.4 Tehnica Incidentelor Critice (TIC) TIC este o alt metod specific abordrilor cu coninut predominant din domeniul psihologiei. TIC este o form structurat de intervievare, care a fost iniial proiectat pentru a identifica eficacitatea unor posturi i chiar pentru evidenierea gradului de ncredere existent ntr-o organizaie. O alt utilizare a acestei metode este aceea de a evidenia modul n care sunt percepute normele organizaionale de ctre membri noi ai grupului respectiv. Metoda este considerat util pentru analiza culturii organizaionale, deoarece n cadrul interviurilor sunt abordate acele evenimente critice ce sunt de natur s ofere informaii valoroase despre viaa organizaional i rolul pe care indivizii l percep ca avndu-l n cadrul acesteia. Informaiile obinute permit cercettorilor s identifice percepiile subiecilor abordai i comportamentelemanifest ale acestora, permindu-le s caracterizeze att nivelul primar, ct i secundar al culturii organizaionale. Clasificarea sa ca metod calitativ se datoreaz posibilitii de abordare profund a tematicii, de a obine un

material bogat, cu grad mare de validitate i care permite indivizilor s-i clarifice nelesurile pe care le asociaz anumitor elemente organizaionale. Utilizarea metodei presupune identificarea unor teme i percepii comune, iar pe aceast baz se identific modelele de comportament predominante ale membrilor colectivitii, n anumite circumstane. n aplicarea TIC, noii venii ntr-o organizaie sunt solicitai s descrie un numr de incidente (minimum cinci) pe care le-au observat sau n care au fost implicai de la venirea lor n organizaie i pe care ei le consider relevante pentru anumite caracteristici ale organizaiei sau ale colectivului n cadrul cruia ei urmau s-i desfoare activitatea. Incidentele astfel prezentate sunt categorisite n funcie de diverse criterii i de frecvena cu care ele sunt ntlnite n relatrile celor intervievai i comparate fie cu situaia din alte organizaii, fie cu o list predefinit de astfel de incidente grupate pe temele majore ce privesc personalul dintr-o organizaie. TIC este utilizat pentru caracterizarea doar a unor elemente ale culturii organizaionale i de aceea, n mod obinuit, ea este asociat i cu alte metode de investigare a culturii organizaionale. http://www.scribd.com/doc/58703833/mru-Lukacs#page=70

Edit LUKCS, MANAGEMENTULRESURSELOR UMANE Procurare, motivare, evaluare, Editura EUROPLUS Galai, 2010 Metoda const n consemnarea de ctre manager a tuturor ntmplrilor extreme (incidentelor critice) care sunt semnificative pentru aspectele positive i cele negative ale activitii angajailor din subordine. Pentru ca un eveniment s poat fi categorisit incident critic trebuie s rspund la patru criterii: activitatea uman observat s fie distinct, unic, constituind nrelatare un caz aparte; situaia descris s permit studierea cauzelor i efectelor, permind desprinderea a ceea ce este semnificativ n activitate; situaia s fie relevant i nregistrat cu claritate; incidentele trebuie s constituie cazuri extreme de comportament (pozitiv/negativ).Incidentele sunt nregistrate n jurnalul managerului, sptmnal sauchiar zilnic, ncadrate n categorii desemnate anterior (luarea deciziilor, relaii interpersonale, performan tehnologic etc.) . Categoriile se refer la dimensiunile performanei, sau factorii de performan urmrii n evaluare. nfigura 7.3. se redun fragment dintr-un exemplu de evaluare prin incidentecritice. Evaluarea final const ntr-o serie de descrieri ale variatelor aspecte ale performanei angajatului.Tehnica incidentelor critice furnizeaz informaii utile pentru

interviulde evaluare. Deoarece informaiile se refer la aspectele calitative ale performanei, metoda se folosete combinat cu o evaluare cantitativ. Domeniile de performan schiate mai jos v vor ajuta n pregtirea evalurii i discutarea acesteia cu angajatul. Se sugereaz s argumentai cu exemple specifice de aciune fiecare domeniu al performanei n care considerai semnificativ de bun sau deslab angajatul. Exemplele listate sunt toate tipice dar nu includ toate cazurile posibile.Exemplele relatate n aceste puncte pot fi privite att sub aspect pozitiv ct i negativ. 1. PERFORMANA TEHNOLOGIC A MUNCII A. Eficiena securitii consideraii posibile 1. Antreneaz bine oamenii din subordine n domeniul securitii; 2. Obine cooperarea i participarea subordonailor n securitate; 3. Insist ca securitatea s fie inclus n procedurile organizaiei; 4. Iniiaz programe departamentale de securitate; 5. Accept securitatea ca responsabilitate fundamental. Item Exemple associate B. Cunotine tehnice sau /i de specialitate legate de post. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. PERFORMANA N RELAII UMANE A. Abilitatea de a comunica consideraii posibile 1. D instruciuni logice, uor de n eles despre probleme complexe; 2. Folosete un limbaj clar i direct n rapoartele orale i scrise; 3. Furnizeaz superiorilor i subordonailor informaii pertinente; 4. Este informat despre cum gndesc i simt subordonaii. Item Exemple asociate Figura 7.3. Evaluare prin incidente critice (fragment)Sursa: R. Steers, Introduction to Organizational Behavior,1991 Dezavantajul metodei constn consumul substanial de timp, necesar notrii zilnice a incidentelor de ctre manageri. Metoda poate avea i efecte pe plan psihologic, salariaii fiind ngrijorai de cele ce i noteaz eful despre ei, nsemnrile cptnd semnificaia unei liste negre. http://www.scribd.com/doc/79093984/6/Tehnica-incidentelor-critice Tehnica incidentelor critice Prin tehnica incidentelor critice, managerii diferitelor compartimente nregistreaz permanent toate aspectele, evenimentele sau elementele favorabile i nefavorabile, pozitivei negative care privesc procesele de munc, atitudinile

comportamentale care reprezint excepii(incidente critice) fa de evenimentele de rutin care caracterizeaz activitatea unui salariat. http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/Readings/flanagan.pdf Psychological Bulletin, THE CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE, JOHN C. FLANAGAN, American Institute for Research and University of Pittsburgh, VOL. 51, No. 4, JULY, 1954
The critical incident technique consists of a set of procedures for collecting direct observations of human behavior in such a way as to facilitate their potential usefulness in solving practical problems and developing broad psychological principles. The critical incident technique outlines procedures for collecting observed incidents having special significance and meeting systematically defined criteria. By an incident is meant any observable human activity that is sufficiently complete in itself to permit inferences and predictions to be made about the person performing the act. To be critical, an incident must occur in a situation where the purpose or intent of the act seems fairly clear to the observer and where its consequences are sufficiently definite to leave little doubt concerning its effects. The third application of the critical incident technique by the staff of the American Institute for Research was in obtaining the critical requirements for research personnel on a project sponsored by the Psychological Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research. In this study (20), about 500 scientists in 20 research laboratories were interviewed. These scientists reported more than 2,500 critical incidents. The critical be-haviors were used to formulate inductively a set of 36 categories, which constitutes the critical requirements for the effective performance of the duties of research personnel in the physical sciences. This initial study provided the basis for the development of selection tests, proficiency measures, and procedures for evaluating both job performance and the research report.

a. The situations observed. The first necessary specification is a delimitation of the situa-tions to be b.
observed. This specification must include information about the place, the persons, the conditions, and the activities Relevance to the general aim. After the decision has been made that a particular situa-tion is an appropriate one for making observations, the next step is to decide whether or nota specific behavior which is observed is relevant to the general aim of the activity as defined in the section above. Extent of effect on the general aim. The remaining decision that the observer must makeis how important an effect the observed incident has on the general aim. It is necessary tospecify two points on the scale of importance: (a) a level of positive contributions to the gen-eral aim in specific terms, preferably including a concrete example, and (b) the correspondinglevel of negative effect on the general aim expressed in similar terms. Persons to make the observations. One additional set of specifications refers to the selection and training of the observers who are to make and report the judgments outlined in the steps above.

c.

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