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Manual Version 6.4


Manual Version 6.4
Manual Version 6.4



Version 6.4

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by ABAQUS, Inc. ABAQUS, Inc., assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. The software described in this document is furnished under license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or distributed in any way without prior written agreement with ABAQUS, Inc.

©ABAQUS, Inc., 2003.

Printed in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved.

ABAQUS is a registered trademark of ABAQUS, Inc. The following are trademarks of ABAQUS, Inc.: ABAQUS/Aqua; ABAQUS/CAE; ABAQUS/Design; ABAQUS/Explicit; ABAQUS/Foundation; ABAQUS/Standard; ABAQUS/Viewer; ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW; ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS; and the ABAQUS, Inc., logo.

This release of ABAQUS may contain capabilities licensed under U.S. Patents 5,920,491 and 6,044,210. ABAQUS, Inc., may also have other patents or pending patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to the patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from ABAQUS, Inc.

ADAMS/Flex, ADAMS/View, MSC.ADAMS, and MSC.Patran are trademarks or registered trademarks of MSC.Software Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. Autodesk Inventor is a trademark and Autodesk Mechanical Desktop is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc. CADKEY is a registered trademark of CADKEY Corporation. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systémes. Compaq Alpha is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. DIGITAL Visual FORTRAN is a trademark of Compaq. Elysium is a pending trademark of Elysium Co., Ltd. and Elysium Inc. FEMAP, I-DEAS, Parasolid, Solid Edge, and Unigraphics are registered trademarks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and in other countries. FE-SAFE is a trademark of Safe Technology, Ltd. FLEXlm is a registered trademark of GLOBEtrotter Software, Inc. Hewlett-Packard, HP-GL, HP-GL/2, and HP-UX are registered trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Co. IBM RS6000 is a trademark of IBM. Intel is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation. MOLDFLOW, MOLDFLOW PLASTICS INSIGHT, and MPI are trademarks or registered trademarks of Moldflow Corporation and its worldwide subsidiaries. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation or its subsidiaries in the U.S. and in other countries. Silicon Graphics and OpenGL are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. SolidDesigner is a trademark of CoCreate Software Inc. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of SolidWorks Corporation. SUN is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX and Motif are registered trademarks and X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group in the U.S. and other countries. Windows and Microsoft Visual C++ are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation. ABAQUS/CAE incorporates portions of the ACIS software by SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. ACIS is a registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. This release of ABAQUS includes the gzip program obtained from the Free Software Foundation. This release of ABAQUS on Windows includes the diff program obtained from the Free Software Foundation. You may freely distribute the gzip and diff programs and/or modify them under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA. This release of ABAQUS/CAE includes lp_solve, a simplex-based code for linear and integer programming problems by Michel Berkelaar of Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Python, copyright 1991–1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All Rights Reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute the Python software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the names of Stichting Mathematisch Centrum or CWI or Corporation for National Research Initiatives or CNRI not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. This software is provided with Restricted Rights for procurements governed by DFARS Part 227.4. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government or any of its agencies is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraphs (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause, DFARS 252.227–7013 (October 1988).

All other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or organizations.



1080 Main Street

Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847 Tel: +1 401 727 4200 Fax: +1 401 727 4208 E-mail:


ABAQUS Central, Inc.

1440 Innovation Place

West Lafayette, IN 47906-1000 Tel: +1 765 497 1373 Fax: +1 765 497 4444 E-mail:

ABAQUS Erie, Inc.

3601 Green Road, Suite 316

Beachwood, OH 44122 Tel: +1 216 378 1070 Fax: +1 216 378 1072 E-mail:

ABAQUS South, Inc.

3700 Forums Drive, Suite 101

Flower Mound, TX 75028 Tel: +1 214 513 1600 Fax: +1 214 513 1700 E-mail:

ABAQUS Europe BV Gaetano Martinolaan 95 P. O. Box 1637 6201 BP Maastricht The Netherlands Tel: +31 43 356 6906 Fax: +31 43 356 6908 E-mail:

Sales, Support, and Services

ABAQUS East, LLC 300 Centerville Road, Suite 209W Warwick, RI 02886-0201 Tel: +1 401 739 3637 Fax: +1 401 739 3302 E-mail:

ABAQUS Great Lakes, Inc. 14500 Sheldon Road, Suite 160 Plymouth, MI 48170-2408 Tel: +1 734 451 0217 Fax: +1 734 451 0458 E-mail:

ABAQUS West, Inc. 39221 Paseo Padre Parkway, Suite F Fremont, CA 94538-1611 Tel: +1 510 794 5891 Fax: +1 510 794 1194 E-mail:


KB Engineering S. R. L.

Florida 274 - Oficina 35

1005 Buenos Aires

Argentina Tel: +54 11 4326 9176/7542 Fax: +54 11 4326 2424 E-mail:


Worley Advanced Analysis Level 17, 300 Flinders Street Melbourne, Vic 3000 Tel: +61 3 9280 2834 Fax: +61 3 9205 0573 E-mail:


ABAQUS Austria GmbH Zinckgasse 20-22/2/13 A-1150 Vienna Austria


Fax: +43 1 929 16 25-20 E-mail:

+43 1 929 16 25-0


ABAQUS China Beijing Representative Office Room 716, Tower B, COFCO Plaza No. 8, Jiangguomennei Dajie Dong Cheng District Beijing, 100005 P. R. China Tel: +86 01 85110566/85110567 Fax: +86 01 85110568 E-mail:



ABAQUS Benelux BV Huizermaatweg 576 1276 LN Huizen The Netherlands Tel: +31 35 52 58 424 Fax: +31 35 52 44 257 E-mail:


Synerma s. r. o. Huntirov 58 468 22 Skuhrov Czech Republic Tel: +420 2 603 145 769 Fax: +420 2 603 181 944 E-mail:

GERMANY (Aachen)

ABAQUS France SAS 7 rue Jean Mermoz 78000 Versailles

ABAQUS Deutschland GmbH Theaterstraße 30-32 D-52062 Aachen


+33 01 39 24 15 40

Tel: +49 241 474010


+33 01 39 24 15 45

Fax: +49 241 4090963



INDIA (Chennai)


ABAQUS Engineering Analysis Solutions (Pvt.) Ltd. 3M, Prince Arcade 22-A Cathedral Road Chennai, 600 086 Tel: +91 44 28114624 Fax: +91 44 28115087 E-mail:

ABAQUS Italia s. r. l. Via Domodossola, 17 20145 Milano (MI) Tel: +39 02 39211211 Fax: +39 02 39211210 E-mail:

JAPAN (Tokyo)

ABAQUS, Inc. 3rd Floor, Akasaka Nihon Building 5-24, Akasaka 9-chome, Minato-ku Tokyo, 107-0052 Tel: +81 3 5474 5817 Fax: +81 3 5474 5818 E-mail:


ABAQUS Korea, Inc. Suite 306, Sambo Building 13-2 Yoido-Dong, Youngdeungpo-ku Seoul, 150-010 Tel: +82 2 785 6707 Fax: +82 2 785 6709 E-mail:


Matrix Applied Computing Ltd. P. O. Box 56-316, Auckland Courier: Unit 2-5, 72 Dominion Road, Mt Eden, Auckland Tel: +64 9 623 1223 Fax: +64 9 623 1134 E-mail:


TESIS Ltd. Office 701-703, 18, Unnatov Str. 127083 Moscow, Russia Tel: +7 095 212-44-22 Fax: +7 095 212-42-62 E-mail:

JAPAN (Osaka)

ABAQUS, Inc. 9th Floor, Higobashi Watanabe Building 6-10, Edobori 1-chome, Nishi-ku Osaka, 550-0002 Tel: +81 6 4803 5020 Fax: +81 6 4803 5021 E-mail:


Worley Advanced Analysis 13th Floor, Empire Tower City Square Centre 182 Jalan Tun Razak 50400 Kuala Lumpur Tel: +60 3 2163 4275 Fax: +60 3 2163 0524 E-mail:


BudSoft Sp. z o.o. 61-807 Poznan´ Sw. Marcin 58/64 Tel: +48 61 8508 466 Fax: +48 61 8508 467 E-mail:


Worley Advanced Analysis 491B River Valley Road #09-01 Valley Point Singapore, 248373 Tel: +65 6735 8444 Fax: +65 6735 7444 E-mail:


Finite Element Analysis Services (Pty) Ltd. Unit 4, The Waverley Wyecroft Road Mowbray 7700 Tel: +27 21 448 7608 Fax: +27 21 448 7679 E-mail:


Principia Ingenieros Consultores, S.A. Velázquez, 94 E-28006 Madrid Tel: +34 91 209 1482 Fax: +34 91 575 1026 E-mail:



ABAQUS Scandinavia AB Pilgatan 8c SE-721 30 Västerås

APIC 7F-2, No. 131 SungChiang Road Taipei, 10428


+46 21 12 64 10

Tel: +886 02 25083066


+46 21 18 12 44

Fax: +886 02 25077185




A-Ztech Ltd. PERDEMSAC Business Center, Technology House 17 Gulbahar Str., Bayar Road Kozyatagi 34742 Istanbul Tel: +90 216 361 8850 Fax: +90 216 361 8851 E-mail:


ABAQUS UK Ltd. The Genesis Centre Science Park South, Birchwood Warrington, Cheshire WA3 7BH Tel: +44 1 925 810166 Fax: +44 1 925 810178 E-mail:

Sales Only

UNITED STATES ABAQUS East, LLC, Mid-Atlantic Office 114 Zachary Court Forest Hill, MD 21050 Tel: +1 410 420 8587 Fax: +1 410 420 8908 E-mail:

ABAQUS West, Inc., Southern CA and AZ Office 1100 Irvine Boulevard #248 Tustin, CA 92780 Tel: +1 714 731 5895 Fax: +1 714 731 5895 E-mail:

ABAQUS South, Inc., Southeast Office 484 Broadstone Way Acworth, GA 30101 Tel: +1 770 795 0960 Fax: +1 770 795 7614 E-mail:

ABAQUS West, Inc., Rocky Mountains Office 2894 Hughs Drive Erie, CO 80516 Tel: +1 303 664 5444 Fax: +1 303 664 5445 E-mail:


ABAQUS Finland Oy Tekniikantie 12 FIN-02150 Espoo Tel: +358 9 2517 2973 Fax: +358 9 2517 2200 E-mail:

INDIA (Pune)

ABAQUS Engineering Analysis Solutions (Pvt.) Ltd. C-9, 3rd Floor Bramha Estate, Kondwa Road


Tel: +91 20 31037511 E-mail:

GERMANY (Munich)

ABAQUS Deutschland GmbH Sendlinger-Tor-Platz 8 D-80336 München Tel: +49 89 5999 1768 Fax: +49 89 5999 1767 E-mail:


ABAQUS UK Ltd. Great Hollanden Business Centre, Unit A Mill Lane, Underriver Nr. Sevenoaks, Kent TN15 OSQ Tel: +44 1 732 834930 Fax: +44 1 732 834720 E-mail:


This section lists various resources that are available for help with using ABAQUS, including technical engineering and systems support, training seminars, and documentation.


ABAQUS, Inc., offers both technical engineering support and systems support for ABAQUS. Technical engineering and systems support are provided through the nearest local support office. You can contact our offices by telephone, fax, electronic mail, or regular mail. Information on how to contact each office is listed in the front of each ABAQUS manual. Support is also available on the World Wide Web for your convenience. The ABAQUS Online Support System (AOSS) is accessible through the MY ABAQUS section of the ABAQUS Home Page ( When contacting your local support office, please specify whether you would like technical engineering support (you have encountered problems performing an ABAQUS analysis or creating a model in ABAQUS) or systems support (ABAQUS will not install correctly, licensing does not work correctly, or other hardware-related issues have arisen). The ABAQUS Online Support System has a knowledge database of ABAQUS Answers. The ABAQUS Answers are solutions to questions that we have had to answer or guidelines on how to use ABAQUS. We welcome any suggestions for improvements to the support program or documentation. We will ensure that any enhancement requests you make are considered for future releases. If you wish to file a complaint about the service or products provided by ABAQUS, refer to the ABAQUS Home Page.

Technical engineering support

ABAQUS technical support engineers can assist in clarifying ABAQUS features and checking errors by giving both general information on using ABAQUS and information on its application to specific analyses. If you have concerns about an analysis, we suggest that you contact us at an early stage, since it is usually easier to solve problems at the beginning of a project rather than trying to correct an analysis at the end. Please have the following information ready before calling the technical engineering support hotline, and include it in any written contacts:

Your site identifier, which can be obtained by typing abaqus whereami at your system prompt (or by selecting Help On Version from the main menu bar in ABAQUS/CAE or ABAQUS/Viewer).

The version of ABAQUS that are you using.

– The version numbers for ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit are given at the top of the data (.dat) file.

– The version numbers for ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS/Viewer can be found by selecting Help On Version from the main menu bar.

– The version numbers for the ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW and the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS are output to the screen.

The type of computer on which you are running ABAQUS.

The symptoms of any problems, including the exact error messages, if any.

Workarounds or tests that you have already tried.


When calling for support about a specific problem, any available ABAQUS output files may be helpful in answering questions that the support engineer may ask you. The support engineer will try to diagnose your problem from the model description and a description of the difficulties you are having. Frequently, the support engineer will need model sketches, which can be faxed or sent in the mail. Plots of the final results or the results near the point that the analysis terminated may also be needed to understand what may have caused the problem. If the support engineer cannot diagnose your problem from this information, you may be asked to supply the input data. The data can be attached to a support incident in the ABAQUS Online Support System. It may also be sent by means of e-mail, tape, disk, or ftp. Please check the ABAQUS Home Page ( for the media formats that are currently accepted. All support incidents are tracked in the ABAQUS Online Support System. This enables you (as well as the support engineer) to monitor the progress of a particular problem and to check that we are resolving support issues efficiently. To use the ABAQUS Online Support System, you need to register with the system. Visit the MY ABAQUS section of the ABAQUS Home Page for instructions on how to register. If you are contacting us by means outside the AOSS to discuss an existing support problem and you know the incident number, please mention it so that we can consult the database to see what the latest action has been and, thus, avoid duplication of effort. In addition, please give the receptionist the support engineer’s name or include it at the top of any e-mail correspondence.

Systems support

ABAQUS systems support engineers can help you resolve issues related to the installation and running of ABAQUS, including licensing difficulties, that are not covered by technical engineering support. You should install ABAQUS by carefully following the instructions in the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide. If you are able to complete the installation, please make sure that the product verification procedure was run successfully at the end of the installation procedure. Successful verification for licensed products would indicate that you can run these products on your computer; unsuccessful verification for licensed products indicates problems with the installation or licensing (or both). If you encounter problems with the installation, licensing, or verification, first review the instructions in the ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide to ensure that they have been followed correctly. If this does not resolve the problems, consult the ABAQUS Answers database in the ABAQUS Online Support System for information about known installation problems. If this does not address your situation, please create an incident in the AOSS and describe your problem, including the output from abaqus info=support. If you call, mail, e-mail, or fax us about a problem (instead of using the AOSS), please provide the output from abaqus info=support. It is important that you provide as much information as possible about your problem: error messages from an aborted analysis, output from the abaqus info=support command, etc.

ABAQUS Web server

For users connected to the Internet, many questions can be answered by visiting the ABAQUS Home Page on the World Wide Web at

The information available on the ABAQUS Home Page includes:


Frequently asked questions

ABAQUS systems information and computer requirements

ABAQUS performance data

Error status reports

ABAQUS documentation price list

Training seminar schedule


Anonymous ftp site

For users connected to the Internet, ABAQUS maintains useful documents on an anonymous ftp account on the computer Simply ftp to Login as user anonymous, and type your e-mail address as your password. Directions will come up automatically upon login.

Writing to technical support

Address of ABAQUS Headquarters:

ABAQUS, Inc. 1080 Main Street Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847, USA Attention: Technical Support

Addresses for other offices and representatives are listed in the front of each manual.

Support for academic institutions

Under the terms of the Academic License Agreement we do not provide support to users at academic institutions. Academic users can purchase technical support on an hourly basis. For more information, please see the ABAQUS Home Page or contact your local ABAQUS support office.


All ABAQUS offices offer regularly scheduled public training classes. The Introduction to ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit seminar covers basic usage and nonlinear applications, such as large deformation, plasticity, contact, and dynamics. Workshops provide as much practical experience with ABAQUS as possible. The Introduction to ABAQUS/CAE seminar discusses modeling, managing simulations, and viewing results with ABAQUS/CAE. “Hands-on” workshops are complemented by lectures. Advanced seminars cover topics of interest to customers with experience using ABAQUS, such as engine analysis, metal forming, fracture mechanics, and heat transfer. We also provide training seminars at customer sites. On-site training seminars can be one or more days in duration, depending on customer requirements. The training topics can include a combination of


material from our introductory and advanced seminars. Workshops allow customers to exercise ABAQUS on their own computers. For a schedule of seminars, see the ABAQUS Home Page or call ABAQUS, Inc., or your local ABAQUS representative.


The following documentation and publications are available from ABAQUS, unless otherwise specified, in printed form and through the ABAQUS online documentation. For more information on accessing the online books, refer to the discussion of execution procedures in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.

Modeling and Visualization

ABAQUS/CAE User’s Manual: This reference document for ABAQUS/CAE includes three comprehensive tutorials as well as detailed descriptions of how to use ABAQUS/CAE for model generation, analysis, and results evaluation and visualization. ABAQUS/Viewer users should refer to the information on the Visualization module in this manual.


ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual: This volume contains a complete description of the elements, material models, procedures, input specifications, etc. It is the basic reference document for ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.


ABAQUS Example Problems Manual: This volume contains more than 75 detailed examples designed to illustrate the approaches and decisions needed to perform meaningful linear and nonlinear analysis. Typical cases are large motion of an elastic-plastic pipe hitting a rigid wall; inelastic buckling collapse of a thin-walled elbow; explosive loading of an elastic, viscoplastic thin ring; consolidation under a footing; buckling of a composite shell with a hole; and deep drawing of a metal sheet. It is generally useful to look for relevant examples in this manual and to review them when embarking on a new class of problem.

ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual: This online-only volume contains over 200 benchmark problems and standard analyses used to evaluate the performance of ABAQUS; the tests are multiple element tests of simple geometries or simplified versions of real problems. The NAFEMS benchmark problems are included in this manual.


Getting Started with ABAQUS: This document is a self-paced tutorial designed to help new users become familiar with using ABAQUS/CAE to create solid, shell, and framework models and ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit to perform static, quasi-static, and dynamic stress analysis simulations. It contains a number of fully worked examples that provide practical guidelines for performing structural analyses with ABAQUS.


This online-only document is

designed to help new users become familiar with the ABAQUS/Standard input file syntax for static and dynamic stress analysis simulations. The ABAQUS/Standard keyword interface is used to model examples similar to those included in Getting Started with ABAQUS.

Keywords Version: This online-only document is

designed to help new users become familiar with the ABAQUS/Explicit input file syntax for quasi- static and dynamic stress analysis simulations. The ABAQUS/Explicit keyword interface is used to model examples similar to those included in Getting Started with ABAQUS.

Lecture Notes: These notes are available on many topics to which ABAQUS is applied. They are used in the technical seminars that ABAQUS, Inc., presents to help users improve their understanding and usage of ABAQUS (see the “Training” section above for more information about these seminars). While not intended as stand-alone tutorial material, they are sufficiently comprehensive that they can usually be used in that mode. The list of available lecture notes is included in the Documentation Price List.

Getting Started with ABAQUS/Explicit:

Getting Started with ABAQUS/Standard:

Keywords Version:

Documentation Information

Using ABAQUS Online Documentation: This online-only manual contains instructions for viewing and searching the ABAQUS online documentation.


ABAQUS Keywords Reference Manual:

This volume contains a complete description of all the

input options that are available in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit.

ABAQUS Theory Manual: This online-only volume contains detailed, precise discussions of all theoretical aspects of ABAQUS. It is written to be understood by users with an engineering background.

ABAQUS Verification Manual: This online-only volume contains more than 5000 basic test cases, providing verification of each individual program feature (procedures, output options, MPCs, etc.) against exact calculations and other published results. It may be useful to run these problems when learning to use a new capability. In addition, the supplied input data files provide good starting points to check the behavior of elements, materials, etc.

This document describes the QA procedures followed by ABAQUS. It

Quality Assurance Plan:

is a controlled document, provided to customers who subscribe to either the Nuclear QA Program or the Quality Monitoring Service.

Update Information

ABAQUS Release Notes:

This document contains brief descriptions of the new features available

in the latest release of the ABAQUS product line.


ABAQUS Scripting User’s Manual: This online-only manual provides a description of the ABAQUS Scripting Interface. The manual describes how commands can be used to create and analyze


ABAQUS/CAE models, to view the results of the analysis, and to automate repetitive tasks. It also contains information on using the ABAQUS Scripting Interface or C++ as an application programming interface (API) to the output database.

This online-only manual provides a command reference

that lists the syntax of each command in the ABAQUS Scripting Interface.

ABAQUS Scripting Reference Manual:

ABAQUS GUI Toolkit User’s Manual: This online-only manual provides a description of the ABAQUS GUI Toolkit. The manual describes the components and organization of the ABAQUS GUI. It also describes how you can customize the ABAQUS GUI to build a particular application.

This online-only manual provides a command reference

ABAQUS GUI Toolkit Reference Manual:

that lists the syntax of each command in the ABAQUS GUI Toolkit.


ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS User’s Manual:

This document describes how to use

the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS, which creates ABAQUS models of MSC.ADAMS components and converts the ABAQUS results into an MSC.ADAMS modal neutral file that can be used by the ADAMS/Flex program. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS Interface for MSC.ADAMS.

This document describes how to use the

ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW, which creates a partial ABAQUS input file by translating results from a MOLDFLOW polymer processing simulation. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW.

ABAQUS Interface for MOLDFLOW User’s Manual:

Installation and Licensing

ABAQUS Installation and Licensing Guide: This document describes how to install ABAQUS and how to configure the installation for particular circumstances. Some of this information, of most relevance to users, is also provided in the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual.



1. Introduction and Basic Equations Introduction


Introduction: general





Finite rotations

Rotation variables


Deformation, strain, and strain rates



Strain measures


Rate of deformation and strain increment


The additive strain rate decomposition


Equilibrium, stress, and state storage

Equilibrium and virtual work


Stress measures


Stress rates


State storage


Energy balance


2. Procedures


Procedures: overview and basic equations


Nonlinear solution methods

Nonlinear solution methods in ABAQUS/Standard


Quasi-Newton solution technique


Direct cyclic algorithm


Buckling and postbuckling

Eigenvalue buckling prediction


Modified Riks algorithm


Nonlinear dynamics

Implicit dynamic analysis


Intermittent contact/impact


Subspace dynamics




Equivalent rigid body dynamic motion


Explicit dynamic analysis


Modal dynamics

Eigenvalue extraction


Variables associated with the natural modes of a model


Linear dynamic analysis using modal superposition


Damping options for modal dynamics


Modal dynamic analysis


Response spectrum analysis


Steady-state linear dynamic analysis


Random response analysis


Base motions in modal-based procedures


Complex harmonic oscillations

Direct steady-state dynamic analysis


Subspace-based steady-state dynamic analysis


Steady-state transport analysis

Steady-state transport analysis


Analysis of porous media

Effective stress principle for porous media


Discretized equilibrium statement for a porous medium


Constitutive behavior in a porous medium


Continuity statement for the wetting liquid phase in a porous medium


Solution strategy for coupled diffusion/deformation


Coupled fluid-solid analysis

Coupled acoustic-structural medium analysis


Piezoelectric analysis

Piezoelectric analysis


Heat transfer

Uncoupled heat transfer analysis


Shell heat conduction




Cavity radiation


Viewfactor calculation


Coupled thermal-electrical analysis

Coupled thermal-electrical analysis


Mass diffusion

Mass diffusion analysis






Substructuring and substructure analysis



Submodeling analysis


Fracture mechanics

-integral evaluation


Stress intensity factor extraction


-stress extraction


Prediction of the direction of crack propagation


Stress linearization

Stress linearization


Design sensitivity analysis

Design sensitivity analysis





Element library: overview


Continuum elements

Solid element overview


Solid element formulation


Hybrid incompressible solid element formulation


Solid isoparametric quadrilaterals and hexahedra


Continuum elements with incompatible modes


Triangular, tetrahedral, and wedge elements


Generalized plane strain elements


Axisymmetric elements


Axisymmetric elements allowing nonlinear bending


Infinite elements

Solid infinite elements


Acoustic infinite elements


Membrane and truss elements

Membrane elements


Truss elements


Axisymmetric membranes


Beam elements

Beam element overview





Beam element formulation


Euler-Bernoulli beam elements


Hybrid beam elements


Mass and inertia for Timoshenko beams


Meshed beam cross-sections


Shell elements

Shell element overview


Axisymmetric shell elements


Shear flexible small-strain shell elements


Triangular facet shell elements


Finite-strain shell element formulation


Small-strain shell elements in ABAQUS/Explicit


Axisymmetric shell element allowing asymmetric loading


Transverse shear stiffness in composite shells and offsets from the midsurface


Rotary inertia for 5 degree of freedom shell elements



Rebar modeling in two dimensions


Rebar modeling in three dimensions


Rebar modeling in shell, membrane, and surface elements


Hydrostatic fluid elements

Hydrostatic fluid elements


Special-purpose elements

Elbow elements


Frame elements with lumped plasticity


Buckling strut response for frame elements


Tube support elements


Line spring elements


Flexible joint element


Rotary inertia element


Distributing coupling elements



Mechanical Constitutive Theories Overview

Mechanical constitutive models


Plasticity overview

Plasticity models: general discussion


Integration of plasticity models


Metal plasticity

Metal plasticity models





Isotropic elasto-plasticity


Stress potentials for anisotropic metal plasticity


Rate-dependent metal plasticity (creep)


Models for metals subjected to cyclic loading


Porous metal plasticity


Cast iron plasticity


ORNL constitutive theory


Deformation plasticity


Heat generation caused by plastic straining


Plasticity for non-metals

Porous elasticity


Models for granular or polymer behavior


Critical state models


Drucker-Prager/Cap model for geological materials


Mohr-Coulomb model


Models for crushable foams


Other inelastic models

An inelastic constitutive model for concrete


Damaged plasticity model for concrete and other quasi-brittle materials


A cracking model for concrete and other brittle materials


Constitutive model for jointed materials


Large-strain elasticity

Hyperelastic material behavior


Fitting of hyperelastic and hyperfoam constants


Mullins effect

Mullins effect





Finite-strain viscoelasticity


Frequency domain viscoelasticity






Interface Modeling Contact modeling

Small-sliding interaction between bodies


Finite-sliding interaction between deformable bodies


Finite-sliding interaction between a deformable and a rigid body




Surface interactions

Contact pressure definition


Pressure and fluid flow in pore pressure contact


Coulomb friction


Thermal interface definition


Heat generation caused by frictional sliding


Heat generation caused by electrical current


Surface-based acoustic-structural medium interaction


6. Loading and Constraints Dynamic loading

Centrifugal, Coriolis, and rotary acceleration forces


Baseline correction of accelerograms


ABAQUS/Aqua loading

Drag, inertia, and buoyancy loading


Airy wave theory


Stokes wave theory


Incident wave loading

Loading due to an incident dilatational wave field


Pressure penetration loading

Pressure penetration loading with surface-based contact


Load stiffness

Pressure load stiffness


Load stiffness for beam elements


Pressure loadings on elbow elements


Multi-point constraints

Sliding constraint


Shell to solid constraint


Revolute joint


Universal joint


Local velocity constraint


Kinematic coupling


7. References




Chapter 1 Introduction and Basic Equations

Introduction Notation Finite rotations Deformation, strain, and strain rates Equilibrium, stress, and state storage








The ABAQUS system includes ABAQUS/Standard, a general-purpose finite element program; ABAQUS/Explicit, an explicit dynamics finite element program; and the Visualization module, an interactive postprocessing program that provides displays and output lists from output database files written by ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. This manual describes the theories used in ABAQUS. Many sections in this manual apply to both ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. Certain sections obviously apply only to either ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit; for example, all sections in the chapter on procedures apply to ABAQUS/Standard, except the section discussing the explicit dynamic integration procedure, which applies to ABAQUS/Explicit. If it is not obvious to which program a section applies, it is clearly indicated. ABAQUS/Standard includes three added-cost options. The ABAQUS/Aqua option includes features specifically designed for the analysis of beam-like structures installed underwater and subject to loading by water currents and wave action. The ABAQUS/Design option enables the user to parametrize input file quantities and write Python scripts to perform parametric studies. The ABAQUS/Foundation option offers more efficient access to the linear static and dynamic analysis functionality in ABAQUS/Standard. Certain aspects of the theory behind these options are described in this manual. The options are available only if the user’s license includes them. The objective of this manual is to define the theories used in ABAQUS that are generally not available in the standard textbooks on mechanics, structures, and finite elements but are well known to the engineer who uses ABAQUS. The manual is intended as a reference document that defines what is available in the code. Nevertheless, it is written in such a way that it can also be used as a tutorial document by a reader who needs to obtain some background in an unfamiliar area. The material is presented in a way that should make it accessible to any user with an engineering background. Some of the theories may be relatively unfamiliar to such a user; for example, few engineering curricula provide extensive background in plasticity, shell theory, finite deformations of solids, or the analysis of porous media. Yet ABAQUS contains capabilities for all of these models and many others. The manual is far from comprehensive in its coverage of such topics: in this sense it is only a reference volume. The user is strongly encouraged to pursue topics of interest through texts and papers. Chapter 7, “References,” at the end of this manual lists references that should provide a starting point for obtaining such information. (ABAQUS does not supply copies of papers that have appeared in publications other than those of ABAQUS. EPRI reports can be obtained from Research Reports Center (RRC), Box 50490, Palo Alto, CA 94303.) Chapter 1, “Introduction and Basic Equations,” discusses the notation used in the manual, some basic concepts of kinematics and mechanics—such as rotations, stress, and equilibrium—as well as the basic equations of nonlinear finite element analysis. Chapter 2, “Procedures,” describes the various analysis procedures (nonlinear static stress analysis, dynamics, eigenvalue extraction, etc.) that are available in ABAQUS. Chapter 3, “Elements,” describes the element formulations. Chapter 4, “Mechanical Constitutive Theories,” describes the mechanical constitutive theories. Chapter 5, “Interface Modeling,” discusses the most important aspects of the contact/interaction formulation in ABAQUS/Standard. Chapter 6, “Loading and Constraints,” describes the formulation of some of the more complicated load types and multi-point constraints.


Basic Equations

Introduction &




Notation is often a serious obstacle that prevents an engineer from using advanced textbooks; for example, general curvilinear tensor analysis and functional analysis are both necessary in some of the theories used in ABAQUS, but the unfamiliar notations commonly used in these areas often discourage the user from pursuing their study. The notation used in most of this manual (direct matrix notation) may be unfamiliar to some readers; but it is not difficult or time consuming to gain enough familiarity with the notation for it to be useful, and it is definitely worthwhile. This notation is commonly used in the modern engineering literature—it is a shorthand version of the familiar matrix notation used in many older engineering textbooks. The notation is appealing—once it is understood—because it allows the equations to be developed concisely, and the physical ideas can be perceived without the distraction of the complexities that arise from the choice of the particular basis system that will eventually be used to express the same concepts in component form. Because the notation has become so standard in the literature, the user who wishes or needs to read textbooks and papers that are related to the use of ABAQUS will find that familiarity with this notation is desirable. Both direct matrix notation and component form notation are used in the manual. Both notations are described in this section. Direct matrix notation is used whenever possible. However, vectors, matrices, and the higher-order tensors used in the theories must eventually be written in component form to store them as a set of numbers on the computer. Thus, both ways of writing these quantities will be needed in the manual.

Basic quantities

Basic Equations

Introduction &

The quantities needed to formulate the theory are scalars, vectors, second-order tensors (matrices), and—occasionally—fourth-order tensors (for example, the stress-strain transformation for linear elasticity). In direct matrix notation these are written as:

a scalar value


with the transpose

a second-order tensor or matrix

with the transpose


a fourth-order tensor






Vectors and second-order tensors (matrices) are written in the same way: they are distinguished by the context. In direct matrix notation there is generally no need to indicate that a vector must be transposed. The context determines whether a vector is to be used as a “column” vector or as a “row” vector . In this case the transpose superscript is only used to improve the readability of an



expression. On the other hand, for second-order nonsymmetric tensors the addition of a transpose superscript will change the meaning of an expression. This representation of vectors and tensors is very general and convenient for developing the theory so that the equations can be understood easily in terms of their physical meaning. However, in actual computations we have to work with individual numbers, so vectors and tensors must be expressed in terms of their components. These components are associated with an axis system that defines a set of base vectors at each point in space. The simplest axis system is rectangular Cartesian, because the base vectors are orthogonal unit vectors in the same direction at all points. Unfortunately, we need more generality than this because we will be dealing with shells and beams, where stress, strain, etc. are most conveniently described in terms of directions on the surface of the shell (or associated with the axis of the beam), and these usually change as we move around on the surface. To retain this necessary generality and express vectors and matrices in component form, we introduce a general set of base vectors, , , which are not necessarily orthogonal or of unit length but are sufficient to define the components of a vector (for this purpose they must not be parallel or have zero length). A vector can then be written

where the numbers , , and are the components of associated with , , and . In actual cases the are chosen for convenience (for example, see “Conventions,” Section 1.2.2 of the ABAQUS Analysis User’s Manual, for a description of how base vectors are chosen for surface elements in ABAQUS), and then the are obtained. To save writing, we adopt the usual summation convention that a repeated index is summed—in this case over the range 1 to 3—so that the above equation is written

Likewise, the component form of a matrix will be

or, written



Similarly, a fourth-order tensor can be written in component form as

While we will need such completely general base vectors for describing the stresses and strains on shells and beams, in many cases it is convenient to use rectangular Cartesian components so that the are orthogonal unit vectors. To distinguish this particular case, we will use Latin indices instead of Greek indices. Thus, are a set of general base vectors; while are rectangular Cartesian base



vectors; and is the component of the vector along a general base vector, while , , is the component of along the th Cartesian direction. Vector and tensor concepts and their representation are discussed in many textbooks—see Flugge (1972), for example.

Basic operations

The usual matrix and vector operators are indicated in this manual as follows:

Dot product of two vectors:

(The dot symbol defines this operation completely, regardless of whether or is transposed— i.e., ) Cross product of two vectors:

Matrix multiplication:

Basic Equations

Introduction &

(It is implicitly assumed that and are dimensioned correctly, as needed for the operation to make sense; in addition, if is a nonsymmetric tensor, ) Scalar product of two matrices:

This operation means that corresponding conjugate components of the two matrices are multiplied as pairs and the products summed. Thus, for instance, if is the stress matrix, , and the conjugate rate of strain matrix, , then would give the rate of internal work per volume, .

It is also necessary to define the dyadic product of two vectors:

This operation creates a second-order tensor (or dyad) out of two vectors. In component notation this notation is equivalent to .


matrix of derivatives,



Throughout this manual it will be assumed implicitly that, when a derivative is taken with respect to time, we mean the material time derivative; that is, the change in a variable with respect to time whilst looking at a particular material particle. When this is not the case for a particular equation, it will be stated explicitly when the equation appears.



Provided that we are careful about interpreting in the manner illustrated above, standard concepts of elementary calculus clearly hold; for example, if is a vector-valued function of the vector- valued function , which in turn is a vector-valued function of , that is , then

or, if :

Due to these properties many useful results can be obtained quickly and expressed in a compact,

easily understood, form.

Components of a vector or a matrix in a coordinate system

In the previous section we introduced the idea that a vector or a matrix can be written in terms of components associated with some conveniently chosen set of base vectors, . We now show how the components (or ) are obtained. We can do so using the dot product. For each of the three base vectors, , we define a conjugate base vector , as follows. Choose as normal to and , such that the dot product . Similarly, choose normal to and , such that ; and normal to and , such that . Thus,


We can write this compactly as


if , and


is the unit matrix :

matrix form as

In matrix

we can also write the above equation defining , , and in

, otherwise.

is called the “Kronecker delta.”)

so that, if one set of base vectors— , say—is known, the others are easily obtained. With this additional set of base vectors, we can immediately obtain the components of a vector or a matrix as follows.

Then (writing in component form, using the basis

vectors ), and since

Consider a vector .

, only if ,


In exactly the same way we could have written


by expressing as components associated with the base vectors, . Similarly, for a matrix,


Basic Equations

Introduction &

These component definitions are particularly convenient for calculating the dot product of two vectors, for we can write

which is

Similarly, the scalar product of two matrices is

that is, we simply multiply corresponding entries in the and arrays, arranged as matrices, and then sum the products. Finally, on the computer we need to store only one form of component: , or , . We can always go from one to the other using the “metric tensor,” , and its inverse, , which are defined as



(from above),

(expressing in component form)

(by the definition of )

Thus, ; similarly , and, by extension, for matrices,




The metric tensor and its inverse are symmetric:

The two sets of base vectors and components of vectors or matrices associated with them are named as follows:

are covariant base vectors,

are contravariant base vectors,

are covariant components of a vector (or matrix),

are contravariant components of a vector (or matrix).

Thus, the contravariant components are those associated with the covariant base vectors, ,

and vice versa. The simplest case is when the basis is a set of orthogonal unit vectors (a rectangular

—we see that , and so

and we need not distinguish the type of component. Whenever possible a rectangular Cartesian system is chosen, so the type of component need not be distinguished. This system is discussed in more detail in the sections on beam elements and shell elements.

Cartesian system) because then—from the definition

Components of a derivative

Consider a vector-valued function, , which is expressed in component form on a basis system, . Let the vector-valued function depend on : . Then

so that the component of associated with a change is

which we write, for convenience, as


Now suppose is written on a different basis— , say—so that we store as the components




Typically we would then write


Readers who are familiar with general curvilinear tensor analysis will recognize as the covariant derivative of with respect to , often written as . The advantage of the direct matrix notation is clear: because we can imagine and as vectors in space, we have a physical understanding of what we mean by ; it is the change in the vector-valued function as a function of another vector-valued function . For computations we must express and in component form. Then

Basic Equations

Introduction &

provides the necessary components once we have chosen convenient basis systems: for and for . Typically and will both be the simple rectangular Cartesian bases

everywhere. But sometimes we must use more complicated basis systems—examples are when we need quantities associated with the surface of a general shell and when the symmetry of the geometry and, possibly, of the deformation makes it convenient to work in an axisymmetric system. The careful projection of the general results written in direct matrix notation onto the chosen basis system allows us to implement the theory for computation. As an example, consider the usual expression for strain rate,

which requires the matrix to be evaluated, where is the velocity of the material currently flowing through the point in space. Let us now derive the components of when the basis system for both and is the cylindrical system that we usually choose for axisymmetric problems, with

the basis vectors

(axial) (circumferential)


(in ABAQUS for axisymmetric cases we always take the components in this order—radial, axial, circumferential). These basis vectors are orthogonal and of unit length, so that



We consider position to be defined by the coordinates , with

so that




so that




We know that

so that




and thus,

The components of the strain rate are thus


For the case of purely axisymmetric deformation, and , so these results simplify to the familiar expressions



In summary, direct matrix notation allows us to obtain all our fundamental results without

Careful application of the concept of

the covariant derivative then allows these general results to be projected into component form for


reference to any particular choice of coordinate system.

Virtual quantities

Basic Equations

Introduction &

The concepts of virtual displacements and virtual work are fundamental to the development. Virtual quantities are infinitesimally small variations of physical measures, such as displacement, strain, velocity, and so on. The virtual variation of a scalar quantity is indicated by ; of a vector or matrix by . We extend this notation to such expressions as


which is the symmetric part of the spatial gradient of a virtual vector field . This notation corresponds to the virtual rate of deformation (a measure of strain rate) if is a virtual velocity field.

Initial and current positions

Most structural problems concern the description of the way a structure behaves as it is loaded and moves from its reference configuration. Thus, we often compare positions of a point in the current (deformed) configuration and a reference configuration that is usually chosen as the configuration when the structure is unloaded or, in the case of geotechnical problems, when the model is subject only to geostatic stresses. To distinguish these configurations, we use lowercase type ( ) to indicate the current position and uppercase type ( ) to indicate the initial position of the same material point in the same spatial coordinate frame. In ABAQUS we almost always store the rectangular Cartesian components of and . The exception is in axisymmetric structures, where radial ( ) and axial ( ) components are stored.

Nodal variables

So far we have discussed quantities that are considered to be associated with all points in a model. The finite element approximation is based on assuming interpolations, by which displacement, position, and—often—other variables at any material point are defined by a finite number of nodal variables. In this manual we use uppercase superscripts to refer to individual nodal variables or nodal vectors and adopt the summation convention for these indices. Hence, the interpolation can be written quite generally as



where is some vector-valued function at any point in the structure; , up to the total number of variables in the problem, is a set of vector interpolation functions (these are functions of the material coordinates, ); and , is a set of nodal variables. In some sections in this manual we need to describe operations on nodal variables for the complete system of finite element equations. In these sections we use the classical matrix-vector notation. In this notation represents a column vector containing nodal variables, represents a row vector, and a matrix is written as . Common operations are the scalar product between two vectors,

(which is equivalent to in index notation) and the matrix-vector product

(which is equivalent to in index notation).




Since ABAQUS contains such capabilities as structural elements (beams and shells) for which it is necessary to define arbitrarily large magnitudes of rotation, a convenient method for storing the rotation at a node is required. The components of a rotation vector are stored as the degrees of freedom 4, 5, and 6 at any node where a rotation is required. The finite rotation vector consists of a rotation magnitude and a rotation axis or direction in space, . Physically, the rotation is interpreted as a rotation by radians around the axis . To characterize this finite rotation mathematically, the rotation vector is used to define an orthogonal

associated with by

transformation or rotation matrix. To do so, first define the skew-symmetric matrix the relationships


for all vectors

is called the axial vector of the skew-symmetric matrix . In matrix components relative to the standard

Euclidean basis, if

, then

Basic Equations

Introduction &

In what follows, will be used to denote the skew-symmetric matrix with axial vector . A well-known result from linear algebra is that the exponential of a skew-symmetric matrix

orthogonal (rotation) matrix that produces the finite rotation . Let the rotation matrix be , such that

is an

. Then by definition,

However, the above infinite series has the following closed-form expression

In components,


and is the alternator tensor, defined by

all other


It is this closed-form expression that allows the exact and numerically efficient geometric representation of finite rotations.



Quaternion parametrization

Even though ABAQUS stores and outputs the rotation vector, quaternion parameters prove to be an efficient and convenient way to treat finite rotations computationally. Let be a scalar, and let be a vector field. The quaternion is simply the pairing

To associate with the finite rotation vector , define the following:

By trigonometric identities it follows that the orthogonal matrix given in terms of as



in Equation 1.3.1–1 is


By the convention introduced above, is the skew-symmetric matrix with axial vector . For a more detailed discussion of quaternion algebra and its relation to other representations of finite rotations, see the discussion by Spring (1986).

Compound rotations

A compound rotation is the successive application of two or more rotation fields. In geometrically

linear problems compound rotations are obtained simply as the linear superposition of the individual

(linearized) rotation vectors. This fact follows directly from the series expansion for

and be infinitesimal rotations. Thus,