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Table of Content

1.0 Introduction 2.0 Design Consideration 2.1 Aim of Design 2.2 Design Approach 3.0 Superstructure 3.1 Superstructure frame 3.2 Suspended floor 4.0 Substructure 5.0 Roof structure 6.0 Materials 6.1 Concrete 6.2 Reinforcing bars 7.0 Design loads 7.1 Typical floor slab 7.2 Roof floor slab 7.3 Wind load

1.0 Introduction The LAGOS HOMS Lekki scheme 1 is a prototype residential development by the Lagos state government aimed at providing convenient housing for the Lagos populace. The structural concept Adopted is dictated primarily by the project cost availability of suitable construction technology and the subsoil condition. These and other factors have been carefully considered and enumerated in the sections below.

2.0 Design Consideration 2.1 Aim of Design The aim of the structural engineering design is to achieve a safe structure that will perform satisfactorily during the design life and not deform unduly in service. The design is also to ensure that all loads are adequately transferred from the point of

application on the various elements to firm subsoil via the foundation system adopted. The Nigeria building code recognized and allows design to be carried out on generally accepted international standards particularly the British standards. For the Lekki scheme 1 project, the following British standards have been adopted. BS 8110 The structural use of concrete Part 1 and 2 (1997) BS 6399 Part 1 Design Loadings for buildings. BS 4449 Plain and deformed reinforcement bars (1988) BS 2004 Design and allowable loads for foundation.

2.2 Design Approach The limit state design is to be used as is recommended in the British standards for structural elements.

3.0 Superstructure The superstructure adopted for this project is a reinforced concrete structural frame. There are various methods of reinforced concrete construction suitable for this building: In-situ cast normal reinforced concrete construction Full precast concrete construction Partial precast construction method.

3.1 Superstructure Frame The superstructure frame adopted is basically a precast concrete construction. 3.2 Suspended Floors A typical floor frame is composed of precast double-T slab panels supported by precast concrete beam girders. However the column frame is to be cast insitu reinforced concrete elements.

4.0 Substructure For buildings of two storeys or more, local bye-laws demands that a subsoil investigation be carried out to provide adequate geotechnical data necessary to determine suitable foundation type, formation levels and parameters obtained for pavement design, driveways and packing areas. The subsoil investigation for this project is in the process of been commissioned. However general experience in the same neighborhood suggests the adoption of deep seated pile foundation. In the interim, and for the purpose of initial cost estimation, an assumption of 600mm dia. Bored piles founded at approximately 16m depth, with estimated safe working load of 450kN has been proposed.

5.0 Roof Structure The structural concept of the roof is similar to typical floors. Precast concrete beams and double-T slab elements have been adopted. The exposed part of the roof elements will be weather proof with water proof screeding.

6.0 Materials 6.1 Concrete Concrete of 21 days cube strength of 30N/mm2 is proposed for all the elements, with 35N/mm2 proposed for the bonding concrete between precast members. Cement will be ordinary Portland cement conforming to BS 12. 6.2 Reinforcement Bars Reinforcing steel will be high yield deformed bars type 2, with design yield stress of 400N/mm2 conforming to Bs 4449.

7.0 Design Loads

7.1 Typical Floor Slab Loading per rib of 1200mm 70mm concrete topping Rib Finishes Wall load 2.0 kN/m2 0.66 kN/m2 2.2 kN/m2 3.5 kN/m2

Total Dead Load

8.36 kN/m2

Imposed Live Load residential building.

1.5 kN/m2 for

7.2 Roof Floor Slab Loading per rib of 1200mm 70mm concrete topping Rib Finishes Wall load 2.0 kN/m2 0.66 kN/m2 1.5 kN/m2 2.5 kN/m2

Total Dead Load

6.66 kN/m2

Imposed Live Load full tank

10 kN/m2 for wt. of

7.2 Wind Load

Basic wind speed (V) 40m/s Topography factor (S1) Ground roughness 2 Building size Height to eaves Roof slope Topography factor (S2) Statistical factor (S3) Design wind speed (Vs) 24.0m/s

= 1.0 = Category

= Class B = 13.0m =2 = 0.6 = 1.0 = V x S1 x S2 x S3 =

Dynamic wind pressure (q) = 0.613 x Vs2 = 353N/m2