Manual
Version 6.4
ABAQUS
THEORY MANUAL
Version 6.4
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by ABAQUS, Inc. ABAQUS, Inc., assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. The software described in this document is furnished under license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or distributed in any way without prior written agreement with ABAQUS, Inc.
©ABAQUS, Inc., 2003.
Printed in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved.
ABAQUS is a registered trademark of ABAQUS, Inc. The following are trademarks of ABAQUS, Inc.: ABAQUS/Aqua; ABAQUS/CAE; ABAQUS/Design; ABAQUS/Explicit; ABAQUS/Foundation; ABAQUS/Standard; ABAQUS/Viewer; ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW; ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS; and the ABAQUS, Inc., logo.
This release of ABAQUS may contain capabilities licensed under U.S. Patents 5,920,491 and 6,044,210. ABAQUS, Inc., may also have other patents or pending patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to the patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from ABAQUS, Inc.
ADAMS/Flex, ADAMS/View, MSC.ADAMS, and MSC.Patran are trademarks or registered trademarks of MSC.Software Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. Autodesk Inventor is a trademark and Autodesk Mechanical Desktop is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc. CADKEY is a registered trademark of CADKEY Corporation. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systémes. Compaq Alpha is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Ofﬁce. DIGITAL Visual FORTRAN is a trademark of Compaq. Elysium is a pending trademark of Elysium Co., Ltd. and Elysium Inc. FEMAP, IDEAS, Parasolid, Solid Edge, and Unigraphics are registered trademarks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and in other countries. FESAFE is a trademark of Safe Technology, Ltd. FLEXlm is a registered trademark of GLOBEtrotter Software, Inc. HewlettPackard, HPGL, HPGL/2, and HPUX are registered trademarks of HewlettPackard Co. IBM RS6000 is a trademark of IBM. Intel is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation. MOLDFLOW, MOLDFLOW PLASTICS INSIGHT, and MPI are trademarks or registered trademarks of Moldﬂow Corporation and its worldwide subsidiaries. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and in other countries. Silicon Graphics and OpenGL are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. SolidDesigner is a trademark of CoCreate Software Inc. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of SolidWorks Corporation. SUN is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX and Motif are registered trademarks and X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group in the U.S. and other countries. Windows and Microsoft Visual C++ are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. ABAQUS/CAE incorporates portions of the ACIS software by SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. ACIS is a registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. This release of ABAQUS includes the gzip program obtained from the Free Software Foundation. This release of ABAQUS on Windows includes the diff program obtained from the Free Software Foundation. You may freely distribute the gzip and diff programs and/or modify them under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 021111307 USA. This release of ABAQUS/CAE includes lp_solve, a simplexbased code for linear and integer programming problems by Michel Berkelaar of Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Python, copyright 1991–1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All Rights Reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute the Python software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the names of Stichting Mathematisch Centrum or CWI or Corporation for National Research Initiatives or CNRI not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without speciﬁc, written prior permission. This software is provided with Restricted Rights for procurements governed by DFARS Part 227.4. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraphs (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause, DFARS 252.227–7013 (October 1988).
All other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or organizations.
ABAQUS, Inc.
ABAQUS, Inc.
1080 Main Street
Pawtucket, RI 028604847 Tel: +1 401 727 4200 Fax: +1 401 727 4208 Email: support@Abaqus.com http://www.abaqus.com
UNITED STATES
ABAQUS Central, Inc.
1440 Innovation Place
West Lafayette, IN 479061000 Tel: +1 765 497 1373 Fax: +1 765 497 4444 Email: support@AbaqusCentral.com
ABAQUS Erie, Inc.
3601 Green Road, Suite 316
Beachwood, OH 44122 Tel: +1 216 378 1070 Fax: +1 216 378 1072 Email: support@AbaqusErie.com
ABAQUS South, Inc.
3700 Forums Drive, Suite 101
Flower Mound, TX 75028 Tel: +1 214 513 1600 Fax: +1 214 513 1700 Email: support@AbaqusSouth.com
ABAQUS Europe BV Gaetano Martinolaan 95 P. O. Box 1637 6201 BP Maastricht The Netherlands Tel: +31 43 356 6906 Fax: +31 43 356 6908 Email: info.europe@abaqus.com
Sales, Support, and Services
ABAQUS East, LLC 300 Centerville Road, Suite 209W Warwick, RI 028860201 Tel: +1 401 739 3637 Fax: +1 401 739 3302 Email: support@AbaqusEast.com
ABAQUS Great Lakes, Inc. 14500 Sheldon Road, Suite 160 Plymouth, MI 481702408 Tel: +1 734 451 0217 Fax: +1 734 451 0458 Email: support@AbaqusGreatLakes.com
ABAQUS West, Inc. 39221 Paseo Padre Parkway, Suite F Fremont, CA 945381611 Tel: +1 510 794 5891 Fax: +1 510 794 1194 Email: support@AbaqusWest.com
ARGENTINA
KB Engineering S. R. L.
Florida 274  Oﬁcina 35
1005 Buenos Aires
Argentina Tel: +54 11 4326 9176/7542 Fax: +54 11 4326 2424 Email: sanchezsarmiento@arnet.com.ar
AUSTRALIA
Worley Advanced Analysis Level 17, 300 Flinders Street Melbourne, Vic 3000 Tel: +61 3 9280 2834 Fax: +61 3 9205 0573 Email: abaqus@worley.com.au
AUSTRIA
ABAQUS Austria GmbH Zinckgasse 2022/2/13 A1150 Vienna Austria
Tel:
Fax: +43 1 929 16 2520 Email: support@abaqus.at
+43 1 929 16 250
CHINA
ABAQUS China Beijing Representative Ofﬁce Room 716, Tower B, COFCO Plaza No. 8, Jiangguomennei Dajie Dong Cheng District Beijing, 100005 P. R. China Tel: +86 01 85110566/85110567 Fax: +86 01 85110568 Email: abaqus@abaqus.com.cn
FRANCE
BENELUX
ABAQUS Benelux BV Huizermaatweg 576 1276 LN Huizen The Netherlands Tel: +31 35 52 58 424 Fax: +31 35 52 44 257 Email: support@abaqus.nl
CZECH REPUBLIC
Synerma s. r. o. Huntirov 58 468 22 Skuhrov Czech Republic Tel: +420 2 603 145 769 Fax: +420 2 603 181 944 Email: abaqus@synerma.cz
GERMANY (Aachen)
ABAQUS France SAS 7 rue Jean Mermoz 78000 Versailles 
ABAQUS Deutschland GmbH Theaterstraße 3032 D52062 Aachen 

Tel: 
+33 01 39 24 15 40 
Tel: +49 241 474010 
Fax: 
+33 01 39 24 15 45 
Fax: +49 241 4090963 
Email: support@abaqus.fr 
Email: info@abaqus.de 

INDIA (Chennai) 
ITALY 
ABAQUS Engineering Analysis Solutions (Pvt.) Ltd. 3M, Prince Arcade 22A Cathedral Road Chennai, 600 086 Tel: +91 44 28114624 Fax: +91 44 28115087 Email: abaqus@abaqus.co.in
ABAQUS Italia s. r. l. Via Domodossola, 17 20145 Milano (MI) Tel: +39 02 39211211 Fax: +39 02 39211210 Email: info@abaqus.it
JAPAN (Tokyo)
ABAQUS, Inc. 3rd Floor, Akasaka Nihon Building 524, Akasaka 9chome, Minatoku Tokyo, 1070052 Tel: +81 3 5474 5817 Fax: +81 3 5474 5818 Email: tokyo@abaqus.jp
KOREA
ABAQUS Korea, Inc. Suite 306, Sambo Building 132 YoidoDong, Youngdeungpoku Seoul, 150010 Tel: +82 2 785 6707 Fax: +82 2 785 6709 Email: info@abaqus.co.kr
NEW ZEALAND
Matrix Applied Computing Ltd. P. O. Box 56316, Auckland Courier: Unit 25, 72 Dominion Road, Mt Eden, Auckland Tel: +64 9 623 1223 Fax: +64 9 623 1134 Email: hkssupport@matrix.co.nz
RUSSIA, BELARUS & UKRAINE
TESIS Ltd. Ofﬁce 701703, 18, Unnatov Str. 127083 Moscow, Russia Tel: +7 095 2124422 Fax: +7 095 2124262 Email: info@tesis.com.ru
JAPAN (Osaka)
ABAQUS, Inc. 9th Floor, Higobashi Watanabe Building 610, Edobori 1chome, Nishiku Osaka, 5500002 Tel: +81 6 4803 5020 Fax: +81 6 4803 5021 Email: osaka@abaqus.jp
MALAYSIA
Worley Advanced Analysis 13th Floor, Empire Tower City Square Centre 182 Jalan Tun Razak 50400 Kuala Lumpur Tel: +60 3 2163 4275 Fax: +60 3 2163 0524 Email: abaqus@ranhillworley.com.my
POLAND
BudSoft Sp. z o.o. 61807 Poznan´ Sw. Marcin 58/64 Tel: +48 61 8508 466 Fax: +48 61 8508 467 Email: budsoft@budsoft.com.pl
SINGAPORE
Worley Advanced Analysis 491B River Valley Road #0901 Valley Point Singapore, 248373 Tel: +65 6735 8444 Fax: +65 6735 7444 Email: abaqus@worley.com.sg
SOUTH AFRICA
Finite Element Analysis Services (Pty) Ltd. Unit 4, The Waverley Wyecroft Road Mowbray 7700 Tel: +27 21 448 7608 Fax: +27 21 448 7679 Email: feas@feas.co.za
SPAIN
Principia Ingenieros Consultores, S.A. Velázquez, 94 E28006 Madrid Tel: +34 91 209 1482 Fax: +34 91 575 1026 Email: abaqus@principia.es
SWEDEN 
TAIWAN 

ABAQUS Scandinavia AB Pilgatan 8c SE721 30 Västerås 
APIC 7F2, No. 131 SungChiang Road Taipei, 10428 

Tel: 
+46 21 12 64 10 
Tel: +886 02 25083066 
Fax: 
+46 21 18 12 44 
Fax: +886 02 25077185 
Email: femtech@femtech.se 
Email: apic@apic.com.tw 
TURKEY
AZtech Ltd. PERDEMSAC Business Center, Technology House 17 Gulbahar Str., Bayar Road Kozyatagi 34742 Istanbul Tel: +90 216 361 8850 Fax: +90 216 361 8851 Email: zeki.erman@aztech.com.tr
UNITED KINGDOM (Cheshire)
ABAQUS UK Ltd. The Genesis Centre Science Park South, Birchwood Warrington, Cheshire WA3 7BH Tel: +44 1 925 810166 Fax: +44 1 925 810178 Email: hotline@abaqus.co.uk
Sales Only
UNITED STATES ABAQUS East, LLC, MidAtlantic Ofﬁce 114 Zachary Court Forest Hill, MD 21050 Tel: +1 410 420 8587 Fax: +1 410 420 8908 Email: support@AbaqusEast.com
ABAQUS West, Inc., Southern CA and AZ Ofﬁce 1100 Irvine Boulevard #248 Tustin, CA 92780 Tel: +1 714 731 5895 Fax: +1 714 731 5895 Email: support@AbaqusWest.com
ABAQUS South, Inc., Southeast Ofﬁce 484 Broadstone Way Acworth, GA 30101 Tel: +1 770 795 0960 Fax: +1 770 795 7614 Email: support@AbaqusSouth.com
ABAQUS West, Inc., Rocky Mountains Ofﬁce 2894 Hughs Drive Erie, CO 80516 Tel: +1 303 664 5444 Fax: +1 303 664 5445 Email: support@AbaqusWest.com
FINLAND
ABAQUS Finland Oy Tekniikantie 12 FIN02150 Espoo Tel: +358 9 2517 2973 Fax: +358 9 2517 2200 Email: ﬁnland@femtech.se
INDIA (Pune)
ABAQUS Engineering Analysis Solutions (Pvt.) Ltd. C9, 3rd Floor Bramha Estate, Kondwa Road
Pune411040
Tel: +91 20 31037511 Email: abaqus@abaqus.co.in
GERMANY (Munich)
ABAQUS Deutschland GmbH SendlingerTorPlatz 8 D80336 München Tel: +49 89 5999 1768 Fax: +49 89 5999 1767 Email: info@abaqus.de
UNITED KINGDOM (Kent)
ABAQUS UK Ltd. Great Hollanden Business Centre, Unit A Mill Lane, Underriver Nr. Sevenoaks, Kent TN15 OSQ Tel: +44 1 732 834930 Fax: +44 1 732 834720 Email: hotline@abaqus.co.uk
Preface
This section lists various resources that are available for help with using ABAQUS, including technical engineering and systems support, training seminars, and documentation.
Support
ABAQUS, Inc., offers both technical engineering support and systems support for ABAQUS. Technical engineering and systems support are provided through the nearest local support ofﬁce. You can contact our ofﬁces by telephone, fax, electronic mail, or regular mail. Information on how to contact each ofﬁce is listed in the front of each ABAQUS manual. Support is also available on the World Wide Web for your convenience. The ABAQUS Online Support System (AOSS) is accessible through the MY ABAQUS section of the ABAQUS Home Page (www.abaqus.com). When contacting your local support ofﬁce, please specify whether you would like technical engineering support (you have encountered problems performing an ABAQUS analysis or creating a model in ABAQUS) or systems support (ABAQUS will not install correctly, licensing does not work correctly, or other hardwarerelated issues have arisen). The ABAQUS Online Support System has a knowledge database of ABAQUS Answers. The ABAQUS Answers are solutions to questions that we have had to answer or guidelines on how to use ABAQUS. We welcome any suggestions for improvements to the support program or documentation. We will ensure that any enhancement requests you make are considered for future releases. If you wish to ﬁle a complaint about the service or products provided by ABAQUS, refer to the ABAQUS Home Page.
Technical engineering support
ABAQUS technical support engineers can assist in clarifying ABAQUS features and checking errors by giving both general information on using ABAQUS and information on its application to speciﬁc analyses. If you have concerns about an analysis, we suggest that you contact us at an early stage, since it is usually easier to solve problems at the beginning of a project rather than trying to correct an analysis at the end. Please have the following information ready before calling the technical engineering support hotline, and include it in any written contacts:
• Your site identiﬁer, which can be obtained by typing abaqus whereami at your system prompt (or by selecting Help On Version from the main menu bar in ABAQUS/CAE or ABAQUS/Viewer).
• The version of ABAQUS that are you using.
– The version numbers for ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit are given at the top of the data (.dat) ﬁle.
– The version numbers for ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS/Viewer can be found by selecting Help On Version from the main menu bar.
– The version numbers for the ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW and the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS are output to the screen.
• The type of computer on which you are running ABAQUS.
• The symptoms of any problems, including the exact error messages, if any.
• Workarounds or tests that you have already tried.
i
When calling for support about a speciﬁc problem, any available ABAQUS output ﬁles may be helpful in answering questions that the support engineer may ask you. The support engineer will try to diagnose your problem from the model description and a description of the difﬁculties you are having. Frequently, the support engineer will need model sketches, which can be faxed or sent in the mail. Plots of the ﬁnal results or the results near the point that the analysis terminated may also be needed to understand what may have caused the problem. If the support engineer cannot diagnose your problem from this information, you may be asked to supply the input data. The data can be attached to a support incident in the ABAQUS Online Support System. It may also be sent by means of email, tape, disk, or ftp. Please check the ABAQUS Home Page (http://www.abaqus.com) for the media formats that are currently accepted. All support incidents are tracked in the ABAQUS Online Support System. This enables you (as well as the support engineer) to monitor the progress of a particular problem and to check that we are resolving support issues efﬁciently. To use the ABAQUS Online Support System, you need to register with the system. Visit the MY ABAQUS section of the ABAQUS Home Page for instructions on how to register. If you are contacting us by means outside the AOSS to discuss an existing support problem and you know the incident number, please mention it so that we can consult the database to see what the latest action has been and, thus, avoid duplication of effort. In addition, please give the receptionist the support engineer’s name or include it at the top of any email correspondence.
Systems support
ABAQUS systems support engineers can help you resolve issues related to the installation and running of ABAQUS, including licensing difﬁculties, that are not covered by technical engineering support. You should install ABAQUS by carefully following the instructions in the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide. If you are able to complete the installation, please make sure that the product veriﬁcation procedure was run successfully at the end of the installation procedure. Successful veriﬁcation for licensed products would indicate that you can run these products on your computer; unsuccessful veriﬁcation for licensed products indicates problems with the installation or licensing (or both). If you encounter problems with the installation, licensing, or veriﬁcation, ﬁrst review the instructions in the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide to ensure that they have been followed correctly. If this does not resolve the problems, consult the ABAQUS Answers database in the ABAQUS Online Support System for information about known installation problems. If this does not address your situation, please create an incident in the AOSS and describe your problem, including the output from abaqus info=support. If you call, mail, email, or fax us about a problem (instead of using the AOSS), please provide the output from abaqus info=support. It is important that you provide as much information as possible about your problem: error messages from an aborted analysis, output from the abaqus info=support command, etc.
ABAQUS Web server
For users connected to the Internet, many questions can be answered by visiting the ABAQUS Home Page on the World Wide Web at
http://www.abaqus.com
The information available on the ABAQUS Home Page includes:
ii
• Frequently asked questions
• ABAQUS systems information and computer requirements
• ABAQUS performance data
• Error status reports
• ABAQUS documentation price list
• Training seminar schedule
• Newsletters
Anonymous ftp site
For users connected to the Internet, ABAQUS maintains useful documents on an anonymous ftp account on the computer ftp.abaqus.com. Simply ftp to ftp.abaqus.com. Login as user anonymous, and type your email address as your password. Directions will come up automatically upon login.
Writing to technical support
Address of ABAQUS Headquarters:
ABAQUS, Inc. 1080 Main Street Pawtucket, RI 028604847, USA Attention: Technical Support
Addresses for other ofﬁces and representatives are listed in the front of each manual.
Support for academic institutions
Under the terms of the Academic License Agreement we do not provide support to users at academic institutions. Academic users can purchase technical support on an hourly basis. For more information, please see the ABAQUS Home Page or contact your local ABAQUS support ofﬁce.
Training
All ABAQUS ofﬁces offer regularly scheduled public training classes. The Introduction to ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit seminar covers basic usage and nonlinear applications, such as large deformation, plasticity, contact, and dynamics. Workshops provide as much practical experience with ABAQUS as possible. The Introduction to ABAQUS/CAE seminar discusses modeling, managing simulations, and viewing results with ABAQUS/CAE. “Handson” workshops are complemented by lectures. Advanced seminars cover topics of interest to customers with experience using ABAQUS, such as engine analysis, metal forming, fracture mechanics, and heat transfer. We also provide training seminars at customer sites. Onsite training seminars can be one or more days in duration, depending on customer requirements. The training topics can include a combination of
iii
material from our introductory and advanced seminars. Workshops allow customers to exercise ABAQUS on their own computers. For a schedule of seminars, see the ABAQUS Home Page or call ABAQUS, Inc., or your local ABAQUS representative.
Documentation
The following documentation and publications are available from ABAQUS, unless otherwise speciﬁed, in printed form and through the ABAQUS online documentation. For more information on accessing the online books, refer to the discussion of execution procedures in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
Modeling and Visualization
• ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual: This reference document for ABAQUS/CAE includes three comprehensive tutorials as well as detailed descriptions of how to use ABAQUS/CAE for model generation, analysis, and results evaluation and visualization. ABAQUS/Viewer users should refer to the information on the Visualization module in this manual.
Analysis
• ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual: This volume contains a complete description of the elements, material models, procedures, input speciﬁcations, etc. It is the basic reference document for ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.
Examples
• ABAQUS Example Problems Manual: This volume contains more than 75 detailed examples designed to illustrate the approaches and decisions needed to perform meaningful linear and nonlinear analysis. Typical cases are large motion of an elasticplastic pipe hitting a rigid wall; inelastic buckling collapse of a thinwalled elbow; explosive loading of an elastic, viscoplastic thin ring; consolidation under a footing; buckling of a composite shell with a hole; and deep drawing of a metal sheet. It is generally useful to look for relevant examples in this manual and to review them when embarking on a new class of problem.
• ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual: This onlineonly volume contains over 200 benchmark problems and standard analyses used to evaluate the performance of ABAQUS; the tests are multiple element tests of simple geometries or simpliﬁed versions of real problems. The NAFEMS benchmark problems are included in this manual.
Training
• Getting Started with ABAQUS: This document is a selfpaced tutorial designed to help new users become familiar with using ABAQUS/CAE to create solid, shell, and framework models and ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit to perform static, quasistatic, and dynamic stress analysis simulations. It contains a number of fully worked examples that provide practical guidelines for performing structural analyses with ABAQUS.
iv
This onlineonly document is
designed to help new users become familiar with the ABAQUS/Standard input ﬁle syntax for static and dynamic stress analysis simulations. The ABAQUS/Standard keyword interface is used to model examples similar to those included in Getting Started with ABAQUS.
Keywords Version: This onlineonly document is
designed to help new users become familiar with the ABAQUS/Explicit input ﬁle syntax for quasi static and dynamic stress analysis simulations. The ABAQUS/Explicit keyword interface is used to model examples similar to those included in Getting Started with ABAQUS.
• Lecture Notes: These notes are available on many topics to which ABAQUS is applied. They are used in the technical seminars that ABAQUS, Inc., presents to help users improve their understanding and usage of ABAQUS (see the “Training” section above for more information about these seminars). While not intended as standalone tutorial material, they are sufﬁciently comprehensive that they can usually be used in that mode. The list of available lecture notes is included in the Documentation Price List.
• Getting Started with ABAQUS/Explicit:
• Getting Started with ABAQUS/Standard:
Keywords Version:
Documentation Information
• Using ABAQUS Online Documentation: This onlineonly manual contains instructions for viewing and searching the ABAQUS online documentation.
Reference
• ABAQUS Keywords Reference Manual:
This volume contains a complete description of all the
input options that are available in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.
• ABAQUS Theory Manual: This onlineonly volume contains detailed, precise discussions of all theoretical aspects of ABAQUS. It is written to be understood by users with an engineering background.
• ABAQUS Veriﬁcation Manual: This onlineonly volume contains more than 5000 basic test cases, providing veriﬁcation of each individual program feature (procedures, output options, MPCs, etc.) against exact calculations and other published results. It may be useful to run these problems when learning to use a new capability. In addition, the supplied input data ﬁles provide good starting points to check the behavior of elements, materials, etc.
This document describes the QA procedures followed by ABAQUS. It
• Quality Assurance Plan:
is a controlled document, provided to customers who subscribe to either the Nuclear QA Program or the Quality Monitoring Service.
Update Information
• ABAQUS Release Notes:
This document contains brief descriptions of the new features available
in the latest release of the ABAQUS product line.
Programming
• ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual: This onlineonly manual provides a description of the ABAQUS Scripting Interface. The manual describes how commands can be used to create and analyze
v
ABAQUS/CAE models, to view the results of the analysis, and to automate repetitive tasks. It also contains information on using the ABAQUS Scripting Interface or C++ as an application programming interface (API) to the output database.
This onlineonly manual provides a command reference
that lists the syntax of each command in the ABAQUS Scripting Interface.
• ABAQUS Scripting Reference Manual:
• ABAQUS GUI Toolkit User’s Manual: This onlineonly manual provides a description of the ABAQUS GUI Toolkit. The manual describes the components and organization of the ABAQUS GUI. It also describes how you can customize the ABAQUS GUI to build a particular application.
This onlineonly manual provides a command reference
• ABAQUS GUI Toolkit Reference Manual:
that lists the syntax of each command in the ABAQUS GUI Toolkit.
Interfaces
• ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS User’s Manual:
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{d}_{o}_{c}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{d}_{e}_{s}_{c}_{r}_{i}_{b}_{e}_{s} _{h}_{o}_{w} _{t}_{o} _{u}_{s}_{e}
the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS, which creates ABAQUS models of MSC.ADAMS components and converts the ABAQUS results into an MSC.ADAMS modal neutral ﬁle that can be used by the ADAMS/Flex program. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS.
This document describes how to use the
ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW, which creates a partial ABAQUS input ﬁle by translating results from a MOLDFLOW polymer processing simulation. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW.
• ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW User’s Manual:
Installation and Licensing
• ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide: This document describes how to install ABAQUS and how to conﬁgure the installation for particular circumstances. Some of this information, of most relevance to users, is also provided in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.
vi
CONTENTS
1. Introduction and Basic Equations Introduction
CONTENTS
Introduction: general 
1.1.1 
Notation 

Notation 
1.2.1 
Finite rotations 

Rotation variables 
1.3.1 
Deformation, strain, and strain rates 

Deformation 
1.4.1 
Strain measures 
1.4.2 
Rate of deformation and strain increment 
1.4.3 
The additive strain rate decomposition 
1.4.4 
Equilibrium, stress, and state storage 

Equilibrium and virtual work 
1.5.1 
Stress measures 
1.5.2 
Stress rates 
1.5.3 
State storage 
1.5.4 
Energy balance 
1.5.5 
2. Procedures 

Overview 

Procedures: overview and basic equations 
2.1.1 
Nonlinear solution methods 

Nonlinear solution methods in ABAQUS/Standard 
2.2.1 
QuasiNewton solution technique 
2.2.2 
Direct cyclic algorithm 
2.2.3 
Buckling and postbuckling 

Eigenvalue buckling prediction 
2.3.1 
Modiﬁed Riks algorithm 
2.3.2 
Nonlinear dynamics 

Implicit dynamic analysis 
2.4.1 
Intermittent contact/impact 
2.4.2 
Subspace dynamics 
2.4.3 
vii
CONTENTS
Equivalent rigid body dynamic motion 
2.4.4 
Explicit dynamic analysis 
2.4.5 
Modal dynamics 

Eigenvalue extraction 
2.5.1 
Variables associated with the natural modes of a model 
2.5.2 
Linear dynamic analysis using modal superposition 
2.5.3 
Damping options for modal dynamics 
2.5.4 
Modal dynamic analysis 
2.5.5 
Response spectrum analysis 
2.5.6 
Steadystate linear dynamic analysis 
2.5.7 
Random response analysis 
2.5.8 
Base motions in modalbased procedures 
2.5.9 
Complex harmonic oscillations 

Direct steadystate dynamic analysis 
2.6.1 
Subspacebased steadystate dynamic analysis 
2.6.2 
Steadystate transport analysis 

Steadystate transport analysis 
2.7.1 
Analysis of porous media 

Effective stress principle for porous media 
2.8.1 
Discretized equilibrium statement for a porous medium 
2.8.2 
Constitutive behavior in a porous medium 
2.8.3 
Continuity statement for the wetting liquid phase in a porous medium 
2.8.4 
Solution strategy for coupled diffusion/deformation 
2.8.5 
Coupled ﬂuidsolid analysis 

Coupled acousticstructural medium analysis 
2.9.1 
Piezoelectric analysis 

Piezoelectric analysis 
2.10.1 
Heat transfer 

Uncoupled heat transfer analysis 
2.11.1 
Shell heat conduction 
2.11.2 
Convection/diffusion 
2.11.3 
Cavity radiation 
2.11.4 
Viewfactor calculation 
2.11.5 
Coupled thermalelectrical analysis 

Coupled thermalelectrical analysis 
2.12.1 
Mass diffusion 

Mass diffusion analysis 
2.13.1 
viii
Substructuring
CONTENTS
Substructuring and substructure analysis 
2.14.1 

Submodeling 

Submodeling analysis 
2.15.1 

Fracture mechanics 

integral evaluation 
2.16.1 

Stress intensity factor extraction 
2.16.2 

stress extraction 
2.16.3 

Prediction of the direction of crack propagation 
2.16.4 

Stress linearization 

Stress linearization 
2.17.1 

Design sensitivity analysis 

Design sensitivity analysis 
2.18.1 

3. 
Elements 

Overview 

Element library: overview 
3.1.1 

Continuum elements 

Solid element overview 
3.2.1 

Solid element formulation 
3.2.2 

Hybrid incompressible solid element formulation 
3.2.3 

Solid isoparametric quadrilaterals and hexahedra 
3.2.4 

Continuum elements with incompatible modes 
3.2.5 

Triangular, tetrahedral, and wedge elements 
3.2.6 

Generalized plane strain elements 
3.2.7 

Axisymmetric elements 
3.2.8 

Axisymmetric elements allowing nonlinear bending 
3.2.9 

Inﬁnite elements 

Solid inﬁnite elements 
3.3.1 

Acoustic inﬁnite elements 
3.3.2 

Membrane and truss elements 

Membrane elements 
3.4.1 

Truss elements 
3.4.2 

Axisymmetric membranes 
3.4.3 

Beam elements 

Beam element overview 
3.5.1 
ix
CONTENTS
Beam element formulation 
3.5.2 

EulerBernoulli beam elements 
3.5.3 

Hybrid beam elements 
3.5.4 

Mass and inertia for Timoshenko beams 
3.5.5 

Meshed beam crosssections 
3.5.6 

Shell elements 

Shell element overview 
3.6.1 

Axisymmetric shell elements 
3.6.2 

Shear ﬂexible smallstrain shell elements 
3.6.3 

Triangular facet shell elements 
3.6.4 

Finitestrain shell element formulation 
3.6.5 

Smallstrain shell elements in ABAQUS/Explicit 
3.6.6 

Axisymmetric shell element allowing asymmetric loading 
3.6.7 

Transverse shear stiffness in composite shells and offsets from the midsurface 
3.6.8 

Rotary inertia for 5 degree of freedom shell elements 
3.6.9 

Rebar 

Rebar modeling in two dimensions 
3.7.1 

Rebar modeling in three dimensions 
3.7.2 

Rebar modeling in shell, membrane, and surface elements 
3.7.3 

Hydrostatic ﬂuid elements 

Hydrostatic ﬂuid elements 
3.8.1 

Specialpurpose elements 

Elbow elements 
3.9.1 

Frame elements with lumped plasticity 
3.9.2 

Buckling strut response for frame elements 
3.9.3 

Tube support elements 
3.9.4 

Line spring elements 
3.9.5 

Flexible joint element 
3.9.6 

Rotary inertia element 
3.9.7 

Distributing coupling elements 
3.9.8 

4. 
Mechanical Constitutive Theories Overview 

Mechanical constitutive models 
4.1.1 

Plasticity overview 

Plasticity models: general discussion 
4.2.1 

Integration of plasticity models 
4.2.2 

Metal plasticity 

Metal plasticity models 
4.3.1 
x
CONTENTS
Isotropic elastoplasticity 
4.3.2 

Stress potentials for anisotropic metal plasticity 
4.3.3 

Ratedependent metal plasticity (creep) 
4.3.4 

Models for metals subjected to cyclic loading 
4.3.5 

Porous metal plasticity 
4.3.6 

Cast iron plasticity 
4.3.7 

ORNL constitutive theory 
4.3.8 

Deformation plasticity 
4.3.9 

Heat generation caused by plastic straining 
4.3.10 

Plasticity for nonmetals 

Porous elasticity 
4.4.1 

Models for granular or polymer behavior 
4.4.2 

Critical state models 
4.4.3 

DruckerPrager/Cap model for geological materials 
4.4.4 

MohrCoulomb model 
4.4.5 

Models for crushable foams 
4.4.6 

Other inelastic models 

An inelastic constitutive model for concrete 
4.5.1 

Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasibrittle materials 
4.5.2 

A cracking model for concrete and other brittle materials 
4.5.3 

Constitutive model for jointed materials 
4.5.4 

Largestrain elasticity 

Hyperelastic material behavior 
4.6.1 

Fitting of hyperelastic and hyperfoam constants 
4.6.2 

Mullins effect 

Mullins effect 
4.7.1 

Viscoelasticity 

Viscoelasticity 
4.8.1 

Finitestrain viscoelasticity 
4.8.2 

Frequency domain viscoelasticity 
4.8.3 

Hysteresis 

Hysteresis 
4.9.1 

5. 
Interface Modeling Contact modeling 

Smallsliding interaction between bodies 
5.1.1 

Finitesliding interaction between deformable bodies 
5.1.2 

Finitesliding interaction between a deformable and a rigid body 
5.1.3 
xi
CONTENTS
Surface interactions
Contact pressure deﬁnition 
5.2.1 
Pressure and ﬂuid ﬂow in pore pressure contact 
5.2.2 
Coulomb friction 
5.2.3 
Thermal interface deﬁnition 
5.2.4 
Heat generation caused by frictional sliding 
5.2.5 
Heat generation caused by electrical current 
5.2.6 
Surfacebased acousticstructural medium interaction 
5.2.7 
6. Loading and Constraints Dynamic loading 

Centrifugal, Coriolis, and rotary acceleration forces 
6.1.1 
Baseline correction of accelerograms 
6.1.2 
ABAQUS/Aqua loading 

Drag, inertia, and buoyancy loading 
6.2.1 
Airy wave theory 
6.2.2 
Stokes wave theory 
6.2.3 
Incident wave loading 

Loading due to an incident dilatational wave ﬁeld 
6.3.1 
Pressure penetration loading 

Pressure penetration loading with surfacebased contact 
6.4.1 
Load stiffness 

Pressure load stiffness 
6.5.1 
Load stiffness for beam elements 
6.5.2 
Pressure loadings on elbow elements 
6.5.3 
Multipoint constraints 

Sliding constraint 
6.6.1 
Shell to solid constraint 
6.6.2 
Revolute joint 
6.6.3 
Universal joint 
6.6.4 
Local velocity constraint 
6.6.5 
Kinematic coupling 
6.6.6 
7. References 

References 
7.1.1 
xii
Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Equations 

Introduction Notation Finite rotations Deformation, strain, and strain rates Equilibrium, stress, and state storage 
1.1 
1.2 

1.3 

1.4 

1.5 
1.1.1 INTRODUCTION: GENERAL
INTRODUCTION
The ABAQUS system includes ABAQUS/Standard, a generalpurpose ﬁnite element program; ABAQUS/Explicit, an explicit dynamics ﬁnite element program; and the Visualization module, an interactive postprocessing program that provides displays and output lists from output database ﬁles written by ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. This manual describes the theories used in ABAQUS. Many sections in this manual apply to both ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. Certain sections obviously apply only to either ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit; for example, all sections in the chapter on procedures apply to ABAQUS/Standard, except the section discussing the explicit dynamic integration procedure, which applies to ABAQUS/Explicit. If it is not obvious to which program a section applies, it is clearly indicated. ABAQUS/Standard includes three addedcost options. The ABAQUS/Aqua option includes features speciﬁcally designed for the analysis of beamlike structures installed underwater and subject to loading by water currents and wave action. The ABAQUS/Design option enables the user to parametrize input ﬁle quantities and write Python scripts to perform parametric studies. The ABAQUS/Foundation option offers more efﬁcient access to the linear static and dynamic analysis functionality in ABAQUS/Standard. Certain aspects of the theory behind these options are described in this manual. The options are available only if the user’s license includes them. The objective of this manual is to deﬁne the theories used in ABAQUS that are generally not available in the standard textbooks on mechanics, structures, and ﬁnite elements but are well known to the engineer who uses ABAQUS. The manual is intended as a reference document that deﬁnes what is available in the code. Nevertheless, it is written in such a way that it can also be used as a tutorial document by a reader who needs to obtain some background in an unfamiliar area. The material is presented in a way that should make it accessible to any user with an engineering background. Some of the theories may be relatively unfamiliar to such a user; for example, few engineering curricula provide extensive background in plasticity, shell theory, ﬁnite deformations of solids, or the analysis of porous media. Yet ABAQUS contains capabilities for all of these models and many others. The manual is far from comprehensive in its coverage of such topics: in this sense it is only a reference volume. The user is strongly encouraged to pursue topics of interest through texts and papers. Chapter 7, “References,” at the end of this manual lists references that should provide a starting point for obtaining such information. (ABAQUS does not supply copies of papers that have appeared in publications other than those of ABAQUS. EPRI reports can be obtained from Research Reports Center (RRC), Box 50490, Palo Alto, CA 94303.) Chapter 1, “Introduction and Basic Equations,” discusses the notation used in the manual, some basic concepts of kinematics and mechanics—such as rotations, stress, and equilibrium—as well as the basic equations of nonlinear ﬁnite element analysis. Chapter 2, “Procedures,” describes the various analysis procedures (nonlinear static stress analysis, dynamics, eigenvalue extraction, etc.) that are available in ABAQUS. Chapter 3, “Elements,” describes the element formulations. Chapter 4, “Mechanical Constitutive Theories,” describes the mechanical constitutive theories. Chapter 5, “Interface Modeling,” discusses the most important aspects of the contact/interaction formulation in ABAQUS/Standard. Chapter 6, “Loading and Constraints,” describes the formulation of some of the more complicated load types and multipoint constraints.
1.1.1–1
Basic Equations
Introduction &
1.2.1
NOTATION
NOTATION
Notation is often a serious obstacle that prevents an engineer from using advanced textbooks; for example, general curvilinear tensor analysis and functional analysis are both necessary in some of the theories used in ABAQUS, but the unfamiliar notations commonly used in these areas often discourage the user from pursuing their study. The notation used in most of this manual (direct matrix notation) may be unfamiliar to some readers; but it is not difﬁcult or time consuming to gain enough familiarity with the notation for it to be useful, and it is deﬁnitely worthwhile. This notation is commonly used in the modern engineering literature—it is a shorthand version of the familiar matrix notation used in many older engineering textbooks. The notation is appealing—once it is understood—because it allows the equations to be developed concisely, and the physical ideas can be perceived without the distraction of the complexities that arise from the choice of the particular basis system that will eventually be used to express the same concepts in component form. Because the notation has become so standard in the literature, the user who wishes or needs to read textbooks and papers that are related to the use of ABAQUS will ﬁnd that familiarity with this notation is desirable. Both direct matrix notation and component form notation are used in the manual. Both notations are described in this section. Direct matrix notation is used whenever possible. However, vectors, matrices, and the higherorder tensors used in the theories must eventually be written in component form to store them as a set of numbers on the computer. Thus, both ways of writing these quantities will be needed in the manual.
Basic quantities
Basic Equations
Introduction &
The quantities needed to formulate the theory are scalars, vectors, secondorder tensors (matrices), and—occasionally—fourthorder tensors (for example, the stressstrain transformation for linear elasticity). In direct matrix notation these are written as:
a scalar value
a
with the transpose
a secondorder tensor or matrix
with the transpose
and
a fourthorder tensor
vector
_{} _{o}_{r} _{}_{}_{}
_{} _{o}_{r} _{}_{}_{}
_{} _{o}_{r} _{}_{}_{}
_{} _{o}_{r} _{}_{}_{}
Vectors and secondorder tensors (matrices) are written in the same way: they are distinguished by the context. In direct matrix notation there is generally no need to indicate that a vector must be transposed. The context determines whether a vector is to be used as a “column” vector or as a “row” vector ^{} . In this case the transpose superscript is only used to improve the readability of an
1.2.1–1
NOTATION
expression. On the other hand, for secondorder nonsymmetric tensors the addition of a transpose superscript will change the meaning of an expression. This representation of vectors and tensors is very general and convenient for developing the theory so that the equations can be understood easily in terms of their physical meaning. However, in actual computations we have to work with individual numbers, so vectors and tensors must be expressed in terms of their components. These components are associated with an axis system that deﬁnes a set of base vectors at each point in space. The simplest axis system is rectangular Cartesian, because the base vectors are orthogonal unit vectors in the same direction at all points. Unfortunately, we need more generality than this because we will be dealing with shells and beams, where stress, strain, etc. are most conveniently described in terms of directions on the surface of the shell (or associated with the axis of the beam), and these usually change as we move around on the surface. To retain this necessary generality and express vectors and matrices in component form, we introduce a general set of base vectors, _{} , , which are not necessarily orthogonal or of unit length but are sufﬁcient to deﬁne the components of a vector (for this purpose they must not be parallel or have zero length). A vector can then be written
^{} _{} ^{} _{} ^{} _{}
where the numbers ^{} , ^{} , and ^{} are the components of associated with _{} , _{} , and _{} . In actual cases the _{} are chosen for convenience (for example, see “Conventions,” Section 1.2.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual, for a description of how base vectors are chosen for surface elements in ABAQUS), and then the ^{} are obtained. To save writing, we adopt the usual summation convention that a repeated index is summed—in this case over the range 1 to 3—so that the above equation is written
^{} _{}
Likewise, the component form of a matrix will be
_{} ^{}^{} _{} ^{}^{} _{} _{}
or, written 
out, 
_{}_{} 
_{}_{} 
_{}_{} 
_{} ^{}^{} _{} 
_{} ^{}^{} _{} 
_{} ^{}^{} _{} 

_{} ^{}^{} _{} 
_{} ^{}^{} _{} 
_{} ^{}^{} _{} 
Similarly, a fourthorder tensor can be written in component form as
^{}^{}^{}^{} _{} _{} _{} _{}
While we will need such completely general base vectors for describing the stresses and strains on shells and beams, in many cases it is convenient to use rectangular Cartesian components so that the _{} are orthogonal unit vectors. To distinguish this particular case, we will use Latin indices instead of Greek indices. Thus, _{} are a set of general base vectors; while _{} are rectangular Cartesian base
1.2.1–2
NOTATION
vectors; and ^{} is the component of the vector along a general base vector, while ^{} , , is the component of along the th Cartesian direction. Vector and tensor concepts and their representation are discussed in many textbooks—see Flugge (1972), for example.
Basic operations
The usual matrix and vector operators are indicated in this manual as follows:
Dot product of two vectors:
(The dot symbol deﬁnes this operation completely, regardless of whether or is transposed— i.e., ^{} ) Cross product of two vectors:
Matrix multiplication:
Basic Equations
Introduction &
(It is implicitly assumed that and are dimensioned correctly, as needed for the operation to make sense; in addition, if is a nonsymmetric tensor, ^{} ) Scalar product of two matrices:
This operation means that corresponding conjugate components of the two matrices are multiplied as pairs and the products summed. Thus, for instance, if is the stress matrix, , and the conjugate rate of strain matrix, , then would give the rate of internal work per volume, ^{} .
It is also necessary to deﬁne the dyadic product of two vectors:
^{}
This operation creates a secondorder tensor (or dyad) out of two vectors. In component notation this notation is equivalent to ^{}^{} ^{} ^{} .
A 
matrix of derivatives, 



^{} 

means 
_{} _{}_{}
Throughout this manual it will be assumed implicitly that, when a derivative is taken with respect to time, we mean the material time derivative; that is, the change in a variable with respect to time whilst looking at a particular material particle. When this is not the case for a particular equation, it will be stated explicitly when the equation appears.
1.2.1–3
NOTATION
Provided that we are careful about interpreting in the manner illustrated above, standard concepts of elementary calculus clearly hold; for example, if is a vectorvalued function of the vector valued function , which in turn is a vectorvalued function of , that is , then
or, if :
^{}^{}
_{}
^{}^{}
^{}^{}
Due to these properties many useful results can be obtained quickly and expressed in a compact,
easily understood, form.
Components of a vector or a matrix in a coordinate system
In the previous section we introduced the idea that a vector or a matrix can be written in terms of components associated with some conveniently chosen set of base vectors, _{} . We now show how the components ^{} (or ^{}^{} ) are obtained. We can do so using the dot product. For each of the three base vectors, _{} , we deﬁne a conjugate base vector ^{} , as follows. Choose ^{} as normal to _{} and _{} , such that the dot product ^{} _{} . Similarly, choose ^{} normal to _{} and _{} , such that ^{} _{} ; and ^{} normal to _{} and _{} , such that ^{} _{} . Thus,
^{}
^{}
^{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
^{}
^{}
^{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
(
_{}
_{}
^{}
_{}
^{}
^{}
^{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
We can write this compactly as
where
if , and
notation
is the unit matrix :
matrix form as
In matrix
we can also write the above equation deﬁning ^{} , ^{} , and ^{} in
, otherwise.
is called the “Kronecker delta.”)
^{} ^{} ^{}
_{}
so that, if one set of base vectors— _{} , say—is known, the others are easily obtained. With this additional set of base vectors, we can immediately obtain the components of a vector or a matrix as follows.
Then ^{} ^{} _{} ^{} (writing in component form, using the basis
vectors _{} ), and since _{} ^{}
Consider a vector .
, only if ,
^{}
^{} _{}
^{}
^{} ^{}
1.2.1–4
In exactly the same way we could have written
_{}
_{}
NOTATION
by expressing as components associated with the ^{} base vectors, _{} ^{} . Similarly, for a matrix,
and
^{}^{}
_{}_{}
^{} ^{}
_{} ^{}
^{}
_{}
^{}
_{}
^{}
_{}
Basic Equations
Introduction &
These component deﬁnitions are particularly convenient for calculating the dot product of two vectors, for we can write
which is
_{} ^{}
_{} ^{} ^{}
_{} ^{}
^{} _{}
_{} ^{} ^{}
_{} ^{}
_{} ^{} _{} ^{}
_{}
Similarly, the scalar product of two matrices is
_{}_{} ^{}^{}
that is, we simply multiply corresponding entries in the _{}_{} and ^{}^{} arrays, arranged as matrices, and then sum the products. Finally, on the computer we need to store only one form of component: _{} , _{}_{} or ^{} , ^{}^{} . We can always go from one to the other using the “metric tensor,” _{}_{} , and its inverse, ^{}^{} , which are deﬁned as
and
^{F}^{o}^{r}
^{}
_{} ^{}^{}
^{}
_{} ^{}
_{}_{}
_{}
_{}
^{}^{}
^{}
^{}
(from above),
^{}
(expressing in component form)
(by the deﬁnition of ^{}^{} )
Thus, ^{} ^{}^{} _{} ; similarly _{} _{}_{} ^{} , and, by extension, for matrices,
_{}
_{} _{} _{} _{}
1.2.1–5
NOTATION
and
^{}^{}
The metric tensor and its inverse are symmetric:
_{}_{}
_{} _{}
_{}
_{}
_{}_{}
The two sets of base vectors and components of vectors or matrices associated with them are named as follows:
_{}
_{}
_{}
^{}
_{}
^{}
_{}_{}_{}
_{}_{}_{}
_{} _{}_{} _{} _{} ^{}^{} _{}
are covariant base vectors,
are contravariant base vectors,
are covariant components of a vector (or matrix),
are contravariant components of a vector (or matrix).
Thus, the contravariant components are those associated with the covariant base vectors, ^{} _{} ,
and vice versa. The simplest case is when the basis is a set of orthogonal unit vectors (a rectangular
—we see that ^{} _{} , and so
_{} ^{} and we need not distinguish the type of component. Whenever possible a rectangular Cartesian system is chosen, so the type of component need not be distinguished. This system is discussed in more detail in the sections on beam elements and shell elements.
Cartesian system) because then—from the deﬁnition ^{} _{}
Components of a derivative
Consider a vectorvalued function, , which is expressed in component form on a basis system, _{} . Let the vectorvalued function depend on : . Then
_{} ^{}
so that the component of associated with a change ^{} is
which we write, for convenience, as
meaning
_{}
_{}
^{}
_{}
_{} ^{}
Now suppose is written on a different basis— _{} , say—so that we store as the components
_{}
_{}
1.2.1–6
NOTATION
Then
Typically we would then write
_{} _{}
^{}^{}
_{} ^{}
_{} _{}_{} ^{}
where
_{}_{} _{}
^{}^{} _{}
_{}
^{} ^{} ^{} ^{}
Readers who are familiar with general curvilinear tensor analysis will recognize _{}_{} as the covariant derivative of _{} with respect to ^{} , often written as _{}_{}_{} . The advantage of the direct matrix notation is clear: because we can imagine and as vectors in space, we have a physical understanding of what we mean by ; it is the change in the vectorvalued function as a function of another vectorvalued function . For computations we must express and in component form. Then
_{}_{}
_{}_{}_{}
_{}
^{} ^{} ^{}
Basic Equations
Introduction &
provides the necessary components once we have chosen convenient basis systems: _{} for and _{} for . Typically _{} and _{} will both be the simple rectangular Cartesian bases
_{}
_{}
_{}
everywhere. But sometimes we must use more complicated basis systems—examples are when we need quantities associated with the surface of a general shell and when the symmetry of the geometry and, possibly, of the deformation makes it convenient to work in an axisymmetric system. The careful projection of the general results written in direct matrix notation onto the chosen basis system allows us to implement the theory for computation. As an example, consider the usual expression for strain rate,
^{}
^{}^{}^{}
_{}
_{} ^{}
which requires the matrix to be evaluated, where is the velocity of the material currently ﬂowing through the point in space. Let us now derive the components of when the basis system for both and is the cylindrical system that we usually choose for axisymmetric problems, with
^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{b}^{a}^{s}^{i}^{s} ^{v}^{e}^{c}^{t}^{o}^{r}^{s}
(axial) _{} (circumferential)
_{} (radial)
_{}
(in ABAQUS for axisymmetric cases we always take the components in this order—radial, axial, circumferential). These basis vectors are orthogonal and of unit length, so that ^{} _{}
1.2.1–7
NOTATION
We consider position to be deﬁned by the coordinates , with
_{}
_{}
_{}
so that
^{}
^{}
and
^{}
Thus,
_{}
^{}
^{}
_{}
where 

so that 
_{}_{}_{} 
_{} _{} 


_{} _{} 


_{} _{} 
_{} _{} 






^{} _{} 

We know that 





so that
_{}
_{}
_{} _{}
_{} _{}
_{} _{}
_{} _{}

_{} 

^{} 
^{} 

_{} 
_{} 


_{} 

_{} 
^{} 
^{} 
^{} 
_{} 
^{} 
_{} 






^{}^{} ^{} 

_{} 
and 


_{} _{} 
^{} 
_{} 



^{} _{} _{}
_{}
^{}
_{} _{} ^{}^{} ^{}
_{}
^{}
_{}
_{}
^{} _{}
_{} _{}
^{} _{}
and thus,
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{}
_{} _{} _{}
_{}
_{}
The components of the strain rate are thus
_{}_{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{}
_{}_{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{}
_{}_{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{}
^{}
_{}
_{}
^{}
_{}
and
_{}_{}
_{}_{}
_{}_{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{}
_{}_{}
_{} _{}
_{}_{}
_{}_{} _{}_{}
_{}_{} _{}_{}
^{}
_{}
_{} _{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{}
^{}
_{}
^{}
_{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{}
^{}
For the case of purely axisymmetric deformation, _{} and _{} _{} , so these results simplify to the familiar expressions
_{}_{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{}
_{}_{}
^{}^{}^{} ^{}
1.2.1–8
_{}_{}
^{}^{} ^{}
_{}_{} ^{}^{}^{} ^{}
_{} _{}
_{}_{} _{}_{}
NOTATION
In summary, direct matrix notation allows us to obtain all our fundamental results without
Careful application of the concept of
the covariant derivative then allows these general results to be projected into component form for
computation.
reference to any particular choice of coordinate system.
Virtual quantities
Basic Equations
Introduction &
The concepts of virtual displacements and virtual work are fundamental to the development. Virtual quantities are inﬁnitesimally small variations of physical measures, such as displacement, strain, velocity, and so on. The virtual variation of a scalar quantity is indicated by ; of a vector or matrix by . We extend this notation to such expressions as
sym ^{}^{}^{}
which is the symmetric part of the spatial gradient of a virtual vector ﬁeld . This notation corresponds to the virtual rate of deformation (a measure of strain rate) if is a virtual velocity ﬁeld.
Initial and current positions
Most structural problems concern the description of the way a structure behaves as it is loaded and moves from its reference conﬁguration. Thus, we often compare positions of a point in the current (deformed) conﬁguration and a reference conﬁguration that is usually chosen as the conﬁguration when the structure is unloaded or, in the case of geotechnical problems, when the model is subject only to geostatic stresses. To distinguish these conﬁgurations, we use lowercase type ( ) to indicate the current position and uppercase type ( ) to indicate the initial position of the same material point in the same spatial coordinate frame. In ABAQUS we almost always store the rectangular Cartesian components of and . The exception is in axisymmetric structures, where radial ( ) and axial ( ) components are stored.
Nodal variables
So far we have discussed quantities that are considered to be associated with all points in a model. The ﬁnite element approximation is based on assuming interpolations, by which displacement, position, and—often—other variables at any material point are deﬁned by a ﬁnite number of nodal variables. In this manual we use uppercase superscripts to refer to individual nodal variables or nodal vectors and adopt the summation convention for these indices. Hence, the interpolation can be written quite generally as
^{} ^{}
1.2.1–9
NOTATION
where is some vectorvalued function at any point in the structure; ^{} ^{} , up to the total number of variables in the problem, is a set of vector interpolation functions (these are functions of the material coordinates, ^{} ); and ^{} , is a set of nodal variables. In some sections in this manual we need to describe operations on nodal variables for the complete system of ﬁnite element equations. In these sections we use the classical matrixvector notation. In this notation represents a column vector containing nodal variables, represents a row vector, and a matrix is written as . Common operations are the scalar product between two vectors,
(which is equivalent to ^{} ^{} in index notation) and the matrixvector product
(which is equivalent to ^{} ^{}^{} ^{} in index notation).
1.2.1–10
1.3.1 ROTATION VARIABLES
ROTATION VARIABLES
Since ABAQUS contains such capabilities as structural elements (beams and shells) for which it is necessary to deﬁne arbitrarily large magnitudes of rotation, a convenient method for storing the rotation at a node is required. The components of a rotation vector are stored as the degrees of freedom 4, 5, and 6 at any node where a rotation is required. The ﬁnite rotation vector consists of a rotation magnitude and a rotation axis or direction in space, . Physically, the rotation is interpreted as a rotation by radians around the axis . To characterize this ﬁnite rotation mathematically, the rotation vector is used to deﬁne an orthogonal
associated with by
transformation or rotation matrix. To do so, ﬁrst deﬁne the skewsymmetric matrix the relationships
and
for all vectors
is called the axial vector of the skewsymmetric matrix . In matrix components relative to the standard
Euclidean basis, if ^{}
^{}
^{} ^{} , then
^{}
^{}
^{}
^{}
^{} ^{}
Basic Equations
Introduction &
In what follows, will be used to denote the skewsymmetric matrix with axial vector . A wellknown result from linear algebra is that the exponential of a skewsymmetric matrix
orthogonal (rotation) matrix that produces the ﬁnite rotation . Let the rotation matrix be , such that
is an
^{}^{} ^{} . Then by deﬁnition,
^{}
^{}
However, the above inﬁnite series has the following closedform expression
In components,
^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}
_{}_{}_{} _{} ^{}
_{}_{} _{}_{} _{} _{} _{}_{}_{} _{}
where _{}
_{}
_{}_{}_{}
_{} ^{} and _{}_{}_{} is the alternator tensor, deﬁned by
_{}_{}_{} _{}_{}_{}
_{}_{}_{} _{}_{}_{} _{}_{}_{}
all other _{}_{}_{}
(1.3.1–1)
It is this closedform expression that allows the exact and numerically efﬁcient geometric representation of ﬁnite rotations.
1.3.1–1
ROTATION VARIABLES
Quaternion parametrization
Even though ABAQUS stores and outputs the rotation vector, quaternion parameters prove to be an efﬁcient and convenient way to treat ﬁnite rotations computationally. Let _{} be a scalar, and let ^{} be a vector ﬁeld. The quaternion is simply the pairing
_{}
To associate with the ﬁnite rotation vector , deﬁne the following:
^{}^{}^{} ^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}
By trigonometric identities it follows that the orthogonal matrix given in terms of as
_{}
and
(1.3.1–2)
in Equation 1.3.1–1 is
(1.3.1–3)
By the convention introduced above, is the skewsymmetric matrix with axial vector . For a more detailed discussion of quaternion algebra and its relation to other representations of ﬁnite rotations, see the discussion by Spring (1986).
_{} _{}
Compound rotations
A compound rotation is the successive application of two or more rotation ﬁelds. In geometrically
linear problems compound rotations are obtained simply as the linear superposition of the individual
(linearized) rotation vectors. This fact follows directly from the series expansion for
and _{} be inﬁnitesimal rotations. Thus,
.
Let _{}
_{}
_{} ,
_{}
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