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lR3-1A$-3A3A-$,

Contributors

.0=.0=-w/w/-2N2N->A?, main editor, edited the dictionary


and did most of the translation work. .0=-w/-2N->A?-/A-lR3-1A$-0$4S-2R-!J,5B$-36S.-:.A-;R%?-21A$?-/?-@-=3-.J:A-;A$-+<-;R%?-?-36.,
Huadan Zhaxi

Kevin Stuart wrote all the English sentences for the TibetanEnglish section and wrote English sentences for the English-

;A?-2R.-.LA/-.%-.LA/-;A$-5/-0$*A?-!:A-.LA/-;A$-$A-5B$-P2-i3?-29R?,
Tibetan section. Kevin Stuart

Rinchen Dorji

<A/-(J/-hR-eJ, checked the Tibetan sentences and the

translations and translated some of the sentences from English to

{={=-29%29%-/R<-2, Dorji Zhaxi hR-eJ-2N2N->A?,


Rinchen Khar<A/-(J/-3#<, Gongbu Caireng 3$R/-0R-5K-<A%
checked the Tibetan sentences.<A/-(J/-hR-eJ?-2R.-;A$-$A-5B$-P2-.%;A$-+<-i3-$*A?-=-.$-2&R?-L?-0-.%-.LA/-;A$-/?-2R.-;A$-+-;A$-+<&%-9.-L?,{=-29%-/R<-2-.%-,hR-eJ-2N->A?,<A/-(J/-3#<,3$R/-0R5K-<A%-2&?-GA?-2R.-;A$-$A-5B$-P2-i3?-=-.$-2&R?-L?,
Tibetan. Gesang Norbu

Sandra Benson, wrote English sentences for the English-Tibetan


part. Sandra Benson

i3?-29R?,

;A?-.LA/-2R.-5/-0:A-.LA/-;A$-$A-5B$-P2-

Tibetan-English

@-B-R, beginning learner || The beginning learner of English is often


nervous. NqP-N-.R%-2:A-@-B-R-i3?-P-R_-]WT,
@-F, things, goods || How many things did you buy today?
mN-lc-N-_E-@-F-&A-43-Ic,
@-T, pillar || The wooden pillar is old and rotten. aE-C-@-T-N-E-_`-O-n_,
@-UN, have to || I have to visit my mother soon.
Ec-:U=-.-e-U-`-]WUc-]x-qN-.$R?,
@-^, hello || Hello, students. @-^, T-uCc-U-R,
@-_, candy, sugar || This candy has a lot of sugar in it.
@-_-]N]-PE-`-UE_-G-UE-T-]xc,
@U-U-AU-U, crumpled || He set the crumpled piece of red paper on fire.
Bc-@U-U-AU-U<-I<-2:A-aC-D-NU_-T-N-U-MC-`-TZC
@U-U-AU-U, to blink ones eyes to show something unusual || His eyes
blinked when I described unusual things.

Ec-.R/-.$-H.-35<-&/-TaN-Tc, B]-UC-@U-U-@U-U-qc,
@ shout, yell || His shout was heard far away. B]-@-E-_E-.-,R?-L%-,
A-F, shout, yell || Her yell brought her family running outside to see
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what was the matter.

B-Uc-A-F-TT-Rc-T\]-U-i3?-NP-F-ZC-qE-T_-T-T_-p-

_`-.-TCc-Pc-MP,
A-NC narrow personality || I dont like him because his personality is so
narrow. B':A-]R-NC-P-E-B-`-U-NC],
A-_, kidding, joking || Our teacher is always joking with us.
E-W]-NC-P-nc-C-L-E-W-NE-A-_-N,

A-b, apple || The green apple slowly became bright red. A-b--C-N`-Uc-@&%-NU_-T_-n_,
AC-AC bent, curved || The old mans walking stick is curved.
N-R-N]-`C-P-AC-AC-_N,
AP, everyone, entire, all || Everyone is glad that our exam has been
postponed. E-W]-Cc-p_-T~Ec-Rc-AP-`-NC]--c,
AP-mT, widespread, widely popular || English is a widely popular
language. NqP-N-P-AP-mT-l-N-_Cc-aC-_N,
AP-UmP, the all knowing, the Buddha || The Buddha is deeply respected
by Tibetans. AP-UmP-cEc-c-/A-TN-Uc--T_-]XP,
AP-L, eternity, everywhere, to all places || The teachings of the Buddha
have gone almost everywhere. cEc-c-l-2!/-0-^`-u-AP-L-mT,
AP-TLc, anthology, collection || Have you read the anthology of famous
Tibetan short stories? mN-lc-TN-l-E-ME-uCc-FP-AP-TLc-N-C-rE-EU,
AP-Pc, from everywhere; entirely || People came from everywhere to
see the temple dance. U-Uc-^`-pCc-AP-Pc-]GU-`-T-T_-^E-, I entirely
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agree with her opinion about not getting involved in that issue.

B-U]-NP-NC-N]-PE-O-U-5.-R]-2?3-5=-`-E-AP-Pc-]MN,
AP-N, moral, virtuous behavior || Your moral conduct will be closely
observed. mN-l-AP-N-`-CZP-nc-ZT-TC-qN-Ec,
AP-T\E-, entirely good || I have known her for many years and I can say
that she is an entirely good person.

Ec-U-E-ac-Pc-`-O-U-]C_-2?-Ec-B-U-P-U-AP-T\E-ZC-_N-\_-MT,

AP-E-, motivation, motive || What is your motivation for majoring in


the Tibetan language at University? HR.-GA?-aR2-(J/-.-2R.-GA-{.-;A$-(J.-.R%-

LJ.-:.R.-0:A-!/-aR%-/A-&A-8A$-;A/, His motive was greed. B]-AP-E-P-:.R.-YJ.-

^P,
AU-AU, wincing || Wincing in pain is what the little girl did when she
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touched the hot stove with her hand.

T-U-GE-GE-Nc-Cc-MT-W-T-`-_C-R-P-P-\C-C-NTE-Cc-=?-AU-AU-qc,
@-T, leather || My brother gave me this leather belt for my birthday.
E]-P-nc-@-T]--_Cc-]N-E]-c-_-n-`Cc-c-c-qP,
-^, hello, hi || Hello! I saw you yesterday but you didnt see me.
-^, B-cE-Ec-mN-3,R%-L%-0-=?-mN-lc-E-UME-3-L%-,
N, above, on || Above the table there is a window.
FC-V]-N-P-]-BE-ZC-^N,
N-R, brain || Do you like to eat sheep brains? mN-`C-C-N-R-\-T_-e-NC],
, serpent deity || Do you know the name of the serpent deity in that
painting? mN-lc-ME-C]-E-C--N]-UE-e-ac,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to don, put on || He donned new clothing for the
party. -WCc-`-]u-T_-Bc-CP-R-Cc_-T-TTc,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to read || I have to read my book with a candle.
Ec-y-W`-`-TP-Pc-NR-G-C-NCc,
C-NT, textbook || How many textbooks did you buy this year?
N-`_-mN-lc-C-NT-&A-43-I?,
N@C to congeal, become rigid || The fat on top of the mutton soup has
congealed. a-B]-E-C-ZC-N@C-^N,
N@], hard, difficult || Walking up the steep mountain path was hard.
_-C\_-n-E-`U-]XC-N@],

N@]-]u`, explanation of a difficult point or meaning || His explanation


of difficult points is never very clear. B-T]-N@]-]u`-P-PU-^E-Cc`-T-UP,
N@]-E`, difficulty, hardship || He overcame many hardships to
eventually become a successful businessman.

BE-Cc-N@]-E`-UE-T-mN-O-TcN-UM_-WE-T-NP-]uT-FC-L-n_,

N@]-C hardship || Little money and little food were hardships for the
family. mU-WE-`-UWP-P-_-U-NE-\-U-K`-VU-=?-UN-R-P-N@]-C-^P,
N@]-`c, hard work || Hard work will bring you success.
N@]-`c-rEc-P-mN-l-NP-]uT,
N@_-GC index; contents || My book doesnt have an index. E]-NR-G-`N@_-GC-UN, After I read the contents I wanted to read the entire
magazine.N@_-GC-TCc-c-%-=-Oc-NT-^EcCc-C-]-]./-0-c,
N@_-T, white || The beautiful white snow covered the grassland.
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^N-O-]E-T]-B-T-N@_-Tc--ME-BTc,
N@_-c, astrology || I have been studying some books about astrology.
Ec-N@_-c-_-n-NR-G-]C]-`-T-E-qN-TZP-^N,
N@_-^`, china cup || I broke my mothers only china cup last week.
C\]-]B_-P-U_-Ec-e-U]-N@_-^`-CFC-R-TFCc,
N@P, rare, exotic || These days genuine tiger skins are rare. N-Tc-C-RCcE-U-d-FE-N@P,

N@P-UGC supreme deity || The religious ritual was dedicated to the


supreme deity. Gc-`Cc-l-G-C-P-N@P-UGC-`-UGN-R-^P,
N@P-R, rare and exotic things || In the marketplace near the temple, many
rare and exotic things are for sale.

NCP-R-NE-I-T]-WE-<-P-NEc-R-N@P-R-UE-T-]WE--^N,
Nl`, center, middle || Please move to the center of the room.
BE-T]-Nl`-`--_Cc-UXN,

Nlc-U, ordinary, common || I like ordinary food best.


E-\-U-Nlc-U-`-Gc-NC]-T-]OC
Ns (Ns Nsc, Nsc,) to wrap around; to wind up || She wrapped a wool
scarf around her neck. B-Uc-2=-29R?-UC-_c-aC-<%-$A--`-Nsc, Every
morning he must wind up his clock. Bc-*A/-<J:A-8R$?-0<-(-WN-]B_-`-NsNCc,
NsC (NsC NsCc, NsCc,) to shake, to stir || After you add tea to milk you
have to stir it. mN-lc-]-U]-PE-`-H-TP-c-Ec-R_-O-NsC-NCc,
NsC-aE-, instigation, incitement, provocation || What was the instigation
for the recent social unrest? I-]--WCc-l-\E-\E-N-NsC-nJ/-F-ZC-`c-qE-,
NsC-CKU, rumor, talk || There are many rumors about him, but I dont
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believe most of them.

B]-_-n-NsC-CKU-UE-T-^N-lE-, E-UE-G-ac-`-^N-U-Gc,
Ns`-T, to play a music instrument, to loosen || We want to play music
instruments this evening in our classroom.

N-NCE-E-Wc-T-BE-PE-.-_`-Gc-Ns`-]NN,
T@C-T`, halting || The halting of the water by the new river dam is a
good thing. (-<$?-$?<-2-.J?-G-T-T@C-T`-qc-R-N-/A-NP-T\E-ZC-_N,
T@C-]CC preventing, proscribing, stopping || Preventing the spread of
the disease will not be very difficult. PN-;3?-T@C-]CC-qN-o-P-@-&%5

N@]-U-8A$-^P-U-~N,
T@C-, ban, restriction || The ban on killing endangered wildlife is
necessary. o.-9.-IP-B_-MC-R]-~C-GCc-CcN-R]-T@C--P-NCc-Ec-G,
T@C-I_, detention, arrest || His detention was necessary in order to
investigate the charges against him.

B-_E-CLC-Ca_-qc-R]-nN-CZ-`-C-ZT-qN-GN, B-T@C-I_-qc-R-P-NCc-UB-G,

T@], command, proscription || Although he is a very intelligent man, his


latest command is not reasonable.

B-P-U-uE-T-ZC-^P-lE-, I-`U-n-T@]-N-`-CPc-`Cc-UN,
T@]-TlP, condemnation, reprimand || His harsh reprimand was a
permanent lesson. B]-T@]-TlP-xC-R-N-P-SCc-l-TT-q-ZC-^P,
T@]-, government edict || The government edict encouraging people to
conserve electricity and water is reasonable.

U-Uc-`-C-G-uP-GE-qN-R_-`-T]-~N-C[E-C-T@]--N-`-CPc-`Cc-P,
T@]-xP, gratitude || He showed great gratitude for me helping him.
Ec-B-`-_Cc-_U-qc-R_-Bc-T@]-xP-GP-R-[c,
T@]-xP-G-2<-2?3-0, thankful, grateful || She was grateful for her
mothers love. B-Uc-<%-$A-e-U]-qUc-cUc-`-T@]-xP-G-T]-TcU-R-T\E-,
TA_-, respect, esteem || We have great respect for that teacher.
E-Wc-NC-P-N-`-TA_--GP-R-qN,
T@N-C arrangement || What arrangements have you made for their
visit? B-W]-]WUc-]x-`-mN-lc-T@N-C-F-ZC-qc-^N-NU,
T@N-C-R, organizer, planner || He is the best organizer that I know.
B-P-Ec-ac-R]-T@N-C-R-Gc-T\E-T-^P,
T@N-]NUc, command, order || My teacher gave an order to me and my
classmates to clean the room. E]NC-P-nc-E-NE--T-uCc-i3?-`-BE-T_CVE--qN-R]-T@N-]NUc-qc,
T@N-]NUc-R, commander, person in charge || The commander of the
army retired after forty years of service.

NUC-NRE-T@N-]NUc-R-Nc-NUC-`c-`-TZ-TF-`-TEc-c-`c-]m_-qc,

T@N-R,

E-mN-l-T@N-R-`-U-]MN,
I like the layout for your new advertisement. mN-l-UWUc-_-T-mTCc_-T]-T@N-R-`-E-NC]-0R-:.$
T@`, to make use of, to utilize || My sister is a travel guide and makes
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idea; 2layout || 1I dont agree with your idea.

use of her English with foreign tourists nearly every day.

E]-~E-U-P-^`-_-`U-R-ZC-^P-R?-B-Uc-1=-(J<-IP-__-p-E-C-^`-_-T-NE-UIUO-<%-$A-NqP-^C-T@`-TZP-^N,
T@`-N, utilization, exploitation || The utilization of our countrys
natural resources should be done carefully.

E-W]-`-BT-l-_E-qE-MP-BEc-.J-PR/-(%-|R?-T@`-N-LJ.-.$R?,

Ts to shine, to glimmer || The sun was shining but we still slept.


I-]N-:UR?-GE-W-}<-28A/-CIN-`-^_,
Ts-ac, auspicious, fortunate || Rainbows are auspicious symbols. ]H]WP-P-Ts-ac-R]-Cc->A$-^P, We will choose an auspicious time for our
daughters wedding. E-Wc-T-U]-CIP-P-`-2N->A?-0:A-*A/-3R-8C-CNU--^P,
TsC-UNEc, gloss, glitter, brilliance || The stars shone in the sky with
unusual brilliance. /3-3#:A-_-5S$?-=-TsC-UNEc-i3-0<-:5K<,
Tsc-Cc, hunger and thirst || Hunger and thirst were constant
companions when I was a child. qc-R:A-Oc-?, Tsc-Cc-P-%:A-]{`-MTc-UNR]-Ec-uCc-^P,
, irrigation ditch || Yesterday afternoon I saw a small fish in the
irrigation ditch. B-?E-p-x_-Ec-G-]-PE-.-I-3R-ZC-UME-,
E-C fetter || The horse stepped out of its fetter. -S-E-C-`c-M_,
E-P, barefoot || In summer I like to go barefoot on the grassland.
Nq_-B_, E--ME-E-O-E-P-`-]u-T_-NC],
E-c, footprint || After it snows I like to make footprints where no one
has walked. BEc-TTc-c-3A-CZP-Rc-CU-B-c-3J.-c_-E-_E-E-c-]HC-R_-NC],
E-ME-, walking, on foot || We could take a taxi, but I prefer to go on
foot. E-W-TCc-CKE-Ec-]B_-`-TN-GC-UN, ]P-lE-E-_E-E-ME-`-]u-T_-NC],
E-ME-T, walker, pedestrian || He was a great walkereven when he was
eighty he liked to walk several kilometers everyday. B-/A-E-ME-T-E_-TZC-^P-0?-,-/-<%-=R-2o.-&<-aJ2?-G%-IP-__-E-ME-`--`-]C]-_-]u-T_-NC],
E-UM`, sole (of foot) || I stepped on a nail and it penetrated the sole of
my foot. E-]X_-U-ZC-C-E-CU-R-c-Rc-.J-E]-E-UM`-`-]X_,
E-U, trousers || I like these brown trousers because they are made of
wool and are very warm. E-U-C-R-]N-NC-o-T`-=?-T\c-aE-d-FE-xP-R^P-Rc-E-N-W-`-NC],
E-T, foot; leg || When the horse stepped on his right foot, he
1

-T?-B]-E-T-C^c-U]-E-O-Tc-R-P, Bc-P-\C-3-29R.0<-E-N-TKP, Those basketball players have very long legs. r%-lJ.--`N-UBP-NC-`-E-T-d-FE-_E-T-^N,
E-T-Z-T, lame, paralyzed foot || After my uncle had a tractor accident his
screamed in agony.
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foot was paralyzed.

E]-e-B-`-`C-_-]B_-`]-GC--qE-c, B]-E-T-Z-T_-n_,
E-NUC infantryman || My father was an infantryman in the last war.
MEc-}R/-U]-]MT-]tC-OR.-E]-e-S-P-E-NUC-FC-^P,
E-N--`, soccer, football || Soccer is not very popular in the United
States, but it is very popular in China and the United Kingdom.

E-N--`-P-e-U-_-B-<-Cc-U-G-UN, ]P-lE-sE-C-NE-NqP-H-$*A?-?-d-FE-Cc-G,
b%-362,toe || He cut off his right big toe when he was chopping wood
in the forest. #R?-/$?-$?J2-+->A%-$&R.-{2?-b%-0-$;?-3:A-3,J2-2R%-$+2-L%-,

E-`U, footpath || There is a footpath from our village to the small


village over the mountain.

E-W]--T-Pc-_-T-N]-T-l--GE-T_-E-`U-ZC-:,J/-^N,
, (T, Tc, c,) to steal || If you want to steal money from a bank you
should think about thepunishment.mN-GAc-NE`-BE-Pc-_-U--]NN-5K, .J:C*J?-GN-`-]NE-C-]c,
-]zC looting, robbing || The bandits went everywhere, robbing the
people.HC-R-CE-c_-cE-Pc-U-Uc-`--]zC-qN,
P-U, thief, robber || The thief stole my wifes new gold watch last night
as she came home from work on the bus.

UNE-NCE-E]-GE-U--N-Ec-]B_-`-TN-N-`c-!-Pc-mU-`-`C-Tc, P-Uc-U]Cc_-n-G-WN-]B_-`-Cc_-T-.J-Tc-cE-,
T-Cc, chair || My mother always sat in this red chair after a hard days
work. IP-CFC-C-`c-WCc-(J/-0R:C-eJ?-?, E]-e-U-P-R_-T-Cc-NU_-T-N]-E-ON,
N-R, waist || I got a pain in my waist after running three hundred
meters. c-cU-T-`-Cc-c-E]-N-R-P,
, (T, Tc, c,) to dig; to carve || Tomorrow I will have to dig holes
to plant apple trees. cE-IP-Ec-BE-T-Tc-Pc-A-b]-E-T-]XCc-NCc, He
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carves human figures out of wood.#R?->A%-%R?-?-3A:A-$9$?-2f/-2bR?,

-]NP,

digging; 2mining || 1Digging for caterpillar fungus is something

that many people do in spring in my home place.

NoN-@_-E]-S-^`-.-

Nq_--NDP-]T-bR-2-.J-P-U-UE-Tc-NP-O-CI_-T-ZC-^P, Coal mining destroyed


a large area of grassland. -c`--2-Nc--c--GP-R-ZC-TCc,
2

, strand of rope || Slowly the strand of rope holding the box on the
truck began breaking. Ec-]B_-E-U-GE-T+JCc-R]-N--N-N`-Uc-GN,
E-, wild ass; pure; single || The wild ass was afraid of the car. E-NEc-]B_-GE-T-`-]xCc, He likes to eat pure butter. B-U_-E-E-\-T_-NC],
He is a single person in his forties. B-P-`-TZ-TF-`P-R]-U-E-ZC-^P,
`, (`, `, `,) to swim || I want to swim this afternoon in the river
near here. N-_E-p-x_-E-_E-]N-C]-I-:.2?-GA-(-2R:C-/%-(-`-LJ.-]NN,
`-E-, dandy || Looking at his hair and clothes I know hes a dandy.
B]--NE-CP-R-`-Tc-P, Ec-B-P-`-E-ZC-^P-R-ac,
P, factor, because of || The most important factor in learning English
well is two hours a day of study. NqP-^C-=J$?-0R-8A$-T-0<-Gc-C`-G-T-PIP-__-(-WN-CIc-<A%-T-E-qN--N-^P,
P-nc, because || I am tired because I didnt sleep last night.
1

UNE-NCE-E-U-I`-Tc-d-FE-,%-GN-]OC

P-EP,

disaster; 2incident || 1The most recent disaster we experienced

-E-W-`-qE-T]-P-EP-N-P-

was the heavy snowfall two years ago. (J?-*J-.?-?

`-CIc-P-n-BEc-GC-N-^P,

An incident happened last year between us

that ended our friendship.

P-PE-E-W]-T_-`-P-ZC-qE-Pc-UX]-TlJ:A-o/-(.,

E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to stretch out || Stretch out your hand and I will
pull you up. mN-lc-`C-R-Ec-NE-Ec-mN-^_-`-]MP,
Cc-R, mute, dumb person || He has been mute since birth.
B-P-P-c-l-Cc-R-ZC-^P,

C-n_, abstract, enigmatic || His speech was so enigmatic that I could


not understand it. B]-CKU-TaN-P-d-FE-C-n_-ZC-^P-Rc-Ec-d-C-U-MT,
C-`, surprise attack || The enemy launched a surprise attack at dawn.
-_Ec-l-Oc-?-Nu-Tc-C-`-qc,
C-P, bribery, graft || Bribery is a social evil that should be eliminated.
C-P-E-T-P--WCc-l-,R.-%/-^P-Rc--UN-O-CKE-]c,
C-L, secretly || She secretly whispered into her friends ear. B-Uc-C-LuCc-R]--2<->2-bT-=2,
C-, to peep || Last night I caught Caireng peeping into your room
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while you were sleeping.

UNE-NCE-mN-I`-^N-Tc, W-_E-Cc-mN-l-BE-T]-PE-`-C--qN-TZP-R-Ec-3,R%-qE-,

C-WE-, black marketing || He made a lot of money by black marketing


gold. Bc-Cc_-n-C-WE-TT-Pc-#J-%R$?-(J/-0R-Ec,
-_Cc, sash || I have had this red sash for three years.
Ec--_Cc-NU_-T-]N-2!R=-/?-`-CcU-:$R<,

N,

sound; 2 language || 1The sound of singing filled the room.

T]-PE-O-BEc,

of study.

-N-BE-

Learning a new language well takes hundreds of hours

N-_Cc-Cc_-T-ZC-^C-R_-T-0<-(-WN-T-zC-O-U-NCc,

N-uCc, fame, repute || His fame is such that it reaches every corner of
the country. B:A-N-uCc-`-/%-;R%?-?-mT,
N-uCcFP, famous, well-known || Who is the most famous of Tibetan
historical figures? TN-l-`-c-E-Gc-N-uCc-G-T]-U-$-c-^P,
N-]CC to become hoarse || After giving several speeches in a few hours
he became hoarse. Bc-(-WN-]C]-`-CKU-TaN-CPE-c-N-]CC
N-_-T, interpreter, translator || If you learn English very well, perhaps
C`-K-NqP-^C-`-T-E-T\E-T-qc5K, mN-_E-TN-NqP-N-_-T-ZC-L-]n_-P-tCc-tCc-UN,
you can be a Tibetan-English translator.

N-FC a moment || I will be ready in a moment.


Ec-N-FC-VU-n-PE-O-u-C-qN-W_-Ec,
{.-&R<, noise || Dont make so much noise. {.-&R<-N-]x-(J/-0R-U-C
N-G, language || Other than Tibetan, what languages do you know?
mN-lc-TN-N-`c-N-<A$?-CZP-F-ZC-5-ac,
N-CIc--T, bilingual || He is bilingual in Tibetan and Chinese. B-P-o-2R.N-CIc--T-8A$-_N,
N-CNEc, tone (of voice) || I dont like my teacher to talk to us in a
scolding tone. NC-P-nc-E-W_-NUN-U]-N-CNEc-lc-TaN-0<-E-U-NC],
N-2h-_C-R, linguistics || Linguistics is the study of language.
N-2h-_C-R-P-N-_Cc-ZT-]HC-`-TP-R-^P,
Tc, time, occasion, when || I can come to your home at a time that is
convenient for you. mN-`-Tc-TN-^P-R]-Tc-aC-`-E-mN-l-^`-`-]E-GC
Tc-]C_, sometimes || Sometimes I feel sad when I think about my old
parents living alone.

S-U-P-P-CIc-CFC-R_-]W-TZP-R-TcU-Oc, E-`-Tc-]C_--E-,
10

Tc-c-U, next time || The next time we have dinner Ill pay. Tc-c-U_E-Wc-\-U-\-Oc-Ec-9?-<A/-_,
Tc-MC at the time, current || Short skirts are a current fashion.
N-C^Cc-ME-E-P-Tc-MC-C-N_-~`-ZC-^P,
Tc-NP, current events || He reads several newspapers every day and,
consequently, he knows a lot about current events.

IP-__-WCc-R_-]C]-_-C-TZP-^N-Rc-Bc-Tc-NP-UE-T-ac,
Tc-c, when, at the time of || At the time of my grandfathers childhood,
most Amdo Tibetans were nomads.

E]--T-qc-R-ZC-^P-R]-Tc-c, e-UN]-TN-<A$?-UE-G-ac-P-]{C-R-^P,
U-R, skinny, thin; dry || That fat man in his fifties was a very skinny
child. =R-s-2&<-aJ2?-0:A-U-WP-R-N-/A-P-GN-qc-R->-U-R-&/-ZC-^P, Deserts
have dryweather. q-ME-.-CPU-Cac-U->?-(J,
U-c, dry land || That dry land is unsuitable for cultivation.U-c-N-=-]NTc-LJ.-3A-_E-,
U-c-GP-R, continent || Africa, Asia, North America, South America,
Australia, Europe, and Antarctica are seven continents. e-q-_-B-NE-ea-^, e-U-_-B-qE-U, e-U-_-B--U, e-c-t-_-^, ^-_T-NE---E-TFc-P-E-GP-TOP-R
-^P,
Uc-a beef || Yesterday afternoon, my mother said to me, Go to the
1

market and buy one kilogram of beef.

B-?E-p-x_, e-Uc-E-`-tU-`-cE-Pc-Uc-a---CFC-Ic-aC \_,

_-uEc, score || My exam score was eighty-eight. E]-Cc-_-P-2o.-&n-TN-^P,


_-G, second (time) || How many seconds did it take you to run one
hundred meters? mN-c-T-MU-R<-Cc-0<-_-G-&A-43-NCc,
_-UN], shooting star, meteor || Last night very late, I saw many
shooting stars. 35/-$%-;R=-2:A-Tc-c-Ec-_-UN]-UE-T-3,R%-L%-,
_-U, star || Last night at about eleven oclock, I saw a very bright and
large star. UNE-NCE-S`-G_-(-WN-TF-CFC-^c-Uc-?, Ec-_-GP-ZC-UME-,
`, portion || Since Im not very hungry I will give you the larger
portion of food. E-N-]x-U-Cc-Rc, \c-`-GP-R-N-Ec-mN-`-_,
`-T-;$-0R, proper opportunity, good chance || Success requires ambition
and the proper opportunity. NP-]uT-R_-`-T-=J$?->A%-:./-0-S$-0R-w/11

NCc, Her parents provided her with a good chance to go to school. SUc-B-U-`-T-_-]u-T]-{=-2-;$-0R-8A$-$/%-,

c stairs, ladder || The ladder leading to the roof of my home was given
to me last year by my sisters family.

E]-BE-MC-`-CKN-R]-c-N-P-PE-E]-~E-U-WE-Cc-E-`-qP-R-^P,
-BUc, body health || Mental health is important for good body health.
-BUc-TN-U-`-cUc-BUc-?%?-0R-8A$-;R%-o-P-C`-G,
-]B_, retinue || When he visits countryside areas he is surrounded by a
retinue of assistants. uE--`-]u-Oc, B-_E--]B_-nc-T_-^N,
-UuP, guest || You are my guest so I want to serve you some good
liquor. mN-P-E]--UuP-^P-Rc, Ec-mN-`-GE-T\E-T-ZC-N-]NN,
-xC noble, aristocrat || Before Liberation, he was the richest noble in
this area. TFEc-]u`-n-P-`, B-P-c-]N-C]--xC-Gc-pC-R-^P,
-WT, representative, deputy || He has been a representative in the
National Peoples Congress for six years.

Bc-`-BT-NUEc-GP-.-`-xC-_E-=--WT-qc,
-ZTc, an honorific term used before names, Mr. || Mr. Smith will visit
you this afternoon at three p.m. N-_E-p-x]-(-WN-CcU-E--ZTc-c-Uc-c-^cmN-`-]WUc-]x-qN--_N,
-~E-T, bodyguard || Because he is so famous, he is surrounded by
several strong bodyguards wherever he goes.

B-`-UE-uCc-d-FE-G-Tc, CE-c_-cE-_E--~E-T-Tc-FP-]Cc-T_-^N,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to hide || Sometimes when Im very afraid I want
to hide under the bed and weep.

UWUc-UWUc-?-E-`-]HCc-E--Oc, U`-t]-]C-L-TE-Pc-E-]NN,
N, (T, Tc, c,) to smear; voice || I will have to smear some shoe
polish on my shoes to make them look new. Ec-<%-$A-U-^E-T_-Cc_-T8A$-.%-:S-2<-29R-(J.-.J:A-MC-`-U--T-NCc--_N, He had a cold so his
voice was not clear. B_-GU-R-SC-^N-Rc-B]-{.-Cc`-T-UP,
N-R, thread || Will you please put this green thread through the needles
eye for me? mN-lc-E-`-N-R-E-B-]N-BT-UC-`-?-P-GC-CU,
N-`U, line (of telegraph) || The telegraph line was broken by the heavy
snow. BEc-GP-Rc-K_-^C-C-N-`U-TFN,
U, (TU, TUc, Uc,) to cringe, to wince, to shrink || I winced in pain
12

from the injection. (/-

_, (T_, T_, _,)

BT-2o2-0:A-P-\C-`c-E]-`c-R-TUc,

to mail; 2to send || I want to mail these letters to my

friends by December tenth.^-2&-$*A?-0:A-5K?-2&:A-}R/-.-%?-:UA/-;A$-:.A-

.$-<%-$A-PR$?-0R-i3?-=-2{<-/-:.R., 2I will send my sons to your home


tomorrow to help you with your farmwork. ?%-*A/-%?-<%-$A-2-i3?-HR.5%-$A-8A%-=?-<R$?-LJ.-0<-3%$?-0<-L,

_-]NTc, slander, defame || The slander that was circulated about him
did not seem to make him worried.

B]-_-n-_-]NTc-UGN-R-Nc-B-`-cUc-B_-T`-UN-R_-E-,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to persuade, to encourage || I will try to persuade
him to stop drinking and smoking. Ec-B-`-GE-NE-M-UC-CFN-_-`--^P,
`-]NN, inspiration, incentive || What inspiration can you provide to
your employees so that they will work harder? <%-$A--T-Uc-`-`c-TP-C-L-qN-0<-:)$-GN-mN-lc-`-]NN-F-ZC-CKE--^P,
`-T, summons, call || I couldnt hear her quiet call.
Ec-B-U]-`-T-NU]-U-N-C-U-MT,
`-U, encouragement, inspiration, exhorting || Her hard work is an
inspiration to us all. B-Uc-@<-2lR/-qN-R-N-/AE-W-WE-U_-35S/-/-`-U-,J%?->A$^P, Your encouragement helped me succeed. mN-lc-{=-3-2+%-2-=?E-`-`-B-MT,
neck || After being in the sun all day my neck became sunburned.
IP-CE-T_-I-U]-PE-TN-c, E]--I-Uc-]WCc,
-Nsc, scarf || My mother likes to wear red scarves when she goes
outside in the winter. NDP-B_-E]-e-U--`-]u-Oc--Nsc-NU_-T-Ns-T_-NC], I
bought this new red scarf for my older sister. Ec-e-F-`-{J-.NA?-NU_-TCc_-T-]N-Ic,
-P, necklace || When her necklace broke, pearls rolled all over the
floor. B-U]--P-GN-Oc, U-KC-WE-U-ME-`-M_,
N-R, waist || My waist now, at the age of fifty, is much bigger than
when I was eighteen. =R-s-2&<-=R/-0:A-.-{2?-GA-%:A-{J.-0-/A-<%-=R-2&R-2o.-

;A/-0:A-{2?-.%-2#<-5K-)J-&R3-=-(J/-0R-?R%-;R.,

U, (TU, TUc, Uc,) to dry; to wilt || I want to dry this yogurt in the
sun today. N-_E-Ec--Z-]N-I-U<-TU-]NN, The barley plants wilted
because of the drought. MP-R]-Tc-lc-Pc-TUc,
1

13

, (T, Tc, c,) to appoint, to select || We will have to appoint a new


leader for the college. E-Wc-T-E-`-]C-tN-Cc_-T-ZC-T-NCc--_N,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to add; to convene; to be content || I want to
add three names to the guest list. Ec-UuP-R]-UE-M]-P?-?-UE-CcU-TE]NN, We will have to convene the meeting three days later. E-Wc-IPCcU-IA-c-?-WCc-]O-N-TE-NCc, I guess we will have to be content with
this price for our barley this year. Ec-TcU-WN-`-N-`_-E-W]-Pc-l-_P-CE]Nc-E-W]-]NN-R-TE-MT-NCc,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to dress (someone), to put clothes (on someone); to
1

put around || 1You will need to dress the baby in her warm clothes
because its very cold outside.

-T-xP-R-TP-NCc,

p-_`-.-PU--d-FE-]mC-Rc, mN-lc-T-U-`-

She put a quilt around her ice-cream cart so that

her ice-cream would stay frozen longer.

B-Uc-_E-C-]--N_-cT-^P-_E-N_-

`-]GCc-R_-]--N_-cT-l-UM]-`-I`-M`-ZC-P,
U, to be thirsty || I was so thirsty that I drank three cups of cold water.
E-U-xCc-0?-G-N@_-^`-CcU-]MEc,
_, (T_, T_, _,) to surround; to rotate; to turn round; about || We
1

will surround him and each of us will offer him three small cups of
liquor as a special tribute.

E-Wc-B-`-T_-Pc-U-_-_c-B-`-GE-S_-GE-GE-CcU-

<J-]T`--^P, I rotate my prayer wheel every morning. *A/-<J:A-8R$?-0<%?-U-P-]B_-`-_, 3The man on horseback turned the horse round and
rode away.:A-:1R%-C-c-R-Nc-:A-B-`-2*R$?-eJ?-1<-=-T[N, 4I didnt hear
anything aboutyou.Ec-mN-_-IA-$/?-5=-&A-;%-,R?-3-L%-,
2

_-]x, interrogation || Although the interrogation lasted three days he


did not reveal the name of his friends. _-]x-2!.-3<-IP-CcU-`-qc-_E-,
Bc-<%-$A-uCc-R-W]-UE-^E-U-TaN,
_-Pc, from a certain point of view, regarding this || From a certain
point of view, it may seem reasonable to do evil things.

-T-]C]-_]-_-Pc-TaN-P, N-EP-`c-R-P-`Cc-UMP-^P-lE-~N,
_-ZT, inspection, survey || The inspection of the countys poorest
families suggested the problem of poverty was not as bad as

E-C-mU-WE-Gc-NT`-T-`-_-ZT-qc-R-`c-OT`-SEc-lCPN-NP-P-NE-MC-TcU-R-28A/-N-]x:A-IU-E-T-ZC-UP-R-2!/,
_-`C odd, eccentric, reverse || Odd behavior makes me uncomfortable.
previously thought.

14

q-N-o/-w/-3A/-0-.J?-E-<%-.R$?-3A-2.J-2<-29R?,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to boil; to cook || Please boil some water for tea.
NCE-H-`-G-`-_Cc, I cooked a meal that all my friends enjoyed. Ec-_EC-uCc-R-WE-U-NC]-T]-\-U-ZC-T`,
-T, layman; pale || Ive always been a layman and never a monk.
E--T-ZC-^P-R-`c-TVP-R-qc-U-rE-, Your pale face and thin figure tell me
that you are not well. mN-l-E-UNC--T-NE-`c-R-U-R-;A/-0-$*A?-!c-E-`-mN<%-TN-ME-UP-R-TP-L%-,
-U, rider (of a horse) || The rider of the winning race horse was
1

awarded ten thousand dollars.

-C-`?-`-B-MT-R]--U-N-`-e-_-t-CFC-C-q-NC]-CPE-,
-_Ec, dawn || At dawn the sun rose from the east, turning the sky a
fiery red. -_Ec-l-Tc-c-I-U-a_-pCc-?-]SCc-+J-PU-UB]-U-v<-.3<-0R<-T_,
-c_, laymen and monks || Laymen and monks came to hear what the
local leader had to say. -c_-WE-U-c-CPc-]C-tN-lc-$+3-2>.-`-IP-R_-MP,
C-R, excrement, feces || Please clean the toilet of its excrement.
N-BE-PE-C-C-0-$4%-S?-qN-_Cc,

C-P, lie || His lies are easy to detect. B]-C-P-n-UWE-T`-,


C-`E-, pampered, spoiled || He was an only son and led a pampered
life. B-P-T-CFC-R-^P-Rc-EP-R-C-`E-C-]W-T-2*`,
Tc-UCP, savior, protector || A Living Buddha is our villages protector.
E-W--T]-Tc-UCP-P--`-ZC-^P,
, (T, Tc, c,) to lend, to borrow || I want to borrow some money
from you. Ec-mN-l-`C-Pc-_-U-]C]-T-]NN,
-U, skin, hide || The poor quality skin had several holes.
-U-c-EP-N]-E-BE-T-]C]-^N,
N, happy || It was a happy day when my father came home after being
away for two years.

E]-e-S-^`-NE-#-{`-Pc-`-CIc-]C_-c-p_-`C-R]-IP-U-P-IP-N-R-ZC-_N,
N-C happiness and sadness || When my son left for college I had a
feeling of both happiness and sadness.

<%-$A-T-T--GP-U-`-]u-Tc, E-`-N-C-CIc-@]-W_-T-c,

N-R, happy, glad || I am happy when I am together with my friends.


E-<%-$A-uCc-R-W-NE-UIU-O-#R.-.?-N-R-_N,
15

P-R, payment for things lost, compensation || What is the amount of


compensation that you will be paid? mN-`-P-R-C-WN-]H`-NCc,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to dam up (water), to let water puddle || If you
want to irrigate the fields, you will have to dam up the ditch.

C`-K-mN-lc-ZE-`-G-CKE-5K, -PE-O-G-T`-NCc,
`-sE-, sitting cross-legged || After sitting cross-legged for half an hour
my legs ached. (-WN-CFC-NE-pN-VU-`-`-sE-O-TN-c-E]-E-R-P-qE-,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to vomit, to puke || I drank too much and had to
vomit. Ec-GE-]MEc-xCc-Rc-C-NCc-qE-,
C-{-T, disgusting, awful || The spoiled food made a disgusting meal.
\-U-_`-T-Nc-\c-MP-C-{-T-ZC-+-2+<,
C-`C nausea, disgust || His terrible behavior filled me with disgust. B:Aq-N-EP-Rc-E-C-`C-L-TFC
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to reduce, to diminish || I dont want to reduce
my weight. Ec-<%-$A-N-WN-E-P-U-]NN,
_, (T_, T_, _,) to give up, to stop to do || Im going to give up
smoking next month. -eJ?-3<-Ec-M-UC-]MP-353?-$&R.--^P,
_-U, sour, acidic || Vinegar is sour. _-_-P-_-U-^P,
, (, c,) to grow || After the warm summer rain the young wheat
plants rapidly began to grow.

Nq_-n-G_-G-xP-R-TTc-c, PR:A-C-CZP-UnCc-Uc--]C-TUc,
-ND, living creature, sentient being || We should all feel compassion for
all sentient beings. E-Wc-*J-:PR-,3?-&.-`-qE-cUc-]XP-NCc,
-NEc, plant; organic matter || How many plant names do you know?
mN-lc--NEc-l-UE-F-VU-ac, Glass is not organic matter. a`--P--NEcUP,
-NEc-_C-R, biology || Biology is the study of life.
-NEc-_C-R-P-W-~C-C-ZT-]HC-`-C,
-Tc, developing strength || Developing strength after a rain is
something that plants do. G_-c-?--aE-,3?-&.-`-Tc-c-R-^P,
-P, organic, living || Organic fertilizer contains no harmful chemicals.
-P-`N-c-`-c-CPN-R-FP-U-]xc,
-CPc, place of birth, native home || My place of birth is London,
England. E]--CPc-P-NqP-H]-`P-LP-^P,
1

16

-T-P-U, former incarnation || It is said that our villages mountain


gods former incarnation was a Qing Dynasty general.

E-W]--T]-CZ-TNC-C--T-P-U-P-GP-`-_Tc-l-NUC-NRP-ZC-^P-\_,
-T-]N, this life || In this life I will do as much good for other people as I
can. -T-]N-`, Ec-F-MT-lc-U-Uc-`-NC-T-TT--^P,
-T-p-U, next incarnation || What will my next incarnation be?
E]--T-p-U-P-F-ZC-^P-~N-NU,
-T, human being || Human beings are capable of both good and evil.
-T-MUc-FN-`-NC-C-CIc-@]-_E-Cac-w/,
-T-NU-R, righteous person || Being a righteous person is not always an
easy task. -T-NU-R-ZC-q--P-PU-^E-`c--U-ZC-UP,
-T-S`-T, common folk || The common folk have a precious collection of
oral literature. -T-S`-T-`-NUEc-tN-U-_C-C-Mc---GP-^N,
-UN, inorganic || A rock is a good example of an inorganic substance.
{C--P--UN-NEc-R]-NR-T\E-T-ZC-^P,
N, (TN, TN, N,) to widen; to expand || Being a university student
will do much to widen your mind. T--GP-U]-T-U-ZC-^P-V-P-ac--(J<2N-NCc, Metal expands when it is heated. Cc-E_-P-TN,
N-@ interest, dividend || If I deposit one thousand RMB in the bank for
1

three years I will earn three hundred RMB in interest.

C`-K-Ec-_-U-E-CcU-NE`-BE-O-`-CcU-`-TF`-P, N-@-_-U-cU-T-`P-MT,
N-Uc-W`, garden, park || The old man has retired from his job and now
spends most of his free time in the park with his pet birds.

N-R-Nc-`c-]m_-qc-^N-0?-.-v-BU-R-UE-G-T-<%-$A-q-]NE-FP-NE-UIU-O-N-UcW`-O-TN]-TZP-^N,
N-WN, interest rate; growth rate || What is the interest rate for ten year
deposits at youbank? mN-W]-NE`-BE-.-`-TF]-OE`-CcC-C-N-WN-P-C-WN^P, The growth rate of the companys income did not increase last
year. AE-\]-^E-]TT-l-N-WN-`-P-PE-`_-CE-]S`-U-qE-,
N-~E-, bringing up, rearing, upbringing || Rearing children is a serious
responsibility. qc-R-N-~E-qN-o-P-`c-]CP-N@]-U-ZC-_N,
P-R, sensitive || She is sensitive to strong odors.
B-U-x-U-xC-R-`-W_-T-P-R-;R.,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to deliver; to escort || When is the shop going to
1

17

WE-BE-Nc-E-Wc-UEC-I-qc-R]-WE-\C-PU-WN`-c-^N, I want to escort you home. Ec-mN-^`-`-`-]NN,


`-]xP, transportation || Transportation is much more convenient now
than ten years ago. `-TF]-P-NE-T_-5K-N--`-]xP-d-FE-Tc-TN-_N,
`-U, accompaniment || Your accompaniment on my way home made
me feel safe. p_-mU-O-`C-R]-`U-.-mN-lc-E-`-`-U-qc-0-.J?-%-=TN-]HCc-l-W_-T-c-c-TFC
c-_, birthday || When is your birthday? mN-l-c-_-PU-WN-^P,
c-UGC righteous person || The fact that he is a righteous person and
deliver the goods we ordered?
2

always speaks the truth has earned him the respect of the people of
my village.

B-P-c-UGC-ZC-^P-R-NE-P-R_-TNP-R--Tc-B-`-E-5S:C--U-^Ec-l-T-TA_-MT,
c-R, man, male || I was not sure if that person was a man or a woman.
U-N-P-c-R-ZC-CU-^E-P-c-U-ZC-^P-R_-E-`-CNE-WN-UN,
c-T, person || Every person has the capacity to do great things.
c-T-MUc-FN-`-NP-Tc-GP-T-R]-]HP-ME-P,
c-U, woman, girl || That young Tibetan woman studies physics at
Qinghua University in Beijing.

TN-_Cc-c-U-Nc-R-FP-n-GP--T--GP-U-P-NEc-`Cc-T-TZP-^N,
c-c-T_, to send something as a present || Our relative will marry
tomorrow so we will have to send something as a present.

E-W]-I-O-ZC-cE-IP-CIP-C-q--^P-Rc-E-Wc-c-c-NEc-R-8A$-T_-NCc,

, to be sad, to be poor, to be pitiful || After her husband died she was


in a very sad condition. m-C-]Nc-c, B-U]-CPc-W`-d-FE-,
-T, sorrow, sadness || Sadness and happiness seem to come in equal
measure. *A.-#$-$*A?-!-N-UIU-O-]qE-T_-E-,
-EC moan, sad calls || Her sad calls and moans at her fathers funeral
depressed everyone. e-S]-UNc-UGN-!J%-B-Uc--EC-.%-:#/-{.-K%-2-.J?-3A!/-IA-;A.-*R-2<-29R?,

-E-, sad feeling || I often have a sad feeling when I think of my


miserable childhood.

_E-C-N@]-WCc-G-T]-qc-R]-Oc-Tc-N-TcU-P-E-`-P-R_--E-,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to turn; to make something crooked || Please
turn right and you will find the store. C^c-`-Cc-NE-mN-lc-WE-BE-N-N1

18

]u, The accident made the front of the car crooked. GCc--`c-Ec]B_-n-UOP-pCc-TCc,
Cc, ladle || That ladle is made of wood. Cc-]N-aE-`c-T\c,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to take care of, to rear || My parents were not
2

often at home so my grandparents actually reared me. 1-3-$*A?-!-o/-

0<-;=-/-3J.-0?-%R-kR-$*A?-!?-%-2*%?-0-;A/,

N, (TN, TN, N,)

P, (TP, TP, P,)

to sway; 2to go || 1The wind made the trees sway.

E-Cc-E-T-TN, 2Please excuse me, I have to go to the toilet. NCEc-NC-[_Cc, E-N-BE-O-TN-NCc,


to ride; 2wrong, false, mistake || 1I want to ride on

E-mN-l-ZP-R-Cc_-T-`-TP-P-]NN, I made a mistake


when I did my homework. Ec-`c-q-]{-Tc-/R<-P-ZC-29R?,
P-]C`, to frame someone || He was framed by several of his enemies
your new horse.

and wrongly accused of a crime.

B-`-Nu-T-]Cc-P-]C`-qc-Rc-NP-UN-O-PC-Ic-\C
P-FP, faulty, defective || The electrical wiring in this apartment
building is defective, therefore, the electricity often goes off.

N-aC-BE-TCc-]N]-C-=3-=-*R/-L%-:.$-0?, C-P-R_-GN-]u,
P-G, fault, defect || This new washing machine has a serious defect
the tub wont hold water.

-T-]t-qN-l-]z`-Gc-Cc_-T-N-`-G-]X_-T]-P-G-WTc-GP-ZC-^N,
P-TN, criticism || I accepted his criticism of my behavior and tried

Bc-E]-N-R-`-P-TN-CPE-T-Ec-NE-`P-qcPc-PP-KP-nc-P_-]GC-^-T~E-qN-R_-]TN-R-^P,

earnestly to correct my mistakes.

P-]NCc, slander, vilification, malignment || The slander that is told

about him is told by people that are jealous of his ability and power.

B]-_-n-P-]NCc-P-B]-]HP-ME-NE-NTE-ME-`-zC-NC-]XP-UBP-n-B-Pc-T`-T-^P,
P-^P, advantage and disadvantage || For every situation there will be
advantages and disadvantages. CPc-W`-F-ZC-^P-_E-P-^P-CIc-@-P,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to protect, to rescue || If you saw a man
drowning, would you try to rescue him? C`-K-U-ZC-G-PE-O-qE-T-3,R%5K, mN-lc-B-T-MTc-qN-~N-NU,
_, (T_, T_, _,) to repeat, to remember (by heart) || I must repeat
new English words several times before I can remember them.

19

NqP-^C-C-M-N-Cc_-T-^N-`-CaCc-_C-T_-O-Ec-MEc-UE-0R<-_-NCc,

, hair || Do you think men should wear their hair long or short?
mN-lc-c-R-Uc-lc--_E-T]U-^E-P-ME-E-CE-]HC-]c-R_-U,
-]m`, curly hair || My father has curly hair and I and my brothers and
sisters also have curly hair.

e-S]--]m`-^N-`-E-NE-E]-P-^, ~E-U-TFc-l--^E-]m`-^N,
-UBP, barber || Many of Xinings barbers are women.
\-`E-C--UBP-UE-T-P-c-U-_N,
-TZ_, to cut hair || My hair is getting long so I will ask my mother to
cut it. E]--H-_E-O-]u-TZP-^N-Rc, Ec-e-U-`--TZ_-O-]HC--^P,
C to be scared, to be frightened || When I was a child I was scared of
the dark. qc-R:A-Oc-?, E-UP-PC-`-CDo you fear thunder? mN-]{C--`0$-$3,Children are often afraid of the dark. qc-R-P-R_-UP-PC-`-0$
C-E-, fear || His fear of death is very great. Bc-]G-T-`-C-E-GP-R-]XP,
Ec, to swell up || A few minutes after he fell off the horse, his ankle
began to swell up. ]-TE-Pc-E-!J-_-U-]C]-]C_-c, B]-~-`E-Ec,
P-PN, cancer || Smoking causes cancer. M-UC-]MP-0-=?-P-PN-:L%-,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to make, to construct || The city will construct the

new leather factory on the outskirts of the city. PR%-HJ<-IA?-.J:A-*J-!R<-.-!R-

(?-29R-9-8A$-20/-o-<J.,

N, (TN, TN, N,) to drive out, to exorcise || Every year in winter our
village holds a ritual to exorcise evil from the village.

`-_]-NDP-B_, E-W]--Tc-Gc-`Cc-l-G-C-ZC-`-Pc-CNP-]x--T-Pc-UM_-`-N,
Tc-P_, loot, plunder || Though he was convicted for his crimes he
managed to keep much of his loot.

B-`-Ic-GN-TFN-_E-, Bc-Tc-P_-CE-UE-TNC-L-]XP-MTc-qc,
Tc-U, sculptured; engraved || The sculptured deity images in our
1

village temple are famous for their beauty. E-W]--T]--BE-PE-C---Tc-U-N-

UC-`-UXc-Rc-UE-uCc-G, 2The engraved inscription was written in very old

Tibetan.

-_E-^-C-Tc-U-N-P-CP]-Oc-TN-^C-L-{c-^N,

T-T, bitter taste || The old cucumber left a bitter taste in my mouth but I
was so hungry I ate it anyway.

dE--E-T]-_-T-T-N-E]-B-PE-`-]m`-_E-, E-_E-Cc-xCc-Rc-N-\c,

T`-T, era, time || In what era did that king live?


20

`-T-N-P-T`-T-PU-ZC-`-T[Cc,
T_-^C letter, correspondence || Even though we have never met we
have carried on a correspondence with each other for more than
thirty years.

E-W-CKP-Pc-MC-U-rE-_E-, SP-WP-`-T_-^C-{c-Pc-`-cU-F-C-]C_,
T-TZC appointment || His appointment to the position of governor will
take effect January first.

-NE-R]-Wc-CFC-IP-Pc-29%-B-~N-]XP-R]-C-CPc-N-`-T-TZC-qc-R-Nc-C-GN--_N,

TE-T,

summons; 2recruitment || 1After I knew about his summons I

Bc-TE-T-qN-R-ac-:U=-E-_E-B]-C[E-T-BE-O-cE-, The
soldier recruitment effort will last for three months. NUC-U-TE-T-qNR-`--CcU-]C_--_N,
T_-P, reconstruction || Chinas reconstruction since 1949 is very
2

went to his office.

impressive.

1949`]-WP-Pc-sE-C-T_-P-qc-R-P-3A-i3?-=-TC-GCc-\T-U-]HC-R-ZC-_N,
T_-C reorganization || After the reorganization our factory became
much more efficient. E-W]-T\--T_-C-qc-c-`c-GN-H-`Cc-c-GP-R-cE-,
T_-O, again, once more || Would you like to hear this music cassette
once more? mN-lc--NqEc-P-MC-]N-`-]_-nc-IP-P-e-]NN,
T_-E-, exercise, homework || This morning our teacher said, You
must finish the math homework by tomorrow morning or you will be
punished.

N-_E--x_,E-W]-NC-P-nc mN-Wc-cE-IP--x]-T_-O-T_-E-L?-5<-

NCc, N-UP-GN-R-CFN-Ec, Fc-`T-qE-,

T_-Cc, restoration || Restoration of the temple will require six years.


NCP-R-T_-Cc-qN-R_-`-xC-:$R<--_N,
T_, (T_, T_, _,) to prop up; to support || If we dont prop up this
wall it will collapse. C`-K-Ec-nE-]N-U-_-P-TT--_N, My father will
support me to study in college. e-Sc-E-`-T--GP-U-<-T-E-qN-R_-T-_qN--_N,
1

21

B, mouth || The basketball hit him in the mouth. r%-lJ.--`-B]-B-`-SC


B-N, colloquial language, oral language || Colloquial language is more
vivid than written language. ^C-N-`c-B-N-`-CcP-IUc-P,
B-E-, filling the blank, to make up a shortage || To make up the shortage
in our income I got a job doing construction work.

E-W]-^E--U-]NE-T-`-B-E-p_, Ec-e_-`c-l-q-T-ZC-CI_,
B-U, to be thirsty || I dont like to be thirsty in summer. Nq_-B_-E<%-B-U-0<-3A-.$:,
B-_, perimeter || He walked around the perimeter of the building.
B-BE-TCc-l-B-_-TN-Pc-cE-,
B-Ec, to be ashamed; to be embarrassed || I was ashamed because
1

the shop owner saw me take a piece of candy and leave without
paying for it.

Tc-E-B-Ec,

Ec-_P-CE-U-qP-R_-@-_-`T-U-ZC-]m_-]u-T-WE-TNC-$Ac-UME-L%-

She was so embarrassed that her cheeks turned as red as

U-WE-Uc-B-U-`-`P-]-_-T-[c-R-P, B-U-B-Ec-Pc-UB_-UWc-$*A?-!-NU_-R-A-b-]x-T-ZC-L-n_,
B-B, separate, apart, different || We have different thoughts on why
apples when everyone at the party asked her to sing.

English is important.

NqP-^C-F]-p_-C`-GP-^P-R]-MC-Pc-E-W]-TcU-5=-B-B-_N,
B-BC-UN-R, frank, straightforward || He was very frank in his answer.
`P-]NTc-_-B-`-B-BC-UN,
B-UBc-R, eloquent person || He is the most eloquent person I know.
B-P-Ec-ac-R]-U-Gc-B-UBc-R-^P,
B-CE-, adult (livestock) || If adult livestock are healthy they mate and
reproduce. C`-K-\C-B-CE-TN-ME-^P-5K, B-W-C-Pc-pCc-B-`,
B-nc, to separate, to part || He has been separated from his wife for one
month. B-GE-U-NE--CFC-<A%-`-B-nc,
B-uC to speak || Dont speak to me when you are angry.
22

mN-_E-BE-t-`Ec-Oc-E-`-B-uC-U-NCc,

B-uEc, number, quantity || Quality is more important than quantity.


B-uEc-`c-c-@-C`-G,
B-NC]-E-NC], cater to, to ingratiate || He will cater to her desire to be
complimented. Bc-B-U-TN-R-`-NC]-T<-TcU-Pc-B-NC]-E-NC]-qN--_N,
B-T, food and clothing || I will always respect my parents because they
provided me with food and clothing when I was a child. LA?-0:A-.?-?-

S-Uc-E-`-B-T-qP-Rc, Ec-S-U-`-PU-^E-T-TA_-qN,
B-E-, face || Please dont criticize me and make me lose face in front of
my guests. E]-UuP-R]-UOP-.-E-`-P-TN-qc-Pc-E]-B-E-a_-O-U-]HC Her face
turns red when the weather is hot. PU--`-WN-R-G-Tc-B-U]-B-E-NU_-T_]n_,
B-FC a few || Only a few Tibetans know Spanish well.
TN-U-B-FC-Cc-U-CKCc-c-SP-N-T\E-T-U-ac,
B-CFC-BC-CIc, hypocritical, two-faced || He says pleasant things to
people but when they are not present, he says bad things about them.

Bc-U-Uc-l-UOP-.-~3-0:A-$+3-aN-R-NE-, ]P-lE-U-UN->=.-B-W]-EP-aN-Rc, B-P-B-CFC-BC-CIc-3-8A$-_N,


B-GN, appointment || I have an appointment to see the department leader
He is two-faced.

at eleven oclock Friday morning.

C\]-R-cEc-IP-n-(-WN-TF-CFC-E-Ec-WP-BC-]C-tN-`-MC-]-B-GN-qc-^N,

B-G, saliva, spittle || I was so hungry that saliva dribbled down my chin
when I smelled the freshly cooked bread.

Cc-xCc-0c-C-_-xP-U]-x-U-{-T-P-E]-B-G-U-`-MC-`-T[_,
B-GE-, young (livestock) || The heavy snowstorm killed many of the
herdsmens young livestock. BEc-GP-R-`c-pCc-\C-B-GE-UE-T-B-NC
B-GUc, will, last testament || In his will, he specified exactly how his
property was to be divided among his children. B-GUc-l-PE-O-Bc-qc-RUc-`-<%-$A--P_-H-_-TC-Ta]-qN-o:A-{R<-Cc`-T_-T@N-^N,
B-UG, dispute, altercation || Ive had a dispute with my neighbor over
grazing lands for many years. E-NE-mU-UWc-T_-35K<-?:A-MC-Pc-`-O-U:A<A%-B-UG-qE-^N,
B-]GU, agreement || Finally, after years of dispute, we reached an
agreement. `-O-UE-<A%-`-N-R-qc-UM_, E-W-`-B-]GU-qE-,
23

B-]HU, ingratiating in speech, smooth-tongued || When he talks before a


group of people he is smooth-tongued. Bc-U-WCc-l-UOP-.-CKU-TaNTc-B-]HU-G,
B-IP-UBP, obedient || My daughter has always been obedient.
E]-T-U-P-P-R_-B-IP-UBP-ZC-^P,
B-IP, the day before yesterday || I got married the day before yesterday,
which was New Years Day. B-IP-K-`-Cc_-n-IP-3R-`-E-<%-CIP-C-qc,
B-K, advice || What advice would you give me about this problem?
CPN-NP-]N]-E-Pc-mN-lc-E-`-B-K-F-ZC-CPE--^P,
B-TL`, to tame, to domesticate || He tamed the wild horse after several
weeks of effort. C\]-]B_-]C]-`-d_-TP-qc-3,<, Bc--N-N]-B-TL`,
B-NP, verbal promise || Although we did not sign a contract, I assumed
your verbal promise was just as binding.

E-Wc-CP--U-TZC-lE-, Ec-mN-l-B-NP-N-`-3..-o-.3-0R-^N-R_-TcU?,
B-NU-R, tight-lipped closemouthed|| She is awfully tight-lipped about
her involvement in the affair. <%-*A.-NP-N]-PE-O-5.-R]-_-Pc-B-U-B-NU-R_CPc, Whenever you ask her about her family and marriage, she is
closemouthed. mN-lc-3R-=-mU-WE-NE-CIP-C-$A-_-PU-E-_E-, B-U]-B-NU-R^P,
B-NC color || Red, green, blue, yellow, black, and white are some of the
most common colors. NU_-T-NE-E-B, P-R, c_-T, PC-R, N@_-T-2&?-P-GcP-P-n-B-NC-]C]-^P,
B-NC-R narrow || I ran down the narrow path. E-`U-B-NC-R-N-NN-Pc-TCc,
B-xE-T_, frankly || His tendency to speak frankly is one of his most
admirable characteristics.

B-xE-T_-aN-R]-~`-N-P-BE-C-_E-Cac-Gc-P-_E-T-ZC-_N,
B-x, luck, I wish you good luck! || I wish you good luck in your study of
the English language. NqP-N-T-E-qN-R_-Ec-mN-=-B-x-T]-P-`U-]NTc,
B-TN-U, eloquent || His eloquent nature completely convinced his
listeners that he was telling the truth.

B]-B-TN-U-Nc-IP-UBP-Uc-`-Bc-TNP-NP-aN-lP-^N-R-`-CKE-Pc-^N-Gc-c-TFC
B-NC color || Black is the darkest color. PC-R-P-B-NC-Gc-PC-R-^P,
B-E-, condemnation || The bosss condemnation of my fellow workmate
was most unfair. ]C-NRP-nc-E]-`c-_Cc-`-B-E-TKE-T-N-/A-@-&%-:S-3*3-3A/24

0-8A$-<J.,

B-T, chat, conversation || I had a five minute telephone chat with my


mother this morning. 8R$?-0<-Ec-B-R_-!J%-{<-3-s:A-<A%-e-U-NE-B-T-qc,
B-P, to depend on || My future depends on how hard I work now and
what I plan to do in the future. E]-UOP-`U-P-N--<%-$A?-q-T<-:2.-2lR/-LJ.3A/-.%-eJ?-?R<-:(<-$8A-&A-8A$-;R.-0-$*A?-=-<$-=?,

B-Pc, verbally || He agreed verbally, not in writing.


B-B-Pc-]MN-R-qE-T-VU-`c-^C-MC-`-U-T@N,
B-QT, last night || Last night when you sang that song I felt so excited.
B-QT-mN-lc--NqEc-N-`P-Tc, E:A-^N-cUc-_T-L-rc,
B-P, supplement || Every month I receive a two hundred RMB salary
supplement because I work in a high altitude area. c-UC-UM-c-<-q-T-`cTZP-^N-Rc,Ec--__-U-NUEc-aC-_-Ic-T-<%-$A--SCc-l-B-P-5=-O-`P-TZP^N,
B-R_, telephone || The invention of the telephone is one of the greatest
things of this century. B-R_-Cc_-CKN-qc-R-P-Oc-_Tc-]N]-Gc-Tc-G-T]-.R/8A$-_N,
B-NR, saying, proverb || When he gave the wedding speech, his clever
use of many proverbs impressed everyone.

Bc-CIP-TaN->R.-Oc, B-NR-UE-T-_-3#?-0-.J?-U-MUc-FN-`-TC-GCc-\T-U-TZC
B-, moustache || When I was younger I wanted to have a moustache
but, now that I have one, I find that it is troublesome. GE-Oc-?-<%-`-B-^N-P-]NN, ]P-lE-N--E-`-B--MCc-Oc, Ec-B--P-`c-WCc->A$-^P-R_-]NN,
B-S-G-T, boastful || His boastful nature means that he has few friends.
B]-B-S-G-T]-_E-Cac-Nc-B-`-uCc-R-.!R/-R-UWP,
B-p, to open up || The first thing we need to do after we move into our
new apartment is to open up all our boxes.

E-W-BE-T-Cc_-T]-PE-_-c, 12-NCc-R]-`c-!-NE-T-P-U-GE-C-B-p--N-^P,
B-pCc, direction || How far and in what direction is the nearest doctor?
MC-Gc-I-T]-P-R-CE-WN-NE-B-pCc-CE-P-^N,
B-T, snow || The snow in the city at first is beautiful, but it quickly is
covered with dark dust. uE-m_-.-22?-0:A-B-T-/A-NE-MC-UXc-lE-FE-U-]C_T_-c-`-nc-C^Cc,
B-T-FP, Tibet, Tibetan region; snowland || Tibet is a place of friendly
1

25

B-TFP-P-U-`-qUc-T-P-ZE-^`-Ec-UXc-C-P-R, CP]-T]-`-c-NE-_C-CPc-P-R
]-^`-u-ZC-^P, This vast snowland area is home to many Tibetans.
B-T-FP-n-^`-u-GP-R-]N-P-TN-U-UE-T]-1-?-^P,
B-qE-, title (of book/article) || What was the title of the book she
published last year? B-Uc-P-PE-R_-O-TP-R]-NR-NT-N]-B-qE-`-F-\_,
B-{`, separation; to be separated || This separation is not helping our
marriage. B-{`-]N-/A-E-W]-CIP-C-`-U-SP, That couple has been
separated for many years now. m-bC-N-CIc-@-N- -B-{`-Pc-`-UE-T-]C_,
B-]{c, appearance, looks || Her beautiful appearance leads many men to
people, beautiful landscape, and an ancient history and culture.
2

ask her to dance.

B-U]-B-]{c-UW_-Tc-c-T-UE-T-B-U-NE-ZTc-{-C-R_-]DCc,
B-T, face down, prone || After the hooligans knocked him unconscious,
he lay face down on the ground. #R-=-A-U$-.J-5S?-2h%?-+J-S/-0-2o=-.-

2&$-eJ?-,%-=-:IJ=-/?-#-&2-+-*=-:.$

B-UE-T, talkative || She is only talkative when she is in her mothers


home. B-U-<%-$A-e-U]-mU-P-^N-Tc-N-C\N-B-UE-T-ZC-^P,
B-U-Cc`, verbally unclear || He writes well but, in terms of what he says,
I find he is verbally unclear.

B-_E-]{-`-UBc-lE--TN-l-MC-Pc, Ec-B-_E-B-U-Cc`-T-ac,
B-TVC vulgar language || Some find his vulgar language shocking but I
find he is highly intelligent and his vulgarity is intended to make

B-FC-Cc-B]-B-TVC-]HCc-G-T_-]NN-UN, ]P-lE-Ec-B-P-U_C-Ts-`-B]-B-TVC-P--T-C`-GP-]NP-R]-GN-O-^P-R-ac, His stories are


frequently vulgar and not fit for children to hear. B]-CKU-N-P-P-R_-B24S$-KC-KC-^P-Rc, qc-R]--`-U-_P,
B-N, argument, fray over || The fray over who would pay for the
damage to the automobile quickly grew more serious. Ec-]B_-`-CK_TC-TKE-T_-cc-P-WT-N-R]-,.-GA-B-N-N-UnCc-R_-X-xC-L-n_,
B-W, spicy; urgent || Sichuan food is hot and spicy. \-tP-n-\c-SN-P-B-WZE-{-P-G, The urgent nature of his request suggested that he was in
serious trouble. _-8]-B-W]-.$R?-$+$-_E-TZP-`c-B-CPN-NP-X-xC-`-MC-^N-RUEP,
B-WE-, complete || I dont think your account of what happened last night
important points.

26

Ec-mN-lc-UNE-NCE-qE-T:A-$/?5=-{R<-TaN-R-N-B-WE-ZC-_N-U-]NN, mN-lc-NP-]C]-_-CcE-^N,
B-UW_, humorous speech || Her humorous speech kept us all laughing
far into the night. B]-B-UW_-nc-E-W-NCE-]p-Oc-T_-O-NCN-O-TFC
B-]XE-, quarrel || After not speaking to each other for five years the two
sisters finally ended their quarrel and became reconciled. ~E-U-CIclc-SP-WP-`-B-U-uCc-R_-`--]C_-c, B-U-CIc-l-B-]XE-Cc-/?-]OU-]uC-qE-,
B-Z-CIc-UN, sincere || His voice has a sincere quality that leads other
is complete. You are hiding something.

people to believe him.

B]-N--`-U-CZP-R-B-`-^N-Gc-c-]HC-R]-B-Z-CIc-UN-l-mN-Gc-UE],
B-ZE-, width || The boxs width is one meter. U-N]-B-ZE-`-c-CFC-^N,
B-\U, to get closed || How can we get the broken door closed? E-Wc-H-_qc-5K--GC-N]-B-\U-MT,
B-^, match; response || I had a basketball match this afternoon. N-_E-px_-E-r%-lJ.-E-`:A-:P/-#<-.-8$?, He made no response to my request.
Bc-E]-_-T-`-B-^-U-qc,
B-^C-E-TN, flattery || She is very good at telling people what they want
1

to hear but her flattery wont work with me.

B-U-P-CZP-nc-F-]NN-aN-R_-UBc-lE-, B-U]-B-^C-E-TN-N-E-`-U-]u,
B-^E-, loquacious || After drinking several cups of liquor he becomes
loquacious. GE-S_-T-]C]-TLE-c, B-B-^E-ZC-L-n_,
B-^C title, label || What is the title of your essay?
mN-l-NoN-U-n-B-^C-P-F-ZC-^P,
B-C^_, to excuse, to make a pretext || She excused her misconduct by
saying that she was drunk. B-Uc-<%-$A-N-EP-/A-<%-*A.-T\-cE-T-`-B-C^_, She made a pretext that she was ill and could not
take the exam. B-Uc-B-U-P-Pc-Cc-`-[Cc-U-MT-R_-B-C^_,
B-_C silence, quiet || Sometimes I like loud parties but, sometimes, I
like to be alone and enjoy a time of quiet. UWUc-UWUc-c-E-_E-\E-\E-C-WCc-`-NC]-ZE-UWUc-UWUc-c-_E-CFC-R-B-_C-C_-TN-]NN,
B-Ec, vapor from the mouth || The weather was so cold that the vapor
1

from my mouth turned into ice on my beard.

PU--]mCc-Rc-B-Ec-E]--_]-MC-GT-_U-O-n_,

B-`T, cover, lid || Im sorry, she said, I broke the cover of the china
27

B-Uc-NCEc-R-U-WU, Ec-mN-l-e-UcCPE-T]-m-29R?-)-.J3-n-B-`T-TFCc-cE-Zc-`T-qE-,
B-`-T, driver || I have been a truck driver for twenty-three years.
E-]uU-]u`-Ec-]B_-n-B-`-T-qc-Pc-`-I_-CcU-]C_,
B-aCc, cross-talk || I thought the cross-talk was very amusing.
Ec-B-aCc-N-P-d-FE--E-]S_-T-ZC-^P-R_-]NN,
B-ac, some; a few || Some people like hot spicy food and some
people dont. U-B-ac-B-W-ZE-{-P-G-T]-\-U-`-NC]-3R.-:R/-G%-U-B-ac-U-NC],
Only a few people in my village are over the age of eighty-five. EW:A--T]-PE-C-U-B-ac-U-CKCc-`-2o.-&-n--;/-=-aJ2?-UN,
B-aU, boast || I did not believe his boast that he knew fifteen languages.
Bc-N-_Cc-TF---ac-R]-B-aU-`-E-^N-U-Gc,
B-CcT, to add || From time to time it is important to add somethingnew
toyour life to make it continue to be interesting.{2?-:$<,mN-l-]WT-`-U-UMN-O--E-]S_-T_-NP-Cc_-T-_-B-CcT-qN--P-C`-G,
B-Cc`-T, clear, explicit || What he said he would do was very explicit.
Bc-<%-$A?-&A-ZC-`c-:A-{R<-TaN-R-N-B-d-FE-Cc`-T-_N,
B-C surplus; over || Surplus production leads to cheap prices. MP-cC-3-L%-5K-NEc-CE-3<-($-:PR There are over twenty students who like
to play basketball. r%-lJ.-%R-=R--]NN-R]-T-U-I-b-C-^N,
BC section, part || This section of beef looks best. Uc-a-BC-]N-Gc-29%>R?-^P-R-]x,
BC-Ns, to blame (by shifting fault) || I dont want to blame you for this
mistake. P_-]GC-]N]-MC-Pc-Ec-mN-`-BC-Ns-U-]NN,
BC-]B_, be responsible for || First I must be responsible for myself and
then be responsible for my family. MC-U_, Ec-_E-IN-`-BC-]B_-NCc->A%-.J3<-<%-*A.-GA-mU-WE-`-BC-]B_-NCc,
BC-]HC to excuse || He excuses my mistakes. Bc-E]-P-G-`-BC-]HC-qN,
BC-MC guarantee, pledge || This electric rice cooker has a one year
teapot that your mother gave you.

guarantee and, if anything goes wrong with it for that period, you

]{c-TV-qN-C-MT-N-`-`-CFC-C-BCMC-^N-Rc, `-N]-PE-GC-P-qE-W, mN-lc-C-MT-N-p_-N-Pc-Cc_-T-ZC-Ec-GC


BC-UN, no wonder; pardonable || He was drunk so no wonder he said
that. B-T\-^N-Rc-Bc-{.-(-N-TaN-R-`-BC-UN, Your misconduct is
may bring it back and get a new one.
1

28

pardonable because you were drunk.

mN-T\-^N-Rc-mN-l-N-R-U-`Cc-R-`-

BC-UN,
BE- rent (house) || How much rent do you pay every year?
`-__-mN-lc-BE--F-VU-_-NCc,
BE-GP, mansion || His new house is a mansion. B]-BE-Cc_-P-BE-GP-ZC-^P,
BE-MC roof || Children like to climb up on the roof of our house. qc-R-W-EW]-BE-MC-`-]C-T_-NC],
BE-TNC house owner || The house owner wants me to pay more rent.
BE-TNC-Cc-E-=-#%-\-}<-=?-3%-0R-3R.-.-:)$-]NN,
BE-T, house || The house was made mostly of stone.
BE-T-]N-CV-T--`c-T\c-R-^P,
BT, needle || I dropped my needle on the floor. Ec-BT-ME-`-]SEc,
B3-CE-, mouthful || I ate one mouthful of bread and was no longer
hungry. Ec-C-_-B3-CE-\c-R-P-Cc-lE-UN-0<-I<,
BUc, region; physical condition; Khams area || Which Tibetan region
are you from? mN-TN-BUc-CE-Pc-MP, My physical condition couldnt
be better. E]-`c-BUc-]N-`c-TN-MTc-UN, The Khams area includes parts
of Tibet, Yunnan, Qinghai, andSichuan. BUc-l-BEc-c-TN-Ec-NE-^PPP, UW-P, \-tP-TFc-l-c-G-B-ac-]O,
BUc-Ec-, in good health || Ive been in good health all my life.
E-W-CE-T_-`c-BUc-Ec,
BUc-TN-, healthy || It is healthy to not eat too much animal fat.
~C-GCc-l-W`-UE-xCc-R-U-\c-5K-`c-BUc-TN,
B`, pack || Ill help you put this pack on the horse.
Ec-mN-`-B`-]N--MC-`-]C`-_Cc-qN,
B`-U, pack animal || How much can this pack animal carry?
B`-U-]Nc-F-VU-]B_-MT,
Bc-`P, to promise, to guarantee; to admit, to concede || When did you
promise you would visit me? mN-lc-E-`-]WUc-]x-PU-WN-qN--Bc-`P-qc,
Admitting my wrongdoing relieved my feelings of guilt. <%-$A-PC-IcBc-`P-qc-R-Nc-E]-Z-CPE-UN-R_-TKE-,I concede that I made some
mistakes. Ec-_E-Cc-P-]C]-`c-^N-R-#?-=J/-LJ.,
B-T, curtailment || The students welcomed the curtailment in the
1

number of hours that they had to be in the classroom each day.

29

T-U-Wc-B-W-IP-__-T-BE-`-]u-NCc-R]-(-WN-l-uEc-@-B-T-qN-R_-NC]-Tc-qc,
B-T, juice, soup || Please have some orange juice. W-`-U]-B-T-MEc,
B-T, paternal uncle || My fathers brothers are all my paternal uncles.
e-S]-P-WE-U-P-E]-B-T-^P,
B-W_, fist || He tightened his fist in anger. Bc-BE-t]-EE-B-W_-.3-0R<-TFEc,
B-cU-R, quiet, silent, placid || She liked to read in the quiet classroom.
B-U-B-cU-R]-T-BE-PE-.-NR-G-`-T-T_-NC],
BC-U, bag || I bought this new bag at the market.
Ec-tU-_-Pc-BC-U-Cc_-T-]N-Ic,
BE-T, hole || I looked through the hole in the door.
Ec--MC-C-BE-T-TN-Pc-Tc,
BEc, origin, source || The Buddhas teachings are the origin of
Buddhism. cEc-c-l-TP-TFc-P-PE-TP-n-BEc-^P,
BEc-`, proof || What proof can you offer that he is the criminal?
B-P-Ic-FP-^P-R_-mN-lc-BEc-`-F-ZC-]NP-MT,
BEc-CLCc, searching out the origin || When I was young I was
determined to search out the origin of the Mekong River.

GE-Oc-c, Ec--G]-]qE-CPc-c-BEc-CLCc-]-cUc-MC-TFN,
BEc-MT-R, reliable, trustworthy || She is my reliable friend.
B-U-P-E]-BEc-MT-R]-uCc-R-^P,
BEc-, clue || The knife left at the murder scene was an important clue
to eventually finding the killer. CcN-c-<-`c-R]-u-P-UM]-U_-`C-NU_-N-R]BEc--C`-GP-ZC-_N,
BEc-UN, baseless || The rumors about her stealing other peoples crops
are baseless. B-Uc-CZP-n-]{-_Cc-Tc-R]-_-n-]m_-CKU-`-BEc-UN,
BEc-TVP, reliable, authentic || What he says is reliable because of his
knowledge in that field. _C-C[E-N]-E-Pc-B-`-ac-^P-^N-R]-P-nc-B:A$+3-P-BEc-TVP,
BEc-`E-, basis, foundation || His book has no believable foundation.
B]-NR-G-`--]B`-MT-R]-BEc-`E-UN,
B_-T, burden, load || The load on the donkeys back was so heavy that,
at last, the donkey refused to move.

TE-T]-T-l-B_-T-N-xCc-Pc-UM]-U_-TE-T-]D`-B-U-IP,
B_-V, luggage || Our train trip was made more convenient by the fact we
30

B_-V-C-(%-%-CIc-U-CKCc-UN-RNc-E-W-U-]B_-`c-]u`-T[N-qN-o-}<-=?-Tc-TN-<-TKE-,
B`, to pretend; prefecture; area || I dont want to pretend that I like
this. Ec-]N-`-NC]-B`-qN-U-]NN, What prefecture are you from? mN-B`CE-Pc-^E-T-^P, The area that I am from has very cold winters and a
lot of snow. E-^E-c]-c-B`-.-NDP-B-]mC-FE-B-T-UE-T-]TT,
B, profit || His profit last year in business was nearly fifty thousand
RMB. P-PE-B]-WE-B-`-S`-G_-_-U-t--^N,
B-FP, profitable || He obtained his considerable wealth through a
had only two small pieces of luggage.
1

profitable business with mostly Tibetans.

Bc-CV-T_-TN-_Cc-NE-WE-B-FP-TT-Pc-#J-%R$?-GP-R-Ec,
B-Cc, profit || How much profit did you earn in the business?
mN-`-WE-N-`c-B-Cc-F-VU-MT,
B-SP, benefit || What is the benefit for me in your plan? mN-l-]G_-CZ]-OR.E-`-B-SP-F-ZC-^N,
B-NTE-, right, authority || Its the peoples right to select the leader of
their township. CaC-C]-NRP-R-]NUc-R-P-U-NUEc-l-B-NTE-^P,
B-WE-, trade, business || There is much trade between farmers and
nomads. ZE-T-NE-]{C-R]-T_-P-B-WE-UE-T-^N,
B-`c, business enterprise || Starting a new business enterprise can be
difficult. B-`c-Cc_-T-ZC-]C-U--P-N@]-U-^P-`c-G,
BEc, to be proud, to be full of || I am proud of my Tibetan culture,
history, and religion. E-TN-l-_C-CPc-NE-`-c, Gc-`Cc-2&?-`-Tc-RcBEc,
BEc-E-, modest || She is modest about her appearance and abilities.
B-U-<%-$A-TZP-_c-NE-]HP-ME-C-MC-Pc-BEc-Ec-G,
BEc-CKU, haughty speech || His haughty speech matched his earlier
arrogance. B]-BEc-CKU-nc-B]-}R/-(.-GA-E-`-UWP,
BEc-xCc, conceit, haughtiness || Her haughtiness has led to many of her
friends deserting her. B-U]-BEc-xCc-lc-uCc-R-UE-T-U-NE-]{`-T_-TFC
BN, riddle || What first walks on four legs, then two legs, and finally on
three legs? The answer to this riddle is a human being. MC-U_-E-TTZ-NE-N-Pc-E-T-CIc, UM]-U_-E-T-CcU-`-TP-Pc-]u-T-P-F-ZC-^P-Zc-R]-BN]N]-`P-P-U-^P,
31

BP-R,

to snuggle up; 2to lean || 1On dark, cold winter nights, my

C-PC-FE-uE-E_G-T]-UWP-U_, qc-R-W-E-.%-#R-5S:C-A-3-$*A?-!:A-E-`-BP-R_-NC], After a long


walk gathering yak dung she leaned tiredly against a tree. \C-C--T-]MT_-Oc-_E-T_-TN-c, B-U-ME-GN-/?-E-T-ZC-`-BP, He was tired and
leaned against the tree. B-ME-GN-Pc-E-T-N-`-#JP,
BTc, to be covered || The hill is covered by grass during summer.
N]-]T_-N-Nq_-B_--^c-BTc,
BU-T, spoon || This silver spoon was made by the silversmith in our
village. NE`-n-BU-T-]N-P-E-W]--T]-NE`-UC_-nc-TEc-T-^P,
B_-E-, single, alone || She remained single, became a nun, and chose to
children like to snuggle up to their mother and me.

live alone in a mountain cave.

B-U-B_-E-O-`c-Pc-H-U-ZC-L-n_-T-NE-_-tN-O-]uU-]--cUc-TFEc,
B_-CI_, individual business || What she does during her vacation is her
individual business and it has nothing to do with our factory.

B-Uc-CPE-T]-Tc-c-F-qN-R-N-B-U]-B_-CI_-^P-R-`c-E-W]-T\--`-]{`-T-UN,
B_-`T, talk to oneself || I talk to myself when I am alone.
CFC-0<-#R.-Oc, Ec-B_-`T-o$
B, he, him || He can speak perfect Tibetan. Bc-TN-N-U-NC-TaN-ac,
B-FC they, them || They want to help themselves by offering to help us.
B-Wc-E-W-`-_Cc-_-]NP-R_-TP-Pc-NP-nc-B-5S-<%-*A.-`-_Cc-qN-]NN-^N,
B-IN, himself || He cut himself when he was sharpening the knife.
Bc-u-T_-Oc-<%-IN-c,
#R-,$-;A/, certainly, have/has to || This is certainly true. ]N-TNP-R-#R-,$-^P,
B-MC-GN, sure, to decide || Im sure you can learn English if you decide
to try hard. C`-K-E-TP-qN-o-?J3?-,$-2&.-5K, mN-lc-NqP-^C-T-MT-R_-Ec#$-,J$-LJ.-,2,
B-P, solely, only || I am truly happy only when I am with my wife and
my children. %-GE-U-NE-qc-R-Uc-NE-]uCc-R]-Tc-B-P-`, N-C\N-<%-?J3?-EUc-N-R-<J.,
B-T, I, me || I want you to tell me why you are often late for class.
mN-lc-E-`-mN-P-R_-T-tN-l-c-?-`c-R]--UWP-aN,
B-U, she, her || Did you invite her to the party? mN-lc-B-U--WCc-`-Tc-cU,
B-_E-, himself || He doesnt think about anyone but himself. Bc-_E-*A.-B-P32

`c-CZP-U-TcU,
BC-CKU, real thought || I dont know what his real thought was.
Ec-B]-BC-CKU-F-ZC-^P-R-U-ac,
BC-E-, hollow || There is a hollow tree near our village.
E-W--T]-I-]NTc-P-E-T-BC-E-ZC-^N,
BC-N, upper part of the body || Only the upper part of my body was dry
after I crossed the river. G-T-1<-T`-c-E]-BC-N-B-P-U-R<-=?-:.$
BC-R, stomach || When Im hungry my stomach aches. PR.-0-Cc-Oc-E]BC-R-P,
BC-R-GE-E, narrow minded, bigot || His decision to punish the students
shows just how narrow minded he really is. Bc-T-U-Uc-`-GN-R-CFN]-cUc-MC-2&.-0-Nc-B]-]R-BC-.R/-.-F-]x]-GE-T-UWP,
BC-N, lower part of the body || The road was so dusty that, after
walking for one hour, the lower part of his body was covered with

`U-c-`-nc-BEc-^N-Rc, E-ME-`-(WN-CFC-VU-cE-T-P, B]-BC-N-c-^c-C^Cc,


BC-c, scheming, planning || His scheming was, in the end, not
successful. B]-BC-c-TT-R-N-UM]-U_-`Cc-]uT-U-qE-,
BC-_`, decayed || The wood in the roof is old and decayed.
BE-N-l-aE-G-N-E-Pc-BC-_`-O-n_,
BE-, he || He did not tell her what was troubling him.
BE-Cc-B-U_-nJ/-F-ZC-Cc-B-`-C-T`-T-U-TaN,
BE-t, anger, indignation || His anger over the wrong way that he had
dust.

been treated grew in intensity.

#R-`-/R<-:O=-IA-LJ.-!%?-29%-Rc-B]-BE-t-H-xC-L-n_,

BE-NCN, to sneer || Dont sneer at me when I make mistakes.


E-`-P_-]t`-qE-Oc-BE-NCN-U-qN-FC
BE-O-GN, to be accomplished, to master || After years of study he has
mastered Tibetan history.

`-]C]-`-T-E-qc-c, Bc-TN-l-`-c-BE-O-GN-0<-L?,
BEc, part of, belong to || This place is part of Qinghai Province.
c-G-]N-P-UW-P-ZE-GP-n-BEc-^P,
BEc-U, member || He is a new member of our class.
B-P-E-W]-]XP-]-BEc-U-Cc_-T-ZC-^P,
33

BEc-c-]O, to include || Our dinner includes mutton, bread, cooked


vegetables, and yogurt. E-W]-\-U]-BEc-c-a-NE-C-_, }R-5=-IA-#J<-9?, Z-TFc]O,
BN-Uc-R, flat, level || The flat fields may be irrigated.
BN-Uc-R]-c-ZE-N-`-G-CKE-MT,
BU, idle, free || In winter the peasants were free from fieldwork and
remained idle. NDP-B_, ZE-T-Uc-c-PU-`c-BU-=R%-L%-/?-?R?-.=-.-CPc,
BU-`E-, free time, spare time | || I have some spare time on Monday
afternoon so I can teach you English then. $9:-^-2:A-KA-SR<-%-=-#R3-=R%-

;R.-0?-.J-.?-%?-HR.-=-.LA/-;A$-OA.-(R$

B], his || His brother is a very handsome young man.


B]-P-^-P-S-^C-FC-_N,
B_-^C environment, surrounding || Tree-covered mountains surrounded
the grassy valley creating a beautiful environment. /$?-_?-l-u%-$A?H2-0:A-`E-T-T_-0-=?-^`-Ec-UXc-C-P-R-ZC-TP,
B`-U, boiled || I want some boiled water to drink. Ec-G-B`-U-TLE-]NN,
m-U, (3J->A%-,) firewood || As time passes firewood becomes increasingly
difficult to get. Oc-1<-:.?-0-NE-TP-Pc, m-U-]M-o-_U-TZP-H-N@]-_-n_,
mN, difference || I dont think there is a big difference between
Australian and New Zealand English.

Ec-e-c-t-_-^-NE-ZP-Z-`P-NqP-N-l-T_-mN-GP-R-^N-0<-U-]NN,
mN-Gc, characteristic, feature || His distinguishing characteristic was
intellectual curiosity. B]-mN-Gc-UEP-Cc`-P-ac-^P-R]-UW_-cUc-N-_N,
mN-NN-R, to discriminate || To discriminate against others because of their
skin color or ethnicity is wrong.

CZP-n-a-UNC-NE-U-_Cc-`-Tc-Pc-mN-NN-R-P-U-]uC
mN-R_, difference, distinction || I want to make a distinction between
these two ideas. Ec--W`-]N-CIc-T_-n-mN-R_-Nq-]NN,
mN-R_-FP, special || This food is special. \-U-]N-mN-R_-FP-ZC-_N,
mN-]SCc, outstanding || Of all the performances her song was the most
outstanding. N-U:A-=J-5/-WE-U]-P?-?, B-U]--NqEc-P-(J?-1=-.-L%-2-8A$<J.,
mN-UN, no different || This book is no different than that one.
NR-G-]N-NR-G-.J-NE-mN-UN,
34

mN-CcN, solving, overcome || The solving of that problem is the key to


success. CPN-NP-N-mN-CcN-qN-o-P-`-B:A-CPN-]CC-^P,
mT, to spread, to become popular || Modern music has quickly become
popular all over the world. NE-_Tc--NqEc-UnCc-Uc-]XU-E-AP-`-mT,
mT-BEc, field, sphere || What field of knowledge do you think you
would like to study? mN-lc-ac-q]-mT-BEc-CE-ZC-`-E-TP-qN-]NN,
mT-TCc, announcement, propaganda || The latest announcement
encouraged people to save water and electricity.

I-`U-n-mT-TCc-Nc-U-Uc-`-G-NE-C-uP-GE-qN-]-`-U-TKE-,
mT-G, widespread, broad || This plant is widespread over the grassland.
-aE-]N-<A$?--ME-.-mT-G,
mT-CN`, widespread || That folktale is widespread in Tibetan areas.
NUEc-tN-CKU-N-N-TN-BUc-P-mT-CN`-G,
mT-`, popularize, spread || The use of solar cookers needs to be
popularized in areas where firewood is scant.

3J->A%-N@P-R]-c-G-<, I-MT-TN-N-qN-o-mT-`-$+R%-NCc,

mU-U-mU-U, rock, sway || In the fast-running water the boat began to rock
and sway. G-P-xC-R]-tN-Pc-u-GE-mU-U-mU-U-qc,
m, dog || Our familys dog likes to chew on bones.
EN-WE-C-m-_c-R-]G]-T_-NC],
m-U, female dog || That black female dog will soon be ten years old.
m-U-PC-R-N-`-TF<-`P-=-*J,
mU, house, home || The rooms that make up our home are made of
adobe and wood. EN-WE-C-BE-3A$-;R%?-c-SC-NE-aE-$*A?-=?-29R?-0-;A/,
mU-N, family lineage || After studying our family lineage he concluded
that our ancestors came here from Central Tibet about three hundred

Bc-E-W]-mU-N-`-ZT-]HC-qc-c, E-W]-Uc-R-S`-G_-`-E-cU-T-^cUc-l-P-`-TN-Ec-Pc-3(J.-:R%?-0:A-B-WP-TFN,
mU-TNC head of the family || He, not his son, is head of the family.
B-P-mU-TNC-^P-R-`c-B]-T-mU-TNC-UP,
mU-R, layman || Though he was deeply religious, he was a layman.
B-P-mU-R-ZC-^P-_E-, Gc-`Cc-`-NN-3R?-GP-R-qN,
mU-U, family member || Our oldest family member is Grandmother, who
will be eighty-one in July. %J.-5%-$A-HA3-3A-Gc-P-R-P--U-^P-R-NE--TOP-R<years ago.

35

B-U-`-2o.-&-n-CFC-=-aJ2?-:P My family member went abroad last


month. EN-WE-C-HA3-3A-i3?--P-U_-p-`-`-cE-,
mU-WE-, family || That family has opened a small shop in our village.
mU-WE-N-T-WE-Cc-E-W]--T]-PE-WE-BE-GE-GE-ZC-pc,
mU-UWc, neighbor || How long has your neighbor been in Lhasa?
mN-l-mU-UWc--c_-cE-Pc-.?-;/-&A-43-]C_,
mU-`c, house work || I would rather watch television and read than do
house work. E-_E-mU-`c-qN-R-`c-TP-]zP-`-T-T-NE-NR-G-C-]NN,
mU-Cc_, new family || The new family moved here last year.
mU-Cc_-N-P-PE-CPc-]N-`-_,
mU-, family god || Every year we hold a ritual to delight our family
god. E-Wc-`-<J<-G-C-`-Pc-mU--NC]-_-]HC
]mC (TlC TlCc, mCc,) to fasten, to bind || We will bind the top of the
bag with string before we leave. E-W-U-cE-CE-BC-U-N]-B-TlC--^P,
m, group; army of (something) || Last week on Tuesday a group of
doctors and nurses cleaned the hospital grounds. C\]-]B_-P-U]-C\]UC-NU_-n-IP-U_, P-R-NE-PN-C^C-m-ZC-Cc-P-BE-C-CZ-U-`-CVE--qc, An
army of ants was busy taking food to their ant hole. uC-U-m-ZC-B-W]uC-BE-O-\-U-`-T_-{`,
m_-UN, devouring || The devouring of our crops by the insects was a
disaster. CPN-]T-^c-`-KC-m_-UN-TKE-T-P-CPN-P-ZC-_N,
mN, you || Can you help me lift this box?
mN-lc-E-`-U-]N-]NCc-_Cc-qN-MT-TU,
mN-_E-, yourself || Take care of yourself and we will see you again soon.
_E-*A.-`-TNC-qc-NE-E-W-U-]nEc-R_-HJ.-=-^E-T_-UH`-2<-:R%-%J?,
m-C husband || My husband works at the British Embassy in Beijing as a
1

translator.

R-FP-P-N-R]-NqP-H]-C[E-WT-#%-.-E]-m-Cc-`--T:-`c-@-`c-TZP-^N,
m-bC married couple || Our neighbors, a young married couple, live a
quiet, ordinary life.

E-W]-mU-UWc-m-bC-N_-U-CIc-lc-P-]HCc-l-]W-T-_-TKE-ZC-_`,
mN, you || When did you say the party will begin?
mN-lc-WCc-]O-.?-PU-WN-]C-U-R_-TaN-^N,

mP,

all; 2size || 1All of China is working to carry out economic reform.

36

sE-C:A-HR/-;R%?-?-NR`-]q_-TFc-_-`C-T_-qN-TZP-^N, What is the size


of your apartment? mN-l-aC-WE-C-mP-`-C-WN-^N,
mP-G, extensive || She has an extensive knowledge of Tibetan literature.
B-U-`-TN-l-U-_C-{R<-IA-ac-q-(J/-0R-;R.,
mP-TUc, in all, all together || In all, about twenty students passed the
examination. mP-TUc-Rc-T-U-I-b-z$-$Ac-Cc-]zN,
mP-^Ec, vast || The forest that once seemed so vast has now become just
a few trees. P-GN-N-]x]-mP-^Ec-R]-PCc-W`-IA->=--N--E-T-]C]-VU-`c-UN,
mP-^Ec, over all, entire || The entire region has few people.
^`-u]-mP-^Ec-c-U-]C]-`c-UN,
t-t, multicolored || The multicolored stone sparkled in the water. -t-t-NG-PE-P-]N-O-]W_,
tC blood || Blood from his injury flowed down his arm. -B-`c-MP-R]-tCB]-NRE-T]-E-Pc-U_-]XCc,
tC-P, blood circulation || This medicine improves blood circulation.
P-]Nc-tC-P-H-`Cc-c-CKE-,
tC-, blood vessels || He was so thin that his blood vessels were easily
visible. B-d-FE-U-R-^P-Rc-tC--^E-UME-,
tC-aN, blood pressure || I have high blood pressure so I dont put salt in
my tea. E-`-tC-aN-UMP-R-^N-Rc-<%-$A-H]-PE-O--U-]NTc,
tT, armor || I saw amour once in a museum.
Ec-NEc-UE-TaUc-P-BE-.-tT-_C-rE-,
tU-R, liar || He doesnt tell the truth because he is a liar.
B-tU-R-ZC-^P-Rc-TNP-R-U-TaN,
t`, tax, duty || Does the price include tax? _P-CE-N]-PE-O-t`-e-]Oc,
t, throne; ten thousand || He vowed that his descendants would control
2

the throne for ten thousand years.

Bc-<%-$A-COE-N-lc-`-E-t:A-<A%-]XP--^P-R_-NU-TFc,
tCc-tCc, probably, precisely || I can probably visit you next week.
C\]-]B_-c-U_-Ec-mN-`-]WUc-]x-qN-MT-P-tCc-tCc-UN,
tUc, law || Every country needs the rule of law.
`-BT-5%-3<-tUc-~`-^N-NCc,
tUc-BE-, court of law || He was tried in a court of law and sentenced to
death. B-=-tUc-BE-.-~C-GN-TFN,
37

tUc-]C`, illegal, illicit || Buying and selling drugs is illegal.


OC-c-I-WE-qN-R-P-tUc-]C`-^P,
tUc-CFN, judgment || I dont agree with the courts judgment.
E-<%-tUc-BE-C-tUc-CFN-`-U-]MN,
tUc-GN, legal penalty || There is a legal penalty for not paying taxes.
t`-U-]H`-T-`-tUc-GN-l-CKP-]B`-^N,
tUc-UMP, legal || Is that legal? N-P-tUc-UMP-^P-PU,
tUc-UN-`Cc-UN, outrageous || After he becomes drunk his behavior is
outrageous. B-T\-c, B]-UXN-R-tUc-UN-`Cc-UN-FC-_N,
tUc-_, court || Their quarrel became so serious that they went to court.
B-W]-N-CZ-X-xC-L-n_-Tc, B-Wc-tUc-_-`-CLCc,
tUc-`Cc, legal system || It is important to strengthen the legal system
by ensuring adequate law enforcement.

tUc-l-Qc-R-UM-T-BC-MC-qc-Pc-tUc-`Cc-=->$?-$R/-$+R%-o-$=-(J,
tUc-~`, laws and regulations || Every society needs laws and
regulations in order to function smoothly.

-WCc-`-]B_-N-TN-U-^E-GN, -WCc-c-c-`-tUc-~`-NCc,
t`-N, jeering, laughing at || When we were jeering at him we forgot
just how much we were hurting his feelings.

E-Wc-B-`-t`-NCN-qN-Oc, E-Wc-B]-cUc-`-C-F-]x-TZC-R-^N-`-U-xP,
t`-UN, shameless || Your shameless behavior was a disgrace.
mN-l-t`-UN-GA-q-N-P-E-CPE-T-ZC-<J.,
t`-^N, appreciative || He is an appreciative person and likes to help
others. B-P-U-t`-^N-FC-^P-`-U-CZP-`-_Cc-qN-R_-NC],
t, cast iron || My mothers old cast iron pot has cooked hundreds of
sheep in the past sixty years.

]Nc-R]-`-E-xC-F]-PE-E]-e-U]-t-\Ec-E-T]-PE-O-`C-a-T-zC-O-U-TVc,
t-Uc, great rage/fury || When he learned that he had been cheated, he
was in a great rage. Bc-<%-`-UC-_-MTc-R-ac-R-P-t-Uc-GP-R-TP,
t-IUc, angry expression || The angry expression on his face showed just
how upset he was. B]-CNE-C-t-IUc-Nc-B-F-]x]-MCc-tc-R-UWP,
tN, inside; among || The bottle was inside my drawer. a`-NU-E]-]MPU-PE-P-^N, Among all the students I have ever had, this little girl is
the cleverest. E-`-^N-rE-T]-T-U-WE-U]-tN-Pc, T-U-GE-GE-]N-P-_C-R-Gc-P-R1

38

^P,
tP-R, well (water) || The well produced a good supply of clean water.
tP-R-Nc-?%?-$4%-$A-(-]NE-T-]NP-N-qc,
tU, market, bazaar || I bought the chili at the vegetable market.
-W`-n-tU-Pc-Ec-c-RP-Ic,
tU-_, demonstration || The workers demonstration for higher salaries
took place last month in the United States.

-SCc-H-UM_-CKE-GN-.-%J=-2:A-T\-T]-tU-_-N--P-U_-e-U-_-B-<-qE-,
UB]-]u`, aviation; air freight || The aviation industry greatly
expanded its operation after 1980. 1980`]-c-?-UB]-]u`-T\-`c-l-]B_N-H-G_-TN, This package will be sent to London from Lhasa as air
freight. NEc-C-]N-UB]-]u`-`-TP-Pc--c-Pc-`P-LP-`-T_--_N,
UB]-`, air attack || Our coastal areas are well protected from naval
attack, but we still need to worry about an air attack. UW-]uU-c-B`-NUW-NUC-C-`-T-`c-~E-T-T\E-T-qN-MT-_E-UB]-`-l-pCc-`-E-Wc-N-OE-cUc-B_
-qN-NCc,
UB]-NqEc, sky; space || The birds were so many that they seemed to
fill the sky. ]NT-GCc-UE-Tc-UB]-NqEc-BEc-^N-R-]x, The star flew
through space and fell into the calm ocean. _-U-N-UB]-NqEc-?-]S_3,<-E-]HCc-l--UW]-PE-O-E-,
UB]-NUC air force || After he graduated from senior middle school he
1

joined the air force and became a pilot.

UM-]{E-Pc-T-UM_-pP-c, B-UB]-NUC-C-PE-O-[Cc-Pc-CPU-u-B-`-T-ZC-L-n_,
UB]-`U, air route || The air route from Xining to Beijing passes near
Xian. \-`E-Pc-R-FP-T_-n-UB]-`U-N-Z-eP-IA-I-c<-TN-]u,
UB_, wall; castle || The city walls were made of packed earth. uE-m_n-UB_-P-C-Rc-T\c, An old castle used to be on top of that mountain.
CP]-UB_-ZC-P-GN-_-T-N]-\U-P-^N,
UB_-uE-, city (walled) || The outline of the old walled city cant be seen
anymore. UB_-uE-E-T]-T@N-R-N-N--UME-U-MT,
UB_-E-, fortress || The city, perched on a hill and surrounded by thick
walls, resembled a fortress. _:A-!J%-$A-t$?-<A-3,$-0R?-C-Rc-T_-T]-uEm_-N-UB_-E-ZC-NE-]x,
UB`-U, kidney || After he became ill and was hospitalized, the doctors
1

39

had to remove one of his kidneys.

B-P-Pc-P-BE-`-TN-c, P-Rc-B]-UB`-U-CFC-CFN-NCc-qE-,
UBc, skilful, proficient || He is a skilful dancer. B-ZTc-{-C-R_-UBc,
UBc-UGC authoritative scholar || He is one of the most authoritative
scholars in the field of Tibetan linguistics.

TN-l--_C-R]-mT-BEc-OR.-B-P-UBc-UGC-FC-^P,
UBc-R, expert, scholar || Next October there will be an international
meeting for Tibetan language experts.

,J%?-eJ?-3:A--TF-T]-PE-, TN-N-_C-UBc-R]-`-]-uc-WCc-aC-T--_N,
3#?-0<-:I<-2,to excel || Excelling in the study of classical Tibetan is
his goal. 2R.-GA-$/:-;A$-<A$-0-=-3#?-0<-:I<-o-/A-#R:C-.3A$?-;=-;A/,

UBc-U, conceited || His high level of education and great wealth have
not made him conceited.

T-Cc]-WN-UMP-R-NE--Tc-lc-B-`-UBc-U-c-c-U-TFC
UB_-Wc, cheeks || The very cold weather turned her cheeks bright red.
PU--uE-Uc-B-U]-UB_-Wc-NU_-T_-TKE-,
UB-Gc, necessities; equipment || Food and clothing are necessities. \cCc-P-UB-Gc-^P, The factorys old equipment needs to be replaced.
T\--N]-UB-Gc-E-T-T-NCc,
UB-N, supplying, furnishing || That village has been supplying barley to
1

the local nomads for more than fifty years.

`--TF-C-`--T-Nc-c-CPc-l-]{C-R-Uc-`-Pc-UB-N-qc,

UmP, to know/understand (h) || The Living Buddha understood the


importance of compassion. `-c-E-]-C`-GP-_E-TZP-UmP,
UtCc-R, hard, solid || The water in the lake had frozen solid so we drove
our jeep across it.

UW-G_-N_-UtCc-R-]GCc-^N-Rc, E-Wc-Hc-S-Ec-]B_-N_-MC-+-T_-Pc-cE-,
]BE-, (]BE-, ]BEc,) to be offended, to complain || We must complain
about our poor working conditions.

E-W]-`c-@]-G-P-C-R-`-E-Wc-Ec-R_-O-]BE-NCc,
]BE-_, complaint || His complaint about the poor quality of what he
bought is justified.

Bc-PU-R-Ic-R-N]-c-@-ZP-R-`-]BE-_-qc-R_-CZP-nc-TNP-`Cc-^N-R_-]NN,
]BU, (]BU, ]BUc,) to wince, to shrink || When he thrust his hands into
40

the scalding water, he winced in pain.

Bc-`C-R-G-WP-N]-PE-O-TKE-T-P-P-\C-c-Pc-p_-]BUc,
]B_, to carry (on back) || He carried the heavy sack of barley flour on
his back from the shop to his home.

Bc-Pc-p-BC-U-N-U-N-WE-BE-Pc-B]-^`-`-]B_,
]B`, (NC`, T@`, B`,) to twist, to weave, to spin || While he is out on the
grassland he twists wool into thread.

B-_E--ME-O-;R.-.?, Bc-T`-]B`-Pc-N-R-2+$?,
]B`-]MC textile; spinning and weaving || The United States is a big
textile market. e-U-_-B-P-]B`-]MC-MP-c-l-WE-_-GP-R-ZC-^P, Everyday
those women are spinning and weaving wool. IP-<J<-c-U-N-NC-Cc-T`]B`-]MC-qN,
]BP-]uc, quarrel || The two brothers quickly forgot their quarrel.
P--CIc-lc-]BP-]uc-qc-R-r_-U_-TN,
]BP, to hate, to fight || I hate to fight. E-]BP-R_-U-NC],
]BP-`P, revenge, vengeance || Acts of revenge lead to more violence.
]BP-`P-n-q-N-`c-COC-T-C-L-]qE-,
:#R/-?J3?, hatred || His hatred for me is based on jealousy. Bc-E-`-:#R/?J3?-TFEc-R-P-zC-NC-`-_C-`c,
]BT, to become numb (from cold) || My hands have become numb from
the cold. E]-`C-R-uE-Pc-]BT,
]B_, to rotate (spontaneously); retinue, attendant || The paper prayer
wheel above the stove turned slowly when the stove was hot. Cc-MT$R%-.-;R.-0:A->A%-$A-U-j-]B_-=R-N-Cc-MT-W-U_-n_-T-P-N`-Uc-]B_, The
famous politician was surrounded by a large retinue of assistants. GT~N-R-uCc-FP-N-]B_-GP-R-ZC-Cc-T_,
]B_-TN, circulation || This medicine will help your blood circulation.
P-]N-mN-l-tC-$A-]B_-TN-`-SP,
]B_-pCc, direction of rotation || What is the direction of the suns
rotation? I-U]-]B_-pCc-P-F-ZC-^P,
]B_-T, transmigratory existence, samsara || Humans suffer a
transmigratory existence. U]-_Cc-lc-]B_-T-`c-C-rE-,
]B_-C^C servant || He had been a servant many years ago. `-UE-T]-P-.B-/A-]B_-C^C-&A$-^P,
1

41

]B_-`, wheel || The wooden wheel soon wore out.


aE-C-]B_-`-N-UnCc-U_-\N,
]mC (]mC ]mCc,) to become cold || I dont want to become cold so Ill
put on this heavy coat. <%-*A.-]mC-U-]NN-Rc, Ec--T-GP-R-]N-CP,
]mCc-R, cold || Its not hot, its cold. ]N-W-U-3A/-0<-]mCc-R-_N,
]mCc-_U, ice || The river ice was not very thick. G-T]-]mCc-_U-d-FE-UMC0R-3A-:.$

]mU, (]mU, ]mUc,) to wander || He had no money so he had to wander


from place to place. B_-_-U-UN-Rc-pCc-Pc-pCc-c-]mU-NCc-qE-,
]mU-R, vagabond, tramp || That tramp has visited many cities.
]mU-R-N-uE-m_-UE-T-`-cE-,
]m`, to become puddled || The water dripped through the roof and
puddled on the floor. G-BE-N-=?-]XCc-/?-mUc-?-]m`,
]mN, to embrace, to hug || He hugged his old friend.
B-<%-$A-uCc-R-E-T-`-]mN,
]m_, (]m_, m_, m_,) to take, to bring || I want to bring you some fresh
meat. Ec-mN-`-a-Cc_-T-]m_-^E-TcU,
]mC to be crooked || After lying in the rain and sunshine the piece of
wood became crooked. *A-(<-OR.-aE-OU-N-]mC-R_-n_,
]mC-R, zigzag, crooked || The zigzag mountain road is dangerous.
_-`U-]mC-R-N-IP-B-G,
]m_, to stagger || After he was drunk he staggered down the stairs.
B-T\-c-c-U-,<-.-]m_-:HR<-L?-/?-3<-22?,
]tT, to act, to perform || I love to watch that dancer perform.
Ec-C_-UBP-Nc-{-]tT-R:A-5=-`-T-]NN,
]tT-UBP, actor, performer || This movie has not a single famous actor.
C-TP-]N]-PE-]tT-UBP-UE-uCc-FP-CFC-lE-UN,
]tT-P, performance || Will you go to see the evening performance?
mN-lc-N-NCE-C-]tT-P-`-T-2<-:PR--e-^P,
]tT-WP, the program (of performance) || The program lasted too long so
we left. ]tT-WP-N-_E-xCc-0c-E-W-}-3R-/?-TN-cE-,
]tT-C[E-, script || The play was all right but the script could have been
better. c-C_-P-3A-(R$-o-3J.-3R.-]P-lE-]tT-C[E-H-`Cc-c-CKE-MT,
]t, (]t, ]tc,) to get coiled around || The snake was coiled around a
42

small tree.

`-N-E-U/-ZC-`-]tc,

]tC-R, sexual intercourse, copulation || Beds are places for sexual


intercourse. U`-t-P-]tC-N-LJ.-c:A-$/?-^P,
]tN, (]tN, tN, tN,) to lead, to guide || He wants to guide us around
Lhasa. Bc-E-W--c]-I-]B_-`-]tN-]NN,
]tC (]tC ]tCc,) to fight || I dont want to fight with you.
E-mN-NE-]tC-U-]NN,
]tC-R, war, fight || War always leads to many deaths.
.3$-]tC-OR.->A-P-UE-T-]qE-,
]t`, to mistake || I often mistake the younger brother for the older
brother. E-P-R_-S-/-$*A?-1/-5/-`-]t`-]u,
]t`-E-, illusion || What is illusion and what is reality?
]t`-E-P-F-ZC-^P-R-NE-UEP-cU-P-F-ZC-^P,
]t`, (Ns`, Ns`, t`,) to play (a music instrument) || Can you play the
piano? mN-lc--E-Ns`-e-ac,

C-WN, how much, how many || How many children do you have?
mN-`-qc-R-C-WN-^N,
$-.?-;A/-;%-, whenever || Whenever I hear that song I weep.
$-.?-;A/-;%-Ec--NqEc-N-,R?-5K-%-E-:PR

CE-, what, which || What languages do you speak? mN-lc-N-<A$?-F-ZC-,


CE-_, anyway, in any case || Although he did make a mistake I love
him anyway. B-`-P_-]GC-qE-_E-, CE-_-lE-E-B-`-NC],
CE-MT-F-MT, as far as possible, as much as one can || Try as far as possible
to speak English each day. CE-MT-F-MT-lc-IP-<J<-NqP-N-TaN-NCc,
CE-P, Where? || Where is your home? mN-l-^`-CE-P-^N,
CE-\C person || That person should not be allowed to take a bath in the
public swimming pool. CE-\C-N-`--N-tc-E-PE-tc-qN-O-:)$-U-]c,
43

CE-^E-, anything || I dont want to own anything you offered.


E-`-mN-lc-qP-R-CE-^E-U-NCc,
CE-^N, whatever there is || Ill eat whatever there is. Ec-CE-^N-T\]--^P,
CE-_E-, anything, whichever || We can see whichever movie we like to
see. E-Wc-T-]NN-R]-C-TP-CE-_E-`-T-GC
CE-`, where || I did not know where you went last night.
UNE-NCE-mN-CE-`-cE-T-Ec-U-ac,
CE-c_, everywhere || Everywhere I go I believe I can make friends and
enjoy myself. E-CE-c_-pP-^E-, uCc-R-C-/?-N-R-qN-MT-R_-<E-`-^N-Gc-^N,
CEc, snow || The water was all frozen so we had to collect snow and
melt it for our drinking water.

G-;R%?-?-_-]GCc-Rc, E-Wc-CEc-TLc-Pc-TLE-G-`-T[-NCc-qE-,
CEc-FP, Tibet || Tibet has many tall mountains covered with snow.
CEc-FP-n-Ec-?-CEc-_-UE-T-^N,
CEc-_, snow mountain || The snow mountain east of here is very tall.
]N-C]-a_-pCc-l-CEc-_-N-d-FE-UM,
CN-Cc, garbage, rubbish || Please throw your garbage here.
mN-l-CN-Cc-]N_-SEc,
CN-U, laughter || When I heard her laughter, I also laughed.
B-U]-2>.-1-Mc-Pc, E-^E-TCN-qE-,
CN-U-E-, to joke, to make people laugh || I like to joke and make people
laugh. E-U-$8/-`-CN-U-E-T_-NC],
CP-, contract, written agreement || Did you sign a contract with your
boss? mN-lc-_E-C-]C-T-NE-CP--e-TZC
CU-O, by, near || The lake is near a mountain. U5K:-.J-/A-_-ZC-C-*J-?<-;R.,
C_-UBP, dancer, performer || The dancer was tired after her
performance. C_-UBP-U-]tT-P-qc-c-ME-GN,
C`-G, important || I dont think what he said is important.
Bc-F-TaN-R-Ec-C`-G-T_-U-]NN,

C`-K, if, in case || If he gets angry hell probably fight.


C`-K-BE-t-`Ec-5K, Bc-E-_c-qN-~N,
D-NC-R, narrow; parochial || The mountain road is narrow. _-`U-N-D-NCR-_N, That is a very parochial view. N-P--T-d-FE-$-.R$-0R-ZC-_N,
D-^Ec, spacious, roomy; forgiveness || The kitchen in Tibetan homes
1

44

TN-mU-n-MT-WE-P-D-^Ec, His forgiveness was something


that I wanted. Bc-D-^Ec-$+R%-o-/A-%:A-<J-2-;A/,
DC-R, crook || My leg has a crook because I broke it when I was a child.
qc-R:A-Oc-?-E-T-TFCc-Rc-E]-E-T-DC-R-^P,
DE-tP-_E-`Cc, communism || Communism has changed the lives of
many people. DE-tP-_E-`Cc-lc-U-UE-T]-]W-T-TFc-_-qc,
DE-H, lunch || Where did you buy lunch? mN-lc-DE-\c-CE-.-Ic,
DP, loss || The companys loss of five million yuan means that it will go
bankrupt. AE-\]-nE-DP-_-c-^--Nc-AE-\]-U--Ec-R<-I<-0-UWP,
D_, tent || The tent is made of black yak hair.
D_-N-C^C-N-PC-Rc-T\c-R-_N,
Dc-TA_, respect, reverence || We have much respect for our teachers.
E-Wc-NC-P-`-Dc-TA_-GP-R-qN,
Dc-`P, return of a salute || If he salutes me I will return the salute.
C`-K-Bc-E-`-Dc-Dc-L?-5K, Ec-B-`-Dc-`P-]H`--^P,
Dc-~`, custom of etiquette || Not leaving food in your bowl is a Tibetan
custom of etiquette. N@_-^`-PE-\c-C-U-]HC-R-P-TN-l-Dc-~`-^P,
C to hear || I can hear you when you speak loudly.
mN-lc-N-UMP-Rc-TaN-Tc-Ec-.-$9R.-C-MT,
C-Tc, opportunity, chance || We now have a good opportunity to
practice our English. N--E-W-`-NqP-{.-.R%-2h<-LJ.-0:A-C-Tc-T\E-T-ZC-^N,
C--FP, person who has quick access to information || Because of his job
2

is spacious.

in the news agency he is a person who has quick access to

Bc-Cc_-]n_-BE-.-`c-@-qN-TZP-^N-Rc, B-P-U-C--FP-ZC-^P,
C-GN, useful; competent, valid || The computer is a useful tool. C-NP-`C-G-C-GN-FC-^P, The point that you made is valid, but I dont agree
with you. mN-lc-TKP-R]--Tc-C-GN-3R., ]P-lE-E-.J<-U-]MN,
information.
1

$R-(R.-<%-28A/,efficiency || That medicines efficiency is less than that


one. P-N:A-/?-0-/A-P-$8/-.J-`c-NUP,

C-Cc, consciousness, awareness, understanding || I have little


understanding of the meaning of life.

3A-5K:A-~A%-0R:C-,.-Pc-E-`-C-Cc-GP-R-UN,

C-NP, meaning || What is the meaning of these new words?


M-N-Cc_-T-]N-NC-C-C-NP-P-F-ZC-^P,
45

C-C contrary, opposite || Tall and short are opposite in meaning.


UMP-RNEME-ECIc-l-C-NP-C--^P,
C-T, notification; meaning || The notification that we would have a
holiday came yesterday. B-?E-E-W-`-CPE-T-^N-R]-C-T-]zN, The
1

meaning of what he said could be interpreted in several ways.

Bc-F-TaN-R]-C-NP-`-C-T-]x-UP-]C]-Ec-GC
C-P_, misunderstanding || Im sorry that there was a misunderstanding
between us. NCEc-R-U-WU, E-W]-T_-O-C-P_-qE-^N,
C-CPc, position, rank || What is that soldiers rank?
NUC-U-N]-C-CPc-F-ZC-^P,
C-T, comprehension || My English reading comprehension is better than
my ability to speak English. E:A-NqP-^C-$A-C-:.R/-/?-l=-N-NqP-N--T]Qc-l=-`c-T\E-,
C-T-FP, intelligent, wise || He may be old but he is not wise.
B-/A-3A-P-R-8A$-^P-~N-3R., ]P-lE-B-U-C-T-FP-ZC-U-_N,
C-U-GN, to be useless || When Im old I dont want to be useless. <%-=Rc-R]-W, E-U-C-U-GN-R-ZC-L-:I<-3A-]NN,
C-]X`, misunderstanding || Their misunderstanding became a quarrel.
B-W_-C-]X`-qE-T-N-B-N-FC-L-n_,
C-_U, order in sequence; steps/stages || Please order these books in
sequence. NR-G-]N-NC-C-_U-_-Cc, Learning English well requires
several stages. NqP-^C-`Cc-R_-E-T-`-C-_U-]C]-NCc, The first step in
learning English is to learn the alphabet. .LA/-;A$-.R%-2:A-$R-<A3-.%-0R-/A-

$?=-LJ.-aR2-o-.J-;A/,

C-_, bread || I bought fresh bread yesterday. B-?E-Ec-C-_-Cc_-T-Ic,


CE-, price; above || What is the price for this new coat? -T-Cc_-T]N]-CE-O-^P, The family that lives in the apartment above ours has
several small children. E-W]-CE-C-aC-WE-O-#R.-0]-mU-WE-N-`-qc-R-GE-GE]C]-^N,
DE-TA_, esteem, respect || That scholar has much respect. UBc-R-N-`-CETA_-GP-R-MT, We have much respect for old people in our village.
E-W]--T-<-U-P-R-`-z$-+-$R%-2!<-LJ., Local people have much respect
for that Living Buddha. ^`-Uc-`--N-`-$R%-2!<-GP-R-qN,
CE-GP, expensive || The expensive gold ring costs more than I can
1

46

afford.

Cc_-n-UXT-Nsc-CE-GP-N-Ec-I-MT-R-ZC-UP,

CE-O, above, up || I want to repeat the point I mentioned above.


Ec-CE-O-TaN-R]--T-^E-T_-TaN-]NN,
CE-`, promote, advance || Promoting our culture will benefit us all.
E-W]-_C-CPc-CE-`-qN-R-N-E-W-WE-U-`-SP,
CE-]S`, progress, development || China has made much progress in the
last ten years. I-T]-`-TF]-_E-sE-C-`-CE-]S`-GP-R-qE-,
CE-U, emperor; previous || Who is the most famous Tibetan emperor?
TN-l-CE-U-Gc-uCc-FP-P-c-^P, The previous paragraph was written very
well. NP-WP-CE-U-N-{c-R-d-FE-T\E-,
CE-Cc`, above mentioned || The above mentioned facts are true.
CE-Cc`-n-NP-NC-P-%R-3-^P,
CN-B, disaster, loss || When did the livestock last experience a disaster?
MEc-P-U_-pCc-`-CN-B-.?-PU-WN-qE-,
CP, to put on || I dont want to put on these heavy clothes. Ec-CP-R-3,$0-N-NC-CP-U-]NN,
CP-R, clothes || I dont like to wear red clothes. E-CP-R-NU_-T-IR/-R_-U-NC],
CU-]uc, step, pace; gait || For every step he takes, I have to make two
steps. Bc-CU-R-CE-c-R-`, Ec-C3-R-CIc--NCc, Everyone likes to ride
1

that brown horse because it has a smooth gait.

-E-PC-N-`-CU-]uc-T\E-T-ZC-^N-Rc-U-WE-U-N-`-ZP-R_-NC],
CUc, to get used to; to be adroit/deft || I soon got used to the low
oxygen at high altitude locations. c-UC-UM-c]-NqEc-NTCc-NU]-U-`-E-U]nEc-R_-`Tc, He is adroit at making leather boots. B-C-U-T\-T_-CUc,
CUc-]xc, accustom, getting used to || I am now getting used to living at
high altitude. N--E-_E-c-UC-UM-c]-]W-T_-CUc-]xc-qE-,
CUc-Cac, habit, custom || It is my custom to drink coffee in the
morning. 8R$?-0<-B-q-TLE-T-P-E]-CUc-Cac-^P,
C_-C_, round || He made a round dough ball. Bc-p-C-C_-C_-ZC-TFc,
Cc, garments, clothes || I bought new clothes yesterday.
B-?E-Ec-CP-R-Cc_-T-ZC-Ic,
Cc-GP, silk || This silk dress is expensive. Cc-GP-n-CP-R-]N-P-CE-N@],
nE-, wall || I painted the wall green and white. Ec-nE-`-WP-E-N@_-qCc,
nN, to retreat || The enemys fierce attack made us retreat.
1

47

Nu-NUC-C-W_-`-TVP-Rc-E-W-KA<-nN,
nP, upwards || I looked upwards and saw a bright star. Ec-;<-Tc-R-P-_(J/-ZC-UME-qE-,
nP-M_, up and down || Running up and down the stairs made me pant.
c-Cc-nP-M_-.-TCc-0-.J?-E-<%-NTCc-d`-.-2&$
nP-`Ec, uprising, revolt || The military quickly put down the uprising.
NUC-NRE-Cc-nP-`Ec-r_-U_-UPP,
nE-DP, losses || His losses from gambling were very large. o/-{$?-0-=?#R-=-IR%-$.-52?-(J/-,J2?,

nN-B, dispute, quarrel || The dispute between the two families became
violent. mU-WE-CIc-T_-n-nN-B-N-X-xC-L-n_,
nN-CZ, law case || The law case dragged on for two years and still was
not settled. nN-CZ-N-`-CIc-]C_-^E-N-_E-MC-CFN-qc-UN,
nN-^, defendant || The defendant could not hire a lawyer and lost the
law case. nN-^-Nc-tUc-N-R--U-MT-Rc-CLC-Ta_-`c-SU,
nP, to wear, to put on || My little daughter did not want to put on her
shoes. E]-T-U-GE-GE-Cc-U-nP-U-]NN,
n`-T, crippled, lame || He is lame in his right foot because of a tractor
accident. `C-_-]B_-`]-GC--ZC-`c-B]-E-T-C^c-R-n`-T_-n_,
u-C preparation || Passing examinations requires many hours of
preparation. Cc-]zN-R-`-Oc-WN-UE-T_-u-C-qN-NCc,
-T, monk || He became a monk at the age of five. `-]-E-#R-<2-+-L%-,
uC (uC uCc,) to make sound, to speak; to be renowned || At what age
did you begin to speak? mN-lc-`-$-5S.-E-B-uCc-]C-TUc-R-^P, When I
1

was a young monk I wanted to be renowned for my knowledge of


the scriptures.

~/-o?-0<-:.R.,

E-TVP-R-GE-GE-ZC-^P-Oc, Gc-C[E-=->J?-o-92-3R-=R/-/?-35/-

uCc-FP, famous, renowned || He is a famous teller of folktales.


B-P-NUEc-tN-CKU-N-TaN-UBP-uCc-FP-ZC-^P,
uE-, cold || I felt cold last night because I didnt have a quilt.
UNE-NCE-E-`-I`-M`-UN-Rc-uE-qE-,
uE-EN, coldness, chilly air || Chilly air blew through the broken window.
]-BE-GC-R-=c-P%-_%-PE-`-E-,
uE-U, cold || You look cold so please put on another sweater. Tc-WN-lc48

mN-GA-=?-0R-d-FE-uE-U-]OC-Rc, T`--CZP-ZC-CP-_Cc,
uEc-@ number, quantity || The number of students in our village school
has increased in the last five years.

E-W]--T]-T-]-PE-C-T-U]-uEc-@-N-I-T]-`-]-_E-]1<-$R/-qE-,
uEc-GE-, decimal point || I first learned to use decimal points when I
studied primary school math.

Ec-T-GE-C-c-_C-E-Oc-uEc-GE-T@`--MC-U_-Ec,
uEc-JE-U-_Cc, minority nationalities || China has fifty-five minority
nationalities. sE-C-`-uEc-JE-U-_Cc-E--^N,
uEc-UN, countless, innumerable || There are countless yaks on the
grassland in summer. Nq_-B_--ME-.-$;$-uEc-UN-^N,
uEc-WN, quantity || Is quantity or quality more important?
uEc-WN-NE-c-WN-$*A?-`c-CE-C`-G,
uU-R, river bank, river bed || The river bank was eroded after the
summer floods. Nq_-B<-G-`C-L%-Pc-uU-R-Tac,
u`, line, row || I ordered the students to stand in a line.
Ec-T-U-Uc-u`-C-L-TFC
u`-_U, class || I come from a poor social class.
E-P--WCc-GA-u`-_U-.2=-R-ZC-`c-*J?,
uc, sort, kind || What sort of plant is that? .J-/A--aE-<A$?-$%-$A-uc-?-CKCc,
uc-c, among, in || There is one white sheep among the black ones.
`C-PC-R]-uc-P-`C-N@_-T-CFC-^N,
u, knife || This knife is blunt and needs to be sharpened.
u-]N-B-`-Tc-T_-NCc,
u-_E-, sword || Under his robe you could see the handle of his sword.
mN-lc-B]-,-:R$-=?-<=-PA:A-^-T-UME-MT,
u-bTc, knife sheath || My knife sheath is made of leather.
E]-u-bTc-N-@-T-`c-T\c,
uT-U, shadow || The tree cast a long shadow across the valley.
E-Tc-`E-T-`-uT-U-(J/-0R-TTc,
uU-R, intelligent || Everyone agrees that he is the most intelligent of all
the monks. U-WE-Uc-B-CFC-L-B-P-TVP-R]-P?-?-Gc-uU-R-^P-R_-]NN,
u, boat || The boat slowly made its way across the swiftly running river.
xC-L-T[_-T]-G-T]-E-u-GE-N`-nc-]zN-O-TN,
49

u-C corner || This room has four corners. BE-T-]N-`-u-C-TZ-^N,


u-B, port, harbor || After sailing for three months across the ocean the
ship reached the port. -T-CcU-<A%-35S-:P=-L?-3,<-u-N-u-B<-]q_,
u-UBP, boatman || Like his father he is also a boatman.
B]-e-S-NE-]x-T_-B-^E-u-T-ZC-^P,
u-G_, drizzle || The drizzle lasted two hours. u-G_-Oc-WN-CIc-`-TTc,
u-NRP, captain (of a ship) || The captain had never before commanded a
ship. u-NRP-nc-P-GN-u-T-ZC-`-B-`-qc-U-rE-,
u-U, elbow || I feel pain in my right elbow every morning and evening.
PEc-NCE-`-E]-u-U-C^c-R-P,
u-TZ, square || The four sides of a square are all equal. u-TZ-3:A-3,:TZ-2R:C-<A%-5.-]x-UIU-^P,
u-TZ-P_-U, rectangular || My house is rectangular.
E]-BE-T:A-.LA2?-/A-u-TZ-P_-U-ZC-^P,
u-C\Ec, ship || The ship had sailed across the Pacific Ocean seven times.
u-C\Ec-N-Z-TN--UW-GP-R-_-MEc-TOP-`-]HC-N-qc,
uE-R, clever, intelligent || The clever boy knew how to read before he
entered school. qc-R-uE-R-Nc-T--`-U-cE-CE-C-]NP-qN-MT-qE-,
uT, to form; to consist of || Peoples personalities are formed when
they are children. U-Uc-l-Cac-@-P-B-W-qc-R-^P-Oc-uT-R-^P, My next
novel will consist of love and tragedy. E]-E-CKU-C[C-U-P-NC]--CIclc-uT-`c-G,
uT-G, element || Oxygen is a basic element. NqE-NTCc-P-uT-G-CV-T-ZC-^P,
uT-GP, saint || Her life of generosity and love made her a saint. B-U?qUc-cUc-NE-CKE-SN-l-]W-T-`-TP-Pc-uT-GP-ZC-L-n_,
uT-Cc, magic power || People believed that he had magic power.
U-Uc-lc-B-`-uT-Cc-^N-R_-^N-Gc-qN,
uT-UM], religious sect, denomination || Which denomination of
1

Buddhism does your village follow?

mN-l--Tc-PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-l-uT-UM]-CE-`-NN-R-qN,
uT-]{c, achievement, result || I will know the result of my examination
next week. C\]-]B_-c-U_-Ec-Cc-l-UHC-]{c-ac-]u,
u-T, throat || The strong liquor made my throat burn.
GE-T-Uc-E]-u-T-T~Cc,
50

u, wheat || How many kilograms of wheat did you sell last year?
P-PE-mN-nc-u---O-TVEc,
u-B, provision for a journey || Dried meat is the main provision for my
journey to the holy mountain.

a-U-P-Ec-CPc-UGC-_-T-`-UH`-_-qN-Oc-l-u-B-CV-T-^P,
uC-U, ant || Ants are small but industrious. uC-U-P-GE-_E-TP-]uc-G,
uC-_E-, ravine, gully || The gully became larger with every hard rain.
G_-ZN-MEc-_-_-`-uC-_E-H-G_-cE-,
uCc-R, friend || She is the best friend I have ever had. B-U-P-Ec-uCc-RTCc-R]-PE-Gc-29%-T-^P,
uCc-U, girlfriend, female friend || I like to go shopping with my
girlfriend on Saturdays. /3-o/-C\]-P-R]-IP-`-E-<%-$A-uCc-U-NE-UIU-O-IG-C-R_-]u-T_-NC],
uE-m_, city || Xining is a medium-sized city in Northwest China.
\-`E-P-sE-C]-QT-qE-C-uE-m_-]{E-T-ZC-^P,
uE-m_-T, city folk || Like most city folk he doesnt really understand
countryside life. uE-m_-T-UE-ac-NE-]x-T_-B-<%-uE-CcT-l-]W-T-=-o?-=R/3J.,

uE-`, town || The nearest town is ten kilometers away.


Gc-I-T]-uE-`-P-`-T_-TF:-c-P-^N,
uE-, countryside, village || After living in the city for two months my
mother yearned to return to the countryside.

E]-e-U-uE-m_-.--CIc-<A%-TN-c-uE--<-]u-]-]NN-R-GP-R-c,
uE-R, villager || I want to talk to the richest villager in this village.
Ec--T-]N]-PE-C-uE-R-Gc-pC-R-NE-B-T-qN-]NN,
uE-CcT, countryside || The countryside has air that is cleaner than the
city. uE-CcT-`-uE-m_-`c-CVE-T]-UB]-NTCc-P,
uE-CcT-R, townsman || The townsman was not accustomed to life in the
countryside. uE-m_-T-N-uE-CcT-l-]W-T-`-U-CUc,
uEc, to die (h) || He wants to die in Lhasa. B--c-<-uEc-]NN,
uN-BC stomach || After eating too much my stomach felt uncomfortable.
\-U-\c-R-UE-xCc-Pc-E]-uN-BC-U-TN,
uP-NE`, expenditure, expense || The expense of my trip was more than I
expected. E]-`U-B]-uP-NE`-N-<%-$A-TcU-WN-`c-2c=,
51

uP-GE-, economizing, sparingly, thrift || She spent money sparingly for


she knew that it would be a long time before she could get more

B-Uc-_-U-UE-T-TV`-_C-T_-Oc-^P-_E-T-:$R<-o-;A/-R-ac-Pc, _-U-uPGE-Cc-T@`,
u`, to get loose, to get out, to be freed (from danger, hardship) || I want
to get out of the situation I am in now. E?-<%-*A.-N-Tc-n_-T]-CPc-TT`c-u`-T_-]NN,
uc, negotiation || The negotiation between the two villages over grazing
land reached a successful conclusion. -T-CIc-T_-IA--c]-#-3(-=-ucmoney.

:.3-;$-0R-L%-,

uc-UMP, agreement, accord || The agreement was reached after months


of negotiation. -T-]C]-`-uc-U`-qc-c-uc-UMP-qE-,
uc-_, discussion || Our discussion will take place in the large room on
the sixth floor. E-W]-uc-_-N-xC-MC-C-BE-GP-N]-PE-T--^P,
uc-WCc, meeting, conference || The meeting was to be held June 3-4 in
Lanzhou, Gansu Province. -6R]-Wc-3Pc-Wc4T_-@P-c]-ZE-GP-n-`P-u-<uc-WCc-Tc,
uc-CZ, proposal, topic for discussion || The first topic for discussion is
how we can make more money and minimize costs.

uc-CZ-MC-U-P-E-Wc-_-U-UE-T-H-_-]W`--NE-]u--H-_-H-GE-O-CKE--N-^P,
uc-_U, agenda || The agenda for our meeting will be given to each of
you tomorrow. cE-IP-mN-W-U-_-_-`-E-W]-uc-WCc-l-uc-_U-;A-$J-_--^P,
, (, c, c,) to hire; wage, fee || I need to hire a woman to help me
care for my five children. Ec-TN-UN-FC-c-Pc-<%-$A-qc-R--T-CI_-_Cc-qNO-]HC-NCc, My wage each month is approximately six hundred yuan.
1

-T-__-E]--S`-G_-_-U-xC-T-^P,

-G, remuneration || After working for one year I realized my


remuneration was too little to ever allow me to own an apartment.

`-CFC-`-q-T-`c-c, Ec-_E-C--G-NU]-xCc-Rc-BE-T-ZC-CKP-Pc-I-U-MT-R-ac,
-T, employee, hired hand || He paid his employee a good salary. Bc-<%$A--T-`--SCc-UPC-R-qP,
-SCc, salary, wage || What salary would allow you to lead a
comfortable life? -SCc-F-VU-=-2gJ/-5K-mN-lc-]W-T-N-R-ZC-_`-MT,
C eagle || The eagle soaring in the blue sky impressed us all. A-}R/52

.LA%?-?-]S_-E-qN-28A/-R]-C-Nc-E-W-WE-U-`-TC-GCc-\T-U-TZC

E-, bull || The bull knew that it would be slaughtered and bellowed.
E-Cc-_E-`-NU_-CcN-]MT--ac-Pc-%<-N-TKP,
E-GP, elephant || Elephant tusk is now forbidden to be sold on the
international market. N--`-]-WE-_-<-E-GP-n-T-c-TV%-U-GC
E-C park || While we were in the park we visited the zoo.
E-W-E-C-P-^N-Oc-~C-GCc-BE-`-T-T_-cE-,
E-GP, continent || Which continent is China on? sE-C-P-E-GP-CE-P-^N,
E-zP, island || Hainan Province is an island. d]-PP-ZE-GP-P-E-zP-ZC-^P,
E-T, flute || Shepherd boys play the flute while herding.
-T-GE-GE-Wc-`C-]W-Z_-E-T-]TN,
, song || After her song many of the audience were in tears.
B-Uc--Ec-c, IP-UBP-UE-T]-UG-U-a_,
-CNEc, melody, tune || That songs melody reminds me of a song my
mother sang to me when I was a child.

-CNEc-Nc-e-Uc-E-GE-Oc-c-Ec-R]--ZC-xP-O-TFC
-T, singer || The singer cleared his throat before he began singing.
-T-Nc--U-Ec-CE-B]-u-T-d_,
-NqEc, song, melody || My favorite song is a lullaby.
E-<%-Gc-NC]-T]--NqEc-P-qc-R-CIN-`-`-T]--NqEc-^P,
-U, female singer || The female singer strode confidently onto the
stage. -U-N-%R2?-*3?-.%-2&?-C_-Cc-c-TN,
Cc-TU, volume || The library does not have Volume Number One of
this journal. NR-UXN-BE-N-`-Oc-NT-]N]-.J2-NE-T-UN,
E-, to mention, to talk || I dont want to mention anything unpleasant.
Ec-cUc-U-N-R]-q-T-CE-^E-E-U-]NN,
E-U`, discussion || I dont think our discussion will last more than two
hours. Ec-Tc-P-E-W]-E-U`-N-(-WN-CIc-`c-:$R<-U-~N,
E-CZ, preface || The preface to the novel explains that it was a fine
example of Tibetan literature. TUc-E-N]-P-]u]-CKU-nc-TUc-E-N-PTN-l-U-_C-C-NR-UWP-2\E-T-ZC-^P-R_-TP,
P-R, idiot, fool || I was drunk and behaved like an idiot last night. UNENCE-, E-T\-Pc-P-R:A-5=-2!/, He is such a fool that he did not take
advantage of the opportunity. B-/A-3A-\J/-g$?-5-0R-&/-8A$-;A/-0?-C-Tc-l53

NC-UWP-2J.-U-N,
P-Cc, foolish behavior, stupidity || His stupidity resulted in the
company losing a large contract. B]-P-Cc-lc-AE-\-`-CP--GP-R-ZC-a_O-TFC My own stupidity caused this problem. E]-\J/-g$?-GA?-CPN-NP]N-T\c-qE-,
T, (T, Tc, Tc,) to press flat || In order to make steamed dumplings
we first have to press flat all these small circles of dough.

C-_-UC-UC-`c-p_, MC-U_-E-Wc-p-C-GE-GE-N-W-T-NCc,

, lung || My left lung is painful when I breathe.


Ec-NTCc-]qP-Tc, -C^P-U-P,
-T_, sudden, suddenly || The wind suddenly blew my hat off my head.
-U--T_-O-E-Cc-E]-UC-Pc-1<-B_,
-2<-/%-.-:6=-0, burst into || He angrily burst into my bedroom.
B-BE-t-`Ec-TZP--2<-E]-U`-BE-O-]X`-L%-,
C electricity || Our village got electricity last month.
-P-U]-PE-E-W]--T-`-C-]MP,
C-N, electric wire || The electric wire began burning and smoking.
C-N-]WC-Pc-O-T-]p_-]C-TUc,
C-, switch (of power) || After he found the switch he turned on the
light. Bc-C--N-c-C--pc,
C-TP, movie || The movie was so dull that I went to sleep.
C-TP-N-`-E-T-UN-Rc, E-`-CIN-MTc,
C-]zP, telegram, wire || I got a telegram yesterday from my mother.
B-?E-E-`-e-U]-C-]zP-ZC-]q_,
C-NU_, lightning || Thunder follows lightning. C-8$?-:H$?-3-,$+-]{C-1-uCc,
C-`c, electrical work || My apartment needs some electrical work.
E]-BE-T-`-C-`c-qN-NCc,
E-, (E-, Ec, Ec,) to search about; to tantalize || If you search about
your room, Im sure you will find your watch. C`-K-mN-l-BE-T]-PE-E()R$-)5K, G-WN-]B_-`-N-]u-T-E?-B-MC-$&R.-,2, He likes to tantalize his
younger brother. B-<%-$A-Q-T-`-B-E-T_-NC],
P, (P, P, P,) to patch, to cover up || My mother patched my trousers.
e-Uc-E]-E-U-`-U-R-P,
1

54

NCC-R, refutation, objection || My main objection to your proposal is that


you have not worked out all the details. Ec-mN-l-PR?-$8A-=-2+R/-0:A-NCCL-CV-T-P-mN-lc-ZT-U_-T@N-UN-R-N-^P,
NC], to like; to be happy || I want to like my teacher but his cruel
behavior makes it difficult. NC-P-`-NC]-0R-LJ.-]NN-lE-, B]-N-R-lA%0R-Nc-E-<%-,2?-3J.-0<-29R?, I hope that you will be happy now that
you are married. N--mN-CIP-C-qc-^N-Rc-Ec-mN-=-TN-N-^E-T]-_-T-[,
1

.$:-*A.,enjoyment || His main enjoyment is watching television.


B]-.$:-*A.-CV-T-P-TP-]zP-`--o-N-^P,

NC]-uCc, spouse, lover || My spouse and I just celebrated our fiftieth

E]-NC]-uCc-NE--EN-CIc-l?-CIP-C-L?-/?-`-]B_--TF=R/-0<-NC]-P-P-]{`-[c,

wedding anniversary.

NC]-P, celebration || The wedding celebration lasted several hours.(5S.-:$:A-<A%-$*J/-!R/-L?,


.$:-0R-3J.-0, unhappiness || What is the reason for your unhappiness?
mN-<%-.$:-0R-3J.-0:A--UWP-P-F-ZC-^P,
NC]-, joy || He felt such great joy that he began singing loudly. B-=-

NC]--GP-R-c-Pc-N-CcE-UMP-Rc--NqEc-`P-]C-TUc,
NC]-N, recreation || In terms of recreation, I like playing basketball and
soccer. lJ.-:)R:C-,.-/?-%-r%-lJ.-%R-=R-NE-E-N--`--T_-NC],
NC]-ZP, love || Love cannot occur without its oppositehate.
NC]-ZP-n-C---Z-E-UN-P, NC]-ZP-P-]qE-U-~N,
NC]-_Cc, lover || Her secret lover grew tired of being able to see her
only once a month. B-U]-CcE-T]-NC]-_Cc-B-U_--CFC-`-MEc-CFC-UCKCc-UH`-U-MT-R-=-^N-ME-GN,
NC]-Tc, welcome || The village provided a warm welcome to the
visiting Incarnate Lama. -Tc-3)=-:U.-.-:R%?-0:A-`--`--cUc-]B`-T:A%%-NC]-Tc-qc,
NC_, (NC_, T@_, B_,) to separate, to set aside || I want you to set aside the
broken boxes and bottles over here.

mN-lc-U-GE-MN-R-NE-NU-T-GC-R-CZCc-]N-`-B_,
ND, nine || I have nine uncles. E-`-e-B-ND-^N,
ND-TF, ninety || My grandmother died last year at the age of ninety. /-/A%kR-2R-`-ND-TF]-E-aJ2?-.?-W-`c-]Nc,
55

ND-T, ninth || The festival begins on the ninth day of the seventh lunar
month. =$?-fA%-$A--TOP-R]-Wc-ND-T]-IP-Oc-GP-n-]C-WCc,
NDE-P, blue sky || The blue sky seemed to touch the distant waters of
Qinghai Lake. NDE-P-Rc-UW-P-R]-S-UM]-UW-B-`-]mN-^N-R-]x,
NDE-`, age || My son is one year old. E]-T-`-CFC-^P,
NDP, winter || When winter comes we will begin to dry meat on the roof
of our home. NDP-B-MP-Oc, E-Wc-EN-WE-C-BE-MC-+-a-U-]C-U-o-;A/,
NDP-Oc, winter time || Winter time is a good opportunity to visit friends
for there isnt much work to do. NDP-B_-`c-@-UE-T-UN-Rc-.J-/A-uCc-R-`]WUc-]x-qN-R]-.?-Tc-T\E-T-ZC-^P,
NDP-, winter clothes || I bought a new set of winter clothes while I was
in town last week.

C\]-]B_-P-U_-E-_E-uE-T`-.-^N-Oc-Ec-NDP--Cc_-T-G-WE-ZC-Ic,
ND_, to be crooked, to be bent || His back was crooked with age. =R-2PJ?0-.%-2!/-/?-#R:C-o2-|<-L%-,

NC-P, advantages and disadvantages || Before you get married at such


an early age you should carefully weigh the advantages and
disadvantages.

mN-`-P-]N-]x-GE-Tc-CIP-C-U-qc-}R/-.-.J:A-NC-P-`-ZT-L-

TcU-0<-]c,
NC-P, teacher || My first Tibetan language teacher was my uncle, who
is a monk. E]-TN-;A$-NC-P-MC-U-P-E]-e-B-^P-`, B-P--T-ZC-^P,
NC-]OP, monk || The monk chanted scriptures every afternoon.
IP-_]-p-x_-NC-]OP-Nc-Gc-]NP-nP-^N,
NC-T, good deeds; favor || What good deeds have you done in the past
year? ]Nc-R]-`-`-mN-lc-NC-T-F-ZC-TTc, Doing favors for other people
is encouraged by Buddhism. PE-TP-nc-CZP-`-NC-T-T--T,
NC-UWP, auspicious/good/positive omen or symbol; advantages ||
1

Please give me some examples of what Tibetans think a good omen

is.

TN-Uc-F-ZC-P-NC-UWP-^P-R_-]NN-R]-NR_-UWP-_-E-`-P-NE-,

The

advantages of living in a city include convenient transportation and


access to information.

W`-C-TN-T]E-CKCc,

uE-m_-ZC-Pc-]W-T]-NC-SP-PE-]uU-]u`-Tc-TN-NE-CPc-

NC-cUc, charity, kindness || Charity is a value that comes from a deep


love for all beings. NC-cUc-P-cUc-FP-`-TFEc-R]-T-cUc-\T-U-`c-qE-T]-_P56

ME-ZC-^P, I wont forget your kindness. mN-l-MCc--Ec-U-TN,


NCE-U, evening || As the sun set in the evening we began preparing our
supper. NCE-U_-I-U-QT-Oc, E-Wc-NCE-\c-u-C-qN-]C-TUc,
NCE-WCc, supper, dinner || We ate boiled mutton and rice for supper.
E-Wc-NCE-WCc-`-`C-a-TVc-U-NE-]{c-\c,
NCE-WCc, evening party || The evening party began at eight oclock and
finished at midnight. NCE-WCc-(-WN-TN-E-]C-TUc-/?-PU-DE-=-u`,
NCEc-NC apology, pardon || His apology for his misdeeds was not
sincere. Bc-N-EP-`-NCEc-NC-[-T-N-U-NC-FC-UP,
NCEc-NP, meaning, idea || I cant understand the meaning of this essay.
Ec-U-ME-]N]-NCEc-NP-Cc-U-MT,
NCEc-R, thought, theory (h) || His theory is not easy to understand.
B]-NCEc-R-`-C-T-`P-N@],
NCN, (TCN, TCN, NCN,) to laugh, to giggle || What she said was so
impossible that I had to laugh. B-U?-2>.-0:A-{.-(-P-NR-U-~N-R-ZC-^P-Rc,
E-U-NCN-MTc-UN-qE-,
NCN-{-T, humorous || He is so humorous that he makes us giggle all the
time. B-P-U-NCN-{-T-ZC-^P-Rc, PU-o/-E-W-NCN-O-]HC
NCP-R, monastery, remote place || The monastery is located in a remote
place in the mountains. NCP-R-N-_-tN-l-NTP-CPc-?-^N,
NCc, to need, to have to || I have to go to visit my grandfather this
weekend. C\]-]B_-]N]-UHC-+-E--T-`-]WUc-]x-qN-O-]u-NCc,
NCc-UB, need, necessity || The need for food is shared by all creatures.
]u-T-MUc-FN-`-\-U]-NCc-UB-G,
Nn, to stand straight; to bend backward || The soldiers must stand
straight when their officers inspect them. NUC-NRP-nc-NUC-U-Uc-`-ZT-qN-Oc, NUC-U-W-Ec-R_-O-Nn-NCc, I have to bend backward in order to
do this exercise. `c-`-]N-E-GN-Ec-`c-R-Nn-NCc,
Nnc-P, celebration, fete || The celebration at the end of the project was
attended by many guests. `c-$8A-UHC-Cc-R]-Nnc-P-`-UuP-R-UE-T-[Cc,
Nu, enemy || Sometimes it is difficult to tell who is your enemy and who
is your friend. UWUc-UWUc-c-mN-l-Nu-uCc-c-^P-R-TaN-N@],
Nu-pCc, enemy side || One of our men was actually a traitor working for
1

the enemy side.

57

E-W]-P?-?-U-CFC-P-NP-NEc-c-Nu-pCc-`-q-T-qN-R]-E-`C-R-ZC-_N,
Nu-T, enemy || Her worst enemy is herself. B-U]-Nu-T-M-T-P-B-U-_E-_N,
Nu-`P, revenge, retaliation || Revenge is a powerful, destructive
emotion. Nu-`P-N-R-P-CK_-TC-G-T]-W_-T-E_-bCc-FP-ZC-^P,
TC-]uUc, distribution, allocation || Distribution of student food tickets
took one hour. T-U]-\-^C-TC-]uUc-qN-R-`-Oc-WN-CFC-]C_,
TC-q, dividend || After five years my investment earned a large
dividend. `-]-c-?, E]-MC-U]-U-NE`-`-TC-q-GP-R-MT,
TC-Ta], distribution, assignment || Job assignment will be announced by
the college in a week.

C\]-]B_-CFC-C-PE-T--GP-Uc-q-T]-TC-Ta]-TC--_N,
TCN, (TC TCc, TCc,) to divide || Please divide your food with us.
mN-l-\-U-E-W-`-TCc,
TuE-, (TuE-, TuEc, TuEc,) to count, to enumerate || I want to count all the
medicines that I have in my home. Ec-<%-HA3-.-^N-R]-P-WE-U-TuE-]NN,
Tuc, to be old, to grow old || No one wants to grow old. U-??-lE-<%-*A.Tuc-0<-U-]NN,
Tuc-R, old, aged || The aged men in our village are few in number.
E-W]--T]-PE-U-Tuc-R-JE-E-`c-UN,
Tu-E-, discussion || Lets have our discussion this afternoon.
N-_E-p-x_-E-Wc-Tu-E-qN,
TuN-`U, road, path || The road to town was repaired last year.
P-PE-uE-T`-O-]MP-R]-TuN-`U-N-IUc-Cc-qc,
UC_-T, blacksmith || A blacksmith makes horseshoes.
UC_-Tc--`-Cc-C-2h%?,
UD, to be appeased, to be pleased || My father will be pleased when he
sees all his children together again.

E]-e-Sc-B]-qc-R-Uc-^E-T_-P-]XUc-^N-R-UME-Oc-UD--_N,
UC, head, top || Please walk to the head of the line. u`-UC-`-cE-NE-,
UC-_, deception, trickiness || Her friends have left her because of her
trickiness. B-Uc-UC-_-TKE-T]-P-nc, uCc-R-Uc-U-NE-{`,
UC-]B_, to be lost; to be confused || I was lost in the big forest. E-PCcW`-GP-R]-$?J2-+-UC-]B_, I feel confused when you speak very
quickly. mN-lc-UnCc-U_-TaN-Tc-E-UC-]B_-:PR
1

58

UC-_,

to bend down; 2to submit, to surrender || 1When the wind blew,

E-D^Cc-R-P--UC-_, I surrender to your


superior strength. mN-l-/?->$?-mN-]SCc-`-Ec-UC-_-T-^P,
UC-TKCc, to capitulate, to surrender || After a long battle the losing side
surrendered. ^P-_E-T_-NUC-]tC-qc-c-SU-B-rE-pCc-lc-UC-TKCc,
UC-E-, stupid, empty-headed || He is so stupid that he doesnt even
know that money is valuable. B-UC-E-^P-Rc-_-U-`-_P-ME-^N-R]E-U-ac,
UC-C[C head and end || People at both the head and end of the line were
impatient. u`-n-UC-C[C-P-^N-R]-U-Wc-T\N-MT-lP-UN,
UC-;R3-]B_-2, to feel dizzy || I had not eaten and felt dizzy.
Ec-\-U-\c-UN-Rc-UC-;R3-]B_,
UC-C^Cc, to be deluded, to be deceived || Dont be deceived by his
eloquent speech. B]-B-TN-U-Nc-mN-=-UC-{R<-,J2?-?-3-]HC
UnCc, fast, quick, rapid || Please give a quick answer to my question.
E]-x-T-`-`P-UnCc-U-MTc,
UnCc-WN, speed, velocity || A bullet travels at great speed.
2

the grass bent down.

T]-UN`-UnCc-WN-GP-Rc-N,

UuP-R, throat || Is your throat painful when you swallow?


mN-lc-\-U-UN-Oc-UuP-R-e-P,
UuP-WT-R, spokesman || The spokesman for our group didnt speak very
well. E-W]-WCc-R]-UuP-WT-R?-$+3-TaN-0-U-T\E-,
UuP-BE-, hotel || That hotel is too expensive for me.
UuP-BE-N-E-`-UWP-P-CE-N@]-xCc,
UuP-O-]TN, to invite || I want to invite you to my home tomorrow
evening. cE-IP-NCE-U_-Ec-mN-EN-WE-`-UuP-O-]TN-]NN,
UuP-TNC host || Who will be host of the party?
-WCc-l-UuP-TNC-c-^P--_N,
UuP-R, guest || You are my guest when you come to my home.
mN-E]-mU-`-MP-5K-mN-P-E]-UuP-R-^P,
]CC to be hoarse; to block up || Im hoarse from a bad cold. E]-N-GUR-`c-]CC The pipe is blocked up. -D-]CC
]CC-, vital, key || Learning English is vital to my future.
NqP-^C-E-T-N-/A-E]-eJ?-pCc-`-UWP-P-]CC--^P,
]CP, duty, responsibility, incumbency, obligation || It is my duty to take
1

59

care of my children. <%-$A-

qc-R-Uc-CI_-E-qN-R-P-E]-]CP-^P, || The

Reincarnate Lama did his duty and held religious rituals once a

`-c--__-Gc-`Cc-l-G-C-MEc-CFC-_-`-/?-<%-$A-:$/-212?,
]CP-]B_-UBP, person in charge || Who is the person in charge of this
office? C[E-T-BE-]N]-]CP-]B_-UBP-c-^P,
]CP-]t, duties, responsibility || What are my duties as a new teacher?
NC-P-Cc_-T-ZC-^P-R]-G-Pc-E]-]CP-]t-F-ZC-^P,
]CU, to gobble, to eat quickly || I must gobble down my tsampa because
I have classes in five minutes. _-U-TF]-c-?-E-`-T-tN-^N-Rc, Ec-<%$A-U-R-]CU-NCc,
]C]-ZC some, several || Several years after he graduated he got married.
B-T-UM_-pP-Pc-`-]C]-]C_-c-CIP-C-qc,
]C`, to be against, to be contrary || His deed is against the law.
B]-q-N-P-tUc-]C`-;A/,
]C`-T, contradiction || It is a contradiction that I love and hate him.
Ec-B-`-($?-#%-$*A?-!:A-2?3-0-TFEc-R-P-]C`-^-ZC-_N,
]DCc, (NDC TAC BC) to summon; to attract; to bend || News of the
religious meeting summoned thousands of people. Gc-WCc-{R%-R]-Cc_]n_-nc-U-UE-T-TAC The marvelous food attracted the guests. \c-SNUE_-Uc-UuP-R-TAC The child is bending that piece of metal into a
hoop. qc-Rc-Cc-`T-U-N-e-`E-ZC-L-]DCc-TZP-^N,
]D`, to move || I want to move near the window. E-|J:-#%-$A-`Cc-?-$<month.

:.R.,

]D`-N, movement || There was a movement to learn a foreign


language. p-N-T-R]-]D`-N-FC-TEc,
]CE-, (NCE-, T@E-, BEc,) to be full of || The wooden chest is full of wheat.
aE-\:A-PE-PR-^c-T@E-,
]CTc, (NCT, T@T, BTc,) to cover; to conceal || I covered my sleeping
son with a quilt. Ec-<%-$A-CIN-BC-R]-T:A-!J%-=-I`-M`-T@T, Dont try to
conceal your secrets from me. mN-l-CcE-T-E-`-U-]CTc,
]C`, (NC`, T@`, B`,) to impose; to put a pack on (an animal) || Dont
impose that job on me. q-T-N-E]-E-`-U-]C`, Please help me put this
pack on the yak. E-`-Nc-R-]N-C^C-`-]C`-_Cc-qc,
]C, beginning, start; to infect (disease) || When is the beginning of the
1

60

T-]-T-Tc-c-U-.?-PU-WN-]C-U-o-<J., Plague can


infect marmots and spread to humans. _Uc-PN-]p-T-`-]C-~N-`-U-`]E`-MT,
]C-tN, leader, leadership || The leader lost his job last year.
P-PE-]C-tN-N]-q-T-a_,
]C-TN, preface, introduction || Who wrote the preface to this book? NRG-]N-`-]C-TN-cc-{c,
]C-lR3-0, to start, to commence (spontaneously) || What time do we start
work tomorrow? cE-IP-E-W]-`c-@-.?-PU-WN-]C-lR3--^P,
]CC (NCC T@C BCc,) to peel off || She peeled bark of trees to use as a
cooking fuel. B-Uc-E-bP-T@C-Pc-TN-aE-`-T@`,
]CC (NCC T@C BCc,) to stop, to halt, to block || The government has
2

next school term?

stopped the illegal marketing of drugs.

~N-C[E-Cc-tUc-]C`-n-OC-WE-T@C
]CC-`, resistance || The army met strong enemy resistance when they
tried to cross the mountains.

NUC-NRE-_-T-N-T`-c-qN-Oc-Nu-NUC-C-]CC-`-TVP-R-`-MC
]CC-~E-, defense, protection || This sheepskin coat is good protection
against the cold wind. C-R-]Nc-uE-Cc-]CC-~E-T\E-T-qN-MT,
]CN, (NCN, T@N, BN,) to put into; to make a plan || Put the data into a
chart. ^C-G-_]-UC-`-BN-FC Please make a plan to solve the farming
problems in your township. mN-W]-ZE-C-8A%-=?-CPN-NP-MC-CFN-R_-]G_CZ-ZC-BN,
]C_-]nEc, delay, postponement || Our delay was due to the heavy rain.
E-W_-]C_-]nEc-qE-T-P-G_-T-GP-R]-Tc-^P,
]C_-:I%?-29R-2, to delay || The snowstorm will delay our trip.
CEc-]WT-lc-E-W]-]u`-TN-=-:$R<-:I%?-29R--_N,
]Cc-PN, epidemic || There was a flu epidemic here last year.
P-PE-]N-C_-GU-_Uc-l-]Cc-PN-qE-,
]nE-, (]nE-, ]nEc,) to be delayed, to be postponed || The party will have
to be postponed. -WCc-`-Oc-]nE-qN-NCc--_N,
]n_, (]n_, n_,) to become || Nobody wants to become poor.
1

UN-R-`-]n_-]NN-UBP-UN,

]n_-BC melody || I cant forget that songs lovely melody.


61

Ec--NqEc-N]-]n_-BC-P-U-TN-U-MT,
]n_-C change, transformation || The change in the weather was
sudden. CPU-Cac-]n_-C-N--T_-ZC-_N,
]nN, charity, donation, endowment || His donation of one thousand
yuan was given to the orphanage. B]-_-E-CFC-C-8=-:.J2?--zC-BE-`1=,
]n`, to fall down, to slip || I dont want to fall down on this ice.
E-N_-MC-]N:A-!J%-]n`-U-]NN,
]nC (]nC TlCc, mCc,) to lift, to jack up || I cannot lift this heavy box by
myself. E-$&A$-0c-U-N-U-]N-]nC-U-MT,
]nN, to regret/repent || I regret telling you my secrets.
E-mN-`-CcE-T-TaN-R_-]nN,
]nN-R, remorse, regret || I feel much regret for my mistakes. E-<%-$AP_-]GC-`-]nN-R-GP-R-,
]uE-, to be full (food) || Im full and I cant eat anymore.
E]-S-T-]uE-0?-N-Ec-\-U-MT,
]uP, to compete, to contest || Do you want to compete in a wrestling
match? mN-lc--C-]uP-N-l-tN-Pc-]uP-P-e-]NN,
]uP-, competitor, rival || He is my chief rival for her love. B-P-B-U]-2lJ.%-lR.-=J/-LJ.-3#/-]uP-;-CV-T-^P,
:P/-;<-:I<-2, to be rivals, to be opponents || When it comes time for
promotions, you and I will be rivals for the top position.

C-CPc-]S_-

T]-Oc-{2?-aJ2?-5K, %J.-$*A?-C-CPc-UMP-R-TP-`P-qN-R:A-:P/-;<-:I<-%J?,
]uU, side, by || Come and sit by my side. ]N_-aC-`-E]-]uU-.-N,
]uU-G, saliva || The dark color of his saliva suggested that he was not
well. B]-]uU-G-UNC-PC-Rc-B]-`c-BUc-U-Ec-R-UWP,
]uU-O, by, by the side || The shop is by the school. WE-BE-N-T-]-*J-]uU-O^N,
]uU-R, cheeks || My cheeks were red with cold. E]-]uU-R-uE-Pc-NU_-2R<I<,
]uU-`-TF_, to come close || I dont want to come close to the fire.
E-U-]uU-.-TF_-U-]NN,
]uC to be correct || Your answer is correct. mN-l-`P-]uC
]uT, to decline, to decrease || Our number of livestock decreased.
62

E-W]-pCc-uEc-U_-`-]uT,
]uU-]u`, traffic, transport, transportation || There is a lot of traffic on
the citys streets around noon. IP-DE-C--C[C-L-uE-m_-n-o-`U-E-]uU]u`-n-]WT-G-G,
]u`, (]u`, u`,) to roll || A boulder rolled down the mountain.
S-TE-ZC-_-E-Pc-U_-]u`,

]uT, (]uT, uT,) to achieve, to fulfill || Can you fulfill the task your
teacher assigned? NC-P-nc-LA/-2]-`c-q-mN-lc-;R%?-]uT-LJ.-MT-TU,
]u`-N-R, traveler || The traveler was tired and thirsty.
]u`-N-R-N-ME-GN-/?-#-{R3-L%-,
:P=-*R.-LJ.-0, to travel, to journey || Tomorrow we will journey to town.
cE-IP-E-W-uE-T`-.-:P=-*R.-LJ.-o-;A/,

]u`-BE-, hotel || That hotel is cheap. ]u`-BE-N-CE-,


]u-`C rolling; wallowing || The horses rolling on the ground made a
big cloud of dust. -T-]u-`C-TT-Pc-`-GP-R-TEc, The wallowing of
the pigs in the mud over several years made a large hole. `-UE-T_-SC]NU-PE-.-]u-`C-TT-0-=c-#%-GP-R-ZC-pE-,
]uE-, to stand up || He stands up and answers the question.
B-^_-]uE?-Pc-`P-TKTc,
]uU, (NuU, TsU, tUc,) to spread, to display || She displayed the things
she wanted to sell. B-Uc-<%-$A?-]WE-]NN-R]-NEc-R-TsU,
]uUc-P, exhibition, display || Have you seen the new art exhibition?
mN-lc--`-]uUc-P-Cc_-T-`-e-Tc,
]u`-TaN, explanation, annotation || I read his explanation, but I still
cant understand it. Ec-B]-]u`-TaN-`-Tc-lE-N-_E-C-T-`P-U-MT,
]u (]u, cE-, cE-,) to go || I want to go see the movie.
E-C-TP-`-T-_-]u-]NN,
]u-, expenditure, payment || I dont think you can be reimbursed for
that expenditure. Ec-mN-l-]u--N-`-CZP-nc-P-WT-N--_N-U-]NN,
]u-`Cc, customs, folkways || He is very knowledgeable about Tibetan
customs. TN-l-]u-`Cc-MC-Pc-B-`-o?-=R/-92-3R-;R.,
]uC, (]uC ]uCc,) to associate, to make a relationship || I would like to
associate more with you. E-mN-NE-C-L-]uC-]NN,
]u`, (Nu`, Ts`, t`,) to untie, to undo, to get loose || He was so fat he
1

63

couldnt bend over and untie his shoes.

B]-`c-R-Cc-xCc-Rc-U_-T_-Pc-U-C-lE-]u`-U-MT,

N-R, old man || The old man is more than eighty years old.
N-R-N-`-TN-F-`c-T`,
N-U, old woman || The old woman can tell many folktales.
N-U-Nc-NUEc-tN-CKU-N-UE-T-TaN-ac,
P-R, the old, the senior || The senior generation in my village had a hard
life when they were young. E-W]--T]-U-_Tc-P-R-Uc-lc-GE-Oc-c-.!:,.-GA-]W-T-<R=,
P-_Tc, old generation || The old generation still wears traditional
clothing. P-_Tc-Rc-N-OE-~`-P-n-CP-R-CP,
`-WCc, backbone, vertebra || Backbone meat is very tasty.
`-WCc-l-a-P-d-FE-ZU,
N, to decline, to wane || The economy of that country is declining.
`-BT-N]-NR`-]q_-N-TZP-^N,
N-T, relief aid || The nomads were given relief aid after the
snowstorm. CEc-P-qE-c-]{C-R-Uc-`-N-T-qc,
P-]{U, grapes || Some wine is made from grapes. c`-GE-B-ac-P-P-]{U-`cTVCc-R-^P,

N-CKU, abusive speech || His abusive speech hurt everyones feelings.


B]-N-CKU-nc-U-Uc-l-cUc-`-C-T`,
N-R, violent, wild || He has a violent temper. B-/A-3A-Z-N-R-ZC-^P,
`, to oppose, to attack || We all oppose prejudice.
E-W-WE-Uc-pCc-ZP-`-`,
`-E-, attack, assault || The armys attack on the enemy was successful.
NUC-NRE-Cc-Nu-T_-`-E-qc-R_-`-B-MT,
-N, expansion, extending || The expansion of the school building will
take two months. T-]-BE-TCc--N-R_--T-CIc-:$R<-o-<J.,
-mP, size, scale || Tibets size is bigger than Qinghais.
TN-Ec-l--mP-UW-P-`c-G,
-, gate || Our schools new gate was expensive. E-W]-T-]---Cc_-T-.J=-PR/-.%=-3%-0R->R<,

-GP-R, large, extensive, broad || The large grassland was covered with
flowers. -ME-GP-R-U-KC-Cc-BEc-^N,
64

-U, Han person || The Han person learned to speak Tibetan.


-U-Nc-TN-N-(aN-)Ec,

-UW, ocean || This shell is from the ocean. I-Tc-p-Cc-]N--UW-`c-MP,


-^C written Chinese || I can read written Tibetan and written Chinese.
Ec-TN-^C-NE--^C-CIc-@-[R$-MT,
-_Cc, Han/Chinese (nationality) || His mother is Han but his father is
Mongolian. B]-e-U-P--_Cc-^P-^E-e-S-P-cC-_Cc-^P,

o%-*R., to march || We will march twenty kilometers tomorrow.


cE-IP-E-W--`-I-b:A-=3-,$-=-o%-*R.-LJ.-o-;A/,
E-C broadcasting || His job is in broadcasting. Bc-E-C-C-q-T-$*J<,

E-MC distance || Whats the distance from Lhasa to Shenyang?


-c-Pc-P-NqE-2<-=3-MC-C-WN-^N,
E-SN, exile, banishment || After his crime he had to go into exile. PC-IcTcCc-c-B-E-SN-`-]u-NCc-qE-,
E-_E-, far, distant || My home is far from yours. E]-^`-P-mN-WE-.%-E-_E-,
E-a`, telescope || I could see the moons mountains through the
telescope. Ec-E-a`-=?--T]-_-T-UME-MT,
P, to be glorified; ornament || The woman is glorified by her many
jewels and expensive clothes. B-U<-<%-$A-_P-R-G-NE-CP-R-CE-GP-UE-Tc2P, The Buddha image is covered with jewels and other
ornaments. cEc-c-l--N-_P-R-G-NE-P-nc-C^Cc,
P-G, ornament, jewelry || She wore jade jewelry. B-Uc-C^-^-P-G-TKCc,
T, behind, back || Who is the person standing behind you?
mN-l-T-.-`Ec-R]-U-N-P-c-^P,
T-_, support, aid || European aid to Africa has declined. ^-_T-lc-e-q-_B-`-T-_-qN-5.-H-JE-O-cE-^N, Where did he get support to build a new
school? B-`-T--Cc_-T-`c-]-T-*R<-CE-Pc-MT-R-^P,
T-]C`, opposition || His constant opposition to my wishes made me
hate him. Bc-E]-_-T-NE-P-R_-T-]C`-qN-R-Nc-E-B-`-Z-E-`Ec-c-TFC
T-Ec, background || What is your background? mN-l-T-Ec-P-F-ZC-^P,
T-pCc, rear, back || The fire started in the rear of the building.
BE-TCc-l-T-pCc-?-U-]T_-]C-TUc,
`, to win, to overcome || We want to win the volleyball game.
E-Wc-S]-GC-E-`]-]uP-T_-`c-`-#-=R/-]NN,
1

65

`-B, victory, success || Our victory was complete.


E-W]-`-B-P-CKE-GN-R-8A$-^P,
`-BT, state, country || What country has the largest population in the
world? ]XU-E-E-U-uEc-Gc-UE-T]-`-BT-P-CE-^P,
`-BEc, nationality || I was born in Australia and my nationality is
Australian. E-P-e-c-t-_-=A-;-<-*J?-0-;A/-0?-E]-`-BEc-P-e-c-t-_-^-^P,
`- national anthem || Who wrote our countrys national anthem?
E-W]-`-BT-l-`--cc-TUc-R-^P,
`-CFc, patriotic || When he saw the national flag raised he had a strong
patriotic feeling. `-N_-TEc-R-UME-.?, B-`-`-CFc-l-TcU-R-xC-R-c,
`-N_, national flag || Every country has a national flag that has a
special meaning to the people of that country.

`-BT-c-c-`-`-BT-N]-U-NUEc-`-UWP-P-NP-E-mN-R_-T-P-R]-`-N_-_-^N,
`-PE-, domestic, inland (China) || Hes not a native, hes from inland.
B-P-^`-U-UP-0<-o=-/%-$A-3A-8A$-^P,
`-0, king, monarch || The king died and his son became king.
`-0-]Nc-c-T-`-T_-n_,
o=-0R-$+3-,R.-&/,tyrant || Hitler was a tyrant. Z-M-`-P-o=-0R-$+3-,R.-&/ZC-^P,
`-, international || International opinion is reflected in decisions made
by the United Nations.

`-]-TcU-W`-N-UIU-]{`-`-WCc-lc-TKP-R]-MC-CFN-`c-UWP,
`-T, prince || A kings son is a prince. `-T]-T-P-`-T-^P,
`-]TEc-, citizen, subject || She is a citizen of Great Britain.
B-U-P-NqP-H]-`-]TEc-^P,

`-^Ec, whole country, nation-wide || The radio broadcast was nationwide. E-]zP-E-TCc-N-`-^Ec-c-mT,
`-_Tc, dynasty || Chinas last dynasty was the Qing Dynasty.
sE-C]-`-_Tc-c-U-P-GP-`-_Tc-^P,
`-c, capital || The capital of Great Britain is London.
NqP-H]-`-c-P-`P-LE-^P,
`-~c, prince || The princes mother is the queen.
`-~c-l-U-^U-P-`-U-^P,
`-~N, state affairs || The president worries about state affairs. VP-MP-nc66

`-~N-`-cUc-B_-qN,
`-~N--mT-BE-, State Council || The State Council members met last
night. UNE-NCE-`-~N--mT-BE-C-BEc-Uc-5S$?-]O-2#?,
c, to develop, to increase, to flourish || The economy is developing.
NR`-]q_-c-TZP-^N,
c-R, elaborate, detailed || His elaborate plan is too complicated.
B]-]G_-CZ-c-R-N-C-]XE-G-xCc,
c-c, extravagancy, lavishness || Extravagancy characterized his
lifestyle until he ran out of money.

B]-_-U-W_-_C-T_-O-B]-]W-T-_`-Ec-P-c-c-G,
-P, reason, cause || What is the reason you wont talk to him?
mN-lc-B-`-B-;-U-qN-R]--UWP-F-^P,
-G, material || What material is this made of? ]N--G-F-ZC-`c-29R?R-^P, Wood is good building material. aE-P-]XCc-P-o-(-T\E-T-8A$-^P,
What material is this ball made of? E-`-]N-o-F-ZC-=c-T\c-R-^P,
-P_, property, wealth || He lost all his property during the war.
NUC-]tC-C-Tc-c-B]--P_-WE-U->R_,
-UWP, reason || What is your reason for thinking that?
mN-lc-.R/-N-TcU-R]--UWP-F-^P,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to run; to sell well || I want to run from here to
the mountain. E-]N-Pc-_-N:A-KR$?-?-2C-]NN, Do you think my shops
goods will sell well? mN-lc-E]-WE-BE-C-WE-C--_N-e-]NN,
Cc, test, examination || Did you pass the examination?
mN-lc-Cc-e-]zN,
N-R, breed || This horse is of a distinguished lineage. -:.A-/A-g-N-3A%-P$?1

&/-8A$-=?-3(J.-0-;A/,

N-_U,

process; 2order || 1He had a lot of difficulties in the process of

raising enough funds to start his business.

B]-WE-`c-]C-U-R_-U--]NE-

T-T-_T-qN-R]-N-_U-PE-Bc-.!:-%=-(J/-0R-M%?, Please follow my


instructions in order. E]-UXT-P-N-_U-_-O-=$-2!<-qc,
o/-*R%-0, to continue || I want to continue to not smoke. Ec-<%-*A.-GA?O-T-:,J/-28A/-3J.-0-o/-*R%-]NN,
P-]mEc, maintenance, continuance || Continuance of our traditions and
language is important. ~`-P-NE-N-<A$?-$*A?-P-]mEc-qN-o-C`-G,
2

67

o/-:HR%?-LJ.-0, to continue, to proceed || Please continue studying


English every day. IP-__-NqP-^C-aR2-o-o/-:HR%?-LR?,

P-_, as usual || As usual he was late for class.


Oc-P-_-B-T-tN-l-c-?-`c,
P-O, always, all the time || He always sleeps late in the morning.
B?-P-O-PEc-]p-`Ec-qN,
o/-:6B/, keeping, preservation || The preservation of traditional customs
is important. ~`-P-o/-:6B/-qN--P-C`-G,
P-]XP-R, successor || Who will be the successor to the present
president? `c-MC-VP-MP-n-P-]XP-R-P-c-^P--_N,
c-UN, knowing little, having no familiarity || Having no familiarity
with the subject they were discussing, I said nothing.

B-Wc-E-TZP-R]-E-CZ-`-c-UN-Rc, Ec-{.-(-F-^E-U-TaN,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to stretch out, to extend out || Stretch out your
hand and Ill give you some candy.

mN-l-`C-R-Ec-NE-Ec-mN-`-@-_-]C]-_,

, saddle || My father made this saddle some years ago.


E]-e-Sc-`-]C]-P-`--]N-`c,

E-,

top of a mountain, summit; 2at the exact time (put after a present

tense verb) || 1Only one tree grew on the top of the mountain.

_-E-P-

E-T-CFC-U-CKCc-c-UN, A guest came at the exact time we were


having supper. E-Wc-NCE-WCc-:,E-28A/-T]-E-`-UuP-R-ZC-Tc-qE-,
U, box, trunk || This box is made of wood. U-]N-aE-Cc-`c,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to wait || I dont want to wait for you any longer.
Ec-mN-`-N-`c-_E-O-TC-U-]NN,
_, to bend down || Bend down and tie your shoelaces.
U_-_-Pc-U-C-Tc,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to move; to rotate || I moved the heavy stone out
of the road. Ec--N-U-N-`U-E-Pc-S_-`-T`, The rivers current rotated
the mills grindstones. G-P-nc-_E-]MC-C-NT_--T`,
C-IUc, enchanting guise || The moonlight cast the landscape in an
enchanting guise. -]N-lc-^`-Ec-`-C-IUc-c,
]-BE-, window || A stone had broken the glass in the window.
]-BE-C-a`---ZC-Cc-TFCc,
2

68

_, private, individual || I dont want to tell you about my private life.


Ec-mN-`-E]-_-n-]W-T:A-{R<-E-U-]NN,
_-CFN, dictatorship, autocratic || The world has few countries where a
dictatorship is the form of government. ]XU-E-.-~N-]XP-_-CFN-IAU-R-N-R]-`-BT-JE-E-`c-UN,
_-NP, private business/affair || He left this morning to do some private
business. .J-<A%-}-SR-B-_-NP-TT-R_-cE-,
_-U, monopoly || That company has a monopoly on buying and
selling oil. AE-\-Nc--U-I-WE-`-_-U-qN,
_-SP, private profit || The money she earns from her small shop is her
private profit. B-Uc-<%-$A-WE-BE-GE-(%-.J-=?-<J$-0:A-_-U-P-B-U]-_-SP-^P,
, door, entrance || He stood near the door, turned around, and walked
away. B--:P3-.-`Ec-eJ?-B-]B_-Pc-TN-cE-,
-B, in front of the door || The watchdog was chained in front of the
door. -m-N--B-P-TKCc-^N,
-E-, egg || I want one boiled egg for breakfast.
Ec-8R$?-9?-?--E-TVc-U-ZC-\-]NN,
-TP-(/-BE-, clinic, out-patient room || I went to the clinic to buy some
medicine. E--TP-(/-BE-O-P-]C]-I-T_-cE-,
-P, at the door || There was a bundle at the door and she took it inside.
-P-Nc-R-ZC-^N-R-B-Uc-PE-`-]m_-:R%?,
-pCc, livestock, domestic animal || His livestock have increased in
number. B]--pCc-l-uEc-@-]S_,
E-, to put/add (firewood) || Please add some firewood to the fire.
U-MC-`-m-U-]C]-_-E-_Cc,
U, (TU, TUc,Uc,) meditation, to meditate, to think over || His
meditation in a cave lasted one year.

Bc-{C-SC-8A$-+-U-TT-Pc-`-CFC-]C_,
_-_, round || A circle is round. U-R-P-_-_-^P,
_-U, currency, money || How much money do you have in your
pocket? mN-l-eU-tC-C-PE-.-_-U-&A-43-^N,
N-`C lazy, indolence || He is well-known for being lazy. B-N-`C-(J-2!/-=-P$?-;R.,

-U-UBP, magician || The magician amazed us all with his tricks.


69

-U-UBP-Nc-+-:U=-`-TP-Pc-E-W-^-UWP-O-TFC
-`, art || I dont like modern art. E-NE-_Tc-l--`-`-U-NC],
-`-T, artist || My brother is an artist and works for a publishing house.
E]P--P--`-T-ZC-^P-`-NR-P-BE-O-q-T-CI_,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to make something fall, to overthrow || During the
wrestling match I made him fall down.

-C]-]uP-N-qN-Oc-Ec-B-ME-`-T`,
Cc, cannon, artillery || Cannon boomed in the distance.
MC-_E-.-Cc-]SEc,
, sound || I like the sound of that song. E--NqEc-N]--`-NC], The sound
of the ringing bell spread throughout the village. -T-^Ec-c-x`-T]-mT,
-P-R, melodious sound || The melodious sound was coming from the
radio. -N-]B_-`-=c--P-U-8A$-uCc-qE-,
-CNEc, tone, pitch || That pitch is too high for me to make. -CNEc-.J-UMxCc-Rc-Ec-`P-U-MT,
-N-]B_-`, radio, radio equipment || I bought my first radio ten years
ago. `-TF]-P-`-Ec-,J%?-.%-0R<--N-]B_-`-8A$-Ic,
-ST-]B_-`, tape recorder || The tape recorder was made in Japan.
-ST-]B_-`-N-]H_-RP-Pc-MP-N-qc,
-NqEc, musical sound, tune, melody || That melody is so familiar.
-NqEc-N-/A-d-FE-o?-^N-FC-_N,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to arrange, to put (in order/in line), to queue || The
librarian spends much of her time putting books in order.

NR-UXN-N-NU-Rc-<%-$A-.?-5S.-1=-T-(J-NR-G-C-R]-MC-`-T@`,
C-tUc, discipline || Discipline is important for a class to be successful.
T-tN-FC-TN-`Cc-^E-T_-C-tUc-P-C`-G,
C-Gc, equipment || The laboratory equipment was made in the United
States. ZT-]HC-BE-C-C-Gc-P-e-U-_-B-<-,R/-*J.-L?,
C-_, installation || The installation of the new system took one week.
U-`C-Cc_-T-C-_-qN-R-`-C\]-]B_-CFC-]C_-qE-,
C-`U, discipline, rule || Discipline was lax in his class.
B]-T-tN-E-C-`U-N,
C-CaU, exhibition, display || Did you see the new exhibition at the
70

mN-lc-NEc-UE-TaUc-P-BE-.-C-CaU-Cc_-T-N-AJ-3,R%-,
C-~`, regulation, rule || That rule is too strict. C-~`-N-NU-R-^P-xCc,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to cover, to hide || Fog covered the valley.
C-Rc-`E-T-TTc,
U, (TU, TUc, Uc,) to make taut; to concentrate || We pulled the
rope taut. E-Wc-MC-R-TUc, Students should concentrate on studying.
T-U-Wc-T-E-,.-]R-<A$-U-NCc,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to roll; to combine || Please help me roll up the
tent. E-`-D_-`-_Cc-qc, Lets combine these students into one class.
T-U-]N-NC-]XP--CFC-`-T`-T_-nc,
E-, fable, story || That fable teaches a moral lesson.
E-$+3-Nc-AP-N-l-TT-q-ZC-CPE-,
E-UBP, storyteller || My grandmother is a good storyteller.
E]--T-P-E-2-1=-L%-&/-8A$-^P,
E-NR, story book || I like to read that storybook to my daughter. E<%-$A-T-U-`-E-NR-N-]NP-R_-NC],
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to do, to execute, to fulfill || What do you want to
do this afternoon? N-_E-p-x_-mN-lc-F-ZC-TT-]NN,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to raise, to raise up/lift || When we reached the
museum?

mountain top we raised a flag in the air and waved it.

E-W-_-_-MP-eJ?-N_-G-UB]-`-TEc-Pc-C^Cc,

, feathers || The peacock has beautiful feathers. -q-`--^C-R-^N,


-]NCc, exaggeration || His account is an exaggeration of what really
happened. Bc-$/?-5=-F-ZC-qE-T:A-{R<-]GN-R-.J-P--]NCc-<%-_N,
C-D, button || This button is made of silver. C-D-]N-P-NE`-`c-29R?,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to ignite, to light || Its time to light a candle.
y-W`-P-_P-_N,
P-U, lamp, lantern || The lamp gave out a strong light.
P-U-`c-]N-xC-R-UGN,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to liberate, to free || Machines have liberated
humans from much hard work. ]z`-Gc-lc-U]-_Cc-=?-lR=-#$-0R-=?2&A%?-:PR=-L?,

T, (one) hundred || One hundred is one more than ninety-nine.


T-/A-C-ND-`c-CFC-Cc-UE-,
71

T-G, percent, percentage || The percentage of Tibetans who can read


and write is increasing. ]{-C-qN-MT-R]-TN-U]-T-G]-WN-]S_-TZP-^N,
TN, eight || Eight boys are in my class. E]-]XP--PE-2-TN-^N,
TN-T, eight hundred || My fathers salary is about eight hundred yuan
a month. E]-e-S]--SCc-/A-_-TN-T-^P,
TN-F, eighty || My mother died when she was eighty.
E]-e-U-`-TN-F:A-!J%-W-`c-]Nc,
TN-R, eighth || This is the eighth day our teacher has been ill.
N-_E-P-E-W]-NC-P-P-2:A-5/-IA-IP-TN-R-^P,
T`, to faint, to become unconscious || I feel like I may faint.
E-`-xP-R-T`-T--T]-W_-T-,
TN, through, to, via, to transmit || I went through Lanzhou on my way
to Chengdu. E-`U-2<-.-`P-sC-TN-.J-tP-L]-`-cE-,
T_-^C translation || This Tibetan-English translation was done very
well. TN-NqP-^C-T_-qc-R-:.A-d-FE-T\E-,
TCc-CKU, declaration, pronouncement || His pronouncement was
welcomed by the masses. B]-TCc-CKU-`-UE-WCc-l-NC]-Tc-MT,
TCc-^C notification || Did you receive notification of the meeting next
week? mN-`-C\]-]B_-c-U]-uc-WCc-l-TCc-^C-]q_-_U,

E-, I, me || I am Norbu. E-P-P_-T-^P,


E-`, pride, arrogance || Pride goes before a fall, is a proverb.
E-`-P-SU-B]-P-O-]u-Zc-R-P-CKU-NR-ZC-^P,
E-W, we, us || Please dont tell us what to do.
E-W-`-F-ZC-`c-NCc-R-(U-TaN-FC)TaN-U-NCc,
E-^, my, mine || This is my book, its not yours.
]N-P-E:A-NR-G-^P-0-=?-mN-l-UP,
E-_E-, I, myself || I told myself not to worry too much.
Ec-_E-`-cUc-B_-N-]x-U-qN-R]-`-U-qc,
72

E-_E-W, we, ourselves || We kept all the money we found for


ourselves. E-Wc-<%-*A.-GA-GN-O-_C-R]-_-U-WE-U-I_-CcC-qc,
EC-P, legend, oral tradition || There is a legend about a monkey and
ogress being the origin of Tibetans.

TN-3A-i3?-/A-]-NE-{C-~P-U-$*A?-=?-3(J.-0:A-_-`-EC-P-ZC-^N,
EC-MC-Pc, orally, verbally || Id like to discuss this verbally, rather than
in writing. Ec-NP-]N-^C-MC-=?-%$-MC-+-2PR-\J%-LJ.-:.R.,
EE-Cc, gradually, slowly || I slowly understood more and more English.
Ec-NqP-^C-EE-Cc-H-UE-Pc-H-UE-O-ac,
EE-N, moral character, temperament || He has a good character and I
trust him. B-`-EE-N-T\E-T-ZC-^N-`-Ec-B-`-^N-Gc-qN,
EE-N-_E-T, patient, tolerant || He is tolerant of opinions that are different
than his. B?-_E-.%-3A-3,/-0:A-v-2-.$-$A-,R$-/?-EE-N-_E-T-]XP,
EE-ME-, impatient, intolerant || When he is tired, he becomes impatient.
ME-GN-^N-Oc, B-EE-ME-ZC-L-]n_-:PR
EP, bad || Bad is the opposite of good. EPP-T\E-C-]C`--^P,
EP-`, instigation, incitement || At his instigation, the students
complained to the headmaster.

Bc-EP-`-qc-3,<-T-U-Uc-lc-T-]-]C-T-`-]BE-_-L?,
EP-R, bad, evil || Her evil plan failed. B]-Hc-EP-R-`-SU-B-MTc,
EP-`E-, spoiled, pampered, coddled || Because he is an only child he is
spoiled. B-P-qc-R-CFC-R-^P-Rc-EP-`E-`-a_,
EP-cUc, evil motive, bad-hearted || An evil motive leads to evil action.
!/-aR%-%/-0-=?-,R.-%/-:L%-,

E_-N, to stimulate, to have an impact || His speech stimulated the


students to study harder. B]-CKU-TaN-lc-T-U-Uc-`-T-E-,.-.J2?-C-L-]TN-TP-qN-]-E_-N,
E_-bCc, vigor, energy || I dont seem to have any energy today.
N-_E-E-`-=?-bCc-UN-R-]x,
E`-OT, fatigue, tiredness || His tiredness made him sleep early.
B-`-E`-OT-qE-0c--U-Pc-CIN-BC
E`-`, work, labor || This work makes me tired. E`-`-]Nc-E-,%-GN-O-TFC
E`-`-T, worker, laborer || My father is a worker and my mother is a
doctor. E]-e-S-P-E`-`-T-ZC-^P-`, e-U-P-P-R-ZC-^P,
73

E-, to cry || She began to cry when she thought of her dead mother.
U-NU-R-xP-R]-W-B-U-E?-L%-,
EN, I, me || This book belongs to me. NR-G-]N-E-`-CKCc,
Ec-FP, certain, definite || I trusted his certain answer.
B:A-`P-,$-(R.-0R-`-Ec-^N-Gc-qN,
Ec-]qE-, awareness, consciousness (of life) || He has an awareness of
what life really is. ]W-T-NEc-CPc-F-ZC-^P-R-`-B_-Ec-]qE-ZC-c,
E-, face || Do you wash your face every morning?
*A/-<J:A-8R$?-0<-mN-lc-E-Ts-T-^P-PU,
E-`, protest, opposition || He made a weak protest before doing what I
told him. Ec-<%-$A?-.R/-F-TaN-R-U-212?-CE-Bc-E-`-zP-VU-qc,
E-CLC to meet, meeting in person || I want to meet you this afternoon.
N-_E-p-x_-Ec-mN-`-E-CLC-]NN,
E-TN, praise, flattery || Unfortunately, flattery is often very helpful in
being promoted. `c-U-T\E-T-ZC-`, C-]SE-c-R_-E-TN-lc-P-R_-C-d-FE-GN,
E-N, introduction, recommendation || Can you give me an introduction
so that I can meet that teacher? mN-lc-E-NC-P-N-`-MC-R_-E-N-qN-MT-TU,
E-T, nature, character (of matter/objects) || Physicists are concerned with
the nature of matter. NEc-`Cc-<A$-0-2c-NEc-R]-(R?-*A.-=-]HC-0<-qN,
E-U, real; true || This coat is made of real leather. N--]N-@-T-E-Uc-T\c-R^P, Is the story that you just told really true? mN-lc-TaN-U-MC-0:A-CKUN-N-P-E-U-^P-PU,
E-UW_-FP, miraculous, marvelous || She made a miraculous recovery
from her illness. B-U-PN-B-=c-M_-T-.J-/A-%R-35<-(J-2:A-.R/-8A$-<J.,
1

%R-35<-(J-2:A-:I<-wR$| || He experienced a miraculous change in his


character and his life after he meditated for three years. =R-$?3-<A%-|R312-L?-eJ?-#R:C-3A-$>A?-.%-:5S-2-$*A?-!:A-,.-/?-%R-35<-(J-2:A-:I<-wR$-L%-,

E-`C rebellion, revolt, uprising || The army quickly suppressed the


rebellion. NUC-NRE-Cc-E-`C-L-:$=-=-:U=-.-S$-$/R/-L?,
E-`C-R, scum; traitor, mutineer || The scum of society uses violence to
achieve their aims. -WCc-l-E-`C-R-Nc-xC-N-`-TP-Pc-_E-NP-CI_, We
1

finally understood that the respected official was actually a


traitor.

UM]-U_-E-Wc-CE-TA_-MT-R]-NRP-R-N-P-NP-.3-.-E-`C-R-ZC-^P-R-ac,

E-ac, acquaintance, to know/recognize || Hes not really my friend, hes


74

only an acquaintance.

B-P-E]-E-ac-VU-ZC-=?-uCc-R-E-U-UP,

EU, to show || I want to show you the scar on my leg.


Ec-mN-`-E]-E-T]-MC-C--B-!R/-]NN,
EUc, to be satisfied/content/satiated || I am satisfied with my marriage.
<%-$A-CIP-C-`-E]-^N-EUc,
Ec, surface, face (of wall, water, etc.) || The surface of the wall was
painted green. nE-Ec-?--E-B-Tc,
Ec-]XP, recognition, identification || He showed no sign of recognition
when I met him ten years later. `-TF]-c-?-MC-Oc, Bc-E-=-%R?-9A/-L%-2:Ai3-:I<-&A-;%-2!/-3-L%-,

NE`,

silver; 2money || 1I have a silver coin.

E-`-NE`-_-ZC-^N,

Although

my family does not have very much money, we love each other and

EN-WE-`-NE`-UE-T-UN-lE-, E-W-SP-WP-`-ZP-8A%-:5S-2-N-R-^P,
NE`-BE-, bank || I save my money in the bank. Ec-<%-$A-_-U-NE`-BE-O-TF`,
NE`-TF`, to save money in a bank, to deposit money || If you save your
we are happy.

money in the bank it will be safe.

C`-K-mN-lc-NE`-BE-O-NE`-TF`-5K-TN-]HCc-^P,
NE`-GN, fine || I had to pay a ten yuan fine for spitting in the
park. Ec-E-C:A-/%-`N-R-]SEc-R<-GN-R-_-U-TF-_-NCc-qE-,
NE`-TP, loan || How much is the interest on your loan?
mN-l-NE`-TP-l-N-@-C-WN-^P,
NE`-, fund || That organization has a large fund for emergency relief.
I_-UB]-UC-T-qN-R_--]XCc-N-`-NE`--UE-T-^N,
NEc-CPc, truly, actually || I truly believe you. Ec-mN-`-NEc-CPc-^N-Gc-qN,
NEc-R, object || He had several objects in his bag.
B-`-<%-$A-BC-U]-PE-NEc-R-]C]-^N,
NEc-E-, internship, practical studies || After I graduate I will have a one
year internship. T-UM_-pP-c, Ec-`-CFC-<A%-NEc-E-qN-NCc,
NEc-CV--T, materialism || His belief in materialism kept him from being
religious. NEc-CV--T:A-eJ?-:V%?-0-.J?-#R-<%-(R-=$?-0-8A$-+-:I<-o-=?-2^R$
NEc-\C goods, commodities || How many goods did you sell today?
N-_E-mN-lc-NEc-\C-&A-43-TVEc,
NEc-c, really, in actuality || In actuality, everything he said was false.
NEc-c-TaN-P, Bc-TaN-R-WE-U-P_-:.$
75

UEC (UEC UECc, UECc,) to send, to designate, to entrust || I will send a


messenger to your home tomorrow.

cE-IP-Ec-mN-l-mU-O-:UA/-*J=-3#/-ZC-UEC--^P,
UEC-TF`, commission || My boss had given me the commission to
implement the project. ]C-Tc-E-`-T\-P-N-`C-T_-qN-]-UEC-TF`-qc,
UE]-BEc, territory, domination || The countys territory includes only a
little grassland. E-C-UE]-BEc-?--c-FE-VU-`c-UN,
UE_-U, sweet || Sugar is sweet. @-_-P-UE_-U-^P,
UE`-GCc, to become pregnant || She wants to become pregnant and have
a baby. B-Uc-<%-=-UE`-GCc-Pc-qc-R-TV]-]NN,
UEP, to appear, to become evident/visible, to show || Slowly his motive
became evident. B]-AP-E-$-=J<-KA<-UEP-L%-,
UEP-UmP, foresight, prophesy, prescient || His statement was prescient.
B]-CcE-`-UEP-UmP-G,
UEP-]n_, materialization, realization || My success is the realization of
my dreams. E]-`-B:A-P2-:V?-P-<%-$A-SCc-TcU-UEP-]n_-qE-T-.J-^P,
UEP-Cc`, apparent, open, obvious || Your motive is apparent.
mN-l-AP-E-UEP-Cc`-_N,

-U, tail || The cat chased its tail. q-`c-_E-C--U-c-]NN-qc,


P-R, remuneration, tip || What tip should I give the waiter?
Ec-ZTc-[-T-`-P-R-F-ZC-_-NCc,
U-TN-FP, majestic, grand || From the summit the majestic landscape
rolled out before us. _:A-!J%-/?-3<-Tc-5K, U-TN-P-R]-^`-Ec->A$-E-W]UC-3./-.-Cc-:R%?,
U-cUc, greed || His greed, despite his great wealth, continued to grow
until it at last destroyed him.

B-`--P_-GP-R-^N-P]E-, B]-U-cUc-U-UMN-O-H-G_-cE-Pc-UM]-U_-_E-IN-TCc,
U-cUc-FP, selfish, greedy || To be selfish is always to want and never to
give. U-cUc-FP-`-P-R_-MT-]NN-`c-CKE-]NN-UN,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to inhale, to breathe || Inhaling cigarette smoke can
cause cancer. O-T-T-5K-P-PN-E-~N,
`-G, sweat, perspiration || After a hard game of basketball his clothing
was drenched in sweat.

r%-lJ.-%R-=R:C-]uP-T_-#$-0-ZC-qc-c, B]-CP-R-`-Gc-TEc,
76

, (Tc, T, c) to stew, to cook || He works in a restaurant and stews


mutton all day. Bc-\-BE-.-`c-@-CI_-/?-IP-CE-T_-`C-a-dR,
dR.-9%?, pan || This pan is too hot. dR.-9%?-]N-W-xCc,
P, to hunt || When I go hunting I always bring my rifle.
E-_-Cc-P-R_-]u-Oc, Ec-PU-o/-U-UN]-]B_,
P-R, hunter || The hunter killed a deer. P-Rc-a-U-ZC-TcN,
, five || My daughter will be five years old next month.
-eJ?-U]-PE-E]-T-U-`-<-`P--_N,
-T, five hundred || My new bicycle cost five hundred yuan. E]-Cc-Cc_-T-`-_-U--T-a_,
-TF, fifty || The distance from here to the nearest town is fifty
kilometers. ]N-Pc-Gc-I-T]-uE-T`-T_--`--TF-^N,
-G, a fifth || A fifth of the students wanted to play rather than study.
T-U]--G]-CFC-T-E-qN-R-`c--T_-NC],
-E-, five thousand || This gold ring costs five thousand yuan.
Cc_-n-UXT-Nsc-]N-`-_-U-E--NCc,
-x, morning, a.m. || I exercise every morning. *A/-<J:A-}-SR-%?-=?-l=-.R%2h<-LJ.,

-p, before and after, past and future || Before and after his marriage, he
drank enormous amounts of liquor.

CIP-C-qc-R]--p-`, Bc-GE-aP-L-UE-T-]MEc,
-U, former one, earlier one || He was married twice and has two
children by his former wife.

B-CIP-C-MEc-CIc-`-qc-R-NE-GE-U--U-`-qc-R-CIc-^N,
-U-Pc, early, long before || Long before I went abroad I studied English.
p-`-`-U-cE-CE-C-Oc--U-Pc-29%-Ec-NqP-^C-2a2?-0-;A/,
-_`, before, prior to || He graduated from university prior to getting a
job as a government officer.YA.-$8%-$A-=?-3A:A-L-2-8A$-<J$-0:A-}-<R=-+$-

+$-=-#R-<%-aR2-9-(J/-3R-/?-3,<-KA/-0-;A/,

-ac, earliest || What is the earliest you can come?


mN-^E-MT-R]-Oc--ac-PU-WN-^P,
-~`-_, as usual || As usual I would like to have a bottle of beer with
my supper. -~`-_-Ec-NCE-WCc-NE-UIU-O--GE-NU-T-CE-TLE-]NN,
C (TC TCc, Cc) to praise, to hail || He was praised for his speech.
77

Bc-CKU-TaN-CPE-T_-CZP-nc-TCc,
Cc, mantra || He repeated the same mantra all day.
IP-CE-T_-Ec-Cc-CFC-^E-^E-O-Tc,
_-_, as before, according to the past || I want you to do exactly what
you did as before. mN-lc-_-_-H-U-H-TZP-O-`c--P-E]-<J-2-^P,
_-Pc, from before || The bad habits he had learned from before he came
to live with us caused much trouble.

E-W-NE-UIU-O-U-TN-CE-B-`-CUc-R]-~`-EP-Rc-C-GP-R-T`,
c-]T`, pillow || The pillow is stuffed with feathers.
c-]T`-PE-`-q--TEc-^N,
P, front, before, ahead || Please walk in front of me. E]-P-=-cE-ZC
-E-, green || Grass is green. -P--E-^P,
-C unripe || Unripe apples are sour. A-b--C-`-_-G,
-W`, vegetable || Cabbage is my favorite vegetable.
WN-U-@P-`P-P-E-Gc-NC]-T]--W`-^P,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to dig, to reveal, to uncover || His misdeeds were
uncovered. B]-PC-Ic-TCc,
C-]NP, excavation || The coal mines excavation will be done here.
]N-Pc-c`-CK_-TC-]NP-qN--_N,
P, before, prior to || Before I was married I often did not go home at
night. CIP-C-U-qc-P-`-NCE-U_-E-P-R_-^`-`-U-]u,
P-]CC prevention, precaution || We had a class today in fire
prevention. N-_E-E-W-`-U-P-P-]CC-C-T-tN-FC-qc,
P-]u]-G-P, prerequisite, precondition || I have one prerequisite before I
will sign the contract.

Ec-CP--`-UE-Cc-U-T@N-CE-E-`-P-]u]-G-P-ZC-^N,
P-GN, previously, in the past || In the past I liked going to parties but I
dont now. P-GN-E--WCc-`-[Cc-R_-NC]-_E-, N--E-U-NC], In the past I
often drank liquor but I dont now. }R/-(.-Ec-P-R_-GE-]MEc-3R., ]P-lEN--Ec-U-]ME-,
P-MP, advanced, progressive || He was recognized as an advanced
worker. B-P-`c-T\-T-P-MP-ZC-L-2lA?,
P-Oc, past time, former times || In former times goods were much
cheaper than they are today.

78

P-Oc-NEc-\C-C-CE-NE-T_-5K-N--<A/-$R%-d-FE-,

}R/-:.A<, some time ago || There was a heavy snow here some time ago.
}R/-:.A<-BEc-GP-R-TTc,

P-R, blue || The ocean seemed to be blue. -UW-P-P-R-^P-R-]x,


P-NRC estimation, prognosis || My estimation is that the project will
succeed. E]-P-NRC-`-T\-P-N-`Cc-]uT-]qE--_N,
P-U, former one, previous || My previous book on Tibetan history sold
well. TN-l-`-c-_-n-E]-NR-G-P-U-N-5S%-{P-0R-L%-,
P-_Tc-R, ancestor, forerunner || Where did your ancestor come
from? mN-l-P-_Tc-R-CE-Pc-^E-T-^P,
TCc-TN, compliment, praise || Thank you for that nice compliment.
mN-lc-TCc-TN-P-R-qc-R-`-MCc--G,

F-F, noise, chatter || Birds make a lot of noise in the morning.


8R$?-0<-]NT-GCc-lc-F-F-GP-R-TCc,
F-`C things; furniture || What things will you take with you? mN-lc-F`C-F-ZC-]m_--^P, My furniture is made of wood. E]-F-`C-aE-=c1

29R?,

F, what, whatever || Whatever you want me to do, Ill do.


mN-lc-F-CcEc-Ec-TT-Ec,
F--T, like what || I want a coat just like what you are wearing now.
E-`-mN-lc-N--UPTc-R]-N---T-ZC-^N-P-]NN,
F-Pc-lE-, must, by all means || You must stop smoking!
mN-lc-F-Pc-lE-O-T-CFN-NCc,
F-Qc-lc, do as best as possible || I want to teach as best as possible.
Ec-F-Qc-lc-T-tN-qN-]NN,
F-q-CK`-UN, at the end of ones wits, hopeless || With six children, she
always looked like she was at the end of her wits.

qc-R-xC-^N-Rc, B-U-`-P-R_-F-q-CK`-UN-l-$/?-?-z%-2:A-*3?-5S.-a_-]OC
F-U-_E-, if only, how I wish || How I wish I had learned English when I
had the chance. P-GN-E-`-C-Tc-^N-Oc-Ec-NqP-^C-TTc-P-F-U-_E-~3,
79

F-VU, how much, how many || How much money do you earn in a
year? `-CFC-`-mN-lc-_-U-F-VU-`P-MT, How much does this cost? ]N:A<A/-`-_-U-H-VU-NCc,
F-ZC what || What is your fathers name? mN-l-e-S]-UE-`-F-ZC-\_,
F-^E-, anything, everything || I like to read everything about Tibetan
history. Ec-TN-l-`-c-l-_-&A-<A$?-TC-]NN,
F-^N, whatever there is || Whatever there is that I can do to help you, Ill
try my best. mN-`-_Cc-_-qN-MT-R]-q-T-F-^N-l-MC-Pc-Ec-F-Cc-GA?_Cc-_-qN-Ec,
F-_Cc, all kinds/sorts || He collected all sorts of things, including coins
and stamps. Bc-_-U-NE-^C-Cc-?R$?-NEc-R-F-_Cc-I_-T-qc,
F]-p_, why, for what || Why did you say that?
mN-lc-.R/-N-F]-p_-TaN-R-^P,
FE-, a little, a few, slightly || A few drops of rain fell from the sky.
CPU-Pc-G_-T-FE-VU-ZC-TTc,
Fc-R, so-called || His so-called charisma did not attract me. B]-:$$?>$?-Zc-R-Nc-E]-^N-cUc-U-TACc,
FC-V, table || I bought a new table yesterday. B-?E-Ec-FC-V-Cc_-T-ZC-Ic,
FE-, bell, gong || He rang the bell. Bc-FE-TEc,
CFP-\P, carnivorous animal || The wolf is a carnivorous animal.
E-@-P-CFP-\P-ZC-^P,

CF_, (CF_, TF_, CF_,) to move close/near || Move near the fire and you
will be warm. U-B-`-CF_-NE-mN-xP-R_-^E-,
CF_, (CF_, CF_, CF_,) to beat || My father said that he had to beat me
when I was a child because I was disobedient.

E]-e-Sc-TaN-P, E-GE-Oc-qc-R-B-`-IP-UBP-ZC-UP-Rc-P-R_-CF_-NCc-\_,
CFC one || One plus one equals two. CFC-MC-CFC-TP-P-CIc-^P,
CFC-E-, only, single || I am my parents only child.
E-P-E]-S-U]-qc-R-CFC-0-^P,
CFC-n_, unity, unification || A countrys unity is necessary for nationwide stability. `-BT-l-CFC-n_-P-`-^Ec-l-TP-]HCc-`-NCc-UB-G,
CFC-`, solidarity, unity || There was great solidarity between the
students. T-U-W]-T_-`-3,/-`-GP-R-qE-,
CFC-c-CIc-UMN, one after another, successively || Disasters came one
80

after another.

CPN-]W-CFC-c-CIc-UMN-O-qE-,

CFC-UMP, similarity, agreement || There was little similarity between the


two brothers. P--CIc-T_-CFC-UMP-^P-0:A-(-&A-;%-3J.,
CFC-N, concentration, centralization || Centralization of power
increased efficiency. NTE-G-CFC-N-lc-`c-GN-H-G_-TKE-,
CFC-Pc, on the one hand || On the one hand I believe him, on the other
hand I dont.

pCc-CFC-Pc-E-B-`-^N-Gc-R-NE-, pCc-CZP-ZC-Pc-E-B-`-^N-U-Gc,
CFC-R, single, alone, sole || That class is all girls except for the single
boy. 2-CFC-R-N-U-CKCc-]XP--ZA=-2R-T-U-^P,
CFC-UWEc, same, similar || The weather today is similar to yesterdays.
N-_E-C-$/3-$>A?-B-?E-NE-CFC-UWEc-_N,
CFP, urine || When you have hepatitis your urine becomes brown.
mN-`-UGP-PN-qE-Oc, mN-l-CFP-C-UNC-L-]n_,
$&A/-*$ urine and feces || When I was a baby my parents cleaned away
my urine and feces. %-U-$-8A$-;A/-.?, S-Uc-E]-$&A/-*$-I-_-qc,

CF_, (CF_, TF_, G_,) to mash || I must mash the garlic. Ec-C-R-N-CF_-NCc,
CF, (CF, CFc, CFc,) to twist, to wring || Please wring out the laundry.
CP-R-Tsc-\P-R-CFc-NE-,
CF_-T, naked || We all are born naked. E-W-WE-U-CF_-T_-c,
CFc, to love, to take care || Please take care of your old parents.
mN-l-S-U-P-P-`-CFc-R_-nc,
CFc-E-, taking care, looking after || I am very busy looking after my
infant daughter. E-<%-$A-2-3R-CFc-E-LJ.-0<-VJ=,
CFc-TCc, collection, anthology || Did you read the newest anthology of
Tibetan short stories? mN-lc-TN-l-E-ME-CFc-TCc-Gc-Cc_-T-N-TCc-cU,
CFc-c, taking good care of || Taking good care of the public good is
emphasized in schools.

T--Wc--NUEc-l--c-`-CFc-c-qN-NCc-R-PP-nc-TP,
CFc-`E-, coddled, pampered, indulged || He was a coddled only
son. B-P-CFc-`E-O-TKE-T]-T-CFC-R-^P,
CFC (CFC TFC GCc,) to break, to lower, to disobey || He broke all the
school windows. Bc-T-]-]-BE-WE-U-TFCc,
CFE-_E-, cliff || I couldnt walk up the steep cliff.
81

E-CFE-_E-C\_-T-`-]C-U-MT,
CFN, (CFN, TFN, GN,) to cut;
1

to make up ones mind; 3to give up ||

MC-R-N--CIc-`-GN, I made up my
mind and I dont want to go. Ec--MC-TFN-\P, E-]u-U-]NN, I want to
give up smoking. Ec-O-T-CFN-]NN,
TF]-tUc, law || This is a new law. ]N-P-TF]-tUc-Cc_-T-ZC-^P,
TFEc-]u`, liberation || Liberation of China occurred in 1940s.
1949`_-sE-C]-TFEc-]u`-qE-,
TF, ten || Ten divided by two is five. TF-CIc-`-TCc-5K--^P,
TF-ND nineteen || Nineteen times two is thirty-eight.
TF-ND-CIc-`-T_-5K-c-TN-^P,
TF-CFC eleven || Thirty-one minus eleven is twenty.
c-CFC-`c-TF-CFC-]MP-5K-I-b-^P,
TF-G, a tenth || A tenth of one hundred is ten. T-G]-TF-P-TF-MU-R-^P,
TF-CIc, twelve || Each year has twelve months. `-CFC-`--T-TF-CIc-^N,
TF-xC sixteen || Sixteen plus sixteen is thirty-two.
TF-xC-`-TF-xC-TP-5K-c-CIc-^P,
TF-TOP, seventeen || She married when she was seventeen.
`-TF-TOP-!J%-B-U-CIP-C-qc,
TF-T, the tenth || The tenth person in the line suddenly fainted from the
heat. u`-E-C-U-TF-T-N-WN-R-`c-xP-R-T`,
TF-TZ, fourteen || He dropped out of school when he was fourteen.
`-TF-TZ:A-!J%-B-T--Pc-TN,
TF-CcU, thirteen || Many Westerners think that thirteen is an unlucky
number. QT-pCc-R-UE-Tc-TF-CcU-P-uEc-@-B-U-x-T-ZC-L-]NN,
TFN, essence; nutrition || This book contains the essence of Tibetan
folklore. NR-G-]N]-PE-O-TN-l-NUEc-tN-U-_C-C-TFN-]Oc, Candy has little
nutrition. @-_-`-TFN-U/-2-43-=?-UN,
TF-TN, eighteen || You legally become an adult when you are eighteen.
_E-`-TF-TN-`-aJ2?-5K-mN-P-.-$9R.-tUc-UMP-n-U-N_-U-ZC-L-I<-2-^P,
TF-, fifteen || Im fifteen and my sister is two years older.
E-P-`-TF--^P-R-NE-E]-CFP-U-%-=?-`-CIc-lc-G,
TFc-T_, reform, amelioration || The legal system needs reform.
TF]-tUc-`U-`Cc-`-TFc-T_-qN-NCc,
1

Please cut the rope into two pieces.

82

TFc-U, fraudulent, hypocritical, false || His attitude is hypocritical.


B]--W`-P-TFc-U-ZC-_N,
Cc, metal; iron || Aluminum, steel, silver, gold, and iron are all metals.
Z-I-NE--Cc, NE`, Cc_, Cc-WE-U-P-Cc-_Cc-^P,
Cc-UC_, blacksmith || The blacksmith had a big right arm. Cc-UC_-N-`C^c-NRE-U-R-ZC-^N,
Cc-C fetter, manacle || The fetter was around his ankle.
Cc-C-B]-~-`E-C-UM]-`-TP,
Cc-, bicycle, bike || My bicycle has a flat tire.
E]-Cc-]-]B_-`]-NTCc-a_,
Cc-MT, metal stove || I bought a new metal stove for winter.
NDP-`-T_-Ec-Cc-MT-Cc_-T-ZC-Ic,
Cc-C pen || Does your pen have ink in it?
mN-l-Cc-C-C-PE-P-C-G-^N-NU,
Cc-`U, railway, railroad || The railroad near our village was finished
last year. P-PE-E-W]--]NTc-l-Cc-`U-N-;R%?-]uT-L%-,
U-U, wife || My wife is younger than me. E]-U-U-E-`c-`-CZP,
-U, heavy || My daughter is so heavy that I cant carry her for very long
without being tired.

E]-T-U:A-=?--U-^P-Rc-Ec-E`-T-UN-R_-B-U-^P-_E-`-]B_-U-MT,

, tongue || He was so shy that he lowered his head and stuck out his
tongue. B-E-W-G-Tc-UC-_-/?--T_,
T, (T, Tc, Tc,) to kill oneself, to commit suicide, to take ones life ||
Everyone was surprised when she committed suicide.

B-U-Tc-R_-U-WE-U-^-UW_,

G-P, condition, factors || A number of factors explain why he is


alcoholic. B-P-GE-`-ZC-^P-R-P-UE-Tc-UWP,
G-]uC-R, well matched, well paired up || The newly-weds are well
matched. m-bC-Cc_-T-N-G-]uC-R-_N,
83

G-c, familiarity || He has great familiarity with local culture.


B-c-CPc-l-_C-CPc-`-G-c-GP-R-^N,
G-CFC one pair, a pair || I bought one pair of new shoes.
Ec-U-Cc_-T-G-CFC-Ic,
G-G, in pairs, in twos || The students sit at the desks in pairs.
T-U-W-G-qc-Pc-FC-V]-:P3-.-N,
G-Uc, average, equal || On average, three students are absent daily from
class. G-Uc-qc-P, IP-__-T-U-CcU-_-T-tN-`-GN-]u,
G-UN, single || The deranged man wore only a single shoe.
P-R-Nc-U-G-UN-FC-nP,
G-WE-, complete, whole || We ate nearly a whole sheep in one week.
C\]-]B_-CFC-C-PE-E-Wc-S`-G_-`C-a-G-WE-ZC-\c,
G-UWEc, to be equal in size/shape; same, similar || These two pieces of
meat are nearly equal in size. a-`T-U-]N-CIc-l-G-GE-S`-G_-G-UWEc^P, My idea is similar to yours. %J.-$*A?-GA-v-2-(-35%?,
G-UWP-P, for example/instance || Some people, for example my brother
1

and sister, like sleeping late in the morning.

U-]C]-_-^N-R-NR_-P-E]-P-^-NE-~E-U-`-G-UWP-P, PEc-]p-=%?-qN-R_-NC],
G-^N, familiar || I saw this movie before so no wonder it seems so
familiar. Ec-C-TP-]N-`-P-GN-T?-rE-, N]-P-nc-C-TP-N-N-]x]-G-^N-FCL-E-T-BC-UN,
G-`Cc, the style of dress, fashion || This sort of pants is the latest
fashion. E-U-]N-P-UC-]-G-`Cc-_N,
GC-_, broken pieces || The broken pieces of the plate lay scattered on the
floor. _-U:A-GC-_-ME-`-M_,
GC-, accident, calamity, misfortune || Two people died in the car
accident. Ec-]B_-n-GC--OR.-U-CIc->A
GCc-R, lust || He could not control his lust once he was drunk. T\-5KBc-<%-$A-GCc-R-`-WN-]XP-qN-U-MT,
GE-, liquor, alcohol || He said he could drink one bottle of liquor.
Bc-GE-NU-T-CE-TLE-MT-Fc-`T,
GE-BE-, bar, tavern || Where is the nearest bar? MC-Gc-I-T]-GE-BE-CE-P-^N,
GE-P, feast, drinking party || My classmates have a feast once a year.
E]-T-uCc-Uc-lc-`-CFC-__-GE-P-MEc-CFC-_-qN,
84

GN, to owe, to be broken of || I dont like to owe anyone anything.


Ec-CZP-c-`]E-NU-GN-U-]NN,
GN-R, penalty, fine || The fine is ten pounds.
GN-R-NqP-_-TF- (-N-O-NqP-RE-) ^P,
GT-~N, politics || Politics is the use of power.
GT-~N-P-NTE-G-T@`-N-qN-R-N-^P,
GT-~N-R, politician || He was a famous politician.
B-P-GT-~N-R-uCc-FP-ZC-^P,
GU-R, cold || My cold got worse so I stayed in bed.
GU-R-H-C-`-cE-Tc-E-I`-Pc-TN,
G_, rain || After a long drought the rain was welcome.
^P-_E-`-MP-R-qE-c, G_-`-Tc-T-qc,
G_-G, rainwater || I like to drink rainwater. E-G_-G-TLE-T_-NC],
G_-COCc, umbrella || This umbrella is made of plastic and cloth.
G_-COCc-]N-]nC-NE-_c-`c-T\c-R-^P,
GC-E-, one thousand || The plane ticket cost one thousand dollars.
CPU-u]-R-c-`-e-_-GC-E-NCc-qE-,
GC-T, one hundred || One hundred sheep were sold yesterday.
B-?E-`C-GC-T-TVEc,

GC-]TU, one hundred thousand || One hundred thousand people came to


the monastery yesterday. B-?E-U-GC-]TU-NCP-R-`-^E-,
GEc-^C treaty || The two nations signed a treaty yesterday.
B-?E-`-BT-CIc-lc-GEc-^C-FC-TZC
G, water || I drink cold water when Im thirsty. U-Oc, Ec-G-]mC-R-TLE-,
G-, irrigation ditch || The irrigation ditch was dry. G--N-P-GN-U-R-_N,
G-`, swimming || Swimming in Qinghai Lake is something I greatly
enjoy. UW-P-R]-PE-O-G-`-qN-R-P-E-<%-(J?-3R-2:A-.R/-ZC-^P,
G-B`-U, boiled water || Only drink boiled water. G-B`-U-B-P-MEc-aC
G-GP, big river || We must cross a big river tomorrow.
cE-IP-E-W-G-GP-`-T`-NCc,
G-CKE-, to irrigate || If we cant irrigate our crops soon they will die.
C`-K-E-Wc-`-KC-`-=3-?%-G-CKE-U-MT-5K, `-KC-U-]u,
G-MCc, drop of water || The drop of water fell on his face.
G-MCc-B]-E-`-E-,
85

G-]xP, irrigation, watering || He taught new irrigation techniques to the


farmers. Bc-ZE-T-Uc-`-G-]xP-`C-`-{R<-IA->J?-L-Cc_-T-]GN,
G-T, river || What is the name of that river? G-T-N]-UE-`-F-\_,
G-U, irrigated area, area under irrigation || What is the area of land under
irrigation in your county? E-W]-E-C-G-U-c-G-P-CE-^P,
G-UC spring || Water flowed out of the spring. G-UC-=?-G-2hR=,
G-WN, level, standard || What is the level of your
English?

mN-l-NqP-^C-C-G-WN-H-]x-^P,

G-UXN, reservoir || Our city gets its drinking water from a reservoir.
E-W]-uE-m_-nc-G-UXN-FC-Pc-TLE-G-`P,
G-C\_, water rapids || Steering a boat through the water rapids is not
easy. G-C\_-`c-u-GE-`-B-`-T_-N@],
G-^_, irrigation canal || The irrigation canal supplies water to all our
villages fields. G-^_-N-`c-E-W]--T]-c-ZE-`-G-]xP,
G-_Cc, dike || After the heavy rain the dike was broken.
G_-ZN-GP-0Rc-G-_Cc-CK_,

G-Tc, wave || The waves of the river got bigger and bigger as the
intensity of the rain increased.

G_-T]-xC-WN-H-c-c-cE-T-NE-TP-Pc-G-Tc-H-c-?-cE-,
G-`U, waterway, shipping route || The Yangtze River is one of Chinas
most important waterways. ]VA-G-P-sE-C]-G-`U-Gc-C`-GP-P?-?-CFC-^P,
G-`C flood || The flood increased for three days inundating the entire
city. G-`C-IP-CcU-`-{Tc-3,<-uE-m_-^Ec-c-TTc,
GE-, small, little, tiny || Tiny drops of sweat appeared on his nose.
`-hR$-GE-GE-B]--UC-`c-Tc,
GE-uCc, childhood friend || I married my childhood friend.
E-<%-$A-GE-uCc-.%-CIP-C-qc,
GE-Oc, when (someone) is young || When I was young I played that
game. GE-Oc-c-E-N-U-N--T_-NC],
GE-U, wife || My wife is younger than me. E]-GE-U-E-`c-`-GE-,
GE-ac, smallest || This is the smallest size we have. ]N-P-E-W-`-^N-R]-P?-?GE-ac-^P,
GN-\c, waste, squander || Wasting the money that your parents send you
is something that you should stop doing. mN-l?-<%-$A-S-Uc-T_-T]-_-U86

GN-\c-c-CKE-T-E-]c,
G_-T, cheese || The cheese smelled bad but tasted great.
G_-T]-x-U-U-ZU-_E-{-T-ZU,
G, big, large || I have a large home. E-`-BE-T-G/-0R-ZC-^N,
G-GE-, size || What size hat do you wear? mN-lc--U-G-GE-C-WN-CP,
G-T, big; advantage, merits (of someone, something) || I want the big
one. E-`-G-T-N-NCc, What advantage does doing that give you? .R/-NTTc-0-=?-mN-`-G-T-F-ZC-]MT-MT,
GN, for (the purpose of), in order to || I need to study hard in order to
pass the examination. Ec-Cc-]zN-GN-T-E-`-]TN-R-qN-NCc,
GN-CI_, professional, specialized || He is a professional athlete.
B-P-GN-CI_-`c-`-T-ZC-^P,
GN-O, for the purpose of, specially || I came here specially to take the
examination. |R?-?-E-Cc-N-GN-O-]N-`-^E-T-^P,
GN-`c, special job/work || He has a special job that requires him to work
ten hours a day. B-`-IP-<J<-(-WN-TF:A-<A%-`c-NCc-R]-GN-`c-aC-^N,
GP-R, great, big || The big earthquake was destructive.
c-]D`-GP-R-N-CK_-TC-G,
Gc, most; to trust || He is the most important leader. B-P-:C-tN-Gc-$4S-2R^P, I do want to trust you. Ec-mN-`-E-Uc-^N-Gc-LJ.-]NN,
G-C ritual, rite || The religious ritual held at the temple will last about
three hours. NCP-R]-G-C-N-=-d-`U-(-WN-CcU-]C_--_N,
G-E-, wailing || After the death of her husband her wailing did not cease
for three weeks. m-C-]Nc-c, B-U]-G-E-C\]-]B_-CcU-`-P-U-GN,
G-]z`, magic || His magic tricks impressed his audience.
B]-G-]z`-nc-N-U-T-`-TC-GCc-\T-U-TZC
GC can, to be allowed, to be permitted || Am I permitted to smoke
here? Ec-]N-Pc-M-UC-]MP-P-GC-CU,
GC-UGP, approval, authorization || I was unable to get approval for the
new project. `c-NP-Cc_-T-ZC-`c-R_-E-`-GC-UGP-MT-U-MT,
GC-ac, contentment || His family gives him great contentment.
B]-mU-WE-Cc-B-`-GC-ac-GP-R-T`,
GN-NP, stipulation, decision || I dont agree with my bosss decision. E-<%$A-]C-T]-GN-NP-`-U-]MN,
1

87

GN-cUc, resolution, tenacity, determination || I admired his tenacity


under pressure.

B_-T-N-U]-]C)B_-WCc-l-UOP-Pc-Bc-GN-cUc-TFEc-T-`-Ec-^N-Uc-qN,
GU-P, robber, bandit || The robber was caught by the police.
-TN-U-c-GU-P-]XP-T\E-qc,
Gc, religion || What religion do you believe in? mN-lc-Gc-CE-`-NN-R-qN,
Gc-IN, law; regularity || It is a natural law that every person will
die. U-WE-U-]G-2-P-_E-qE-C-Gc-IN-FC-^P, There is a certain regularity to
the sun rising every morning. *A/-<J:A-8R$?-0<-I-U-a_-T-`-Gc-IN-Ec-FP-ZC^N,
Gc-R, religious practitioner || He is the only religious practitioner in my
village. B-P-E-W]--T]-Gc-R-CFC-R-^P,
Gc-`-UBP, missionary || The missionary was trying to learn Tibetan.
Gc-`-UBP-Nc-P-GN-TN-^C-E-T_-]TN-@P-^N,
Gc-pCc, religious side || From the religious side, this life is preparation
(

for what will follow in the next life.

Gc-pCc-Pc-TaN-P, U-W-]N-P-W-p-U-`-F-ZC-]qE-T_--CP-qN-R-^P,
Gc-`Cc, religion, religious doctrine || The Buddhist religious doctrine
that all life should be respected deserves serious study.

PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-l-W-~C-`-CFc-UME-qN-R]--T-`-ZT-]HC-PP-U-qN-R_-_Cc,
UGP-]u`, explanation, annotation || This texts explanation is very clear.
T-WP-]N]-UGP-]u`-d-FE-Cc`-T-^P,
UG, (UG, UGc) to have; to exist; there is/are || He has a mole on his
face, near his right eye. B]-UC-C^c-R]-`Cc-P--ZC-UGc, No
1

convincing evidence exists that would allow the man to be charged


with stealing.
3

U-Nc--qc-R-CLC-Ca_-qN-R_-TNP-NRE-BEc-]S_-T-U-UGc,

There is a book on the table.

FC-V]-E-P-NR-G-ZC-UGc,

UGP-R, liver || I like to eat beef liver. E-Uc-l-UGP-R-\-T_-NC],


UG, lip; beak || Blood oozed from a blister from his lower lip. B]-UUG]-E-C-G-T_-=c-tC-]X_, The birds beak was red. q-N]-UG-P-NU_-T^P,
UGN, to spread out; developed into many branches|| The disease soon
spread out everywhere. U-]nEc-R_-PN-CZ-CE-c_-UGN, After the
Buddhas death Buddhism developed into many branches. cEc-c-M1

88

%/-=?-]Nc-c, PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-=?-uT-UM]-UE-T_-3(JN,

UGC the best, the most outstanding, superior || This cloth is superior to
that red cloth. _c-]N-_c-NU_-T-N-`c-UGC
UGC-n_, most outstanding; highest || The most outstanding student in
that class is my son. ]XP--N]-PE-C-T-U-UGC-n_-P-E]-T-^P, He received
the highest honor my country can give. B-`-E-W]-`-BT-lc-UWP-P-UGCn_-MT,
UGE-, (UGE-, UGEc, UGEc,) to jump || I jumped over the fallen tree.
E-]n`-^N-R]-E-T]-E-=?-1<-UGEc,
UGE-TN, advancement; leap forward || Education leads to social
advancement. T-Ccc--WCc-3./-*R.-GA-=3-.-OA., China has made a
1

great leap forward since 1949 in terms of the quality of life.

]W-T]-$/?-5=-MC-Pc-TaN-P,1949`-Pc-T\E-sE-Cc-UGE-N-GP-R-`P,
UGN, to consecrate, to offer || I want to offer butter at our village temple
this evening. N-NCE-Ec-E-W--T]-NCP-R-<-U_-UGN-]NN,
UGN-BE-, shrine || Our village built a new mountain god shrine this
summer. N-`]-Nq_-B_-E-W]--Tc-CZ-TNC-C-UGN-BE-Cc_-T-ZC-TZEc,
UGN-TP, stupa || The stupa has a sharp point and is painted white.
UGN-P-N:A--U-iR-=-!J%-.-WP-N@_-T-qCc-^N,
UGN-R, offering || What offering will you bring?
mN-lc-UGN-R-F-ZC-]m_--^P,
UGN-U, butter lamp for offering || The butter lamp gave off a pleasant
smell. UGN-U-`c-x-ZU-E-,
]GC (]GC ]GCc,) to form || Ice forms during winter. NDP-B_-N_-]GCc,
GN, to break ||When we pulled on the rope it broke.
E-Wc-MC-R-]MP-R-P-MC-R-GN,
]GU, (]GU, ]GUc, ]GUc,) to perform; to dance || Will you perform in
tonights play? N-NCE-C-]tT-P-O-HR.-8$?--e-^P, Please dance for us
at our party. E-W]-NCE-WCc-E-E-W-`-{-]GUc,
]GUc, to agree || All of the people agreed on that decision.
uc-CZ-N]-MC-Pc-U-WE-U-uc-B-]GUc,
]G], (]G], ]Gc, ]G,) to chew, to munch || I like to munch on dry bread.
E-C-_-U-R-9-T_-NC],
]G], (TF], TFc, Gc,) to draw up, to make; to vow || We will draw up
1

89

some plans to solve the problem.

E-Wc-]G_-CZ-]C]-T9Rc-Pc-CPN-NP-N-MC-

CFN-qN--^P, A boy vows never to marry before becoming a monk.


Z-`-ZC-Cc-TVP-R-U-TFc-CE-CKP-L-CIP-C-U-qN-R]-UP]-TF],
]G_, (G_, a_,) to appear, to rise || The sun began to rise above the
mountain. I-U-_-lJ-<-]G_-]C-TUc,
]G_-]CN, planning || Planning my familys move to Beijing is taking all
my time.EN-WE-R-FP-O-_-]-]G_-]CN-qN-R_-_E-C-Oc-WN-^Ec-c-T@`-.$R?,
]G_-CZ, plan || What is your plan for tomorrow?
cE-IP-mN-l-]G_-CZ-P-F-ZC-^P,
]G_-$8A:A-3-KA, draft of plan || He did not approve the draft of the plan.
Bc-]G_-$8A:A-3-KA-N-`-GC-UGP-U-T@N,
]G`-T, loafer, prodigal/promiscuous man || He has the reputation of
being a loafer. B-U-]G`-R-ZC-^P-0-!/-=-P$?,
]G, (]G, a) to die || I dont want to die. E-]G-U-]NN,
]G-B, the point of death || He was starved to the point of death.
B-Cc-Pc-]G-B_-Tc,
]G-T, death || My fathers death made me very sad.
e-S]-]G-nJ/-IA?-E-`-cUc-$&R%?-(J/-0R-29R?,
]GE-, (TFE-, TFEc, GEc,) to tie, to fasten, to bind || Please bind this box.
U-]N-GEc-aC
]GT, (TFT, TFTc, GTc,) to ride || Lets ride horses out on the grassland.
-`-TFTc-Pc--ME-O-]u,
]G, (TF, TFc, Gc,) to take water; to ladle out || Ill take some water
from the well. Ec-tU-R-Pc-G-TF--^P, Ladle some tea into the guests
bowls. UuP-R]-N@_-^`-PE-O-H-Gc,
]GP, (CFP, TFP, GP,) to discipline, to control || I dont want to control my
students, I want to help them. Ec-<%-$A-T-U-Uc-CFP-U-]NN, Ec-B-W-`_Cc-qN-]NN,
]G_, (]G_, a_,) to lose control/ones own mind || If you are drunk you
2

may lose control of your behavior.

C`-K-mN-T\-cE-5K, mN-l-UXN-R-]G_-P-tCc-tCc-UN,
]G`, (TF`, TF`, ]G`,) to save, to deposit, to ask help, to entrust || I save
my money in the bank. Ec-<%-$A-_-U-NE`-BE-.-TF`,
90

H, tea || I like tea in the morning. PEc-U_-E-H-`-NC],


H-BE-, kitchen, dining room || The Tibetan kitchen is big. TN-l-H-BE-P-G,
H-PC black tea || I like black tea better than green tea. E--H-`c-H-PC-`-NC],
H-U, cook || My father is a cook in that restaurant.
E]-e-S-P-\-BE-N]-PE-C-H-U-ZC-^P,
HC-P, robber, brigand || The police arrested the robber last year.
P-PE-IP-C-Rc-HC-P-N-]XP-T\E-qc,
H-_-O, just as, exactly || I want to sing this song just as you do.
Ec--NqEc-]N-mN-lc-Ec-R-H-_-O-`P-]NN,
F-]x, how, how about || How did you do that? mN-lc-N-H-_-`c-R-^P,
H-U-H-TZP, exactly, just like || I want a hat just like this one.
Ec-<%-=--U-]N-NE-H-U-H-TZP-ZC-;R.-/-]NN,
)A-28A/, like, as || The situation is the same as you said.
CPc-TT-P-mN-lc-TaN-R-)A-28A/-_N,
Hc-]CN-R, strategist, planner || He worked as a planner in the water and
electricity office for ten years. Bc-G-C-C[E-T-BE-.-`-T&:A-<A%-Hc-]CN-Rqc,
Hc-EP, intrigue, plot || Fortunately, his evil plot failed.
`c-T\E-T-`-B]-Hc-EP-`-SU-Ic-MTc,
Hc-CKCc, interference || His interference meant that the couple did not
marry. Bc-Hc-CKCc-qc-R-Nc-m-bC-N-CIc-CIP-TCc-UN-R-UWP,
Hc-CZ, scheme, program || The government has a program to help poor
people. ~N-C[E-`-U-NT`-T_-_Cc-_U-qN-R]-Hc-CZ-ZC-^N,
H-GE-, to become smaller || The number of people who like it is smaller
than before. ]N-`-NC]-T]-U-uEc-P-GN-NE-T_-5K-H-JE-_N,
H-G_, to become bigger, greater || The crime problem has become
bigger. PC-Ic-l-CPN-NP-52?-(J/-.-I<,
H-ZP, to be worse || Her illness was worse than we thought.
B-U]-E-CZ-E-W]-TcU-WN-`c-)J-#$-=-cE-^N,
91

H-U, nun || She became a nun last year. P-PE-B-U-H-U-qc,


UH`, (UH`, UH`, UH`,) to meet || I would like to meet you tomorrow near
the irrigation ditch. cE-IP-E-G-]-]uU-.-mN-NE-UH`-T_-]NN,
UH`-]zN, meeting (not a formal official one) || Lets have a meeting later
this month. -]N]-UHC-`-E-W-UH`-]zN-qN,
UH`-`P, return visit || We will make a return visit to our relatives next
month. -eJ?-U_-E-Wc-<%-$A-I-O-i3?-`-UH`-`P-_--^P,
UHE-T, neck || Her neck is surprisingly long.
B-U]-UHE-T-_E-2-d-`c-NCc-R-ZC-_N,
UHC the end, final, last || This is the final class. ]N-P-3)$-3,:A-T-tN-^P,
UHC-]mEc, continuing thoroughly || Continuing to thoroughly study
English is important for progress. NqP-^C-`-E-T-3,A=-KA/-0<-o/]mEc-qN--N-.LA/-;A$-$A-(-5.-CE-]S`-^E-_-d-FE-C`-G,
UHC-`, to end, to conclude || It is time for us to conclude this meeting.
E-Wc-WCc-]O-]N-UHC-`-T]-Oc-`-_P,
UHC-, tail feathers || The birds tail feathers were long and beautiful.
q-N]-UHC--_E-ZE-UXc,
UHC-L, at the end || I was very tired at the end of the trip.
]u`-N-qc-R]-UHC-L-E-d-FE-ME-GN,
UHC-U, conclusion || The conclusion of the story was that the two
lovers lived happily ever after.

CKU-N-l-UHC-U-`-NC]-uCc-CIc-lc-CKP-O-TN-N-l-]W-T-_`,
UHC-Cc, to end, to finish || We have to finish the fieldwork tomorrow.
cE-IP-E-Wc-ZE-`c-N-UHC-Cc-NCc,
UH, penis, male reproductive organs || The medical sketch depicted the
male reproductive organs. P-NR-_-U-Nc-UH-ZT-]{-qc-^N,
]HCc, (CFCc, TFCc, GCc,) to remember by heart || In order to learn
English well, you must remember many new words by heart.

NqP-^C-`Cc-R-E-0<, mN-lc-M-N-Cc_-T-UE-T-^N-`-]HCc-R_-qN-NCc,
]HT, (]HT, ]HTc, ]HTc,) to walk stealthily, to ambush/hide, to sneak || I
sneaked up on her and frightened her.

E-B-U]-pCc-c-]HTc-Pc-B-U-`-]HCc-T`,
]HT-`, guerrilla attack, ambush || The ambush was well planned.
]HT-`-`-MTc-T@N-T\E-T-]MP,
92

]HU-R, mild, smooth || The ice is so smooth that I can skate very fast.
N_-]HU-R-^P-Rc-Ec-N_-bN-UnCc-U_-C-MT,
]H], rainbow || The rainbow was colorful. ]H]-5S/-i3-0<-2N
]H`, to measure; to compensate || Lets measure you and see how tall
you are. mN-l-C\Cc-0R:A-<A%-5.-`-F-VU-^N-R-]H`-0<-L, The insurance
1

company compensated him for the damage the fire did to his home.

IP-]CC-AE-\c-B]-BE-T-U-P-`-a_-T_-P-WT-]H`,
]HC (CZC TaC aCc,) to ruin, to devastate, to destroy || The earthquake
destroyed the house. c-]D`-nc-BE-T-TaC
]HC (CZC TaC aCc,) to break, to demolish, to put down, to destroy || He
wanted to break the window. Bc-]-BE-TaC-]NN,
]HC-P, physical world, universe || The universe is vast.
]HC-P-P-UM]-^c-R-ZC-^P,
]HC-P-R, laymen || We are not monks, we are laymen. E-W-P-TVP-R-UP-0<]HC-P-R-^P,
]HCc-C fear, dread || My fear of thunder and lightning is very great.
E-]{C--NE-C-ZCc-`-@-&%-0$
]HCc-c-_E-T, dreadful, terrifying, appalling || Last nights murder was
terrifying. UNE-NCE-$A-NU_-CcN-.R/-nJ/-.J-/A-]HCc-c-_E-T-ZC-_N,
]HT, (CZT, TZTc, ]HTc,) to suck || I like to suck on ice.
E-GT-_U-]HT-R_-NC],
]HU-, mud image || His mud image of our teacher was very funny.
Bc-T\c-R:A-E-W]-NC-P-n-]HU--N-/A-d-FE-NCN-{-T-ZC-_N,
]H, (]H, ]Hc, ]Hc,) to hold, to catch || Please hold my hand and I will
pull you up. E]-`C-R-`-]Hc-NE-Ec-mN-^_-`-]MP,
]H, (T[, T[c, [c,) to melt; to digest || The hot sunlight melted the
butter. I-]N-W-Uc-U_-T[c-0<-L?, The ice will melt in the hot sun. I-:R.xP-R]-]C-GT-_U-[-]u, Fat meat takes some time to be digested. a-WP-R]H-T_-Oc-WN-_E-T-:$R<-NCc, Vegetables are easier to digest than meat.
-W`-a-`c-]H-,
]HC (C[C TFC GCc,) to put into; to have someone make; to follow ||
Please put this food into the refrigerator. \-U-]N-]mC-U-n-PE-O-GCc,
Ill have my wife make supper for us. Ec-<%-$A-GE-U_-E-W-`-NCE-\c-`cc-]HC--^P, Most Tibetans follow Buddhist teachings. TN-U-UE-ac-PE1

1
2

93

TP-`-]HC
]HUc, (TFU, TFUc, GUc,) to pinch; to tighten || I jumped when he
pinched me. Bc-E]-a-TFUc-Oc-E-CPU-`-E-, Tighten the rope around
that yak. C^C-C-T-`-MC-R-GUc,
]H_, to appear, to emerge || The new crop of barley slowly began to
emerge from the soil. Pc-l-C-CZP-c-]C-Pc-:2?-]C-TUc,
]HTc-R, euphonious, melodious || The melodious song made everyone
happy. ~/-:)J2?-GA--NqEc-Nc-U:A-?J3?--_-TFC
]H, (TZ, TZc, CZc,) to milk || Milk the yaks this evening.
N-NCE-]{-U-CZc-aC
]HC (CZC TZC ZC) to appoint, to place || I will appoint you to be the
new class monitor. Ec-mN-]XP-]-0/-N%-Cc_-T-`-]HC--^P,
]HP-ME-, ability, capability, competence || He has a good ability to sing.
B-`--NqEc-`P-R]-]HP-ME-w/,
]HP-R, competent, capable || He has a competent knowledge of Tibetan
history. B-`-TN-l-`-c-,.-ac-q-:6S3?-0R-;R.,
]HUc, (CZU, TFU, GUc,) to destroy, to ruin, to loot, to sack || The enemy
soldiers will destroy our village. Nu-NUC-Cc-E-W]--T-CZU--_N,
N-R, lean, thin || After her illness she was very thin.
B-U-P-c, B-U-N-R_-n_,
, (T, Tc, c,) to change, to exchange || I want to change my big coat
for a smaller one. Ec-N--GP-R-N-GE-T-ZC-`-T--^P,
N, (TN, TN,) to forget || I dont want to forget to take my money.
Ec-E]-_-U-]m_--TN-U-]NN,
P-R_-]NP, to reveal, to expose || He said he would expose my secret life.
Bc-E]-CcE-T-P-R_-]NP--^P-R_-TaN,
c, later; after; print || Ill visit you later when I have some free time.
KA?-?-BU-R-qE-5K, Ec-mN-`-]WUc-]x-qN, After you learn English you will
have more opportunities. NqP-^C-Ec-c, mN-`-C-Tc-UE-T-^N-~N, The
1

policemen found the thiefs fingerprints in the burgled apartment.

HC-`-a_-T]-aC-WE-.-IP-C-Rc-P-U]-`C-c-N,
c-xP, commemoration, remembrance || These gifts are in
commemoration of your good deeds. `Cc-c-]N-NC-P-mN-l-UXN-N-cxP-n-GN-O-^P,
94

c-]NN, chasing || The cat is chasing a mouse.


q-`c-q-T-ZC-c-]NN-qN-TZP-^N,
c-]{E-T, disciples, followers || He has only a few disciples today.
N-_E-B-`-c-]{E-T-JE-E-`c-UN,
c-U, last, final; the latter || I was the last person in line. E-P-u`-E-C-Uc-U-^P, I agree with your former point but I dont agree with your
latter point. E-mN-l--T-P-U_-]MN, ]P-lE-mN-l--T-c-U-`-E-U-]MN,
c-U_, later, next time || Next time Ill pay for dinner. c-U_-Ec-\c-_P-_,
c-]XP-R, successors, followers || His followers do everything he asks
them to. B]-c-]XP-Rc-Bc-F-CcE-WE-U-T,
c-\P, to catch up with || I will run fast and catch up with you. E-<%-M<2<-TCc-Pc-mN-l-c-\P--^P,
c-`c, backward, underdeveloped || The economy of that country is
underdeveloped. `-BT-N]-NR`-]q_-P-c-`c-^P,
c-b`, remains, legacy || There were still a few remains from the old
building. BE-TCc-E-T]-c-b`-]C]-N-_E-=?-^N,
c-c, afterward, later || Afterward he apologized for his mistakes. .Jc-Bc-P-`c-R_-NCEc-NC-[c,
N, (TN, TN, N,) to say, to talk, to speak || I want to talk to you tonight.
N-NCE-Ec-mN-NE-CKU-TN-]NN,
E-PC dark green || The grassland is dark green in summer.
Nq_-B_--ME-P-E-PC-^P,
N-KC-C heavy; sluggish; sullen || After the heavy meal I felt
sluggish. \-U-N-KC-C-ZC-\c-c-E-`-CIN-BC After being criticized I felt
sullen. E-`-P-TN-qc-c-E]-TcU-R-N-KC-C_-I<,
N-U, heavy || This box is too heavy to carry.
U-]N-N-U-^P-xCc-0c-]m_-.!:,
N-WN, weight || My weight is more than yours. E]-=?-0R:C-N-WN-mN-`c-G,
Ec, region, area || What region of China are you from?
mN-sE-C]-Ec-CE-C-^P,
Ec--T, traveler || The traveler stopped at a small inn for the night.
Ec--T-N--`P-BE-GE-E-ZC-.-ZC-N-qc,
TN-IUc, majestic looking/guise || Her very large body made her
majestic looking. B-U]-`c-2R%?-GP-R-Nc-B-U-`-TN-IUc-3R?,
1

1,2

95

TN-R, majestic, grand || His colorful clothing and long beard gave him a
majestic appearance.

B]-CP-R-UNC-FP-NE--_-_E-T-Nc-B-`-T\--TN-R-ZC-20/-L%-,
T-_c, to alternate, to exchange, to take turns || Lets take turns cooking
supper. E-Wc-<J?-3R?-%%-9?-C^-T`-q,
TN-O-UN-R, subtle, inexpressible || The meaning is too subtle to express.
C-NP-N-P-TN-O-UN-R-ZC-^P,
2eR.-.R/-3.R<-2#?, summary || This is a summary of that short story.
]N-P-E-ME-N]-2eR.-.R/-3.R<-2#?-_N,

TN-q, content, theme, main idea || The main theme of his work is
tragedy. B]-TUc-Gc-l-TN-q-P--C-^P, The theme of his historical

study is the rise and fall of empires. #R:C-=R-o?-8A2-:)$-$A-2eR.-L-/A-o=-

<2?-i3?-GA-*3?-c.-{R<-;AA/,

TN-q-CV-T, theme || What is the theme of that novel?


TUc-E-N]-TN-q-CV-T-F-ZC-^P,
TN-CZ, fundamental thesis, theme, the topic which is mentioned || The
fundamental thesis of his writings is that evil will be punished.

B]-TUc-Gc-l-TN-CZ-P-EP-R-`-Ic-GN-MTc-Ec-^P-R-N-^P,

I, fish || The dead fish floated on top of the water. I-a-T-N-G-B_-C^E-,


I-T, fisherman || He lived near the sea and made his life as a fisherman.
B-UW-]uU-.-TN-Pc-I-T-ZC-C-]W-T-T`,
I-`c, fishing work || He did fishing work at Qinghai Lake for ten years
before moving to Xining.

\-`E-O-$/?-U-_-CE-Bc-UW-P-R-<-I-`c-`-TF-`-qc,
I-a fish meat || My grandmother will never eat fish meat because she
believes it is taboo. E]--Uc-I-a-\-T-P-U-tUc-ZC-L-2?3?-/?-/3-;%-3A-9,
IP, to listen to || I like to listen to modern music.
E-NE-_Tc-l--NqEc-`-IP-R_-NC],
96

IP-UBP, audience || The audience for the speakers lecture numbered


about four hundred. ]GN-UBP-N]-NR-tN-`-IP-UBP-d-`U-U-TZ-T-^N,
IU-GE-, humble; weak || Hes not proud, hes humble. B-P-E-`-V=-2:A-3AIU-GE-8A$-^P, Dont bully weak people. U-IU-GE-`-MT-WN-U-qN,
IU-MC-R, miserable, destitute || He became destitute when his wife died.
GE-U-]Nc-c, B:C-:5S-2-IU-MC-R_-n_,
IUc-N, to decline || His health declined after he became sixty years old.
`-xC-F-`-TN-c, B]-`c-ME-IUc-N-O-n_,
IUc-NUc, decline || The decline in his health was rapid.
B]-TN-ME-IUc-NUc-c-]u-T-UnCc,
IUc, appearance; to decline || She has a beautiful external
appearance. B-U-`-p-W`-n-IUc-^C-R-ZC-^N, The rich family began to
decline after the death of the father. e-S-]Nc-c-mU-WE-pC-R-N:A-!R2?:I<-IUc-]C-TUc,
IUc-cN, to be aware of, to be cognizant || He is aware of the difficulty of
living in this world. ]HC-P-]N-Pc-]W-T]-C-T`-`-B-IUc-cN-qE-,
IUc-Cc, renovation, restoration, rehabilitation || The monasterys
renovation cost one million yuan. NCP-R-IUc-Cc-qN-R_-PR/-.%=_-U-c-^-CFC-a_,
I_, to manage; to keep, to save || I manage the companys money.
Ec-AE-\]-_-U-I_, I keep my valuables in a safe. Ec-<%-$A-NEc-R--GPi3?-IP-]CC-U-O-I_-;R.,
I`, to go to bed; to lie down || I go to bed at ten p.m. every night. *A/1

<J:A-35/-3R<-%-<%-(-5S.-2&-2:A-!J%-*=-2-;A/, 2I feel ill and want to lie

down.

I`-BE-,

E]-`c-R-U-TN-Tc-I`-]NN,

dormitory room; 2bedroom || 1There are six students in my

E]-U`-BE-.-T-U-xC-^N, My parents sleep in the big


bedroom. E]-S-U-I`-BE-GP-U-N]-PE-O-I`,
I`-t, bed || My bed collapsed last night. UNE-NCE-E]-I`-t-TTc,
I`-Cc, quilt, bedding || I washed my quilt today. N-_E-Ec-<%-$A-I`-Cc-Tsc,
I`-Gc, bed linen, bedding || The bed linen was made of silk. I`-Gc-N-P-N_Cc-lc-T\c, Put your bedding on this bed. mN-l-I`-(?-U`-t-]N]-E-O-ZC
I-U, sun || The sun shone through the hole in the roof. BE-T]-N@_-BE-I-:R.:UR?,
dormitory room.

97

I-\_, rays of the sun || The rays of the sun shone on my face.
E]-CNE-`-I-\_-]zc,
I-]N, sunlight, sunshine || During winter there are few hours of sunlight.
NDP-B_-I-]N-(-WN-]C]-`c-U-]G_,
I-b, twenty || Ive told him at least twenty times not to play with
matches. Ec-B-`-]T_-[P-N-N-U-qN-Fc-JE-UM_-;%-MEc-I-><-TaN-;R.,
IE-B, juice || Do you like orange juice?mN-W-`-U]-IE-B-`-e-NC],
IE-`C parts of peoples bodies || The eyes and ears are parts of peoples
bodies that let them see and hear.

UC-NE--$*A?-P-U-Uc-`-UME-Mc-]qN-R]-IE-`C-C`-GP-^P,
IP, day || What day did you arrive? mN-PU-IP-]q_-T-^P,
IP-N@_, daytime || Daytime television programs are not interesting.
IP-N@_-n-TP-]zP-`-WP-P-UW_-T-UP,
IP-CE-T, all day || We will harvest the crops all day.
E-Wc-IP-CE-T_-`-KC-T--^P,
IP-DE-, midday, noon || It was very hot at noon. IP-DE-W-T-d-FE-G,
IP-_, everyday (in sequence), daily || I take a vitamin tablet daily.
Ec-IP-_-P-_`-T-M-UP-_-TLE-,
IP-M, diary || Dont read my diary. E]-IP-M-U-C-FC
*A/-:.A-.$-=, in these days || In these days Im feeling tired and
depressed. *A/-:.A-.$-=-E-=?-?J3?-.2-/?-]R-13-L%-,

IP-pN, half day || Yesterday I worked only a half day.


B-?E-, Ec-q-T-IP-pN-VU-`c-U-`c,
IP-U]-DE-, noon || Lets eat lunch together at noon.
IP-U]-DE-`-E-Wc-DE-\c-UIU-O-]ME-^,
IP-U, day, daytime || I cant sleep in the daytime. IP-U_-E-`-CIN-U-BC
IP-UWP, day and night || He worked day and night until the work was
finished. `c-@-]N-`c-W_-_C-T_-O, Bc-IP-UWP-UN-R_-`c-@-`c,
IP-TZP, day by day, day after day || It rained day after day.
IP-TZP-O-G_-T-TTc-qE-,
IP-_, every day, each day || Speak English every day. IP-__-NqP-N-aN,
I`, to collapse, to fall down || I dont want the roof to fall down on the
students. Ec-BE-T]--STc-T-U]-E-O-I`-L%-P-U-]NN,
Ic-]n_, double, two times || The double of six is twelve.
98

xC-C-Ic-]n_-P-TF-CIc-^P,
Ic-TCc, two stories; double-fold || The house is two stories tall. BE-T]N]-UM-5.-`-Ic-TCc-^N, Please unfold all the double-folded paper.
aC-D-Ic-TCc-N-Ec,
JE-E-, small amount, few || That is a small amount of money.
N-P-_-U-JE-E-VU-ZC-_N,
JE-UM], minimum || What is the minimum salary you will work for?
mN-lc-TT-~N-R]-q-T-JE-UM:A--SCc-P-&A-43-^P,
JE-UM_, at least || I have at least one hundred sheep.
E-`-JE-UM_-;%-`C-T-^N,
JE-VU, a little || Please add a little sugar to my tea. E:A-H-PE-.-@-_-JE-VU-P,
JE-ac, a few, smaller part of (something) || Do you want many or a few
books to read? mN-lc-NR-G-UE-T-C--^P-PU-^E-P-JE-ac-`-T--^P,
J`, to saunter, to roam about || I dont want you to roam about the town
tonight. N-NCE-Ec-mN-uE-T`-O-J`-T_-]u-_-]HC-U-]NN,
I, near || I was cold so I sat near the stove. =?-uE-L%-2c-%-MT-@]-I-c<-TN,
I-]B_, close by; retinue || There is a forest close by the city. uE-m_-nI-]B_-.-PCc-W`-ZC-^N, There were many people in his retinue. B]-I]B_-.-U-UE-T-^N,
I-]uU, nearby, close by || The people walked nearby the sleeping yak.
U-Uc-CIN-O-^_-T]-C^C-C-]uU-O-TF_,
I-P, latest, lately, in the latest time || Have you heard the latest news?
mN-lc-I-P-n-Cc_-]n_-e-C,
I-G_, recently, lately || It has been very dry recently. I-G_-MP-R-d-FE-G,
I-O, relatives, kinsman || Where are your relatives living now?
N--mN-l-I-O-W-CE-.-]W-#R.-LJ.-28A/-;R.,
I-]NTc, vicinity, nearby || There are wild yaks in the vicinity.
I-]NTc-?-]{E-^N,
I-2<-LJ.-0, to be intimate || I want to be intimate with you and
understand how you think. E-mN-.%-*J-2<-L?-Pc-mN-l-TcU-5=->J?-]NN,
I-_E-, near and far; discrimination || He was famous near and far.
B-I-_E-!/-+-N-uCc-G, The mother loves her children without
discrimination. e-U-/A-<%-$A-qc-R-Uc-`-I-_E-UN-R_-MP,
I-`U, recently, lately; short-cut || Have you been watching the
1

99

I-`U-mN-lc-TP-]zP-Cc_-]n_-`-T-]U, This
road is a shortcut to town. `U-]N-P-uE-T`-.-]MP-R]-I-`U-ZC-^P,
I-c, nearby, near || She used to live nearby us. P-GN-B-U-E-W:A-I-c<-TN-^N,
If you cant hear, come nearer to the speaker. C`-K-mN-lc-i-2?-U-C-5K,
$+3-TaN-UBP-n-I-?<-aC
IN, (UI, UIc, UIc,) to rub, to twist || My father is rubbing leather to
make it soft. E]-e-Sc-@-T-UIc-Pc--U_-CKE-TZP-^N,
IP-B, danger, jeopardy, risk || There is some danger in lending him
money. B-`-_-U-Tc-o-/A-IP-B-G,
IP-B-FP, dangerous, risky, precarious || Riding a motorcycle can be
dangerous. C-C-]B_-`-`-TP-R-P-IP-B-FP-ZC-^P-~N,
IP-C-BE-, police station || That town has only one police station.
uE-T`-.-IP-C-BE-CFC-U-CKCc-UN,
IP-C-R, policeman || The policeman was wearing a new uniform.
IP-C-R-Nc-`c-Cc-Cc_-T-ZC-nP-^N,
IP-T, alarm, warning || When he saw the building burning he shouted
an alarm. Bc-BE-TCc-U-`-a_-T-3,R%-0-/-N-F_-GP-Rc-IP-T-TT,
IP-\P, guarding against, be wary of, precautionary measures || Be wary
when he asks to borrow some money. Bc-_-U-C^_-:A-{R<-E-Oc-IP-\PqN-NCc,
*J/-$;R=-0, refugee || He is a war refugee. B-P-NUC-]tC-OR.-GA-*J/-$;R=-0-ZC^P,
I_-UB, necessities || Tea and salt are necessities. H-NE--$*A?-P-I_-UB:A-.%R?0R-^P,
I_-, twenty-five || Please look at Lesson Twenty-Five.
T-WP-I_--T-`-c,
Ic-P, fault, mistake, offence, crime || It was my mistake and Im sorry.
N-P-E]-Ic-P-^P-Rc, Ec-NCEc-ND-[,He was sentenced to death for the
television news lately?

crime of murder. #R:C-3A-$?R.-*J?-*R/-=-.3A$?-/?-#R-=-YR$-OA3?-2&.,

Ic-tUc, criminal code || The criminal code has recently been revised.
Ic-tUc-`-I-_-T\-TFc-qc,
Ic-]C`, attributing falseness/sin to someone || I attribute the sin of
immoral behavior to him. Ec-B-`-W`-UP-n-N-R:A-Ic-]C`-qc,
Ic-FP, criminal || The criminal had to go to jail.
100

Ic-FP-N-TVP-BE-O-]u-NCc-qE-,
Ic-GN, punishment, penalty || The punishment was cruel.
Ic-GN-N-P-C-T-G,
Ic-R, crime, sin || What crime are you charged with? mN-Ic-R-F-ZC-`-CLCCa_-qc, Killing is a sin. 3A-$?R.-0-/A-*J?-0-8A$-;A/,
Ic-R-FP, criminal, offender || The criminal was executed.
U-Ic-FP-N-`-~C-GN-TFN,
Ic-N, criminal action, sinful behavior || He was punished for his
criminal behavior. Bc-Ic-N-`c-R_-GN-R-TFN,
Ic-UN, innocent || I am innocent of these criminal charges.
Ic-:$J2-]N-NC-C-MC-Pc-E-Ic-UN-^P,
I, (I, Ic, Ic,) to buy || I want to buy that hat. Ec--U-N-I-]NN,
I-UBP, buyer, customer || The customer bought only a hat.
I-UBP-nc--U-CFC-B-P-Ic,
I-G, shopping, something for buying || Lets go shopping tomorrow
afternoon. cE-IP-p-x_-I-G-C-C-]u,
I-WE-, trade, business || He made a lot of money in business.
Bc-I-WE-TT-Pc-_-U-UE-T-Ec,
I-WE-BE-, commercial exchange office || The new commercial exchange
office was built just outside town. I-WE-BE-N-uE-T`-n-p-_`-KC-KC-+2lA$?-;R.,
IC to be confused, to be dopey, turbid || I am confused in my math
class. c-_C-C-T-tN-{2?-?-E]-UC-IC
IP-UEc, lust, amorous feeling || He kept his lust disguised.
Bc-<%-$A-IP-UEc-U-UEP-R_-qc,
CI]-CPP, oppression, coercion || The landlords oppression infuriated
the peasants. ZE-TNC-C-CI]-CPP-nc-ZE-R-Uc-BE-t-`Ec-c-TFC
CIN, sleep || I had a very nice sleep. %-=-$*A.-@-&%-*A.-0R-8A$-#$-L%-,
CIN, to sleep || I want to sleep now. E-N--CIN-]NN,
CIN-BC to fall asleep || I dont want to fall asleep when Im driving.
Ec-Ec-]B_-B-`-qN-Oc-CIN-BC-U-]NN,
CIN-GC insomnia, sleepless || I never had insomnia when I was younger.
GE-Oc-?-E-=-CIN-GC-MTc-U-rE-,
CIN-CKU, sleep talk || What he says when hes asleep (sleep talk) makes
101

no sense.

B-CIN-.-^_-T]-Oc-Tc-c-2>.-0:A-CIN-CKU-`-NP-E-UN,

CIN-MTc, to feel sleepy || I began to feel sleepy after drinking a large


bowl of meat soup. a-B-N@_-^`-CE-TLEc-c-E-`-CIN-MTc,
CIc, two || Please buy two pencils for me. E-`-Z-C-CIc-Ic-NE-,
CIc-@ both || Are you both Tibetan? mN-CIc-@-TN-R-^P-PU,
CIc-R, second || Im the second tallest in my class.
E-P-E-W-]XP-]-PE-D\Cc-_E-R-eE-CIc-R-^P,
CIc-R, the two || The two of us should get married. EN-CIc-CIP-C-qN-]c,
CIP-uCc, bosom friend, affectionate friend || She has been my bosom
friend for two decades. `-I-b]-_E-`-B-U-/A-E]-CIP-uCc-^P,
CIP-C marriage || His marriage ended in divorce. B]-CIP-,R<,
CIP-I, close relatives || My close relatives all live in my home place.
E]-CIP-I-WE-U-S-^`-.-^N,
CIP-P, wedding || Few people attended the wedding ceremony.
CIP-P-`-U-]C]-U-CKCc-[Cc-UN,
CI_, to manage || Who do you want to manage your shop?
mN-lc-<%-$A-WE-BE-c-`-CI_-O-]HC-]NN,
CI_-U, wrinkles || The wrinkles in his face suggested he was very old.
B]-CNE-C-CI_-U-Nc-B-d-FE-c-^N-R-UWP,
CIU-GE-, amiable, gentle || His amiable personality won him many
friends. B]-_E-Cac-CIU-GE-C-Tc-lc-B-`-uCc-R-UE-T-^N,
UIU, equal; in parallel; flat || We have equal amounts of money. E-W`-_-U]-uEc-@-UIU-R-^N, These two lines are parallel. MC-]N-CIc-PUIU-:PR-;A/, The farmland in the valley is flat. `E-BC-C--ZE-N-P-%R?3*3-;A/,
UIU-]HC heed, attention || When the teacher lectures, give him your
attention. NC-P-nc-T-tN-qN-{2?-UIU-]HC-nc,
UIU-CI_, co-operative management, joint stock || The companys spirit
1

of co-operative management was successful.

AE-\]-UIU-CI_-n-E-Tc-`-`-B-MT,
UIU-CKE-_`-NqEc, orchestra music || He likes to listen to orchestra music
in the afternoon. p-x_-B-UIU-CKE-_`-NqEc-`-IP-R_-NC],
UIU-O, together with || I want to go shopping together with you.
E-mN-NE-UIU-O-I-G-C-L-]u-]NN,
102

UIU-CPc, coexistence || I hope we can live together in peaceful


coexistence. Ec-Z-TN-UIU-CPc-l-tN-.-E-W-]W-$/?-MT-0:A-<J-2-:6B/,
UIU-]{`, combined, united, allied || Letters are combined to make
words. ^-C-=?-M-N-uT,
UIU-]{`-`-WCc, United Nations || The United Nations is in New York.
UIU-]{`-`-WCc-P-P]-^C-P-CZ-GCc-^N,
UIU-`c, co-operation || I hope our mutual co-operation will help us
both. E]-_-T-P-E-W]-UIU-`c-lc-pCc-CIc-`-NC-UWP-20/--N-^P,
UIP-G, flexibility, pliability || The flexibility of his views surprised me.
B]--T]-UIP-G-Nc-E-^-UW_-O-TFC
UIP-R, flexible, limber || Rubber is flexible. ]nC-P-UIP-R-^P,
-E-E-E, old (used to describe objects, for example, clothes), rags ||
Yesterday I threw away my old clothes and bought new ones.

B-?E-Ec-CP-R-E-2-.$-N_-Pc-Cc_-T-Ic,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to have stomach cramps, to have diarrhea || I dont
want to eat that because I dont want to have diarrhea.

<%-*A.-TE-P-U-]NN-Rc-Ec-\-U-N-\-U-]NN,

E-PN, diarrhea || After two days of diarrhea I was very weak.


E-PN-qE-Pc-IP-CIc-]C_-c, %:A-=?-0R-IU-MC-R_-n_,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to fumble || In the darkness I fumbled for my
flashlight. UP-PC-C-PE-O-Ec-`C-TTc-/?-C-24=,
E-U, ancient, old || The ancient relic is very valuable.
NEc-c-E-2-N-d-FE--G,
E-ZP, conservative || His attitude is very conservative.
B]--pCc-P-E-ZP-G,
N, (TN, Tc,) to wilt, to wither || The hot weather made the grass wilt.
W-Tc--N-O-TFC
N, to find || I want to find my lost ring. Ec-_E-C-T_-\P-R]-UXT-Nsc-N-]NN,
C-]XE-, confusion; complexity, intricacy || What he said caused a lot
of confusion. Bc-$+3-IA?-C-]XE-GP-R-T\c, I dont like to read his
books because of the complexity of his language. B]-5B$-.R<-=-C-S-GTc-E-B]-NR-G-C-R_-U-NC],
N-]NCc, to frame a case against someone, to vilify, to slander || When I
1

was a child my mother said, The desire to slander someone else

103

qc-R:A-Oc-?, A-3?-U-CZP-`N-]NCc-R]-TcU-_-nc-S-_`-`-CPN-R-`c-_E-`-U-P-N-Tc-GP-R-T\-Ec-Zc2>.-rE-,
P, melodious || The melodious sounds of the herding boys flutes
drifted across the mountain. pCc-mA-2-(%-.J:A-E-T]--P-_-`E-;R%?-?-mT,
P-uCc, reputation, fame, prestige || He has a reputation for being
dishonest. B-<%-d-FE-C[E-xE-3A/-0-!/-=-P$?-;R.,
P-uCc-FP, famous, well-known, renowned || He is a famous poet.
B-P-P-EC-R-uCc-FP-ZC-^P,
P-EC poetry, verse || How many lines of poetry can you recite?
mN-lc-P-WC-=?-5B$-b%-&A-43-]R-/?-*R<-,2,
P-EC-UBP, poet || Who is the most famous Tibetan poet?
TN-l-P-EC-UBP-Gc-uCc-FP-P-c-^P,
P-]HTc, melodious, harmonious sounding || Our singing was
melodious. E-Wc--Ec-R-`-P-]HTc-P,
P-O-Cc`, to report || I want to report what I did last night. UNE-NCE-<%$A?-F-ZC-`c-R:A-{R<-Ec-P-O-Cc`-:.R.,
P-R, pleasant, melodious || I can remember my mothers pleasant voice
will eventually hurt you more than them.

telling us stories in the evening.

*A/-<J:A-.$R%-3R<-e-Uc-CKU-N-TaN-R]-N-P-U-N-Ec-xP-MT,

P-U, poetry || I dont like modern poetry very much.


NE-_Tc-l-P-U-`-E-N-]x-U-NC],
P-[, report, petition, account || I will write a report about my activities
last year. P-PE-Ec-<%-$A?-F-ZC-`c-R]-_-`-P-[-ZC-]{--^P,
U, to think, to imagine || I think you are a good student.
Ec-mN-P-T-U-T\E-T-ZC-^P-R_-U,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to have someone sleep, to put someone to sleep;
to ferment || The mothers lullaby put the baby to sleep. e-U]-P-U-^c-qc-R-$*A.-.-2&$ I want the barley to ferment so that I can have
some liquor. Ec-Pc-T`-Pc-GE-TVC-MT-o-L%-P-]NN,
Cc-U, sediment, deposits, residue || The beer bottle had much sediment
in the bottom. -GE-NU-T]-ZTc-?-Cc-U-UE-T-^N,
E-, heart || She died of a broken heart. B-U-?J3?-*R-S$?-/?->A
E-uCc, bosom friend, intimate/affectionate friend || He is my bosom
1

104

friend.

B-P-E]-E-uCc-^P,

E-TFN, essence, extract || The essence of his philosophy is easy to


understand. B]-3A-5K-v-2:A-E-TFN-P-C--T-ZC-^P,
E-GE-, timid, cowardly || Dont be timid, be brave.
E-GE-U-qN-R_-Tc-R-N-NE-,
E-, mercy, kindness, charity, compassion || The Buddhas mercy is
boundless. cEc-c-l-L3?-E--`-:6.-UM]-UN,
E--GP-R, merciful, compassionate || Be merciful, dont be cruel.
E--GP-R-]XP-R-`c-C-N-U-qN,
E--T, cute, lovely, pretty || That little girl is so cute.
T-U-GE-GE-N-/A-E--T-ZC-_N,
E--{`, merciless, unsympathetic, inhuman || His decision was
merciless. B-T]-MC-CFN-P-E--{`-T-ZC-_N,
E-CKU, secrets, innermost feelings || I told her all my secrets.
Ec-B-U-`-<%-$A-E-CKU-WE-U-TaN,
E-Tc, spirit, courage, bravery || I admire his courage.
Ec-B]-E-Tc-`-^N-P-qN,
E-Tc-FP, brave, courageous || Though there was every reason to be
frightened, he was courageous.

C-NCc-R]-CPc-`Cc-F-_Cc-^N-lE-, B-P-E-Tc-FP-ZC-_N,
E-MC-R, earnest, sincere || He is my sincere friend.
B-P-E]-E-MC-R]-uCc-R-^P,
E-NP, essential/fundamental meaning, significance || Im not sure that I
understand the significance of what you are saying. mN-lc->RN-TZP-R]{.-(:A-E-NP-`-Ec-C-T-`P-^N-UN-MC-U-GN,
E-C lover; beautiful || He was my lover before I married. E-CIP-CU-qc-CE-B-P-E]-E-C-^P, She is not as beautiful as she was a decade
ago. B-U-/A-`-TF]-P-n-N-]x]-E-C-FC-U-_N,
E-PN, hatred; heart disease || He has much hatred for injustice. Bc-xEC\-UP-R-`-E-PN-GP-R-TFEc, The doctor diagnosed his problem as heart
disease. P-Rc-B]-PN-CZ-N-E-PN-;A/-0<-E?-T\E-,
E-Pc, truly, really, sincerely, genuinely, from the heart || He genuinely
wishes to help those who are poorer than he is. Bc-<%-`c-lE-IU-MC-R]U-N-W-`-E-Pc-_Cc-qN-]NN-c,
1

105

E-<-:R?-0:A, pitiful, pathetic, sympathetic || Her life was a pathetic


story. B-U]-]W-T-P-E-<-:R?-0:A-CKU-N-IN-O-\N,
E-_c, diligence, unremitting, industry, persistence || His persistence in
seeing a job through to the end is commendable.

Bc-MC-UM]-T_-CcU-O-q-T-TV`-T]-E-_c-N-/A-TN-<-qN-]c-R-ZC-^P,
E-_c-FP, diligent, industrious || Like her mother, she is a diligent wife
and mother. B-U]-e-U-NE-]x-T_, B-U-P-mU-TNC-U-NE-e-U-E-_c-FP-ZC-^P,
`, (T`, T`,) to break down, to collapse, to destroy || The strong
wind may destroy some buildings.

E-GP-Rc-MC-BE-#->?-T`-P-tCc-tCc-UN,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to reduce, to lessen || How can we reduce
livestock death due to snowstorms?

BEc-P-`c-pCc-\C-B-NC-R-N-E-Wc-H-_-TE-MT,
E-, to become ill, to be sick || My father became ill because he was too
busy. E]-e-S-{`-]WT-G-xCc-Pc-`c-CZ-E-,
E-CZ, disease, sickness || This disease has already killed several
people. E-CZ-]Nc-U-]C]-W-~C-Ec,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to pursue, to follow, to run after || I want to follow
her wherever she goes. B-U-CE-c_-pP-P-E-N-C_-TC-]NN,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to be close, to be intimate, to come near || I want to
be close with you. E-mN-.%-TP-]NN,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to stir (the water until it is dirty), to blend || Dont
stir the water in the spring. G-UC-U-Cc,
N, (TN, TN, N,) to feed, to take care of || I take care of my children.
Ec-<%-$A-qc-R-Uc-N,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to fumble || He fumbled when he picked up the
book in the darkness. Bc-NR-G-`P-Tc-UC-PC-PE-`-`C-Rc-TTc,
U, (TU, TUc, Uc,) to level || We will level the schoolyard tomorrow.
cE-IP-E-Wc-T-]-_-T-U--^P,
TP-:UA/-]z`-Gc, television, TV set || My television is made in Japan.
E]-TP-:UA/-]z`-Gc-]H_-RP-.-MP-N-qc,
TN-]NCc, accusation || The accusation that he had stolen money was
false. Bc-_-U-Tc-R]-TN-]NCc-N-P-_N,
TP-TA_, reverence, treatment that comes out of esteem || The Buddha is
106

held in much reverence.

cEc-c-`-TP-TA_-GP-R-qN,

KC-KC only, exactly || I only want to buy three of these.


Ec-]N-CcU-R-KC-KC-I-]NN,
KE-, party (political party) || The Communist Party has a long history.
DE-tP-KE-`-`-c-_E-U-ZC-^N,
KP-KC earnest, serious || His earnest presentation convinced us he was

telling the truth. #R:C-+/-+A$-$A-5=-2!/-0-.J?-%-5S-=-#R?-$+3-S%-2R-2>.-28A/-

;R.-0<-;A.-(J?-?-2&$
KP-K$-$A?, earnestly, seriously || He earnestly listened to the speech.

Bc-KP-KC-Cc-CKU-TaN-`-IP,
K_-^C telegram || Where can I send a telegram? Ec-CE-Pc-K_-^C-CKE-MT,
KE-]XP, meditation || Solitary meditation was something he did every
year for a week. UWUc-N-KE-]XP-P-Bc-`-__-C\]-]B_-CFC-<A%`-IUc-`P-qN-R-ZC-^P,
KC-VU, a little, a small amount || I want just a little salt in my milk tea.
E]-]-H]-PE-`--KC-VU-U-CKCc-U-NCc,
CKC (CKCc, CKCc, CKC) to beat, to lash, to whip || I want to beat my fur
coat. Ec-<%-$A-C-R-CKC-]NN,
CKP-uCc, permanent friend, spouse || My spouse is the same age as my
brother. E]-CKP-uCc-NE-P--CIc-P-P--^P,
CKP-]CC ban, prohibition, proscription || Owning guns is not banned in
America. U-UN]-_-]XP-qN-R-N-e-U-_-B-<-CKP-]CC-U-qN,
CKP-O, forever, for perpetuity, constant || I will believe in Buddhism
forever. Ec-PE-TP-`-CKP-O-NN-R-qN--^P,
CKP-Pc, at all, never || I dont believe anything he says at all.
Bc-TaN-R-WE-U-`-E-^N-U-Gc,
CKP-]TTc, decision, determination || Her decision is final.
B]-CKP-]TTc-P-S-MC-GN-R-ZC-^P,
CKP-WCc-_C-R, logic || Did you study logic at the monastery?
107

mN-lc-NCP-R-<-CKP-WCc-_C-R-e-Ec,
CKP-~`, theorem || This math theorem is hard for me to understand.
c-_C-C-CKP-~`-]N-TNC-`-UWP-P-Cc-N@],
CKU, speech, talk || His speech was too long. B]-CKU-_E-xCc-cE-,
CKU, (CKU, CKUc, MUc,) to bargain || I bargained and got a cheaper price.
Ec-CE-CKUc-Pc-CE-NU]-U-`P,
CKU-N, legend, fable, tale || I can tell several interesting fables.
Ec-CKU-N-35<-R-]C]-TaN-MT,
CKU-EP, bad news || Bad news! Your sister had an accident.
CKU-EP-ZC-`, mN-l-~E-U-`-GC--ZC-qE-,
CKU-P, good news, pleasant talk || Good news! You passed the
examination. CKU-P-ZC-`, mN-lc-Cc-]zN-cE-,
CKU-NR, proverb, saying || He used a lot of proverbs in his speech. Bc-<%$A-CKU-TaN-PE-O-CKU-NR-UE-T-T@`,
CKU-T\E-, good news || I havent had any good news in a long time.
Oc-^P-_E-T-ZC-`-%-=-CKU-T\E-CFC-lE-U-qE-,
CKU-TaN-R, spokesman || He has been our spokesman for two years.
B-E-W]-CKU-TaN-R-qc-Pc-`-CIc-]C_,
CK]-U, mortgage || How much is your house mortgage?
mN-l-BE-T]-CK]-U-C-WN-^P,
CKC (TKC TKC CKCc,) to drop, to drip, to trickle || The doctor dropped
medicine in my eyes. P-Rc-E]-UC-PE-O-P-G-TKC
CKE-, bottom, depths, deep || The bucket fell to the well bottom. (\-NE-C-CKE-`-E,
CKE-Pc, deeply, at all || He deeply loves me. B-<%-%-=-?J3?-CKE-Pc-NC],
CKE-U-GN, to be unsure of the complete reason || Im unsure of the
complete reason as to why he committed suicide.

Bc-_E-~C-TFN-R]--P-`-Ec-CKE-U-GN,
CKE-WN, depth || What is the lakes depth? UW-N]-CKE-WN-P-C-WN-^P,
CKE-\T, deep, intense || She has a deep feeling for music.
B-U_--NqEc-l-E-Pc-W_-:.-CKE-\T-FC-^N,
CLC (CLC CLCc, CLCc,) to reach, to meet, to beat || I want to meet you
tomorrow. cE-IP-E-mN-`-,$-]NN,
CLC-Ca_, prosecution, charge || The criminal charge against him is
108

B-.%-]{`-T]-PC-Ic-CLC-Ca_-N-/A-d-FE-WTc-G,
CLT, (CLT, CLTc, CLTc,) to cut up || Ill cut up the meat. Ec-a-CLT--^P,
CKU-]G`, rumors; meaningless talk || There were many rumors about
her romantic adventures. B-U]-IUc-rE-UW_-T]-_-Pc-CKU-]G`-UE-T-UGN,
I dont like to engage in meaningless talk. E-CKU-]G`-aN-_-U-NC],
CLU-R, brutal, cruel || That cruel man often beats his horse.
U-CLU-R-Nc-B]--`-P-R_-C
CLU-N, violent/cruel/brutal/savage behavior || His wife divorced him
because of his violent behavior. B]-CLU-N-l-NTE-Cc-B]-GE-U-B-NE-$*J/M_,
CK-T, ringleader, agitator, chief conspirator, prime culprit || He is the
ringleader of that criminal group. B-P-PC-Ic-WCc-BC-N]-CK-T-^P,
CK_-B, mineral/ore deposit, mine || There is a large mineral deposit in
those mountains. _-T-]N-W]-tN-.-CK_-B-GP-R-ZC-^N,
CK_-NEc, minerals || Gold and silver are valuable minerals. Cc_-NE`-$*A?P-CK_-NEc--GP-^P,
CK_-UXN, treasury || The national treasury is well-protected.
`-BT-l-CK_-UXN-`-~E-T-`Cc-R-qN,
CKCc, to belong to || This land belongs to me. c-ZE-]N-E-`-CKCc,
CKE-, (CKE-, TKE-, MEc,) to free, to send, to dispatch || Please send my
telegram as soon as possible. E]-K_-^C-CE-UnCc-H-UnCc-lc-MEc,
CKE-SN, generosity || I like his generosity. E-B]-CKE-SN-`-NC],
CKE-SN-FP, generous, charitable, philanthropic || She is charitable toward
beggars. B-U-/A-E-T-`-CKE-SN-(J,
CKN, (CKN, CKN, CKN,) to believe; to put in charge of, to direct || No
serious.
1

one would believe that flowers can bloom in the sky.


2

PU-UB]-<-U-KC-

TZN-MT-R_-cc-lE-^N-U-CKN, She was put in charge of that class of


students. ]XP--N]-]CP-B_-B-U-`-CKN,

CK_, to scatter, to take apart, to separate, to destroy || I had to take apart


the clock because it wasnt working. W-WN-]B_-`-:$=-*R.-3-L?-0?-Ec-NCK_-NCc-qE-,
CK_-TC destruction, ruin || The destruction of the old building was
complete. MC-BE-E-T-N--T-Pc-CK_-TC-,J2?,
TKE-Uc, impartiality, neutrality || Even though one of the people was
109

his brother, he maintained his impartiality.

^P-_E-, Bc-!/-=-TKE-Uc-T\E-,

B-W]-P?-?-CFC-P-B]-P-^-

, horse || I led the horse to the river for a drink. Ec--G-B_-]tN,


-C horse racing || I liked horse racing when I was young.
E-GE-Oc-c--C-`-NC],
- saddle || This saddle is too small for me. --]N-E-`-GE-xCc,
-UGC fine horse || This fine horse is too expensive for me. -UGC-]N-E-`UWP-P-CE-N@]-xCc,
-, horse herdsman || He became a horse herdsman at the age of
thirteen. `-TF-CcU-E-B---ZC-L-n_,
C-L, always || Dont always be unhappy. C-L-cUc-C-U-qN,
Cc, mark, symbol, signal || What does that symbol mean?
Cc-Nc-PE-NP-F-ZC-UWP,
Cc-U, medal, emblem || He wore the medal pinned to his chest. B-`-<%$A-{E-B_-2+Cc-;R.-R]-Cc-U-N-MT,
E-, bottom, end || How deep is the bottom of the lake? U5K:-.J-`-CKE-WN-FVU-^N,
C-x, fart || His fart smelled bad. B]-C-x-`-x-EP-{,
C-R, excrement, shit, manure || The excrement was collected and used
as fertilizer. C-R-TLc-Pc-`N-c-c-T@`,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to depend on, to rely on, foundation || I depend on my
children now that Im old. N-E-c-^N-Rc, _E-C-qc-R-W-`-TP-^N,
P-CZ, basis, foundation || What is the basis for your argument?
mN-l-N-CZ]-P-?-P-F-ZC-^P,
C-NoN, investigation, research || The investigation will require at least
six months. C-NoN-qN-R_-JE-UM_-^E--T-xC-NCc,
gR$-8A2, inspection, examination || After the inspection of our factory we
were all relieved. E-W]-T\--`-gR$-8A2-qc-c, E-W-WE-U:A-cUc-TN-U_-I<, The
inspection of the factory revealed several violations of safety

T\-:A-gR$-8A2-=c-TN-]HCc-C-~`-.%-]C`-T:A-$/?-5=-]C]-N,
gR$-8A2-R, inspector, investigator || He is a safety inspector. B-P-TN-]HCcgR$-8A2-R-ZC-^P,
C-T\, fabrication, making up, exaggeration || He is very good at the
fabrication of stories. B-P-E-CKU-C-T\-qN-R_-UBc, That story is an
regulations.

110

exaggeration.

CKU-N-N-P-_T-TKCc-aC-_N,

Cc, to understand, to comprehend || I cant understand any French.


Ec-q-N-Cc-U-MT,
Cc-R, enlightenment, understanding, comprehension || I achieved a new
understanding of the purpose of life after hearing him talk.

B]-CKU-TaN-`-IP-c, U-W]-NUCc-^`-MC-Pc-E-`-Cc-R-Cc_-T-ZC-qE-,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to believe, to trust || I believe what you say.
mN-lc-F-$?%-=-Ec-^N-P,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to bore (holes); to reveal || He bored holes in the
wood. Bc-aE-`-BE-T-T`, He revealed several secrets about his past.
Bc-<%-$A-P-GN-l-CcE-T-]C]-T`,
, (T, Tc, c,) to look at, to see || Do you want to look at my new
house? mN-lc-E]-BE-T-Cc_-T-`-T-e-]NN,
-E-, taking care of, looking after || Who is looking after your baby
daughter? mN-l-T-U-`-cc--E-qN-@P-^N,
-UBP, audience, onlooker || The audience did not like the performance.
-UBP-W-]tT-P-N-`-U-NC],
-C surveillance, supervision || My parents are old now and I am busy
taking care of them every day. N--S-U-$*A?-!-c-^N-Rc,Ec-IP-__-B-W-`-C-qc-Pc-BU-R-UN,
-T, ideology, view || Few people could agree with his ideology.
B]--T-`-]MN-R]-U-JE-E-`c-UN,
-W`, viewpoint, standpoint, perspective || What is your viewpoint on
this question? CPN-NP-]N:A-,.-`-mN-l--W`-F-]x-^P,
-ZT, supervision, direction, investigation || I am constantly under my
wifes supervision. GE-Uc-E-`-UWUc-UN-R_--ZT-qN-lP-^N,
N-U, scene, spectacle, performance || Did you see the dance
performance last week? mN-lc-C\]-]B_-P-U:A-ZTc-{-`-e-Tc,
N-U-T, audience, onlooker || The audience numbered at least one
hundred. N-U-T-JE-UM_-^E-T-MU-R-^N,
_, according to, in accordance with, as || I did this according to your
instructions. Ec-mN-l-CNUc-R-_-q-T-]N-TTc,
c, omen || What are good omens according to Tibetan culture?
TN-l-_C-CPc-_-P-c-T\E-P-F-ZC-^P,
1

111

-T, center, core, middle || The center of the earth is very hot.
c]-C-`]--T-P-W-T-d-FE-G,

T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to fold || I want you to fold the sheets and put
them in this drawer. mN-lc-aC-`T-T-Pc-]MP-U-PE-O-]HC-_-Ec-_-T-qN,
Uc, to ripple || The water will ripple when I drop this stone.
Ec--]N-]SEc-R-P-G-T-Uc,

-Cc, food and clothes || Everyone needs enough food and clothes.
U-WE-U<--Cc-]NE-T-^N-NCc,
Cc, to be hungry || I dont like to be hungry. E-Cc-P-U-]NN,
c-TFc, relative || Truth is a relative concept.
TNP-NP-P-c-TFc-l-U-TZC-FC-^P,
c-UN, absolute || Nothing is absolute. c-UN-^P-R-CFC-lE-UN,
-CP, preparation, making ready || How long will your preparation
require? mN-lc--CP-qN-R_-(-WN-C-WN-]C_--_N,
-_, axe || I need to sharpen my axe. Ec--_-T_-NCc,
C tiger || I saw a tiger in the zoo on Sunday.
C\]-IP-U_-Ec-~C-GCc-BE-.-C-FC-3,R%-,
C-U, tigress || The tigress lunged at the rabbit. C-Uc-_-TE-`-CVc,
Ec, way/manner/style of (action) || Her manner makes her more
attractive. B-U]-N-Ec-lc-B-U-N-Tc-^N-]zC-R_-TKE-,
Tc, posture, stance; because || Slouching is not good posture. CI]GC-IUc-a_-n-]OC-Tc-P-T\E-T-UP, Im tired because I played
basketball for two hours. r%-lJ.-%R-=R-(-WN-CIc-`-c-Tc-E-_E-ME-GN,
Tc-U-`Cc-R, by accident, unfortunate || It is unfortunate that he did not
finish school. Bc-T--TKP-U-W_-T-P-Tc-U-`Cc-R-ZC-_N,
Tc-`Cc-Pc, fortunately, luckily || Fortunately, when I needed help you
were there. Tc-`Cc-R-8A$-`, E-`-_Cc-_-UB-T]-Oc-mN-_E-uCc-?-qP,
_, (T_, T_, _,) to queue, to sand in line/in order || Students queued
outside the dining hall. Cc`-WCc-BE-C-p-_`-P-T-U-W-u`-`-T_,
C-R, compact, thick, dense || The dense earth was difficult to dig
through. c-C-R-N--N@],
N, (TN, TN, N,) to continue, to do successively || I will continue to
study. Ec-TN-Pc-T-E-qN--^P,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to cater to, to submit, to compromise, to do in
1

112

concession, according to || I dont want to cater to your unreasonable

Ec-mN-l-`Cc-UMP-UP-R]-]NN-R-NE-TP-U-]NN,
Cc-T, platform || The platform was made of wood. Cc-T-N-aE-`c-T\c,
E-, on, on top of || Few sheep graze on top of the mountain. `C-]Cc-_:A-lJdemands.

<--\,

E-Pc, in terms of || In terms of study he was a good student.


T-E-C-E-Pc-B-P-T-U-T\E-T-ZC-^P,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to depend on || Im so ill that I must depend on
medicine to get well. E-P-Tc-P-`-TP-Pc-PN-xC-L-]HC-NCc,
_, to give, to hand || I will give you my dictionary next week.
C\]-]B_-c-U_-Ec-<%-$A-WC-UXN-mN-`-_,
E-, (E-, Ec,) to be bankrupt, to fail economically || The factory went
bankrupt. T\-]-U--Ec,
E-, thousand; empty || I have one thousand yuan. E-`-_-U-E-CFC^N, Please pour some tea in my empty cup. E]-S_-T-E-T]-PE-O-H-C_Cc,
E-]H`, to compensate for murder || He had to pay a large fine to
1

compensate for the murder of his enemy.

Bc-_E-C-Nu-T-TcN-R]-E-]H`-`-_-U-UE-T-N-NCc-qE-,
E-CKU, meaningless conversation/speech || Im tired of all this
meaningless conversation. E-E-CKU-]N-_Cc-`-cP-E-c,
E-T, empty, void || I looked into the cave and saw a dark void.
Ec-{C-SC-PE-O-UP-PC-C-E-T-ZC-UME-,
E-TcU, utopian thought, romantic idea, fantasy || Your idea about love
is only a fantasy. mN-lc-T-OE-`-TFEc-R]-2?3-5=-N-/A-E-TcU-B-P-_N,
N, upper part || The upper part of the valley is very dry.
`E-T]-N-P-d-FE-U-R-^P,
N, (N, TN, N,) to fly into the air || The bird flew into the air.
]NT-GCc-lc-NDE-TN,
N-]CC T-shirt || My new T-shirt was made in Shanghai.
E]-N-]CC-Cc_-T-N-E-d]-<-MP-N-qc,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to point/direct; to appear, to reveal || Dont point at
other people with your finger. CZP-`-UXT-D?-U-P, Please reveal one
of your secrets. mN-l-CcE-T-[C-P-NE-,
1

113

P-@ autumn, fall (season) || It is cool in autumn. P-@_-PU--Tc`,


P-T, autumn harvest || We had a good autumn harvest this year.
N-`_-E-W-`-P-T-`Cc-R-ZC-qE-,
P-R, Buddha || Beseech the Buddha for knowledge. P-R-`c-ac-q-[,
P-R]-Gc-`Cc, Buddhism || Buddhism has many believers in Asia.
e-a-^-P-P-R]-Gc-`Cc-l-c-]{E-T-UE-T-^N,
P-U, feast, party, banquet || I missed the party last night because I was
ill. E-`-P-W-qE-Tc, UNE-NCE-C-P-U_-[Cc-3-,2,
P-`c, harvest work || The harvest work made me tired.
P-`c-lc-E-ME-GN-O-TFC
Tc, strength, power || He has much power in his arms. B]-NRE-Tc-G,
Tc-]q_, might and wealth, power in property || His might and wealth
made him a powerful force. B]-Tc-]q_-nc-B-_E-`-Tc-bCc-GP-R-T`,
Tc-]q_-G-T, rich, powerful, prosperous || My uncle is rich. E]-B-T-P-3ATc-]q_-&/-ZC-^P,
Tc-bCc, strength, force, power || The strength of his personality
impresses everyone. B]-_E-Cac-`c-qE-T]-Tc-bCc-lc-U-Uc-`-TC-GCc\T-U-TZC
TC-MTc, diagnosis method, way of examination || His diagnosis method
follows Traditional Tibetan Medicine theory.

B]-TC-MTc-P-TN-l-~`-P-P-C[E-`-TP-R-^P,

TC-NoN, examination, research, test || The examination results showed


that there were some problems.

TC-NoN-l-UHC-]{c-`c-CPN-NP-]C]-_-^N-R-TP,
TP-R, steady, stable, permanent || He has a stable personality.
B-`-Cac-@-TP-R-ZC-^N,

Tc-]HC comparably, relatively || Her English is relatively better than


his. B-U]-NqP-^C-Tc-]HC-Cc-B-`c-T\E-,
TP-TFc, treatise, work, religious texts || He spent many years writing
his treatise. Bc-`-UE-T-T@`-3,<-<%-$A-TP-TFc-TUc,
2!/-2>A$-5-2R,mischievous || That mischievous student often makes
other students laugh in class.

T-U-2!/-2>A$-5-2R-Nc-T-tN-{2?-?-T-U-CZP-.$-`-P-R_-CN-U-E-,
T_, to practice, to conduct; to stand in a line || He practices medicine
1

114

Bc--T-ZC-+-P-=$-=J/-LJ., The students stand in a line to


get food from the school kitchen. T-U-Uc-u`-`-T_-Pc-T-]-Cc`WCc-BE-.-\-U-`P,
2!.-3<, in succession, successively, continually || He read ten books in
succession. Bc-2!.-3<-NR-G-TF-TCc, He had six jobs successively.
Bc-2!.-3<-q-T-xC-CI_,He was continually late for class. B-2!.-3<-T-tN-l-c-`-`c,
TN, to praise, to eulogize, to compliment || This song praises Qinghai
Lake. -NqEc-]Nc-UW-P-R-`-TN,
TN-TCc, praise, eulogize, compliment || The praise you sang last night
to your parents moved everyone. UNE-NCE-mN-lc-<%-$A-S-U-`-Ec-R]-TN\?-3A-WE-U]-^N-NTE-xEc,
2

in a village.

M-M_, scattered, strewn || Broken glass was strewn all over the floor.
a`-:A-GC-<R-ME-`-M-M_-qE-,
M-NN, separate, different, dissimilar || Black and white are different
colors. PC-R-NE-N@_-T-$*A?-P-B-NC-M-NN-^P,
M-P, even, as far as || Im so fat I cant even bend over to tie my shoes.
E-WP-R-^P-xCc-0?-M-P-=?-!R.-U_-_-Pc-U-C-lE-C-U-MT,
M-U-B, cigarettes, tobacco || I quit smoking cigarettes two years ago.
`-CIc-P-`-Ec-M-U-B-]MP-353?-TFN,
M-WC warning, ultimatum || We ignored his ultimatum so lets see what
happens next. E-Wc-B]-M-WC-`-U-IP-R_-eJ?-U_-F-]qE-`-T-NE-,
M-_-M-_, scattered, sparse || The grass was sparse on the mountainside.
_-Ec-c--M-_-M-_-`c-UN,
M->=, worst, bad, degenerated || That is the worst handwriting Ive ever
seen. ]N-P-Ec-UME-T]-^C-C\Cc-Gc-M->=-_N, She is very beautiful but a
degenerated woman. B-U-P-#-:V?-*J?-$9$?-UW_-_E-2.-3J.-,->=-ZC-_N,
MC distance; to evaporate || Whats the distance from Xining to
Lhasa? \-`E-Pc--c:A-2<-=3-MC-&A-43-^N, Water evaporates quickly in
1

115

the hot sun.

MC-CFN,

I-U]-W-SR.-:R$-G-UnCc-Uc-MC

decision; 2to decide || 1It is difficult to make a decision without

more information.

CPc-W`-UE-T-o?-=R/-3-L?-R_-MC-CFN-qN-o-N@],

I want

you to decide now if you will marry me or not.

mN-E-NE-CIP-C-qN-UP-mN-lc-N-v-*A.-.-MC-CFN-qN-NCc,
MC-I-c, near place || No, my relative doesnt live far away, she lives in a
near place. UP, E]-I-O-MC-_E-P-UN, B-U-MC-I-c<-^N,
MC-R, rope || The rope is made of nylon. MC-R-]N-P-`P-nc-Tc,
MC-_E-T, distant, far away || The stars in the sky at night seem so far
away. 35/-U_-UB]-NqEc-?-_-U:A-5S$?-d-FE-o%-MC-_E-T:A-?<-$/?-;R.-0<$%-,
ME-C Tibetan painting || Tibetan painting utilizes numerous bright colors
that are used to depict many deities. TN-l-ME-C_--CIP-UE-T-]{-T]-WP-lAUNC-FP-$-UE-T@`,
ME-GN, to be tired/exhausted || I was exhausted after not sleeping for
many hours. (-WN-UE-T_-U-CIN-Rc-E-ME-GN,
ME-GP, square, large plain || The large plain was covered with grazing
yaks. ME-GP-N_--\-TZP-R]-P_-IAc-BEc,
ME-E-, desert, uninhabited place, wilderness || The desert behind the
mountain has no inhabitants. _-T-l-ME-E-N-P-^`-U-UN,
ME-U, crops for milling || These crops are for milling. ]N-NC-P-ME-U-^P,
ME-^Ec-R, large/expansive plain || The large plain between those two
mountains is too dry to grow much grass.

_-T-CIc-T_-n-ME-^Ec-R-N-U-xCc-Rc--UE-T-U-,
MN, about, concerning, for || I want to learn as much as possible about
Tibetan history. TN-l-`-c-MN-GA->J?-L-Ec-F-Qc-lc-E-]NN,
MN-@_, directly || Go directly home after school, the mother told her
son. T--u`-c-MN-@_-^`-`-cE-Zc-A-3?-T-`-CNUc-R-qc,
MP-P, drought || The crops died because of the drought.
MP-P-n-P-nc-`-KC-TUc,
MP-c, bad/unfortunate omen || The bad omen made everyone feel
depressed. MP-c-Nc-WE-U-^N-UC-L-TFC
MP-R, drought || The drought was so serious that the river stopped
flowing. MP-R-WTc-G-Tc-G-T]-T[_-P-GN,
116

MT-@ stove, fireplace || Dont put bones in the stove.


MT-@]-PE-`-_c-R-U-]SP,
MT-`c, cooking || She does all the cooking for her family.
B-Uc-mU-WE-C-MT-`c-WE-U-`c,
MTc, means, way, method || Whats the best way to learn English?
NqP-^C-T-R]-MTc-T\E-ac-P-F-ZC-^P,
MTc-UBc, skilful, dexterous, ingenious || He was skilful in repairing
anything mechanical.

]z`-Gc-l-_Cc-CE-_E-ZC-Cc-qN-R]-MC-Pc-B-P-U-MTc-UBc-aC-^P,
MTc-T-Hc-E-, by all sorts of means || He will try to get what he wants by
all sorts of means. Bc-MTc-T-Hc-E-Cc-<%-*A.-GA-]NN-R-TT-Ec-^P,
MTc-Hc, strategy, policy || Whats the best strategy to get students to
study well? T-U-Uc-`-T-E-T\E-T-qN-O-]HC-]-MTc-Hc-UGC-ac-P-F-8A$^P,
MTc-\N, to be at the end of ones wits, to be helpless || The problem was
so difficult I felt helpless. CPN-NP-N-N@]-xCc-Rc-E-`-MTc-\N,
MU-@ seal || I had a plastic seal made yesterday with my name.
B-?E-Ec-<%-$A-UE-12-R]-c-]nC-C-MU-@-ZC-`c-c-TFC
MUc-FN, all, whole || Do you want all this bread or just half?
mN-`-C-_-]N-MUc-FN-NCc-cU-.J:A-KJ.-!-`c-U-NCc,
M_, to get rid of, to escape, to get free of || When I graduated from
college I was glad to get rid of the pressure of studying.

T--GP-U-Pc-UM_-pP-Tc,<%-*A.-T-E-C-CI]-CPP-`c-M_-T_-E-`-NC]--c,
M_-`U, way out, outlet, extractable way || There must be a way out of
this problem. CPN-NP-]N-`-M_-`U-ZC-Ec-R_-O-^N-Ec-^P,
M`-xCc, excessive, undue || The pressure you are putting on your
students is excessive. mN-lc-T-U]-E-`-$/R/->$?-!J<-2-O-M`-xCc,
M`-U, palm || Ive got a blister on my palm. E]-M`-U]-E-`-G-T_-TT,
MC line, string; zero || We hung up a string to put our wet clothes on.
Ec-CP-R-]C`-qN-`-E-ZC-]MP, Zero is the smallest number. MC-P-uEc-@GE-ac-^P,
MC-`, zero; center || Two minus two is zero. CIc-`c-CIc-]MP-P-MC-`-^P,
The arrow struck the center of the target. UN]-U-]TP-n-MC-`-`-SC
MC-aE-, ruler, yard-stick || The ruler is made of plastic, not wood.
1

117

MC-aE-N-P-aE-3A/-0<-c-]nC-=?-29R?-0-_N,
MCc-R, drop || A drop of water flew into my eye.
G]-MCc-R-ZC-E]-UC-PE-O-T[_,
MU, to sink, to infiltrate, to absorb || Slowly the ship sank in the ocean.
u-C\Ec-N`-Uc--UW_-MU,
M-T, main || The main criminal in several recent crimes was sentenced to
death. *J-=3-PC-Ic-]C]-TcCc-R]-Ic-FP-M-T-N-`-~C-tUc-TFN,
MC to meet, to touch || I want to meet that singer. E--T-N-.%-MC-]NN,
MC-R, noodle || Our school dining room just bought a new noodle
machine. E-W]-T-]-\-BE-Cc-MC-R]-]z`-Gc-Cc_-T-ZC-Ic,
MC-]zN, visit, meeting || What time is our afternoon meeting?
E-W]-p-x]-MC-]zN-P-(-WN-O]-E-^P,
MCc-B_, concern, care, worry (h) || I understand your worry, but I cant
help you. mN-lc-MCc-B_-qN-R-ac-UN, ]P-lE-Ec-mN-`-_Cc-qN-U-MT,
MCc--G, thankful, grateful || Im very grateful to you for your help.
mN-lc-_Cc-qc-R_-Ec-cUc-CKE-Pc-MCc--G-[-T-^P,
ME-E-, short || The short man married a tall woman.
c-R-ME-E-N-c-U-C\Cc-_E-ZC-`-CIP-C-qc,
MP, dosage, dose, meal || How much of this liquid medicine is one dose?
P-MP-CFC-`-P-G-]N-C-WN-]ME-NCc,
MP-UE-, common, public, communal || A common idea is that everyone
should marry and have children.

U-WE-U-CIP-C-qc-Pc-qc-R-TV]-NCc-R-P-MP-UE-C--T-ZC-^P,
MT, to be able to do, can; to tolerate || I can speakEnglish. Ec-NqP-NTaN-MT, I tolerate his strange behavior because he is my friend. B-PE]-uCc-R-^P-Tc, Ec-B]-o/-w/-3A/-0:A-N-R-`-T\N-U-qN-MT,
MT-WN, bullying || His bullying personality means that he has few friends.
B]-MT-WN-G-T]-_E-Cac-lc-B-`-uCc-R-UE-T-UN-R-UWP,
M_, downhill, down || The horse raced downhill. -T-<A-%R?-M_-`-Cc,
M_-O, down,downward || The rock rolled down the mountain. T--_-T]M_-O-]x`, The water ran downward across the grassland to the river.
G-T--ME-,<-.-TN-Pc-CVE-T]-PE-]TT,
M_-U, chopsticks || These chopsticks are made of ivory.
M_-U-]N-NC-T-c-=c-29Rc,
1

118

M, to include, to belong to || I want to include you in my next party. %:A-WCc-,J%?-c-U]-PE-O-Ec-mN-M-P-]NN,


M-Hc, interference, intervention, impediment || China does not welcome
interference in its internal affairs.

sE-Cc-_E-C-PE-~N-`-CZP-nc-M-CKCc-qN-R-NC]-Tc-U-qN,
M-WU, doubt; hesitancy || His doubts about the students ability were
not proved true. T-U]-]HP-ME-`-Bc-M-WU-TFEc-R-N_-TNP-R]-_-N-U-qE-,
1

His hesitancy in investing money typified his conservative approach

to life.

Bc-U-NE`-CKE-T<-M-WU-]XP-R-Nc-Bc-]W-T:A-,.-GA--T-E-ZP-UWP,

MC to tolerate, to endure, be able to || He can tolerate great pain.


Bc-P-\C-GP-R-MC-MT,

MC-WN, capacity || What is the capacity of that vat? \-T-N]-MC-WN-C-WN-^P,


MEc, time, frequency, number of times || What is the number of times
you have been to Beijing? mN-R-FP-`-MEc-&A-43-cE-,
MEc-]C], several times || Ive been to Beijing several times.
E-R-FP-`-MEc-]C<-cE-,
MEc-UE-, many times || Ive been to Lhasa many times. E--c-`-MEc-UE-cE-,
MN, to be torn, to worn-out || The old shirt was worn-out.
W-`P-E-T-N-MN-cE-,
MN-R, old and shabby || My shoes are now old and shabby.
E]-U-N--E-/?-MN-R<-I<-;R.,
MP, to tend, to be intimate, to be inclined || Dont be too intimate with
your relatives. mN-l-I-O-`-MP-o-,=-U-xCc,
MTc, to get, to suffer || I suffer from hepatitis. E-`-UGP-PN-MTc,
MTc-, fund, trust || How much money is in that fund? MTc--N-`-_-U-&A43-^N,
M_-]NP, exposure, revealing || Exposure of his past mistakes destroyed
him. B]-P-GN-l-P_-P-M_-]NP-qc-R-Nc-B-TCc,
M_-U, wool cloth, fabric made of wool, serge || This gray wool cloth is
expensive. M_-U--T-N-CE-N@],
M-]CN, registration || Tomorrow is the day for class registration.
cE-IP-]XP-]-M-]CN-l-IP-U-_N,
MC in, on, above, top of || The moon seemed to be on top of the house.
-T-BE-MC-P-^N-R-]x,
119

MC-UM]-T_-CcU-., from beginning to end, thoroughly, all the time || I paid


attention to what she said from beginning to end. B-Uc-{.-(-F-TaN-R-`Ec-MC-UM]-T_-CcU-O-UIU-]HC-qc,
MC-Pc, in terms of, about || In terms of my own financial ability, I can
afford it. <%-$A-NR`-]q_-n-Qc-R]-MC-Pc-TaN-P, Ec-N-I-MT,
MC-U, origin, beginning, commencement, first || What is the origin of the
universe? ]HC-P-n-MC-U-P-F-ZC-^P,
ME-Ca`, a plow || The plow was made of wood. ME-Ca`-N-aE-`c-29R?,
MP-N, production || Production at the factory has increased under new
management. N-NU-Cc_-T]-]C-+-T\-]-MP-N-`-]S`-c-qE-,
MP-BEc, resource || Water is a valuable resource. G-P-MP-BEc--GP-ZC-^P,
MP-WN, rate of production || What is your factorys rate of production?
mN-W]-T\-]-MP-WN-C-WN-^P,
MP-c, products || How many products does your shop sell?
mN-l-WE-BE-Pc-MP-c-F-VU-]WE-CP-^N,
MT-`, portion || My portion is smaller than yours.
E]-MT-`-mN-l-MT-`-`c-JE-,
MT-ME-, right; title, position || It is my right to think what I want. <%]NN-TcU-R-P-E]-MT-ME-^P, After my promotion I now have a new title.
C-]SE-CKN-c, E-`-N--MT-ME-Cc_-T-ZC-^N,
UM]-]BT, sparsely populated area || Mngasris is a sparsely populated
area. UE]-_c-P-U-JE-T]-^`-u-ZC-^P,
UM]-CFC-L, without exception, absolutely, completely, totally || I totally
agree with you. E-mN-l--T-`-UM]-CFC-L-]MN,
UM]-3HC the end, the last || I didnt hear the last thing he said. B:A-3,:3)$-$A-{.-(-N-Ec-U-C,
UM]-3HC-L, at last, finally, at the end || At the end of the class we were
all very tired. T-tN-l-UM]-]HC-L-E-W-WE-U-ME-GN,
UM]-]{c, result || What was your examination result? mN-l-Cc-]{c-P-$-:S1

_N,

UM]-U, last, end, final, ultimate || The last day of the month is tomorrow.
-]N]-3)$-3,:A-*A/-P-cE-IP-^P,
UM]-U_, finally, at last || I finally was able to go to Lhasa.
UM]-U_-E--c-`-]u-MT-cE-,
120

UM_-CLCc-P, in the final analysis, at bottom || In the final analysis, she


doesnt care what I think. UM_-CLCc-P, B-Uc-Ec-F-]NN-R-`-N-E-U-qN,
UM_-pP, to graduate || I graduate next month. -eJ?-U_-E-UM_-pP-]u,
UME-, light blue || I like this light blue cloth. E-_c-UME--]N-`-NC],
UM`, center; bottom || He threw a rock into the center of the pond. Bc1

E-T]-UM`-`--ZC-]SEc, 2The ship sank to the bottom of the ocean. UW-uN--UW]-UM`-`-]MUc,

UM`-pP, thorough, complete || Lets make a thorough cleaning of the


apartment. E-Wc-BE-T-`-CVE-pC-UM`-pP-ZC-q,
UM-UN, powerless, incompetent, incapable || He was powerless to change
what had been decided. B-`-MC-TFN-\P-R-T_-]-UM-UN,
UM-`, power, might, strength || That religious practitioner has great
power. Gc-0-`-UM-GP-R-^N,
UMC-R, thick || Thick is the opposite of thin. UMC-R-P-~T-U]-C--^P
UMC-WN, thickness || I was surprised at the thickness of the book.
E-NR-G-N]-UMC-WN-`-^-UWP-c,
UMP, to be the same/similar, to be in harmony/concord || Your idea and
my idea are really the same. mN-l--T-NE-E]--T-E-Uc-UMP,
UMP-P, advantage || To be tall is an advantage.
C\Cc-_E-T-P-UMP-P-ZC-_N,
UMP-]uC harmony || Human beings should live in harmony.
U]-_Cc-UMP-]uC-Cc-]W-T_-]c,
UMP-`, unity || The unity of our country is important.
E-W]-`-BT-l-UMP-`-P-C`-G,
UMP-_, adjustment || An adjustment was made in how we divide
responsibility for work. E-W]-`c-]CP-H-_-TC-]-MC-Pc-UMP-_-ZC-qc,
UM-TE-, big toe, thumb || A horse stepped on my big toe.
-T-ZC-Cc-E]-E-T]-UM-TE-Tc,

UMT-GE-, little finger || I dont wear a ring on my little finger.


Ec-UMT-GE-E-O-UXT-Nsc-U-CP,
UM, high; loud; the span measured by the distance between thumb and
1

middle finger when extended || 1The mountain is so high that I cant

_-N-UM-S$?-Tc-E-.J<-]C-U-MT, That singers voice is so loud


that everyone can hear her. -U]-N-UC-UM-Tc-U-WE-Uc-C-MT, The
climb it.

121

picture frame is as long as the span measured by the distance


between my thumb and my middle finger when extended.

]x-NR_-CZ-

U-N]-ZE-`-UM-CE-^N,
UM-WN, height; altitude || My sons height is now greater than mine.
E]-T]-$9$?-0R:C-UM-WN-N--E-`c-UM, What is the altitude in Lhasa?
-c]-c-UC-UM-WN-C-WN-^P,
UM-_U-T-, college, university || Have you graduated from college?
mN-UM-_U-T--Pc-UM_-e-pP,
UM-Tc, upsurge || Recently there has been an upsurge of interest in
learning English. I-G_, NqP-^C-T-E-qN-R]--B-`-UM-Tc-aC-]p_,
UME-, insight, ones knowledge || He has great insight into the problem.
CPN-NP-N]-MC-Pc-B-`-UME--GP-R-^N,
UME--GE-T, ignorant, nearsighted || The foreigner was ignorant about
Tibetan culture. TN-l-_C-CPc-l-_-Pc, p-E-T-N]-UME--GE-,
UME--G-T, farsighted; experienced || His plans are farsighted.
B]-]G_-CZ-NC-`-UME--G, The experienced teachers students did well
on the examination. NC-P-UME--FP-N]-T-U-Uc-lc-Cc-N-R-T\E-,
UME-GE-, disdain, contempt; underestimate || His contempt for me is
obvious. Bc-E-`-UME-GE-q?-R-N-UEP-Cc`-_N, His underestimate of the
value of the goods cost our business a lot of money. Bc-NEc-c-l-_PME-`-UME-GE-qc-R-Nc-E-W]-B-WE-`-_-U-UE-T-a_-O-TFC
UMP-R, high || Grass doesnt grow well on high mountains.
_-UMP-R-`--T\E-T_-U-,
]MC (TKC TKCc, MCc,) to weave to chop/cut into small pieces || Every
afternoon I work weaving carpets. *A/-<J:A-KA-SR<-Ec-c-CNP-]MC Please
chop this meat into small pieces. a-]N-ZT-U_-MCc,
]MN, to agree/concur (with) || Do you agree to learn English?
mN-NqP-^C-E-T_-e-]MN,
]MT, to fight, to struggle || The two boxers will fight here tomorrow.
cE-IP-#-5<-$/-`-T-CIc-lc-]N-Pc-]MT--_N,
]MT-`, attack || This morning we planned an attack on the enemy
position. 8R$?-0<-E-Wc-Nu-T:A-$/?-$8A-=-1<-`-qN-]-T@N-R-]MP,
]MT-Hc, strategy || I dont think your battle strategy will succeed.
Ec-mN-l-]MT-Hc-`-`-B-]MT-R_-U-U,
1

122

]MT-U, fight, battle, combat || More than one thousand men were killed
in the battle. c-R-E-CFC-C-]MT-U-`c-TsEc,
]MT-U-T, fighter, soldier || He was a PLA soldier before Liberation.
TFEc-]u`-P-`-B-P-TFEc-]u`-NUC-C-]MT-U-T-ZC-^P,
]MT-N, struggle, combat || The struggle lasted all day.
]MT-N-IP-CE-T_-qc,
]MT-^, antagonist, opponent || He is my main opponent.
B-P-E]-]MT-^-CV-T-^P,
]MU, (]MU, ]MUc,) to hold, to embrace, to hug || Dont embrace me in
public. U-UE-c<-E-`-U-]MUc,
]MC (]MC ]MCc,) to drop, to drip || Water dripped from the tap.
_E-]TT-G-`c-G-]MCc,
]MT, (]MT, ]MTc,) to be cloudy; to be filled with || It is cloudy today. N_E-$/3-%R-]MTc, The room is filled with cigarette smoke. BE-T]-PE-`-MUC-C-O-T-]MTc,
]M, (TL, TLc, Mc,) to pick, to collect, to gather || We will gather
medicinal herbs this summer. N-`]-Nq_-B_-E-Wc-P--]M--^P,
]ME-, (TLE-, ]MEc, MEc,) to drink || I want to drink a glass of cold water.
Ec-G-]mC-a`-S_-CE-TLE-]NN,
]MU, (TLU, TLUc, MUc,) to cover, to wrap up || I covered my sleeping son
with a quilt. Ec-<%-$A-CIN-.-^_-T]-T-zC-I`-M`-nc-TLUc,
]M`, (]M`, TL`, M`,) to tame, to domesticate || They could not tame the
wild yak. B-Wc-]{E-N-TL`-U-MT,
]Mc-U, representative, delegate || He was our representative at the
meeting. WCc-]O]-E-B-P-E-W]-]Mc-U-^P,
]Mc-CV, chief representative || He is the chief representative of our side.
B-P-E-W]-pCc-l-]Mc-CV-^P,
]ME-, to cripple, to incapacitate, to lame || He was incapacitated in the
automobile accident. Ec-]B_-n-GC--ZC-`c-B]-E-T-]ME-0R<-I<,
]MP, to pull, to drag; to deduct/subtract; to take a puff; to sing || The
tractor pulled the car out of the mud. `C-_-]B_-`c-Ec-]B_-]NU-`c]MP, Please deduct what Ive already paid you from what I owe you.
Ec-mN-`-N-\P-R-N-Ec-mN-`-NU-GN-R]-PE-Pc-]MP-_Cc, I took a puff of
cigarette smoke. Ec-O-T-ZC-]MP, Please sing an amorous song. `-CZc1

123

aC-]MP-_Cc,
]MP-bCc, gravity, power of attraction || The moons gravity is less than
the earths. -T]-]MP-bCc-c]-C-`]-]MP-bCc-`c-GE-,
]MC (TKC TKCc, MCc,) to pluck, to pick || Dont pick the flowers on the
campus. T-]-_-T-Pc-U-KC-U-TKC
]MT, (]MT, MT) to get, to acquire, to gain || I got a prize for my excellent
study. E]-T-E-S`-O-qE-T-`-NC]-Cc-MT,
]MU, (]MU, ]MUc,) to be confused/dazed || There was so much fog that I
was confused and didnt know which way to go.

C-R-!$-R-^N-Rc-E]-UC-]MUc-/?-`U-CE-.-TuN-NCc-R]E-U-ac,
]M_, (]M_, M_,) to scatter || When my son turned the box upside down,
bottles of medicine scattered everywhere.

E]-Tc-U-M_-O-NoEc-R-P, P-n-NU-T-CE-c_-M_,

N-, now || Where are you going now? N--mN-CE-`-]u,


N--Pc, from now, since now || From now I will stop sleeping late in the
morning. .?-N--Pc-29%-Ec-PEc-]p-`Ec-U-qN,
N-OE-, still, yet || We still have time to drink another bottle of beer.
E-W_-N-OE--GE-NU-T-$&A$-TLE-T]-Oc-WN-^N,
N-Pc-T\E-, since/from now || I will never smoke again from now.
N-Pc-T\E-Ec-M-UC-^E-T_-U-]MP,
N-pP, henceforth || Henceforth, I will visit you more regularly.
N-pP, Ec-mN-`-]WUc-]x-P-w/-=?-UE-O-qN--^P,
N-T_, up to now || Up to now Ive not been able to make much progress
in solving this problem.

CPN-NP-MC-CFN-R]-MC-Pc-N-T_-O-Ec-CE-]S`-GP-R-`P-U-MT,
N-_Tc, present generation, contemporary || The present generation
knows a lot about science and technology.

N-_Tc-l-Uc-WP-_C-NE-`C-`-UE-T-ac,
N-_c, this time, this turn || It is your turn to pay this time.
124

N-_c-mN-lc-_P-N-NCc,
N-`, this year || Will you go home this year? N-`_-mN-^`-`-]u--e-^P,
NC-TFc, correction || I dont agree with your correction.
mN-l-NC-TFc-`-E-U-]MN,
NC-]TN, defending oneself with reason, testimony || His defense of
himself with reason and testimony won his release from prison.

Bc-_E-*A.-NC-]TN-qc-3,<-TVP-=?-PR=,
NC-^C spelling || This Tibetan spelling book is used by all Tibetan
primary school students.

NC-^C-NR-G-]N-TN-l-T-GE-C-T-U-WE-Uc-T@`-N-qN,
NE-O-`P, to volunteer, to take an incumbency/duty || Who will volunteer
to clean the classroom? T-BE-`-CVE--qN--cc-NE-O-`P--^P,
NE-T, the first || She is the first woman to climb that mountain. B-U-P-_-N<]Cc-3#/-TN-UN-NE-T-^P,
NE-T_, at first || At first I was afraid to speak English.
NE-T_-E-NqP-N--T_-C
NN, to worship, to believe, to adore || Tibetans worship mountain gods.
TN-Uc-CZ-TNC-`-NN,
NN-R, faith, belief || My faith in Buddhism is strong.
E-PE-TP-`-NN-R-d-FE-G,
NU-TF], promise, pledge, guarantee || His promise is as good as gold.
B]-NU-TF]-P-]n_-UN-Cc_--T-^P,
.3- .- $+R%- 2,to tighten || The knot had tightened and could not be untied.
UON-R-N-.3-0R<-I<-/?-u`-U-MT,

NU-R, tight || Now that Im fatter these trousers are too tight.
N--E-a-H-Cc-`-cE-0c, E-U-]N-NC-NC-U-^P-xCc,
N_, to flourish, to grow, to rise || The economy is flourishing.
NR`-]q_-N_-TZP-^N,
N_-c, development, flourishing || There has been much development in
China since Liberation. TFEc-]u`-qc-WP-O-sE-C-`-N_-c-GP-R-qE-,
N_-G, flag, banner || The flag waved in the wind. N_-G-E-Cc-TN,
N_-GCc, to freeze, to become ice || Water freezes in winter.
NDP-B_-G-`-N_-GCc,
N_-U, person between thirty to fifty years of age, adult || Im not sure
125

how old he is but hes somewhere between thirty to fifty years of


age.

Ec-B-`-O-^P-R-U-ac-3R., ]P-lE-B-P-U-N_-U-ZC-_N,

N_-~`, custom || It is Tibetan custom to offer three cups of liquor to


guests. UuP-R-`-GE-S_-CcU-N-R-P-TN-U]-N_-~`-^P,
N`-nc, slowly || She walked slowly up the mountain.
B-U-_-`-N`-nc-]XCc,
O, how many; how much || How many students are in your class?
mN-l-]XP-]-PE-T-U-O-^N, How much did you pay for that horse?HR.1

GA?-g-.J:A-<A/-:22-=-.%=-.-3.-0-;A/,

O-T, smoke, cigarette || Put your cigarette ash in the ashtray.


mN-l-O-M=-O-WC-C-PE-O-Cc,
OC poison || That chemical is a poison. c-N-P-OC-FC-^P,
OC-c, toxin || The toxin in the gas killed him.
Ca_-Ec-OC-c-lc-B-TsEc,
OE-p_, one hundred million || The population of Sichuan Province is
more than one hundred million. \-tP-n-U-uEc-OE-p_-CFC-`c-C
OE-cUc, tender affection || He had only tender affection for his children.
B?-<%-$A-qc-R-`-OE-cUc-B-P-]XP,
OEc, to be in love, to feel deeply attached to || I am in love with my
girlfriend and I will marry her later this year.

E-<%-$A-uCc-U-`-OEc-ZE-N-`]-`-UHC-L-B-U-NE-CIP-C-qN--^P,
ON-]u, animal || I dont know what kind of animal it is.
Ec-N-P-ON-]u]-_Cc-CE-^P-R-U-ac,
OT, to be tired, exhausted, to be fatigued || I feel tired after I talk for a
long time. Oc-;/-_E-T<-%?-$+3-TaN-c-E`-nc-OT,
O_-tN, graveyard, cemetery || The graveyard is near the mountain.
O_-tN-_-T-N]-MC-I-c_-^N,
O`-T, docile, meek, disciplined || She has a meek manner.
B-U-`-N-R-8A-8A%-O`-T-ZC-^N,
Oc-Tc, era, time || It was an era when there were no automobiles.
N-P-Ec-]B_-UN-R]-Oc-Tc-aC-^P,
Oc-]C, initial stage || He felt fine in the initial stage of his illness but
later he felt terrible. PN-l-Oc-]C-`-B]-W_-T-GC-_E-, ]P-lE-.J-eJ?-B-`-0$-$%c,
126

Oc-]C_, at the start, in infancy || At the start of our business we do not


expect to make money. E-W]-WE-C-Oc-]C_, E-Wc-_-U-`P-R<-_-T-U-TFEc,
Oc-]nEc, delay, procrastination, postponement || He had a two-hour
delay at the train station. U-]B_-c-WCc-?-#R-=-(-WN-CIc-<A%-Oc-]nEc-qc,
Oc-P-O, always, usually || He is usually late for work.
B-Oc-P-O-`c-@]-c-?-`c,
Oc-CFC-L, at the same time, simultaneously || My wife and I work at the
same time. GE-U-NE-EN-CIc-lc-Oc-CFC-L-`c-@-`c,
Oc-GN, appointment, date || What time is your appointment with the
dentist? mN-lc-c-PN-P-R-`-PU-WN-Oc-GN-qc-^N,
Oc-GP, festival || The Lunar New Year is an important Tibetan festival.
`Cc-E-`-Cc_-P-TN-U]-Oc-GP-C`-GP-ZC-^P,
Oc-UIU, same time || Two guests came to my home at the same time.
UuP-R-CIc-Oc-UIU-O-EN-WE-`-MP,
Oc-CKP-O, forever, all the time || He said he would love me forever.
Bc-E-`-Oc-CKP-O-NC]-Zc-TaN,
Oc-TKT, to make an appointment || Try to make an appointment in the
afternoon for me to meet the Education Bureau leader.

p-x_-Oc-TKT-Pc-E-T-Cc-F]-]C-tN-`-MC-L-GCc,

Oc-MC-L, on time, on schedule, at the right time, punctually || He always


comes to visit on time. B-P-R_-Oc-MC-L-%-=-UH`-T_-]E-,
Oc-NT, magazine, quarterly publication || That magazine is about two
years old. Oc-OT-N-S`-G_-`-CIc-]C_-^N,
Oc-WCc, season || Which season of the year do you like
best? `-]B_-CFC-C-PE-mN-Gc-NC]-T]-Oc-WCc-P-CE-^P,
Oc-WN, time || What time do you eat breakfast? Oc-WN-O]-MC-mN-lc-ZCc-\c9,
Oc-WN-]B_-`, watch, clock || This watch is made in Switzerland. 3OA$-3:AOc-WN-]B_-`-]N-c]-V_-Pc-`c,
Oc-UWEc-c, simultaneously, at the same time || Can you sing and dance
simultaneously? mN-lc--`P-C_-N-Oc-UWEc-c-qN-MT-TU,
Oc-CZP-O, at another time || I cant have dinner with you tonight but lets
plan on another time.

N-NCE-E-`-mN-NE-UIU-O-\-U-\-BU-UN, Oc-CZP-O-\-]-T@N-R-]MP-0<-L,
127

Oc-TZ, four seasons || Winter, spring, summer, and autumn are the four
seasons. NDP-B-NE-NoN-@ Nq_-B, P-@-TFc-P-Oc-TZ-T-^P,
Oc-^P, duration, time || What is the duration of your work
contract? mN-l-q-T]-CP-]-Oc-^P-C-WN-^P,
Oc-_Tc, century, period, era || During the last century no one had
electricity. Oc-_Tc-P-U]-PE-O-U-CFC-`]E-C-UN,
Oc-_-ZC for a while, for a short period || He only stayed at my home for
a while. B-E]-mU-.-_-ZC-VU-`c-U-TN,
Oc-c, on time, when, as || When I was young I had to work very hard.
GE-Oc-c, Ec-]TN-Rc-`c-@-`c-NCc-qE-,
N, that || That is an elephant. N-P-E-GP-ZC-_N,
N-B-P, only, only that || The only thing I want is for you to tell me the
truth. E-`-UB-T-P-mN-lc-E-`-xE-CKU-TaN--N-B-P-^P,
N-NCE-, this evening, tonight || This evening there will be a lunar eclipse.
N-NCE--]XP-]qE--_N,
N-P, previous, before || I had heard about you before I met you.
E-mN-NE-U-MC-R]-N-P-`-Ec-mN-C-rE-,
N--T, like that || I need a shirt like that one. E-`-W-`P-N--T-ZC-NCc,
N--P, according to, based on that || According to what you say I guess it
is not possible. mN-lc-TaN-R-N-<-P, Ec-N-P-NR-U-~N-R_-]NN,
N-NC those || Those yaks are really big. C^C-N-NC-P-E-U-=?-2R%?-G,
N-Pc, then, afterward; from there || It is a long distance to my home
from there. N-Pc-EN-WE-`-`U-MC-_E-T-ZC-^N, Come to my home and
then well have dinner together. EN-WE-`-aC-NE-N-Pc-E-Wc-UIU-O-\-U-T\],
N-R, that (person/family) || That family has just bought a tractor.
mU-WE-Nc-`C-_-]B_-`-ZC-Ic-U-MC-^P,
N-]z`-O, at once, immediately || I want to leave immediately. E-N-]z`-O-#nc-]NN, May I visit you at once? Ec-:U=-.-mN-`-]WUc-]x-qN-e-GC
N-UP, other than that, beside that, otherwise || Other than that, I dont
1

know a single reason for his refusal.

N-UP-Bc-NE-`P-U-qN-R-`-CPc-`Cc-F-^N-R-Ec-U-ac,
N-W, those || Those boys are Tibetan. Z-`-N-W-P-TN-R-_N,
N-_E-, today || I wont eat lunch today. N-_E-Ec-DE-\c-U-\,
.J-<A%-8R$?-0, this morning || I saw you exercising this morning on the
128

sports field. .J-<A%-8R$?-0<-

3,R%-L%-,

mN-lc-`c-`-_-T-<-=?-`-E-2h<-qN-TZP-R-Ec-

NE-Tc, nowadays, present time, modern time || Nowadays many


children go to public schools. NE-Tc-T-U-UE-T--NUEc-T--`-]u,
NE-pP-GN, since now, henceforth || Henceforth I will not be late for class.
NE-pP-GN, E-T-tN-l-c-?-U-`c,
NE-_Tc, present time/era, modern time || At the present time movies are
very popular. NE-_Tc-c-C-TP-P-d-FE-Cc-G, Modern times are very
different from life one hundred years ago. .J%-<2?-GA-:5S-2-/A-`-T]-PNE-T_-5K-d-FE-U-]x,
NE-_Tc-FP, modern || His ideas are modern, not old-fashioned.
B]-TcU--NE-_Tc-FP-^P-R-`c-E-ZP-UP,
NE-cE-, nowadays || Nowadays young people dress differently than many
years ago. NE-cE-, P-CZP-W]-nP-`Cc-`-]C]-P-NE-U-]x,
NN, to go along/onward (road); to drive/herd (animals) || He went to
the village along the road. Bc-`U-N-NN-Pc-uE-W-N-`-cE-, He drove the
sheep to the river. Bc-`C-G-B_-NN,
NT-M_, historical records, chronicle || Ive just finished reading my
countys historical records. Ec-E-W]-E-C-NT-M_-TCc-W_-U-MC-^P,
N]-P-nc, because of that || Because of that problem I cant come with
you. CPN-NP-N]-P-nc-E-mN-NE-UIU-O-]u-U-MT,
N]-p_, therefore, because of that || Im rich, therefore, I can buy
whatever I want. E-pC-R-^P, N]-p_-Ec-<%-$A-I-]NN-R-WE-U-I-MT,
N]-UN-`, at the same time, meanwhile || I can sing and play the guitar at
the same time. Ec--NqEc-`P-R]-UN-`-R-YE-N-xC-U-Ns`-MT,
N_-TP, because of that, based on that || Because of that reason I wont
go with you. N_-TP-E-mN-NE-UIU-O-U-]u,
Nc-P, then, therefore || You say you didnt do it, then why do people say
you did it? mN-lc-TaN-P-mN-lc-N-U-`c, Nc-P-U-Uc-lc-mN-lc-N-`c-?R%-8JcTaN-NP-F,
N-NCE-, this evening, tonight || This evening the air is fresh.
N-NCE-B-NTCc-Ec,
N-NU, administration, management, caring for || His administration was
characterized by efficiency. B]-N-NU-`-`c-GN-P,
1

129

N-NU-R, supervisor, administrator || He got a new job as an administrator.


Bc-N-NU-R:-q-T-Cc_-T-ZC-N,
N-E-, concern || Thank you for your concern. mN-lc-N-E-qc-R-`-MCc--G,
N-, equal, counterpart, rival, match || In playing basketball he is my
equal. r%-lJ.-%R-=R--Tc, B-P-E]-N--^P,
NC-U, narrow || The road over the narrow mountain pass is dangerous.
IC-C-NC-U-TN-R]-`U-N-IP-B-G,
NCc, to have scruples, to be suspicious || Im suspicious of his motives.
E-B]-AP-E-`-NCc,
NCc-R, doubt, suspicion, apprehension || Your suspicion is unjustified.
mN-l-NCc-$8A-=-$/?-=$?-V=,
NCc-\P, caution, carefulness, precaution || Caution is needed when
climbing this steep path. `U-C\_-U-]N-`-]C-Oc-NCc-\P-qN-NCc,
NE-, hole, pit, cavity || Water is in the bottom of the hole. G-NE-ZTc-P-^N,
NE-`U, tunnel || The tunnel went through the mountain. NE-`U-nc-_-T-T`,
NN, substitution, makeshift || Your substitution of a pencil for the pen
you borrowed from me and then lost is not acceptable. mN-lc-E]-`CPc-Cc-C-FC-C^_-Pc-T_-c, Z-C-FC-NN-O-_-T-P-NE-`P-qN-.!:,
NN-R, substituted object || This substituted product is not of the same
quality as the original one. NN-R-]N]-c-@-NEc-R-MC-U-]x-ZC-U-T\E-,
NP-NEc, real/genuine affair, reality, truth || The reality of the situation is
different from what you think. In reality, what he said is not true. .R/-

.%R?-?-TaN-P-Bc-TaN-R-TNP-R-U-_N,

NP-GP, important affair || Ive got to leave now because I have an


important affair to attend do. E-NP-GP-ZC-`-[Cc-NCc-Rc-.-v-*A.-.-]u-NCc:.$

NP-MC-L-]m`, to carry out, to put into practice, to implement || Lets carry


out our plan to increase production.

E-W]-MP-5.-:1<-$R/-$+R%-2:A-]G_-CZ-NP-MC-L-]m`-NCc,
NP-NC business, affair || I have some business to do this afternoon.
N-_E-p-x_-E-`-NP-NC-]C]-`c--^N,
NP-UN, meaningless || His long answer to my question was meaningless.
Bc-E]-x-T-`-`P-_E-U-TKT-R-.J-NP-UN-_N,
NP-WP, paragraph || This paragraph is too long. NP-WP-]N-_E-xCc,
130

NP-CZP, other work, other meaning || What other work are you doing
besides teaching? T-tN-U-CKCc-mN-lc-NP-CZP-F-ZC-`c-lP-^N,
NP-T\E-, good/meaningful work || Your efforts to help people is
meaningful work. mc-lc-U-CZP-`-_Cc-_U-qN-R_-]TN-R-P-NP-T\E-ZC-_N,
NP-`-CPc-R, to keep a promise || Will you keep your promise?
mN-B-TaN-NP-`-CPc--e-^P,
Nc-R, bundle, package || This bundle contains my clothing.
Nc-R-]N]-PE-O-E]-CP-R-^N,
-zC orphan || The childless couple adopted an orphan.
qc-R-UN-R]-T\]--Nc--zC-FC-CI_,
Ec, clean || Qinghai Lakes water is clean. UW-P-R]-G-P-d-FE-Ec,
Ec-U, clean, transparent || The ponds water was so transparent that I
could see fish at the bottom.

G-E-C-G-Ec-U-^P-Rc-Ec-G-ZTc-l-I-U-^E-UME-MT,
x-T, net, mesh || This mesh on my window keeps out the mosquitoes.
E]-]-BE-E-C-x-T-Nc-]T-~P-]CC
x-U, window || Please close the window. x-U-N-T,
xC to recover, to get well; safe, no danger || After I recover from my
cold Ill play basketball with you. GU-R-xC-c, E-mN-NE-UIU-O-r%-lJ.-%R=R-N--^P, The situation you are presently in is safe. N--mN-n_-^N-R]CPc-TT-P-xC
xC-Gc, arms, weapons || He sells arms to bandits. Bc-HC-R-`-xC-Gc-]WE-,
xC-R, violent, fierce || The violent riot resulted in the death of twenty
people. \E-G-S$-0R-N-`c-U-I-b-TsEc, The tiger is a fierce animal. C-P-_Cc-xC-R-ZC-^P,
xC-`, martial skill || His martial skill was useful when he was attacked
by hooligans. tU-Rc-B-`-`-Oc-B]-xC-`-/A-NCc-SP-G,
xCc, to be too || It is too difficult for me to do.
q-T-N-N@]-xCc-0c-Ec-`c-U-MT,
xE-, straight; direct, honest || The road isnt crooked, its straight. `U-N]mC-R-UP-0<-xE-3R-;A/, He is very honest and never lies. B-P-3A-$>A?d-FE-xE-0?-P-PU-^E-U-TaN,
xE-CKU, honest talk, truth, straight conversation, fair verdict || We had
an honest talk and now we understand each other better. E-Wc-xE-CKU1

131

TaN-Pc-N--SP-WP-`-C-L-c-`P-L%-^N, Are you telling the truth? mN-lcS%-$+3-2>.-lP-^N-NU,


xE-TNP, righteousness, justice || He always fought for the cause of
righteousness. Bc-PU-^E-xE-TNP-2lR/-=J/-qN,
xE-U, honest, straight || An honest character is attractive.
Cac-@-xE-U-P-^N-]DC-R-ZC-_N,
xE-TaN, straight/honest talk || Everyone likes him because of his honest
talk. Bc-xE-TaN-o$-Rc-U-WE-U-B-`-NC],
xP, (xP, xP, xP,) to miss, to remember || Because I am far away, I often
miss my family. c-MC-_E-c_-^N-R]-P-nc-Ec-P-R_-<%-$A-mU-U-xP,
xP-`, reminder || Thanks for the reminder. xP-`-qc-R_-MCc--G,
xP-Cc, keepsake, memento, souvenir || I bought this souvenir in Lhasa.
Ec-xP-Cc-]N--c-Pc-Ic,
xP-R, memory, consciousness || I have no memory of what you said.
mN-lc-{.-(-F-TaN-R]-MC-Pc-E-`-xP-R-UN,
xP-R-UN-, unconscious || After drinking too much he fell unconscious.
GE-TLEc-xCc-c, B-xP-R-UN-R_-n_, After being unconscious for a week
he died. C\]-]B_-CFC-`-S/-3J.-.-2o=-c-B-W-`c-]Nc,
xP-W_, consciousness || He lost consciousness after the accident.
GC-]-c-?-B]-xP-W_-*3?,
xP-W`, idea, thought || It is better for me not to tell anyone my thought.
Ec-_E-C-xP-W`-CZP-c-`]E-U-TaN-P-`Cc,
xP-ac, memory || Now that Im old my memory is not so good.
N--E-`-`P-Rc, E]-xP-ac-N-]x-U-T\E-,
xP-Cc, recalling, remembering || As I and my friends were recalling our
days as students, we all felt nostalgic. E-NE-uCc-R-Wc-E-W-T-U-^P-Oc-{R<=-xP-Cc-qN-Oc, E-W-WE-U-_-cE-`-P-R-c,
x, smell, scent || The smell of the earth was strong after the rain. G_-TTcc-c-CZ-`-x-G, Cooking mutton has a nice smell. `C-a-TVc-5K-x-ZU-R-^N,
x-T, question || I cant answer your question. Ec-mN-l-x-T-`-`P-]NTc-U-MT,
x-U, smell, scent || I like the smell of cooking mutton. E-`C-a-24S?-3:A-x-U`-NC],
x-ZU, sweet smell, fragrant scent || The flowers gave off a sweet smell.
U-KC-`c-x-ZU-]M`,
132

x-TcE-, aroma, scent, smell || I like the aroma of baking bread.


E-C-_-N-R]-x-`-NC],
xP, favor, grace, kindness || Because of my fathers favor I was able to
become a successful man. e-S]-xP-n-NTE-Cc, E-_E-U-NP-]uT-ZC-L-n_,
xP-FP, helpful, grateful || My teacher is very helpful.
E]-NC-P-P-d-FE-xP-FP-^P,
xP-xP, to feel the kindness/to be aware of favor || I could feel the
kindness of my parents everyday. IP-__-Ec-S-U]-xP-xP-~N,
xP-`P-]H`, to repay the kindness || I will never be able to repay my
teachers kindness to me. Ec-NC-P-`-xP-`P-PU-^E-]H`-U-MT,
xP-ac-R, to be aware of kindness || I am aware of the kindness of my
many friends. Ec-<%-$A-uCc-R-UE-T]-T@]-xP-ac,
x`-TCc, propaganda, announcement || Lately, there has been much
propaganda about not smoking.

I-_, O-T-U-]MP-R]-_-n-x`-TCc-UE-T-qc,
x`-T, bell || There was no electricity so the bell did not ring.
C-UN-R]-Tc-lc-x`-T-U-uCc,
xc-`P, answer, reply || Please speak loudly, I cant hear your answer.
N-CcE-UMP-Rc-aN-NE-, Ec-mN-l-xc-`P-i-2?-3A-C
xC six || There are six people in my family. EN-WE-`-U-xC-^N,
xC-T, six hundred || That family has got about six hundred sheep.
mU-WE-N-`-S`-G_-`C-xC-T-^N,
xC-F, sixty || There were sixty people on the bus when it had an
accident. Ec-]B_-`-GC--qE-Oc-.J:A-!J%-.-U-xC-F-^N,
xC-G, a sixth || The six children each received a sixth of their parents
property. qc-R-xC-R-`-B-W]-S-U]--P_-n-xC-G]-CFC-_-MT,
xC-E-, six thousand || There are six thousand people in my village.
E]--T_-U-xC-E-^N,
xC-R, sixth || I was the sixth person to pass the entrance examination
from my village. E-P--T]-PE-Pc-T--GP-U-`-Cc-]zN-R]-U-xC-R-^P,
xC-R, all six (together) || I want to buy all six of those books.
Ec-NR-G-N-W-xC-R-I-]NN,
xE-, near to, before, by || I was standing very near to the speaker. E-$+3TaN-UBP-n-xE-.-`Ec-^N, I was so near to the speaker that I could see
133

him sweating.

E-$+3-TaN-UBP-n-xE-O-^N-Rc-Ec-B-`-`-G-T[_-TZP-R-3,R%-

MT,
xE-^C secretary || She is an important officials secretary.
B-U-P-]C-tN-C`-GP-ZC-C-xE-^C-^P,
x, warm; happy || The weather is warm today. N-_E-C-PU--x, My
mother is happy seeing so many of her grandchildren. E]-e-Uc-B-U]W-T-W-U-]N-]x-UE-T-UME-Pc-^N-cUc-x,
x-N, happiness || I hope that your children give you much happiness.
E]-_-T-P-mN-l-qc-R-Uc-lc-mN-`-x-N-GP-R-_--N-^P,
x-uE-, temperature || Whats the temperature outside?
p-_`-n-x-uE-C-WN-_N,
xN, heat, warmth || The stove gave off little heat. MT-@-N-`c-xN-GP-R-U-`P,
xP-R, warm || Today was very warm. N-_E-d-FE-xP-R-^P,
xc, to warm up, to heat up || Lets build a fire and warm up the house.
U-E-Pc-BE-T-xc-c-GCc,
xc-H, lunch || Did you eat lunch today? N-_E-mN-lc-xc-H-e-]ME-,
CNE-, (CNE-, CNEc, CNEc,) to open (usually, movement of the eyes and
1

mouth) || Shut your eyes and dont open them until I tell you to.

mN-l-UC-WU-NE-Ec-p-U-\_-T_-O-UC-U-CNEc,
CNEc, tone || Dont speak to me in an angry tone. BE-OR]-N-CNEc-lc-E-`-UTaN,
CNP-xEc, to invite || I invited her to my wedding party.
Ec-<%-$A-CIP-P-`-#R-3R-CNP-xEc,
CNP-]xP, invitation || He received the invitation in a red envelope.
E-`-^C-Cc-NU_-T-ZC-C-PE-O-TZC-R]-CNP-]xP-[-^C-FC-]q_,
CNP-[, invitation || Did you get an invitation to the wedding?
mN-`-CIP-P-n-CNP-[-ZC-]q_-_U,
CNU-@ option, choice || This is the only option I have.
]N-P-E-`-^N-R]-CNU-@-IC-CFC-^P,

CNU-EC remedy; knack || I have a remedy for your problem.


mN-l-CPN-NP-,.-E-`-CNU-EC-FC-^N, He has a knack for learning
languages. N-G-T-R]-MC-Pc-B-`-CNU-EC-FC-^N,
CNU-Ccc, selection, option || Student selection for higher education has
just been completed. 5.-3,:A-T-Cc:A-T-U-CNU-Ccc-qc-R-W_-U-MC-^P,
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134

CN`, (TN`, TN`, CN`,) to scatter, to spread out || When I feed the
chickens, I scatter grain on the ground for them to eat.

q-T-Cc-Oc, Ec-]{-C-ME-`-CN`-Pc-B-W_-\-_-]HC

CO, (CO, COc, COc,) to boil || I want to boil some tea for you.
Ec-mN-`-H-CO-]NN,
COC-R-FP, violent, wicked, harmful, cruel || That man was famous for
being a violent husband and father. *J?-0-.J-/A-HR-$-.%-A-1-$+3-,R.-&/-8A$-

;A/-0-!/-=-P$?-;R.,

COC-T, violence, savagery, cruelty || Television programs have a lot of


violence. TP-]zP-`-WP-`-COC-T-l-_E-TZP-G,
COC-cUc, ill will, malice || I dont feel any ill will toward her, only pity.
Ec-B-U-`-E--TFEc-R-`c-COC-cUc-F-^E-U-T\E-,
COCc, umbrella, parasol || The sun is bright so lets take an umbrella.
I-U-W-Tc-E-Wc-COCc-ZC-]m_-T_-q,
COE-, (COE-, COEc,) to suffer, to be tormented || I was tormented by the
hot weather. E-`-WN-Rc-COEc,
COE-N, lineage, descent || Can you trace your lineage to western Tibet?
mN-lc-_E-C-CNE-N-NTc-CVE-O-]NN-MT-TU,
COE-_Tc, generation; autobiography || He is the tenth generation of
the first king of this area. B-P-^`-pCc-]N]-`-T]-COE-_Tc-TF-T-^P, I
found her autobiography very interesting. Ec-B-U]-COE-_Tc-P-^-UWP-G-Tac,
CNE-]HC evaluation, assessment, appraisal || His evaluation of our work
was favorable. Bc-E-W]-q-T-`-CNE-]HC-qc-R-P-C\Ec-TN-^P,
CNE-WN, confidence, assurance || He has much confidence in being able
to learn English. NqP-^C-E-MT-R_-B-`-CNE-WN-GP-R-^N,
CNN-U, primitive, ancient, primeval || That song has a primeval sound.
-N-`-CNN-U]-NqEc-P,
CNN-U]--WCc, primitive society || That group of people has a long
1

history after they passed the stage of a primitive society.

U-WCc-N-`-CNN-U]--WCc-l-Oc-_U-^`-T-Pc-T\E-`-c-_E-U-^N,
CNP, evil, demon || People say that he was possessed by a demon for
two years. U-Uc-lc-CNP-nc-B-`-CIc-`-T\E-T_-TaN,
CNP-TCCc, obstacle/obstruction/interference caused by evil || An
135

obstacle caused by evil prevented him from getting over his illness.

CNP-TCCc-lc-B-PN-CZ-`c-M_-O-U-TFC
TNC I, me || I am Dpalldan. TNC-P-NR`-P-^P,
TNC-E-, looking after, to feed, to take care of || We have to take care of
the livestock everyday. E-Wc-IP-__-pCc-\C-`-TNC-E-qN-NCc,
TNC-CI_, management, taking charge || Management of the factory
became his responsibility. T\-_-TNC-CI_-qN-R-N-B]-]CP-]t-_-n_,
TNC-CI_-T, manager, administrative personnel || He has been a manager
for two years. B-`-CIc-`-TNC-CI_-T-qc,
TNC-R, owner, master, proprietor || He is the owner of the shop.
B-P-WE-BE-N]-TNC-R-^P,
TNC-NTE-, sovereignty || What country has sovereignty over the North
Pole? --E-C-TNC-NTE-`-BT-CE-`-^N,
TNU, (TNU, TNUc, TNUc,) to choose, to make a choice || I have to choose a
husband soon. Ec-U-]nEc-R_-m-C-ZC-TNU-NCc,
TNUc-MP-R, election winner || He is the election winner. B-P-TNUc-MP-R-_N,
TON, demon, fiend || His picture of the demon was terrifying.
Bc-TON-l-]x-R_-{c-R-N-]HCc-E-G,
TOP, seven, week || Ill visit you seven days later.
IP-TOP-n-c-?-E-mN-`-T-_-]E-,
TOP-CFC one week || We have a one week holiday.
E-W-`-TOP-CFC-C-CPE-T-^N,
TOP-F, seventy || At our party we drank seventy bottles of beer.
E-W]--WCc-MC-E-Wc--GE-NU-T-TOP-F-]MEc,
TOP-R, seventh || The seventh person who was injured died last night.
c-U-TOP-R-N-UNE-NCE-uEc,
TOP-R, all seven of, all the seven || All seven of those students are from
the same county. T-U-TOP-R-E-BC-CFC-Pc-^E-T-^P,
TN, comfortable; healthy || His life now is very comfortable. N--B]-]WT-d-FE-TN, You look thin and not healthy. Tc-WN-`-mN-P-`c-R-_N-FE-TNCP-UN-:S,
TN-N, happiness || Happiness often comes with sadness. .$:-*R-3*3-.1

:SJ?,

TN-]HCc, peace, stability, security || I hope our country can have a long
136

E?-E-W]-`-BT-`-^P-_E-TN-]HCc-]MT-R_-P,
TN-ME-, health; level || He is not in good health. B-TN-ME-UP, The fields
here are all level. ]N-C]-c-ZE-WE-U-TN-ME-^P,
TN-U, easy; in good health || They lead a comfortable and easy life.
B-Wc-TN-2<-]W-T-<R=-TZP-^N, I have not been in good health for more
than a year. `-CFC-C-`-%:A-`c-R-TN-U-U-qE-,
TN-T-FP, paradise || The beautiful forest with its rivers was like a
paradise. G-E-Cc-P-R]-PCc-W`-^C-R-N-/A-TN-T-FP-IA-8A%-#3?-NE-]x,
TN-C ease, no problem || He finished his assigned work with ease.
Bc-`c-q-TN-C-EE-;R%?-]uT-L?,
TN-U, goodbye || Goodbye and have a pleasant trip.
TN-U, Ec--^C-R-ZC-qc,
TN-`-]CN, to bring happiness to || I want to bring happiness to all my
friends. Ec-<%-$A-uCc-R-WE-U-TN-`-]CN-]NN,
TN-`Cc, fine, well, in good condition || Are you well? mN-TN-`Cc-^P-PU,
TNP, true || Is what you said really true? mN-lc-TaN-R-E-Uc-TNP-PU,
TNP-NRE-, proof, evidence || This is proof that you were wrong.
]N-P-mN-U-]uC-R]-TNP-NRE-^P,
UNE-NCE-, last night || I telephoned you last night but you didnt answer.
UNE-NCE-Ec-mN-`-B-R_-TKE-lE-mN-lc-e-`P-U-qP,
UNEc, appearance, color and luster || The color and luster of the stone in
your ring is beautiful. mN-l-UXT-Nsc-!J%-$A-U-o/-IA-UNEc-d-FE-UXc,
UN], arrow; lower part of a valley || The arrow was made of wood.
UN]-N-aE-Cc-T\c, There is a river in the lower part of the valley.
`E-UN]-P-G-T-ZC-^N,
UN]-]SP, to shoot an arrow || I want to shoot an arrow at the target near
the tree. Ec-E-]uU-n-]TP-`-UN]-]SP-]NN,
UOE-, spear || The only spear in our village is kept in the village temple.
E-W]--T]-UOE-IC-CFC-R-N--BE-.-I_-^N,
UON, to tie || Im teaching my daughter to tie her shoes. Ec-<%-$A-T-U-`-BU]-U-C-UON--]GN-lP-^N,
UON-R, knot || I cant untie this knot. Ec-UON-R-]N-]u`-U-MT,
UOP, front || Please look at the front of the room. BE-T]-UOP-`-c-NE-,
UOP-N, marching/going forward, progressing || The group of students
period of stability.
1

137

went marching forward down the road.

T-U]-WCc-R-N-o-`U-NN-Pc-UOP-

N-qc,
UOP-Ec, front cover, front side || The front cover of the book is made of
plastic. NR-G]-UOP-Ec-N-c-]nC-Cc-T\c,
UOP-FC table || The table is made of wood. UOP-FC-N-aE-Cc-`c,
UOP-O, in front of || Please stand in front of me. E]-UOP-Pc-`Ec,
UOP-pCc, front side/direction || The front side of the car was crushed in
the accident. GC--`c-Ec-]B_-n-UOP-pCc-Tc,
UOP-`U, future respect, future || She has a bright future.
B-U-`-UOP-`U--GP-R-ZC-^N,
UOP-aC front page || Did you see the picture on the front page of the
newspaper? WCc-R_-n-UOP-aC-E-C-]x-R_-`-mN-lc-e-Tc,
UOP-Tc, greeting; to welcome || A greeting with a smile does not
necessarily mean a hospitable heart. :XU-UNEc-lc-UOP-Tc-qN-R-P-UuPc-G-T]-TcU-R-ZC-^P-R]-Ec-R-UN, We welcome you to visit our home.
mN-E-W]-^`-`-STc-R_-E-Wc-UOP-Tc-qN,
UN-NP, gist || I couldnt understand the gist of his lecture.
Ec-B]-]GN-]tN-l-UN-NP-@-$R-3-L%-,
UN-UN, shiftless, good-for-nothing, shilly-shally || The wife divorced her
shiftless husband. GE-U-.J-B-U]-m-C-UN-UN-NE-M_,
UN-VU, in short, briefly || Briefly, I will tell you what happened.
Ec-F-ZC-qE-T:A-{R<-IA-$/?-5=-3.R-43-mN-`->RN--^P,
UNC color; appearance || What is your favorite color? mN-Gc-NC]-T]UNC-P-F-ZC-^P, I could tell by his appearance that he was ill. Ec-B]-EUNC-`c-B-`-P-W-MTc-^N-R-ac,
UNC-FP, colorful || This is a colorful skirt. ]N-P-N-C^Cc-UNC-FP-ZC-_N,
UNC-UN, colorless || He was so sick that his face was colorless. B-/-5-S$1

0R-L%-/?-%R-3.R$-*-2R<-I<-:.$

UNC-a_, to fade || After many washings the trousers color began to


fade. MEc-UE-T_-Tsc-c-E-U-n-UNC-a_-]C-TUc,
UN_-Tc, brief, abridgement || Please write a brief summary of what you
have read. mN-lc-<%-*A.-GA?-.0J-(-F-ZC-TCc-R-`-pCc-U-UN_-Tc-aC-zc,
]NC (]NC NC) to clean; to die || The chalk dust on the blackboard was
cleaned away by water leaking from the roof. BE-MC-=c-G-]XCc-Pc-1

138

cU-E-C-c-C-NC Many sheep died from a strange disease. PN-^-UWPZC-`c-`C-UE-T]-B-NC


]NC-c, detergent, cleansing agent || How much detergent should I put
2

in the washing machine?

Ec-Cc-]tN-]z`-Gc-l-PE-O-]NC-c-C-WN-]SP-NCc,
]NE-, to be enough, to be sufficient || The provisions for our journey are
enough for five people. E-W]-`U-Cc-lc-U--`-]NE-,
]NT-GCc, birds || Chickens and geese are birds.
q-T-NE-EE-T-$*A?-P-]NT-GCc-^P,
]NT-U, leaf || The leaf slowly fell from the tree. E-T:A-]NT-U-N`-nc-E-,
]NTc, near; lower part || The school is near the hospital. T--P-P-BE-C*J-]NTc-?-^N, Some trees grow in the lower part of the valley.
`E-]NTc-?-E-T-]C]-c-^N,
]NU, mire, swamp, bog || There is a swamp near the river.
G-2R:C-I-c<-]NU-ZC-^N,
]N], (]N], ]Nc,) to pass (on time); to go beyond || The time for grief
has passed. *R-2:A-Oc-]Nc-\P, His actions were beyond what is
permitted. B]-N-R-N-5.-`c-]Nc,
]N_, to tremble, to shake, to shiver || When Im outside in winter I
tremble from the cold. NDP-B_-p-_`-., E:A-=?-uE-Pc-]N_,
]N_-[U-[U, shaking with fear || She was shaking with fear when she
heard the wolf howl. B-Uc-E-@]-:R-.R.-:LA/-0-Mc-Oc-C-Pc-=?-]N_-[U-[Uqc,
:.?-nJ/, loss of life, death || His death grieved us all. B]-:.?-nJ/nc-E-W-WE-U-`-cUc-C-T`,
]Nc-UGN, funeral rite || This funeral rite requires about an hour.
]Nc-UGN-]N-`-(-WN-CFC-VU-NCc,
]N, this || This is my book. ]N-P-E]-NR-G-^P,
]N-C_, here, over here || I live over here. E-]N-C_-#RN-^N,
]N--T, like this, such as this || I want a knife just like this one. E-`-u-KCKC-]N--T-ZC-NCc,
]N-NC these || Are these your pens? ]N-NC-P-mN-l-Cc-C-^P-PU,
]N-]x, like this, such || Can you paint a picture like this?
mN-lc-_-U-]N-]x-ZC-]{-MT-TU,
1

139

]N-T, this person || This person is my relative. 3A-:.A-P-E]-I-O-^P,


]N-W, these || These men are brothers. c-R-]N-W-P-P--^P,
]N-_, here || When did you arrive here? mN-]N-_-PU-WN-]q_,
]NE-, (CNE-, TKEc, MEc,) to spread; to make (bed/plan); to unfold ||
Please spread a sheet on the bed. U`-t]-E-`-_c-CNP-MEc, Please
make the bed. U`-c-MEc, I will unfold the bedding in a few minutes.
Ec-_-U-]C]-eJ?-?-I`-Gc-CNE--^P,
]O, (]O, ]Oc,) to assemble, to congregate, to gather || A crowd
assembled in the park. E-@-N_-U-WCc-]Oc,
]O-]X, tumult, noise and excitement, hubbub || The tumult was so great
that I couldnt sleep. ]O-]X-G-2c-E-CIN-lE-U-MT,
]O-ac, concept, idea, ideology || Socialism and capitalism are different
ideologies. -WCc-_E-`Cc-NE-U--_E-`Cc-$*A?-P-]O-ac-,-..-^P,
]OC to stay; in a condition of doing something; there is/are || How
long will you stay with us? mN-E-W-NE-UIU-O-Oc-^P-C-WN-`-]OC--^P, He
is working. Bc-q-T-`c-lP-]OC There are three yaks near the river. GT:A-I-c<-C^C-CcU-]OC
]OC-Cc, seat; chair || Please have a seat over here. ]N-C]-]OC-Cc-`N, I bought that wooden chair in Xining. Ec-aE-C-]OC-Cc-N-\-`E-PcIc,
]OC-CPc, residence, lodging || Ive lived at this residence for only two
months. E-]OC-CPc-]N-<--CIc-U-CKCc-U-TN,
]ON, (TLN, TLN, MN,) to come near, to be close || Come near the fire and
warm up. U-B<-TLN-Pc-=?-xc-c-GCc,
]OP-R, aspiration, wish,desire || What is your wish for your children?
mN-l-qc-R]-E-Pc-mN-`-]OP-R-F-ZC-^N, My desire to learn English makes
me study hard. Ec-NqP-^C-E-]NN-GA-:./-0?-E-`-E-TP-GP-R-qN-0<-{=-31

2+%-,

]OU, (]OU, ]OUc,) to mediate, to reconcile || I will attempt to reconcile


these two warring groups. Ec-]tC-N-qN-R]-WCc-BC-CIc-]OU--^P,
]OU-]uC reconciliation, mediation || After a period of conflict there was
a period of reconciliation between the two groups over grazing

]tC-N-l-Oc-Tc-aC-C-c-?, pCc-]W-]-NTE-G]-E-Pc-WCc-BCCIc-`-Oc-Tc-aC-C-]OU-]uC-qE-,
rights.

140

]O`, (CO`, TL`, M`,) to subdue, to tame, to vanquish || How did you
tame that wild horse? mN-lc--N-N-H-_-TL`-T-^P,
]NCc, (CNC TKCc, MCc,) to lift, to raise up || Please lift that end of the
box. U-N]--B-N-]NCc-_Cc,
?Ec,) to be clear (fog, cloud) || The fog cleared at about ten oclock in
the morning. _-tN-l-P-TP-(-WN-TOP-l-E-?Ec,
]NN, (]NN, NN, MN,) to follow; to drive (animal) || The lamb followed its
mother wherever she went. U-U-CE-`-pP-P-`-D-N:A-c-`-NN, Please drive
the sheep to the river this afternoon. N-_E-p-x_-`C-G-B_-MN,
]NTc, (CNT, TKT, MTc,) to sow, to plant || We will sow highland barley
seed this morning. .J-<A%-}-SR-E-Wc-Pc-cP-]NTc--^P,
]NU, (CNU, TNUc, ]NUc,) to choose, to select || When will you choose a
time for your wedding? mN-lc-<%-$A-CIP-P-l-Oc-WN-PU-WN-CNU--^P,
]NUc-T, election, voting || The election took place last week.
]NUc-T-C\]-]B_-P-U]-PE-qc,
]NUc-C-R, nominee, candidate || He is one of three candidates for the
position. B-P-C-CPc-N]-]NUc-C-R-CcU-P?-?-CFC-^P,
]NUc-NUEc, electorate || Twenty percent of the electorate did not vote.
]NUc-NUEc-l-T-G]-I-bc-]NUc-aC-U-]SEc,
]NUc-aC vote || Every vote was counted before seven p.m.
p-x]-(-WN-TOP-n-P-`-]NUc-aC-WE-U-Tc-W_,
]NCc, (CNCc, TKCc, MCc,) to tie, to fasten, to attach || He tied the horses
reins to the tree. Bc--^-M_-UN]-E-T-`-TKCc,
]NN, to want, to wish, to desire || I want to go to Lhasa on pilgrimage.
E--c-`-UH`-_-qN-R_-]u-]NN,
]NN-FP, lustful || His lustful nature was obvious to everyone. B]-:.R.-YJ.(J-2-AP-`-Cc`,
]NN-GCc, lust, pornographic desire || Try to control your lust when you
are in public. 3A-3%-c<-mN-l?-<%-$A-]NN-GCc-`-WN-]XP-qc,
]NN-R, desire || He had great difficulty in controlling his desire. B-=-<%-$A1

:.R.-YJ.-5S.-o-#$-0R-L%-,

]NN-R-N, to have sex || He wants to have sex with her. Bc-B-U-NE-:OA$-,R.LJ.-]NN,


]NN-ZP, greed || His greed was without limit. B]-]NN-ZP-`-WN-UN,
141

]NN-cUc, greedy desire || His greedy desire for women, money, and
power destroyed him. 2.-3J.-NE-_-U, NTE-G-2&?-`-TFEc-R]-]NN-cUc-lcB-_E-TCc,
]NN-~N, greed || His greed never lessened. B]-]NN-~N-`-PU-^E-IUc-R-UN,
]NP, (CNP, TKP, MP,) to read; to dig out || I read the newspaper every
morning. *A/-<J:A-8R$?-0<-Ec-WCc-R_-=-2v, The miners are digging coal
out of the mine. CK_--UBP-nc-CK_-`c--c`-]NP-TZP-^N,
]NP-N, furnishing, supplying || The furnishing of adequate electricity to
the city is a problem. uE-m_-`-C-]NE-T-]NP-N-qN-o-P-CPN-NP-ZC-^P,
]N_, (N_, N_, N_,) to cast away, to give up, to discard || I want to give up
gambling. Ec-P-R-]nN-o-:.R<-]NN,
]x, like, seem, as, to be the same, to be alike || Those twins are just
alike. UW-U-]N-W-]x,
]x, (x, xc, xc,) to cut with scissors, to shear, to cut off || I cut the cloth
with a pair of scissors. Ec-B-uc-_c-xc,
]x-GCc-R, resemble, similar || She really does resemble her mother.
B-U-NE-U]-e-U-P-E-Uc-]x-GCc-R-_N,
]x-UIU, equality, equal || These two cups have an equal amount of beer.
S_-]N-CIc-@]-PE-C--GE-UE-JE-]x-UIU-_N,
]x-TP, image, statue || The Buddha image is made of stone.
cEc-c-l-]x-TP-N--`c-T\c,
]x-]x, similar, equal, alike || The weather yesterday and today is similar.
B-cE-C-PU--NE-N-_E-C-PU--]x-]x-_N,
]x-R_, picture, photograph || Would you like to see a picture of my
children? mN-lc-E]-qc-R-W]-]x-R_-ZC-`-T-]NN-.3,
]x-T, similar, like || This book and that book have similar themes.
NR-G-]N-NE-N-CIc-l-TN-q-]x-T-_N,
]x-UWEc, similar, same, equal || I had an illness similar to yours last
year. P-PE-E-`-mN-l-PN-NE-]x-UWEc->AC-qE-,
]x, (x, xc, xc,) to ask, to question || Please ask a question if you dont
understand. C`-K-mN-lc-d-3A-C-5K-]x-_Cc,
]x-CFN, bringing to a trial, judicial inquiry || The judicial inquiry was
held in the court building. tUc-BE-Pc-]x-CFN-qc,
]x-C examination, investigation || The examination revealed no wrong1

142

]x-C-qc-R-`c-mN-l-pCc-?-P-UN-R-TP,
]x-WC question || Please repeat your question. mN-lc-]x-WC-T_-^R?-LR?,
]xc, to be familiar, to be intimate, to be acquainted || I would like to be
acquainted with you. E-mN-NE-]xc-]NN,
]xN, (]xN, xN, xN,) to drag, to pull || The horse pulled a log to the house.
c-aE-OU-ZC-^`-`-xN,
]x, devil, demon, ghost || People say a ghost comes here at night.
U-Uc-lc-UWP-U_-]x-ZC-]N-_-]E-T_-TaN,
]x-[Cc, to be possessed by an evil spirit || Her wild cries suggested that
doing on your part.

she was possessed by an evil spirit.

B-Uc-N-F<-C-R-Nc-B-U:A-=?-`-]x-[Cc-R-UWP,
]xP, (xE-, xEc, xEc,) to ship; to bring || I shipped a box of books to
England. Ec-NR-G-U-ZC-NqP-H-`-xEc, He brought knowledge to
students. Ec-T-U-Uc-`-ac-q-xEc,
]xc-_, combination, synthesizing || He speaks in a combination of
Tibetan and Chinese. Bc-TN-N-NE--N-]xc-_-ZC-TaN,
]xc-U, mingling, compound || A college is a place where mingling of
people from many places occurs. T--GP-U-P-c-G-UE-T-Pc-MP-R]-U-]xc-U^N-c-ZC-^P,The mingling of new ideas and old ideas produced
conflict. -T-Cc_-E-:SJc-0-=?-]C`-T-TEc,
]xC (]xC ]xCc,) to run in fear; to be startled || When the car honked
1

its horn the horse was startled and ran off the road in fear.

Ec-]B_-GE-Tc--OE-TT-R-P--]xCc-Pc-`U-B-Pc-{c,
_, (T_, T_, _,) to file, to grind || When will you file these knives?
mN-lc-u-]N-NC-PU-WN-T_--^P,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to scatter || We want to scatter fertilizer on the fields
this afternoon. N-_E-p-x_-E-Wc-c-ZE-E-`-`N-c-T`-P-]NN,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc) to fall down, to collapse || The house may collapse
unless it is repaired. BE-T-]N-IUc-Cc-U-qc-5K-3<-TT-~N,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to beat, to hit || Dont beat your children. mN-l?-<%$A-qc-R-=-U-TE-,I dont want to beat my children. Ec-_E-C-qc-R-`-h%-U
]NN,
E-C beating, blow, striking || Beating students makes them angry.
T-U-`-E-C-qc-0-.J?-B-W_-BE-t-29R-~N,
143

`, dust, small particle || There is some dust in my glass. E]-UC-a`-E-``-GCc-^N, The books were covered with dust. NR-G-.$-`-nc-BTc,
`-`E-`E-, dusty, rolling dust || The air was dusty after the herd of horses
passed by. -m-cE->=-.-PU-UB]-`-`-`E-`E-]p_,
C (TC TCc, Cc) to strike, to beat, to hit || I hit a ball with a stick.
Ec-E-`-ZC-`-NqC-Rc-TCc,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to clap, to applaud || We will clap after your
performance. mN-lc-N-U-TP-c-E-Wc-M`-U-TT-Ec,
, stone, rock || The stone was carved with a Buddhist phrase.
-MC-`-C\Ec-Cc-Tc-^N,
-BT-`P, magnet || This magnet attracts metal. -BT-`P-nc-Cc-_Cc-]xP,
-U, oil, petroleum || They are drilling for oil in the dessert.
B-Wc-q-ME-.--U--TZP-^N,
-_E-, stone pillar, tablet || The tablet says this is an important historical
site. -_E-`c-]N-P-`-c-l-CPc-C`-GP-ZC-^P-R_-TaN,
-a`, crystal || The crystal gleamed in the light.
C-[P-n-]C--a`-]N-O-]W_,
-c`, coal || Coal is black and burns. -c`-P-PC-FE-]T_-aN-G,
C-Rc-C to kick || If the dog tries to bite me I will kick it.
C`-K-m-^c-E-`-C-c-qN-P-Ec-C-Rc-C--^P,
C-R, package, bundle || The package was very heavy. C-R-N-d-FE-N,
`, (T`, T`,) to break out, to burst, to come out; to originate/stem ||
The hot spring broke out through the ground surface. W-G-c-Ec-T`Pc-MP, The Yellow River originates in Qinghai. k-G-UW-P-Pc-`,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to lick || She licked the candy. B-Uc-@-_-TCc,
N, (TN, TN, N,) to chew || Many Americans chew tobacco.
e-U-_-B-T-UE-Tc-M-UC-N,
T, double; times || Eight is the double of four. TN-P-TZ]-T-$&A$-^P,
My brother has three times as many sheep as I do. E]-P-`-E]-`C-CP%?-=?-T-CcU-^N,
T-uEc, multiple of a number || Four is a multiple of two.
1

TZ-P-CIc-l-T-uEc-^P,

E-, (E-, E-, Ec,) to leap || The horse leaped over the fence.
-T-_-_-`c-p-`-E-,
144

_-, rumbling sound, thunder || The sound of thunder woke me up.


]{C-N-l-_-c-E-CIN-`c-TEc,
C (C Cc, Cc,) to pour; to store || Please pour more tea in my
cup. E]-1R<-2:A-PE-H-UE-O-Cc, We will store the vinegar in this jar. EWc-_-_-N-_-U-]N]-PE-O-C--^P,
N, (N, N, N,) to water; to provide (a person/animal) with water || I
watered the horses this morning. 8R$?-0<-Ec--Uc-`-G-N, I gave the
beggar a cup of water. Ec-E-T-N-`-G-S_-CE-N,
5=-<A$?, vegetable, stalked plant || My favorite vegetables are greens.
E-Gc-NC]-T]-5=-<A$?-P--WN-^P,
U-_, garden || I planted tomato seeds in my garden this morning. .J-<A%}-SR-Ec-<%-$A-U-_]-PE-NR-3-NR:-;A-c-TP-`-TKT,
U-_-T, gardener || The gardener is fond of flowers.
U-_-T-N-U-KC-`-NC]-ZP-G,
-UC key || Put the key in the lock, turn it, and open the door.
\-^-PE-`--UC-TZC-Pc-_-NE--KJ-:PR
Tc-{c, fresco, wall painting, mural || The temple fresco was destroyed
in a fire. NCP-R]-Tc-{c-U-P-ZC-`c-TCc,
U-R, nimble, unstable || He had a way of using words in a nimble way
1

to get what he wanted.

B-`-WC-U-R_-T@`-Pc-_E-Cc-F-]NN-`P-R]-MTc-T@N-FC-^N,
C (C `C `C) to counteract, to be opposite/contrary to; to return ||
He is always trying to counteract what I order. Bc-PU-^E-E]-T@N-R-Cc-qN, I will return home in one hour. E-(-WN-CFC-C-eJ?-?-^`-`-C-^P,
C-L-UN-R, inevitable, unalterable || It is inevitable that we will all die.
E-W-WE-U-]G-T-`c-C-L-UN,
C-pCc, opposite side, reverse/negative side || On the opposite side, she
is kind. C-pCc-Pc-TaN-P, B-U]-cUc-T\E-,
U-R, tramp, vagrant || Few people gave the tramp money.
U-JE-ac-aC-Cc-U-CKCc-U-R-N-`-_-U-U-qP,
E-, to hate, to have hatred || Dont hate him, instead, feel pity for him.
B-`-U-E-, N-`c-C--B-`-E--\Ec,
E-cUc, hostility, enmity || Why do you have such hostility for me?
1

145

mN-lc-E-`-E-cUc-]N-]x-TFEc-NP-F,
_-U, coward || He is a coward and afraid of everything. B-P-3A_-U-ZC-^P-0?-3A-0$-?-&A-;%-3J.,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to blame || Dont blame me for your own
mistakes. mN-lc-_E-C-P_-]t`-n-NP-O-E-`-U-Cc,
C-R, sin || What is the worst sin? C-R-Gc-EP-R-P-F-ZC-^P,
C to be depressed, to suffer from || I was depressed after my sister
died. E]-~E-U-]Nc-c-E]-cUc-C
C-N, complaint, grumbling || Im tired of hearing his constant
grumbling. B]-P-]HCc-l-C-N-N-C-T_-E-`-cP-E-,
C-, sad melody, elegy, threnody || The flutes sad melody moved
everyone. E-T]-C--`c-U-WE-U-`-cUc-]D`-MTc,
C-T`, hardship, suffering, misery || Having little money is a hardship.
_-U-N@P-R-P-C-T`-ZC-^P,
C-MC to be at the end of ones wit, to have no alternative, to be at a loss
|| I have no alternative but to punish my son.

E-C-MC-Pc-T-`-GN-R-CFN-R-`c-MTc-CZP-UN,
C-R, miserable, poor, bad, worse || He lived in miserable conditions.
B-CPc-TT-C-R-`-n_, His health is very bad. B]-`c-BUc-d-FE-#$-0R-:.$
C-E-, suffering, maltreatment || Poverty is suffering.
NT`-SEc-P-C-E-^P,
C-T, cruelty, savage || His cruelty led to his wife divorcing him.
B]-C-T-lc-B]-GE-U-B-NE-M_-O-TFC
C-_c, diligence, industry, endurance || Her endurance under such harsh
conditions was admirable.

G-P-C-U-N-]x]-]C-B-Uc-C-_c-qc-R-P-^N-P-qN-]c-R-ZC-_N,

C-`c, hard work || Hard work can help you earn money.
C-`c-`c-mN-lc-_-U-TV`-MT,
N, to collect, to gather; to raise; to organize || Tonight we will
gather the sheep here. N-NCE-, E-Wc-`C-]N-_-N--^P, He raises sheep.
Bc-`C-N, He wants to organize the workers. Bc-T\-T-W-N-P-]NN,
N-U, broom, sweeper || My mother made that broom. E]-e-Uc-N-U-N-`c,
N-`P, collecting, raising || Collecting enough money to rebuild the
1

temple took a long time.

146

-BE-IUc-Cc-qN-N-l-_-U-]NE-WN-N-`P-qN-R-`-Oc-^P-_E-T-NCc-qE-,
U, (TU, TUc, Uc,) to mediate, to reconcile || He has promised to
mediate the quarrel. Bc-N-CZ-N-TU--Bc-`P-qc,
_, (T_, T_, _,) to compare, to discuss, to contest || Lets compare
these two coats and see which is best. -T-]N-CIc-T_-K-CE-T\E-`-T,
, unit, group, community, village, section || Our village has fewer
people than it used to. E-W]--T]-U-_-`c-JE-,
-BC work unit, section, group, division || What work unit employs
you? mN-lc--BC-CE-P-q-T-E-TZP-^N,
-NRP, village chief || The village chief is elected by the villagers. #J-.0R/.J-#J-3A?-TNUc,
-WP, category, classification, unit, section || What category does this
belong to? ]N--WP-CE-`-CKCc,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to mix, to blend, to group || Please mix the flour
and water. G-NE-p-CIc-Tc-NE-,
T-_, combination || The combination of mutton with sugar was
strange to me. `C-a-NE-@-_]-T-_-P-E-`-UWP-P-^-UWP-ZC-_N,
T-]WE-, wholesale || I bought these items at a wholesale price.
Ec-NEc-R-]N-NC-T-]WE-_P-CE-Cc-Ic,
_-U, plate, saucer || Put the plate in the kitchen. _-U-N-C^c-BE-PE-O-ZC
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to accompany || I want to accompany you
shopping. E-mN-NE-TEc-Pc-I-G-C-R_-]u-]NN,
E-T, tree, trunk || The tree was so large that we could not reach around
it. E-T-U-Rc-E-Wc-`C-$.%-4J=-/?-UM]-T_-G%-U-Tc,
N, (N, TN, N,) to stay, to live, to sit, to remain || Please sit on this
cushion. ]T`-CNP-]N]-E-Pc-N,
N-BE-, residence, house, apartment || My apartment is on the seventh
floor. E]-N-BE-TOP-MC-P-^N,
N-UBP, dweller, resident || The resident of that house is ill.
BE-T-]N]-PE-D-N-UBP-`-P-W-qE-^N,
N-CPc, place of residence, dwelling place || My place of residence is
the same as my fathers. E]-N-CPc-P-E]-e-S]-N-CPc-NE-CFC-^P,
U, (TU, TUc, Uc,) to total, to add, to sum up || When I add one to
one I get two. Ec-CFC-NE-CFC-TUc-W-CIc-MT,
147

U, (TU, TUc, Uc,) to tie, to bind, to bundle || Please bind this


bundle. Nc-R-]N-Uc,
U-tUc, vow; taboo || The monk did not break his vow. TVP-R-N-B]U-tUc-`c-U-]C`, A taboo is a ban resulting from social custom.
U-tUc-P--WCc-GA-CUc-~`-`c-Tc-R]-T@C--ZC-^P,
U-R, vow, religious discipline || The monk took a vow never to drink
liquor. TVP-R-Nc-e-_C-CKP-Pc-U-]ME-T]-U-R-TZc,
U-c, statistics || The statistics on education show that improvement
has been made. T-Cc]-MC-C-U-c-`c-CE-]S`-qE-^N-R-UWP,
T, signal, sign || He made a sign that he was thirsty. Bc-_E-*A.-#-U-R]T-TP,
T-mT, notification, announcement || I got your wedding announcement
yesterday. B-?E-E-`-mN-l-CIP-P-n-T-mT-]q_,
T-M, notice, notification || The notice was posted on the blackboard.
-cU-E-`-T-M-.<,
T-N, grammar || I have never studied Tibetan grammar.
Ec-TN-^C-C-T-N-E-U-rE-,
T_-a decision, judgment || I dont agree with your decision.
E-mN-l-T_-a-`-U-]MN,
T-`P, collection || Would you like to see my stamp collection?
mN-lc-E]-C-Cc-T-`P-qc-R-`-T-]NN-.3,
T-CcC storing up || The storing up of enough food for winter takes
much time and effort. NDP-B_-\c-]NE-T-T-CcC-qN-R-`-Oc-;/-<A%-0R<]TN-R-GP-R-qN-NCc,
TUc-uEc, total number/quantity || What quantity of bricks do you
want? mN-`-c-SC-TUc-uEc-C-WN-NCc,
TUc-P, in total, in sum || In total, the population of Qinghai was about
six million in the year 2007. *A?-!R%-2./-=R<-UW-P-n-U-uEc-TUc-P-d-`Uc-^-S$-^N,
1

148

P,

if; 2age; 3to be sick 4as long as || 1If you do it, I will to.

Ec-lE-N-`c--^P,

What is your age?

mN-`-P-O-^P,

mN-lc-N-`c-P,

I was sick all last

C\]-]B_-P-U-^Ec-`-E-P-qE-, As long as you agree with me we


can remain friends. mN-E-NE-]MN-R-qE-P, E-W-N-C\N-U-UMN-O-uCc-R-qN-MT,
P-GE-, young || The young man liked dancing.
c-R-P-GE-N-ZTc-{-C-R_-NC],
P-]NU, marsh, swamp || The sheep was lost in the marsh. `C-P-]NU-Pc-T_,
P-PE-, last year || I got married last year. P-PE-E-CIP-C-qc,
P-TP, mist, fog || Fog covered the mountains top. P-TP-nc-_--BTc,
P-W, illness, disease, sickness || This was the first time for him to
experience illness. ]N-P-B-`-P-W-MC-U_-qE-T-^P, His illness made him
weak. B]-P-W-Nc-B:A-=?-9%?-IUc-c-TFC
P-WN, age || At what age did you start school?
mN-P-WN-O-^-E-T-_-]uUc-R-^P,
P-CZP, juvenile, youth || The youth had no parents. P-CZP-N-`-S-U-UN,
P-\C pain, ache || I have a pain in my leg. E]-E-T-`-P-\C-`Ec,
P-, same-aged (persons) || The same-aged students are in the same
week.

classroom. /-5S.-$&A$-0:A-aR2-3-i3?-aR2-#%-$&A$-+-;R.,

P-^E-, even though || Even though she is not beautiful, I still love her.
B-U-^C-U-UP-^E-, E-B-U-`-NC],
PC-FP, black, evil || His heart is evil. B-`-TcU-R-PC-FP-ZC-^N,
PC-Ic, crime, offence || What crime did the prisoner commit?
TVP-U-Nc-PC-Ic-F-ZC-TcCc,
PC-Ic-FP, criminal || The criminal was in handcuffs.
PC-Ic-FP-N-`-Cc-C-TP-]OC
PC-R, black || Black is darker than brown. C-R-`c-PC-R-PC
PC-WE-, black market || Drugs are bought and sold on the black market.
PC-WE-`-TP-Pc-O-PC-I-WE-qN,
PCc-W`, forest || After all the forests trees were cut down the soil
149

washed away.

PCc-W`-WE-U-TFN-W_-c-c-TFN-a_,

PCc-`c, forestry || He did forestry work in southern Qinghai.


Bc-UW-P-n--pCc-?-PCc-`c-TEc,
PE-#=, internal, inside || My supervisor told me it was an internal matter
and not to be discussed outside our company. E]-]C-Tc-E-`-]N-P-PE-#=IA-NP-NC-FC-^P-Rc-AE-\]-p-_`-Pc-U-E-\_,
PE-]B_, retinue, close maid || Wherever he goes his retinue goes too.
B-CE-`-cE-5K, B]-PE-]B_-^E-N-C_-]u,
PE-t`, internal organs || My internal organs were injured in an accident.
GC--ZC-`c-E]-PE-t`-`-c-P-SC
PE-Ec, inside || It was cool inside the building. MC-BE-C-PE-P-Tc`,
PE-CKU, private talk, secret conversation || I overheard their secret
conversation. Ec-B-W]-PE-CKU-C-cE-,
PE-NP, meaning || What is the meaning of that proverb?
CKU-NR-N]-PE-NP-P-F-ZC-^P,
PE-]xP, importation || The importation of some items is prohibited.
NEc-R-`-`-PE-]xP-qN-R_-T@C-]CC-qN,
PE-_`-T, traitor || He was a traitor to his country.
B-P-B]-`-BT-l-PE-_`-T-ZC-^P,
PE-_`, inside || Please come inside my room. E]-BE-T]-PE-_`-`-aC
PE-`c, housework || She had to do all the housework.
B-Uc-PE-`c-WE-U-`c-NCc-qE-,
PE-Ccc, sub-unit, an internal category || My office is a sub-unit of a
larger work unit. E]-C[E-T-BE-P-`c-BEc-G-T-ZC-C-PE-Ccc-^P,
PEc--U, early morning || I got up in the early morning before the sun
rose. PEc--U-I-U-U-a_-CE-E-U`-`c-`Ec,
PEc-U, morning || The sun rises in the morning. PEc-U_-I-U-]G_,
PN, illness, sickness, disease || How long did your sickness last?
mN-l-PN-`-Oc-^P-F-VU-]C_,
PN-E-, chronic illness || Hepatitis is a chronic illness.
UGP-PN-P-PN-E-ZC-^P,
PN-Cc, symptom || Yellow eyes are a symptom of liver disease.
UC-c_-T-^P-P-UGP-PN-l-PN-Cc-^P, Being tired all the time is a symptom
of a disease. Oc-P-R_-ME-GN-R-P-PN-g$?->A$-^P,
150

PN-TC diagnosis || This doctors diagnosis is different from that


doctors. P-R-]Nc-PN-TC-qc-R-P-R-Nc-PN-TC-qc-R-NE-U-]x,
PN-R, patient || The patient in that room is from your village.
BE-T-N]-PE-C-PN-R-P-mN-W]--T]-_N,
PN-]T, bacteria, germs || I saw the bacteria with the microscope. Ec-z-UMEU->J=-`c-PN-]T-UME-,
PN-C^C nurse || My sister is a nurse. E]-~E-U-P-PN-C^C-FC-^P,
PN-_Cc, diseases || What diseases are common in your home area?
mN-W]-^`-pCc-?-Cc-G-T]-PN-_Cc-P-F-ZC-^P,
PN-_, chronic disease || He died last year from a chronic disease.
P-PE-B-PN-_-ZC-`c-]Nc,
PP-nc, emphatically, earnestly, seriously || He seriously emphasized the
dangers of smoking again and again. Bc-,-3$-:,J/-0:A-*J/-#:A-{R<-^E-^EPP-nc-TaN,
PP-KP, earnest, serious || His manner was earnest, but I still did not
believe him. B]-qN-Ec-P-PP-KP-^P-_E-, E-O-_E-B-`-^N-U-Gc,
PP-PP, serious || Dont laugh, be serious! U-NCN-R_-PP-PP-nc-aC
PP-R, serious, earnest || She was serious when she asked me to marry
her. B-Uc-E-NE-CIP-C-qN-:A-{R<-E-Tc, B-U]--W`-P-PP-R-^P,
PU, or (question particle put after the letter na); When? || Should I
follow his wishes or deny them? Ec-B]-]NN-R-NE-TP-PU-^E-P-`-]C`qN-R_-_Cc, When did you come to Xining the first time? mN-\-`E-`MEc-NE-T_-PU-^E-T-^P,
PU-UB], sky || The kite fell from the sky. aC-q-PU-UB]-Pc-U_-E-,
PU-DE-, midnight || At midnight our party ended. PU-DE-`-E-W]--WCc-u`,
PU-P, usual, consistent, always || His usual clothes are a shirt and
trousers. B]-PU-P-n-CP-R-P-W-`P-ZC-NE-E-U-ZC-^P,
PU-ZC one day, at one time || One day I will be rich.
PU-ZC-`-E-pC-R_-]n_-Ec,
PU-, climate, season || Tell me about the climate in your country.
mN-W]`-BT-l-PU-:A-{R<-E-`-aN-NE-,
PU-^E-, always || I will always love my parents.
E]-S-U-`-Ec-PU-^E-NC]-ZP-qN,
PU-^P-_E-, whenever || Whenever you come to visit is fine with me.
1

151

E-`-UWP-P-mN-]WUc-]x-`-PU-^P-_E-]E-GC
P_-P_, long and narrow || The bridge over the stream is long and narrow.
CVE-T]-\U-R-N-P-P_-P_-_N,
Pc, barley; so that; from || This barley has rotted. Pc-]N-_`-]OC I
want to learn English so that I can learn science and technology. EcNqP-^C-TTc-Pc-WP-_C-NE-`C-`-T-]NN, Where do you come from?
mN-CE-Pc-^E-T-^P,
Q, (Q, Qc, Qc,) to suck || The baby sucks its mothers nipple.
qc-Rc-e-U]-Q-U-Qc,
Q-T, younger brother || When was your younger brother born?
mN-l-Q-T-PU-WN-c,
Q-U, breasts || She washed her breasts with warm water.
B-Uc-G-xP-Uc-B-U]-Q-U-Tsc,
Q-U, younger sister || My younger sister is two years younger than me.
E]-Q-U-E-`c-`-CIc-lc-GE-,
QN, to move || The child moved towards his mother. qc-R-e-U]-pCc-`-QN,
QT, to set (sun), west || The sun sets in the west. I-U-QT-pCc-?-QT,
QT-pCc, west, western direction || West is the opposite of east.
QT-pCc-P-a_-pCcl-C-pCc-^P,
QT-pCc-R, Westerner || I wonder if that Westerner is from Britain?
Ec-QT-pCc-R-N-NqP-H-T-^P-UP-ac-]NN,
Qc, can || I can speak English. Ec-NqP-N-TaN-Qc,
Qc-]CP, ability and responsibility || Ability and responsibility are keys to
success. Qc-]CP-P-`-B]-]CC--^P,
Qc-P, effective, powerful || What is the most effective way to raise
sheep? `C-]W-T]-qN-MTc-Gc-Qc-P-P-F-ZC-^P,
Qc-R, ability, competence, capability, effectiveness || He has a good
ability to learn languages. B-`-N-G-T-R]-Qc-R-T\E-T-ZC-^N,
Qc-R-FP, effective, capable || This medicine is very effective for a cold.
P-]N-GU-R-`-UWP-P-Qc-R-FP-ZC-^P,
Qc-`, ability, talent || He has little ability to organize other people.
B-`-U-CZP--]XCc-qN-]-Qc-`-K`-VU-U-CKCc-UN,
Qc-bCc, strength, power || There is power in his personality.
B]-_E-Cac-`-Qc-bCc-^N,
1

152

P]-CcE-, lawn || The lawn had little grass. P]-CcE-P--JE-E-`c-UN,


PU-R, property, wealth || I lost all my wealth last year.
P-PE-Ec-E]-PU-R-WE-U-T_,
P_, to err, to make a mistake; livestock, wealth, possession, property ||
I made a mistake in this calculation. c-CZ-]N]-PE-Pc-E-P_-^N, What
is the value of your familys property? mN-WE-C-P_-ME-F-]x-G,
P_-P, shortcoming, drawback, mistake || His shortcoming is that he
drinks too much. B]-P_-P-P-Bc-GE-TLE-xCc-R-N-^P,
1

/R<-*R/-29R-2,to make a mistake || I will make a mistake if I drink too


much. C`-K-Ec-GE-]ME-xCc-5K-/R<-*R/-29R-:PR

P_-]t`, mistake, error || Im sorry for my mistake.


Ec-<%-$A-P_-]t`-`-]nN-TaCc-qN,
P_-TFc, correction || I dont agree with your correction of my paper.
mN-lc-E]-U-^C-`-P_-TFc-qc-R_-E-U-]MN,
P_-c, property, goods || What is the value of your property? mN-l-P_c-l-_P-ME-F-]x-^P,
P_-~N, finances || What is the condition of the local governments
finances? c-CPc-~N-C[E-C-P_-~N-l-CPc-W`-P-F-]x-^P,
CPC-pCc, yaks || The yaks provided us with meat, milk, skins, and hair.
CPC-pCc-lc-E-W-`-a-NE-]-U, @-T, N-R-2&?-]NP-N-qN,
CPE-, (CPE-, CPE-, CPEc,) to give (h) || The reincarnate Lama gave me this
gift. `-c-E-`-`Cc-c-]N-CPE-,
CPEc-IP, the day after tomorrow || The day after tomorrow Ill stop
smoking. CPEc-IP-Ec-O-T-CFN--^P,
CPN, key/main point || Did you understand the main point of this
document? mN-lc-^C-G-]N]-CPN-`-C-T-`P-qE-EU,
CPN-]CC key, focus || The key to learning English is a desire to learn.
NqP-^C-T-R]-CPN-]CC-P-.J-E-]NN-0:A-!/-aR%-^P,
CPN-G-c, important point, main aspect || The important point of learning
English is to practice everyday.

NqP-^C-T-R]-CPN-G-c-P-IP-__-E-T_-qN--N-^P,
CPN-NP, question, main point, problem || I cant understand your main
point. Ec-mN-l-CPN-CV-T-`-C-T-U-`P,
CPN-Tc, summary, abstract, key point || I will write a summary of the
153

discussion and give it to you tomorrow.

Ec-uc-T_-n-CPc-W`-CPN-Tc-aC-{c-Pc-cE-IP-mN-`-_,

CPU, sky || The sky is blue. CPU-P-P-R-^P,


CPU-u, airplane || The old airplane was made in Russia.
CPU-u-E-T-N-e-_-c-Pc-MP-N-qc,

CPU-u-ME-, airport, airfield || The plane landed at the airport.


CPU-u-N-CPU-u-ME-`-TTc,
CPU-P, ceiling || I painted my ceiling yesterday.
B-?E-Ec-CPU-P-`-WP-Tc,
CPU-_C astronomy || Astronomy is the study of the stars.
CPU-_C-P-_-U]-ZT-]HC-`-C,

CPU-`-Cc_-T, New Year || Ill stay with my family during New Year.
CPU-`-Cc_-T]-Tc-c, E-mU-U-NE-UIU-O-N--^P,
CPU-Cac, weather, climate || What is the weather like in autumn?
P-@_-CPU-Cac-F-]x-^P,
CP], antiquity, ancient times || In ancient times many Tibetans believed
in Bn. CP]-Oc-c, TN-U-UE-Tc-TP-Gc-`-NN-R-qN,
CP]-CKU, ancient/archaic saying/story || He knows many ancient stories.
Bc-CP]-CKU-UE-T-ac,
CP]-Oc, antiquity, ancient time || That song originated in an ancient
time. -N-CP]-Oc-?-qE-T-^P,
CP]-c, relics, antique || That old knife is an antique.
u-E-T-N-/A-CP]-c-aC-^P,
CP]-_Tc, ancient, classical time || He is an expert in classical Tibetan
literature. CP]-_Tc-TN-l-U-_C-MC-Pc-B-P-GN-UBc-R-ZC-^P,
CPc-Tc, temporary, provisional || This is only a temporary
arrangement. ]N-P-CPc-Tc-l-T@N-C-B-P-^P,
CPc-_, pilgrimage || We went to Lhasa last year on pilgrimage.
P-PE-E-W--c-`-CPc-_-qN-R_-cE-,
CPc-_-T, people on pilgrimage || The people on pilgrimage walked
around the holy mountain. CPc-_-Tc-CPc-_-`-CPc-_-qc,
CPc-CE-, cost, value || What is the cost of that coat?
-T-N]-CPc-CE-P-C-WN-^P,
CPc-UGC holy place/land, place of pilgrimage || Mecca is a place of
154

pilgrimage for Muslims.

U-F-P-U]-c-`P-Gc-R]-3)=-{R<-CPc-UGC-FC-^P,

CPc-UH`, pilgrimage || She is on pilgrimage to Lhasa.


B-U--c-`-CPc-UH`-O-]u,
CPc-, emigration || In the United Kingdom immigration exceeds
emigration. NqP-H-`-UWP-P, PE-`-CPc--qN-R-N-p-`-CPc--qN-WN-`c-T`,
CPc-TT, situation, condition || What is your present employment
condition? mN-l-N-:A-`c-[Cc-CPc-TT-F-]x-^P, I like my present job and
living conditions. E-<%-$A-N-]-q-T-NE-]W-T]-CPc-22-`-NC], Our countrys
economic situation is dependent on the world economy.

E-W]-`-BT-l-NR`-]q_-$/?-22-.J-]XU-E-NR`-]q_-.%-<$-=?-^N,
CPc-WE-, a place to spend the night at, lodging, hotel || It is difficult in
the city to find free lodging. uE-m_-Pc-CPc-WE-_P-U-NCc-R-ZC-N--N@],
CPc-CZ, base; residence; location || The companys base is in
Shanghai. AE-\]-CPc-CZ-E-d]-P-^N, My residence is in the
countryside. E]-CPc-CZ-uE-CcT-P-^N, My home location is in
1

Yunnan.

E]-WE-C-CPc-CZ-^P-PP-P-^N,

CPc-^`, location || This location is far from the shops.


CPc-^`-]N-WE-BE-NE-MC-_E-,
CPc-`Cc, principle, reason || I dont believe your reason for stealing.
mN-l--qN-R]-CPc-`Cc-`-E-^N-U-Gc,
CPE-, to have scruples, to be guilty || What sins are you guilty of?
mN-C-T-F-ZC-C-NP-O-CPE-CP-^N,
CPN, to be harmful, to hurt ones feeling || Dont hurt other peoples
feelings with harsh words. CKU-T-Uc-U-CZP-n-TcU-R-`-U-CPN,
CPN-P, catastrophe, disaster, suffering || The flood was a disaster.
G-`C-N-P-$/R.-*R/-,J%?->AC-_N, 
CPN-]CC prevention against harm || This amulet around my neck is a
prevention against harm. E]--^-C]-]N-P-CPN-]CC-qN-N-^P,
CPN-]W, damage, harm || What was the damage to your crops from the
heavy rain? G_-ZN-GP-R-`c-mN-l-`-KC-`-CPN-]W-F-VU-MTc,
CPP, (CPP, UPP, PP,) to pressure, to defeat, to control (feelings), to press
|| Dont pressure me into agreeing with you!

E-_E-mN-NE-]MN-R-^E-_-U-PP,
CPP-bCc, pressure, compulsion || When I was a student I felt a lot of
155

pressure.

E-T-U-ZC-^P-Oc, Ec-CPP-bCc-GP-R-rEc,

UP], pledge, vow, oath || I took a vow when I became a monk.


Ec-TVP-R-qN-Oc-UP]-T`,
UP]-uCc, ally, allied friend || She has always been my ally against my
enemies. B-U-P-PU-^E-Ec-Nu-T_-`-T]-UP]-uCc-^P,
UP]-UMP, alliance, union || The alliance of several groups made them
powerful. WCc-BC-]C]-UP]-UMP-nc-B-W-Tc-P-O-TKE-,
UP]-]{`, alliance, federation || After their alliance they were much
stronger. B-W-UP]-]{`-qc-c, B-W]-Tc-bCc-H-G_-cE-,
UP]-U, bride || The bride was very shy. UP]-U-E-CIU-d-FE-GE-,
UP_, to afflict, to oppress || Dont oppress the poor and powerless.
-UN-NTE-UN-`-U-UP_,
UP_-CFN, affliction, oppression, torture || Your many questions are a
form of torture. mN-lc-x-T-UE-T-P-UP_-CFN-FC-^P,
UPC profit, rich || He is rich from doing business. Bc-WE-TT-Pc-UPC
, ear || I had my ear pierced yesterday. B-?E-Ec-<%-$A--`-#%-T-CKN-O-TFC
-T, ear || An insect flew into my ear. ]T-ZC-E]--T]-PE-O-]X`,
-T-CKN, to listen to || I like to listen to modern music.
E-NE-_Tc--NqEc-`-*/-0<-NC],
-`-cE-, to believe in || Did you believe that story?
CKU-N-N-mN-l--`-cE-EU,
-ac, sense of hearing || The old mans sense of hearing is poor.
U-P-N]--ac-ZP,
C pus, to become pussy || The doctor drained the pus from the infected
wound. P-Rc--B-C-FP-`c-C-Ec,
U-uEc, item, category || What food item is your favorite?
mN-Gc-NC]-T]-\-U]-U-uEc-P-F-ZC-^P,
U-]n_, posture, appearance, attitude || I dont like your attitude about
equality. ]x-UIU-n-_-Pc-E-mN-l--T-`-U-NC],
U-C imagination || Children have a vivid imagination.
qc-R-`-U-C-CcP-IUc-P-R-^N,

U-C-FP, suspicious || Being consistently suspicious makes you


unhappy. C-L-U-C-FP-ZC-^P-P-mN-`-N-R-U-^E-,
U-M_, biography, story of persons life || I have not read that biography.
156

Ec-U-M_-N-TCc-U-rE-, No one will ever ask me to write my


biography. E-`-_E-i3-zc-8J?-cc-lE-\_--U-_N,
U-NC pure, perfect, correct || He speaks perfect Tibetan.
Bc-TN-N-U-NC-FC-TaN,
U-R, type, form, classification || What type of literature is this?
]N-P-U-_C-C-U-R-F-ZC-^P,
U-R-AP-L, always, all the time, forever || He sings to himself all the time.
Bc-Oc-NE-U-R-AP-L-#J<--`P,
U-R--WCc, various kinds, all sorts of || He can sing all sorts of songs.
Bc--NqEc-U-R--WCc-`P-ac,
U-NoN, wisdom, intelligence || To have wisdom takes time.
U-NoN-c-R_-Oc-WN-NCc,

U-NoN-FP, ingenious || He offered an ingenious solution to the problem.


Ec-CPN-NP-MC-CFN-R_-qN-MTc-U-NoN-FP-ZC-TKP,
U-Nq, difference, category || I dont understand the difference between
these two theories. Ec-_Cc-C[E-]N-CIc-T_-n-U-Nq-Cc-U-MT,
U-C^E-, idling away, inattentiveness, neglect || He was idling away his
time. Bc-U-C^E-qc-Pc-TN,
U-_C consciousness || Buddhism in Tibetan Consciousness was the
title of his study. TN-U]-U-_C-`c-]zc-R]-PE-TP -P-B]-ZT-]HC-C-B-qE^P,
U-ac, soul, consciousness, sense || Does man have a soul?
U-`-U-ac-e-^N,
Uc, all || I want all of you to come to class on time.
Ec-mN-Uc-Oc-MC-L-T-tN-`-]E-]NN,
`-U, single-minded, concentrating || He is single-minded in solving
problems. CPN-NP-MC-CFN-R]-MC-Pc-B-P-]R-?J3?-`-U-^P,
, steel; sharp, perceptive, penetrating || Steel beams made the
building stronger. -^-COE-U-^c-BE-TCc-H-TgP-`-TKE-, His penetrating
mind made it hard to deceive him. B]-_C-R--Tc-B-=--{N-,J2?-N@], The
knife is blunt, not sharp. u-B-`-R-^P-R-`c--R-U-_N,
-E_, acute, sharp || Her sharp wit was a constant source of
entertainment. B-U]--iR-2R-P-P-]HCc-l--T-]qE-c-^P,
-Cc, steel || This knife is made of steel. u-]N--Cc-=?-29R?-R-^P,
1

157

C (TC TCc, Cc,) to erase, to change, to confuse, to conceal || Please


erase the flower on the blackboard. -cU-E-C-U-KC-N-Cc,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to tolerate, to endure || I cannot tolerate pain.
Ec-P-\C-TC-U-MT,
, kind, variety; nose || What kind of food do you like? mN-\c-_Cc-CE-`-NC], When I have a cold my nose runs. E-`-GUc-PN-qE-W-E](-`c)Tc-T[_,
-B, variety, kind || That shop has a wide variety of goods.
WE-BE-N-P-WE-\C--B-UE-T-^N,
-BE-, nostril || Blood streamed from his left nostril.
B]--BE-C^P-U-Pc-tC-T[_,
-, various kinds/types || The shop had various kinds of goods.
WE-BE-N-`-WE-\C---^N,
--WE-BE-, department store || The old department store has closed.
--WE-BE-E-T-N]--TT,
-G, nose mucus, snot || The little boys face was covered with snot.
Z-`-N]-CNE--Gc-BEc,
-CNE-, bridge of nose || The bridge of her nose was broken when she
fell on the ice. B-U-N_-MC-`-]n`-Oc-B-U]--CNE-TFCc,
-UE-, various, diverse, complex || I like various sorts of music. E--NqEc-UE-`-NC], There are various Tibetan dialects. TN-N-`-;=-{.-$-3%^N, Tibetan grammar is complex. 2R.-;A$-$A-2h-3R.-/A-$-3%-fR$-:6B%-(J,
-WCc, various kinds/types || Various types of people visit my home.
U--WCc-E]-mU-`-]Ec-,
C-W, ink || Please put some ink in my pen.
E]-Cc-C-C-PE-O-C-W-Cc-NE-,
E-, to appear, to seem || The weather appears rainy today.
N-_E-C-PU--`?-G_-T-]TT--^N-R_-E-,
E-Ec, idea, phenomenon || This recent social phenomenon is not
healthy. N-Tc-l--WCc-E-Ec-P-TN-ME-ZC-U-_N,
E-GE-, low esteem; neglect || One group of people should not hold
1

another group of people in low esteem.

U-WCc-aC-Cc-U-WCc-CZP-ZC-`-E-GE-Cc--U-_E-,
mother is unforgivable.

His neglect of his

Bc-e-U-`-E-GE-qc-R-N-T\N-U-qN-MTc-{`,

158

E-TP, image, figure, character || The writers character was vividly


portrayed. U-R-R]-E-TP-CcP-IUc-P-R:A-|R-/c-ZT-]{-qc,
E-UN, careless, unconcerned, neglectful || She is careless in doing
housework. B-U-mU-`c-E-T_-E-UN-FC-^P,
E-W`, phenomenon; reaction in the heart || Lightning storms are a
natural phenomenon. C-NU_-]mC-R]-G_-E-P-_E-qE-C-E-W`-ZC-^P, My
1

mothers death created quite a reaction in my heart.

E]-e-U]-]Nc-P-Nc-E]-cUc-?-$E-5S<-S$-0R-8A$-29R?-L%-,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to be nursed; to poke, to jab || The mother was
nursed by her baby. e-Uc-qc-R-`-Q-U-TP, Dont poke me with your
pencil! mN-lc-Z-C-Cc-E-`-U-P,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to destroy, to overthrow || Rain destroyed
everything in that area. G_-Gc-^`-u-]N]-^N-WN-TTc,
U, oil || Oil floats on water. U-G-B_-C^E-,
U-CK_, oil field || A new oil field was found in northern Qinghai
yesterday. B-?E-UW-P-n-a_-pCc-?-U-CK_-ZC-N,
U-R, greasy, fatty, oily || This soup is so oily that I can hardly drink it.
B-T-]N-U-R-^P-Rc-Ec-]ME-N@],
_, (T_, T_, _,) to move, to shift; to grind; to change the time of,
to delay || I want to move my job to the city. Ec-<%-$A-q-T-uE-m_-`-2_]NN, I want to move to another city. E-uE-m_-CZP-ZC-`-2$<-]NN, Years
before people used stones to grind canola seed. `-O-U]-P, U-Uc-lc-T@`-Pc--W]-c-TP-T_, Can we change the time of tomorrows
meeting to the afternoon? E-Wc-cE-IP-n-WCc-]O]-Oc-WN-N-p-x_-_-(R$-$3,
I want to delay my marriage until next year. Ec-<%-$A-CIP-P-p-`_2$<-]NN,
, end, tip, extremity || The nurse pricked the tip of my finger to get a
blood sample. PN-C^C-Cc-E]-UXT--`-CVCc-Pc-tC-C-NEc-NR-CK_,
-tN-R, leader || Who is the leader of that organization?
-]XCc-N]--tN-R-P-c-^P,
$J-!R/-LJ.-0, toguide || I will guide you around Qinghai. Ec-mN-UW-P-IA-?1

(-;R%?-?-$J-!R/-L,

-]xP-R, leader, originator, advocator || How many prominent leaders of


society do you personally know?

159

mN-lc-_E-MN-Pc--WCc-l--]xP-R-uCc-FP-&A-43-ac,
-`P, reception || He gave me a cool reception when I visited him.
E-B-`-UH`-T_-cE-T-P-Bc--`P-;$-0R-qc,
-`P-BE-, guesthouse, hotel || The beds in that hotel are cheap.
-`P-BE-N]-U`-t]-CE-,
, (T, Tc, c,) to mix || Mix water with this flour. p-]N-G-NE-c,
N, container, vessel, utensil || The container holds twenty liters of
water. N-N]-PE-`-G-AE-P-I-b-aE-,
N-Gc, container, pot || The clay pot shattered when it was dropped.
-N-ME-`-E-T-P-GCc-Pc-M_,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to add, to plus || Lets add some salt to this dish.
\-U-]N]-PE-O--B-]C]-TP-R_-q,
U, (TU, TUc, Uc,) to smell || I want to smell those flowers.
Ec-U-KC-N-NC-$A-SA-`-TU-]NN,
_, (T_, T_, _,) to suspend || I suspended a toy from a string for my
child to play with. Ec-N-R-ZC-Cc-N-N-FC-T_-Pc-E]-qc-R--_-TFC
`, (T`, T`, `,) to join together, to intertwine || Lets try to join
these two ideas together. E-Wc--W`-]N-CIc-pCc-CFC-`-`-T_-q,
TC (TC TCc, Cc,) to be ingrained, to keep in the heart || The
memory of his dead mother was ingrained in his heart.

U-NU-R-`-TFEc-R]-xP-R-N-B]-^N-O-TCc,

R-cEc,

R-cEc-P--_-ZC-^P,
Saturday comes after Friday. C\]-R-cEc-l-p-IP-P-C\]-P-R-^P,
RCc-R, skin, leather || He scraped the skin before drying it.
Bc-RCc-R-U-U-CE-V.,
RE-, lap || I put the small computer on my lap. Ec-C-N-GE-T-N-<%-$ARE-O-TZC
RE-, to hold, to embrace || I want to embrace you and then kiss you.
Ec-mN-RE-Pc-]-qN-]NN,
1

Venus; 2Friday || 1Venus is a planet.

160

RN-U, lotus || The lotus lives in water. RE-G-=?-,


R_-P, publishing || The book publishing business is being challenged
by digital forms of information.

NR-G-R_-P-n-`c-_Cc-`-G-]zP-uEc-Cc-FP-n?-:P/-lR.-,J2?,
R_-BE-, publishing house, press || Tibetan language books in our
province are often published by the Nationality Press.

E-W]-ZE-GP-n-TN-^C-NR-G-P-P-R_-U-_Cc-R_-P-BE-Cc-R_-O-TP-R-^P,
R_-]uU, issue; publishing || Issuing publications is his work. R_-]uUqN-R-P-B]-q-T-^P, He has worked in publishing and editing for many
years. Bc-R_-]uU-NE-U-C-C-q-T-`-UE-T-`-CI_,
R_-C setting type || My sister works setting type at the publishing
house. E]-~E-Uc-NR-P-BE-P-R_-C-C-q-T-$*J<,
R_-Ec, page || Please turn to page sixty-three. R_-Ec-_-CcU-R-`-Cc,
R_-U, printed matter || It is cheaper to mail printed matter than it is to
mail letters. ]zP-^C-T_-T-`c-NEc-R-R_-U-T_-5K-CE-,
R_-aE-, wood-block (printing plate) || The monk spent several months
carving one hundred wood-block printing plates. TVP-R-Nc--O-U-T@`3,<-R_-aE-T-MU-R-Tc,
Rc-U, knee || I injured my knee last year when I was playing soccer.
P-PE-Ec-E-N--`-c-Oc-Rc-U-c,
R-K-`, Potala Palace || The Potala Palace in Lhasa is an outstanding
1

example of Tibetan architecture.

-c]-R-K-`-P-TN-l-T\-P-n-NR-UWP-Tc-R-G-ZC-^P,
R-K, volume, book || This book of scriptures was written in the fifteenth
century. Gc-C[E-R-K-]N-P-Oc-_Tc-TF--T_-TUc,
NRC-TcU, estimation || My estimation is that there are about one hundred
people on this bus.Ec-NRC-TcU-qc-5K--N-Ec-]B_-]N]-E-O-d-`U-U-T^N,
NRE-T, witness || She was the only witness to the crime.
B-U-P-Ic-N-N]-NRE-T-B-P-^P,
NR], brave, bravery, courage || He was brave during the battle.
NUC-]tC-C-tN-.-B-=-NR]-%<-(J,
NR]-N, bold and powerful, courageous, hero || Gesar was a bold and
powerful man. C-c_-P-NR]-N-FC-^P,
161

NR]-E_-FP, brave, courageous || It is not always easy to be brave.


NR]-E_-FP-ZC-qN-o-P-PU-^E-`c--U-UP,
NR]-IUc, heroic appearance || Gesar is often depicted as having a heroic
appearance. C-c_-P-P-R_-NR]-IUc-P-R]-C\Cc-c-]{,
NR]-`, boldness, bravery || No one questioned his bravery.
B]-NR]-`-`-NCc-R-\-UBP-CFC-lE-UN,
NR]-T, hero || After he saved the little boy from drowning he became a
hero. Bc-Z-`-GE-GE-N-G-`c-TTc-c-NR]-T-ZC-L-n_,
NR]-U, heroine || Her bravery in the face of great danger made her a
national heroine.

IP-B-GP-R]-UOP-.-NR]-E_-T\E-3,<-B-U-U-_Cc-l-NR]-U-ZC-L-n_,
NR]-[U, timid, cowardly, frightened || I want my son to stop being timid.
Ec-<%-$A-T-`-NR]-[U-o-UN-P-]NN,
NR`, glory, magnificence, civilization || The glory of old kingdoms can
only be studied from history books.

$/:-2R:C-`-BT-l-NR`-;R/-P-`-c-NT-M_-B-P-`c-T-MT,

NR`-]q_, economy, wealth || The wealth of a nation depends on its


natural resources and population.

`-BT-l-NR`-]q_-P-`-BT-_E-C-MP-BEc-NE-U-uEc-`-_C-`c-^N,
NR`-]q_-n-IP-B, economic crisis || The rapid decrease in the price of gold
threw the country into an economic crisis.

Cc_-n-_P-CE-r_-U_-GC-R-Nc-`-BT-N-NR`-]q_-n-IP-B_-CLCc,
NR`-]q_-UIU-`c, economic co-operation || The economic co-operation
between China and other countries is increasing.

sE-C-NE-`-BT-CZP-T_-n-NR`-]q_-UIU-`c-N-CE-]S`-`-]u-TZP-^N,
NR`-]q_-$/?-22, the condition of the economy || The condition of the
economy depends on political stability.

NR`-]q_-n-$/?-22-P-GT-~N-l-TP-]HCc-`-_C-`c-^N,
NR`-]q_-]XCc-P, economic construction || The economic construction
of our country is continuing.

E-W]-`-BT-l-NR`-]q_-]XCc-P-N-U-UMN-O-`-TZP-^N,
NR`-]q_-_C-R, economics || Economics is the study of money and how it
is used.NR`-]q_-_C-R-P-NE`-`_-_-NE-NE`-`_-H-_-T@`-T]-_-n-ZT-]HC`-TP-R-^P,
162

NR`-^P, civilization, glory || Tibetan civilization has a long history.


TN-l-NR`-^P-`-`-c-_E-T-P,
NRE-, crowd, group, mass of (people/troop); shoulder || The audience
was a huge crowd. N-U-T-P-NRE-GP-R-ZC-_N, He dislocated his
shoulder in the accident. GC--ZC-`c-B]-NRE-T-Cc,
NRE-N, military march, military mission || The thirty kilometer military
1

march exhausted all the soldiers.

-`-cU-F]-NRE-N-Nc-NUC-U-MUc-FN-E`-T_-TFC
NRE-`, military attack || The military attack against the enemy failed.
Nu-NUC-`-`-T]-NRE-`-`-SU-Ic-MTc,
NRE-T, upper arm || He wears a red cloth around his right upper arm.
Bc-<%-$A-NRE-T]-E-`-Cc-NU_-T-ZC-TKCc,
NRE-NUC army, forces || The army set up camp below the mountain.
NRE-NUC-Cc-_-]NTc-?-_-TKTc,
NRE-aN, military force; upper arm strength || That country has a strong
military force. `-BT-N-`-NRE-aN-GP-R-^N, Weightlifting has given him
great upper arm strength. N-]NCc-lc-B-`-NRE-aN-GP-R-T`,
NR, example, sample; possible || Give me an example of the kind of
books you like. mN-NC]-T]-NR-G]-_Cc-l-NR-ZC-E-`-qP-NE-, Is it possible
for you to visit me tomorrow? cE-IP-mN-lc-E-`-]WUc-]x-qN-R-NR-~N-NU,
NR-P, publishing, printing || Publishing books is expensive.
1

NR-G-R_-P-qN-R]-CE-N@],

NR-P-BE-, publishing house || What publishing house will issue your


book? NR-P-BE-CE-Cc-mN-l-NR-G-R_-P-qN--_N,
NR-BE-, bookstore || That bookstore sells only English books.
NR-BE-Nc-NqP-^C-C-NR-G-B-P-]WE-,
NR-tN, teaching, lecturing || Teaching pays less than some other
professions. `c-_Cc-CZP-R-]C]-`c-NR-tN-`-\-JE-,
NR-G, book || This book is at least one hundred years old.
NR-G-]N-U-UM_-^E-`-E-T-]C_-^N,
NR-G-T, intellectual || He is considered the foremost intellectual from my
village. B-P-E-W]--T-Pc-MP-R]-NR-G-T-Gc-MC-U-^P-R_-]NN,
NR-P, setting an example, playing an exemplary role; example ||
1

Setting an example for students is something teachers should try to

163

T-U-Uc-`-NR-P-qN-R-P-NC-P-ZC-Cc-`c-NCc-R-ZC-^P, What is an
example of problems you have had recently? mN-I-_-MC-R]-CPN-NP-nNR-P-P-F-ZC-^P,
NR-NT, book || Where did you buy that book? mN-lc-NR-NT-N-CE-Pc-Ic-R-^P,
NR-UN, great, matchless, outstanding, incomparable; impossible || His
ability in archery is matchless. B]-]SEc-`-N-NR-UN-FC-^P, Its
impossible for pigs to fly. SC-]S_-T-P-NR-UN-FC-^P,
NR-WE-BE, bookstore || That bookstore sells a lot of Tibetan books.
NR-WE-BE-Nc-TN-^C-C-NR-G-UE-T-]WE-,
NR-UWP, model, example, sample || I dont like this writing model.
E-]{-U-n-NR-UWP-]N-`-U-NC],
NR-UXN-BE-, library || The librarys books were covered with dust.
NR-UXN-BE-C-NR-G-WE-U-`-nc-BTc,
NR-_c, pattern, design || This is a colorful pattern.
]N-P-NR-_c-UNC-FP-ZC-_N,
NR_-TN, example, specimen, sample || The teacher used many examples
when he taught. NC-P-nc-T-tN-qN-Tc-NR_-TN-UE-T-T@`,
NR_-P, for example || There are many colorsfor example, red is a
color. B-NC-$-5S$?-^N-N, NR_-P, NU_-T-v-2:R,
NR_-U-~N, impossible || It is impossible for a camel to pass through the
2

do.

eye of a needle.

T--nP-O-]u`-o-NR_-U-~N, (-UE-BT-UC-`-]X`-T-NR_-U-~N,)
NRC (NRC NRCc, NRCc,) to estimate, to assess || I estimate that the
temperature is thirty-one degrees. Ec-NRCc-P-xN-uE-`-L]-c-CFC-^N--_N,
NRP-EP, bureaucrat || After I graduated from college I was given a job
and, after ten years, I had become a bureaucrat. E-T--GP-U-Pc-UM_-pPc-E-`-q-T-qP-R-NE-, N-Pc-`-TF]-c-c, E-NRP-EP-ZC-L-n_,
NRP-R, official, master, leader || The city official was often late for work.
uE-m_-n-NRP-R-P-R_-`c-@]-c-?-`c,
NRP-U, female official || The female official in the next room is
responsible for this matter.

`Cc-l-BE-T-N]-PE-C-NRP-U-Nc-NP-]N-`-]CP-B_-qN,
No-t`, taxes || Taxes have increased this year to ten percent of my total
income. N-`_-No-t`-E]-^E--]-T-G]-TF-`-]S_,
164

.J%?, to droop, to hang down, to bend || The wet clothes hung down
from the line. CP-R-P-R-MC-E-`c-U_-OJ%?,

NoN-Gc, instrument || This medical instrument is used in difficult


operations. P-TFc-NoN-Gc-]N-CaCc-TFc-N@]-U-`-T@`-T-^P,
NoN-CKU, commentary, remark || His concluding remark was too long
and difficult to understand. BE-C-UHC-U-n-NoN-CKU-_E-xCc-`-C-^E-N@],
No, hip || My hip is painful after many hours of riding the bus.
(-WN-UE-T<-Ec-]B_-`-TN-c-E]-No-`-P-\C-c,
NoN-@ spring || Spring is my favorite season of the year.
NoN-@-P-`-CFC-C-PE-E-Gc-NC]-T]-Oc-WCc-^P,
NoN-Oc, spring, springtime || Spring saw the grassland slowly become
green. NoN-Oc-c--UC-N`-Uc--E-O-]n_-T-UME-,
NoN-]NTc, spring sowing/planting || This year, spring sowing was
delayed because of the drought. MP-R]-NTE-Cc-N-`]-NoN-]NTc-=Oc-]nEc-qc,
NoN-, months of spring || The months of spring are cool.
NoN-!]-PU--Tc`,
NoE-, (NoE-, NoEc, NoEc,) to dangle, to suspend, to hang || He dangled a
picture of Chairman Mao from his rear-view mirror.

Bc-T-UME-U-`E-E-`-U]-s]-Z]--R_-ZC-NoEc,
NoN, (NoN, NoN, NoN,) to examine, to research, to investigate || This
month we will investigate all the health clinics in the county.

-T-]N-`-E-Wc-E-]N]-]zN-TP-BE-^Ec-Cc-`-ZT-NoN-qN--^P,
NoN-R-R, examiner, investigator, researcher || He is a crime investigator.
B-P-PC-Ic-NoN-R-R-ZC-^P,
Ny`-T, forehead || Even though he is sixty his forehead has almost no
wrinkles. B-`-P-xC-F_-cP-_E-, Ny`-T-P-S`-G_-CI_-U-UN,
-T@E-, to intimidate, to daunt || He used his large body size and loud
voice to intimidate his students.

Bc-<%-$A-`c-CKc-GP-R-NE-N-UMP-R-T@`-Pc-T-U-Uc--T@E-O-TFC

E-Ec, grassland, grassy plain || Rivers flowed through the grassland.


G-T-E-Ec-Pc-T[_,
E-q, taboo, forbidden behavior || Playing truant is a forbidden behavior
for students. T-_-U-]u-T-P-T-U]-E-q-^P,
165

E-_, grassy mountain || Sheep grazed on the grassy mountain. E-_:A-!J%.-`C-Cc--\c,


, hair || He has a lot of body hair. B:A-=?-!J%-`-T--UE-T-^N,
-u, sharp razor; sharp knife || He shaves every morning with a sharp
razor. *A/-<J:A-8R$?-0<-Bc--u-ZC-Cc-B--TZ_, He used a sharp knife to
cut the cooked mutton. Bc--u-ZC-T@`-Pc-`C-a-TVc-U-CLTc,
-VU, little || He is so busy he has little time.
B-{`-]WT-G-Tc-BU-`E--VU-^E-UN,
-cN-UN, bad-tempered; impatient || Hes bad-tempered when he gets
tired. ME-GN-^N-Oc-B-`--cN-UN, He is impatient when he talks to
children. qc-R-Uc-`-N-G-TaN-Tc-B-`--cN-UN,
E-, (E-, Ec, Ec,) to pile up, to heap up || I will heap up straw this
evening. N-NCE-Ec-cC-U-E--^P,
P-UGN, brother; elder brother || I have four brothers. E-`-P-UGN-TZ-^N,
My elder brother is three years older than me. E]-P-UGN-P-E-`c-`-TZ^c-G,
P-, brother || Please tell my brother to visit me tomorrow.
cE-IP-E]-P--`-E-`-T-T_-aC-Fc-aN-NE-,
c-@ quality || Which is more important: quality or quantity?
c-@-NE-uEc-@-CIc-`c-CE-ZC-C-L-C`-G-T-^P-PU,
c-`Cc, high quality || That is very high quality cooking oil so you
should buy it. \c-U-N-P-c-`Cc-^P-Rc-mN-lc-I-T_-_Cc,
P-R, Saturn; Saturday || Saturn is a distant planet. P-R-P-MC-_E-T]--_ZC-^P, My birthday is on Saturday. E]-c-_-P-C\]-P-R]-IP-^P,
`, to spread, to increase, to enlarge, to expand; to launch || Next
year, we will expand the amount of apple orchard we have. cE-`_-EWc-A-b-E-T]-uEc-@-3%-O-`--^P, A movement to improve the
environment will be launched next year. cE-`_-B_-^C-H-`Cc-c-CKE-T]q-]D`-ZC-%J=--_N,
`-_c, mutual exchange, exchange || Relationships should be based on
mutual exchange and benefit. ]{`-T-P-SP-WP-`-_c-NE-B-SP-$*A?-=-<$1

=?,

, (, c, c,)

to step; 2to move; 3to emigrate || 1If you step on this

stone youll probably sprain your ankle.

166

mN-lc--]N]-E-CU-R-c-

P, mN-l-~-`E-Cc-P-tCc-tCc-UN, Please help me move this desk to the


other side of the room. E-`-FC-V-]N-BE-T]-1<-KR$?-?--_Cc-qc-NE-, Many
people will soon emigrate from this area. FE-U-]C_-T_-U-UE-T-CPc-]NPc-CZP-O---_N,
-`, ball || The ball rolled down the stairs. -`-c-Cc-`c-U_-]x`,
E-, (E-, Ec, Ec,) to give up, to quit, to stop || I will stop smoking
tomorrow. cE-IP-Ec-O-T-]MP-R-E--^P,
N-^, seasoning, condiment || Salt is a condiment. -B-P-N-^-ZC-^P,
Tc-R, bravery, courage || She showed much bravery during the enemy
attack. Nu-NUC-Cc-W_-`-qN-Oc, B-Uc-Tc-R-GP-R-TP,
%R2?-0?-#J%?-0:A, brave, courageous || This story is about a courageous
young woman. CKU-N-]N-P-%R2?-0?-#J%?-0:A-/-$8R/-*J?-3-8A$-$A-{R<-;A/,
Tc-cUc, confidence, bravery || Im impressed by this childs bravery.
qc-R-N]-Tc-cUc-lc-E-`-TC-GCc-\T-U-TZC
_, (_, _, _,) to promote, to change, to raise, to increase || He was
promoted to an important position. B-C-CPc-C`-GP-ZC-L-_,
E-@ wolf || A wolf killed and ate one of my sheep yesterday.
B-cE-E-@-ZC-Cc-E]-`C-CFC-TcN-Pc-\c,
-BC overall, summation, general meaning || I didnt understand the
general meaning of his talk. Ec-B]-B-T]--BC-`-C-T-U-`P,
-]uc, formula || The mathematics teacher wrote a long formula on the
blackboard. c-_C-NC-P-nc--cU-E-`--]uc-_E-U-ZC-{c,
-, kilogram || I want to buy one kilogram of sugar. Ec-@-_-q-U---CE-I]NN,
-E-, park || Lets go to Peoples Park next Sunday.
,J%?-eJ?-3:A-C\]-I-U-`-E-W-U-NUEc--E-.-]u,
-UMP-`-BT, republic || China is also known as the Peoples Republic of
China. sE-C-`-sE--U-NUEc--UMP-`-BT-Fc-R]-UWP-lE-]XP,
-NP, main point, general meaning; public affairs/welfare || The main
2

point of the lecture was related to the need for greater improvement
in local transportation.

NCc-UB-NE-]{`-^N,

NR-tN-l--NP-N-c-CPc-l-`-]xP-`-^_-c-GP-R-^E-R]-

He worked in public affairs for many years.

NP-CI_-Pc-`-UE-T-]C_,
-TN, public security || Public security has improved since more
167

Bc--

policemen were hired.

-TN-U--3%-.-c-Rc, -TN-`-^_-MP-qE-,

-TN-`c-qN-R, policeman || The policeman patrolled the market area.


-TN-`c-qN-Rc-tU-_-Pc-r`-ZT-qc,
-TUc, summary, summation || I will give a two-minute summary of
his lecture. Ec-B]-NR-tN-`-_-U-CIc-<A%-$A--TUc-qN--^P,
-NUEc, citizen || What country are you a citizen of?
mN-P-`-BT-CE-C--NUEc-^P,
-WCc, society || How does society receive new ideas?
-WCc-lc--T-Cc_-T-H-_-IUc-`P-qN,
-WCc-_C-R, sociology || Sociology is the study of groups of people.
-WCc-_C-R-P-U]-WCc-R]-ZT-]HC-`-TP-R-^P,
-WCc-`U-`Cc, social system || Every country has a social system with
its own characteristics.

`-BT-c-c-`-_E-IN-l-mN-Gc-P-R]--WCc-`U-`Cc-_-^N,
-WCc-TFc-_, social reform/transformation || China experienced great
social reform after 1949.

1949 `]-eJ?-?-sE-C:A--WCc-=-TFc-_-GP-R-qE-,
-WCc-]S`-c, social development || Greater education leads to greater
social development. T-Cc-C-L-^_-c-qE-5K--WCc-`-N-Tc-]S`-c-]qE-,
-WCc-WP-_C social science || Anthropology is a social science.
U]-_Cc-l-_C-R-P--WCc-WP-_C-FC-^P,
-WCc-^_-MP, social progress || Development in education and health
care is social progress.

T-Cc-NE-]zN-TP-MC-C-]S`-c-P--WCc-^_-MP-^P,
-WCc-_E-`Cc, socialism || Socialism is a political and economic
philosophy. -WCc-_E-`Cc-P-GT-~N-NE-NR`-]q_-$*A?-!:A-,.-GA-2?3-]R:A-3=$-&A$-;A/,

-UWP, abstract || This book contains an abstract theory of plant


evolution. NR-G-]N:A-/%--aE-]S`-]n_-n--UWP-n-C[E-`Cc-aC-T@.-^N,
-, month (Gregorian calendar) || There are twelve months in a year.
`-CFC-`---TF-CIc-^N,
-`, kilometer || A kilometer is a unit of measure for distance.
-`-P-`U-MC-]H`-T]-WN-CZ-ZC-^P,
-`, the Christian era, AD || This year is nineteen ninety-eight, AD.
168

N-`-P--`-CFC-E-ND-T-C-TN-R-^P,
-`]-P, BC || 206 BC - 24 AD was the time of the Western Han
Dynasty. -`-P-n-206Pc--`-24T_-P-dP-`-_Tc-QT-U]-Oc-Tc-^P,
P, glue || I sealed the envelope with glue. Ec-P-nc-^C-bTc-_,
_-TKE-FP, general, common || It is common knowledge that water flows
downhill. G-M_-O-]TT-R-P-_-TKE-$A-ac-q-ZC-^P,
C (C c, c,) to drive out, to expel, to banish || The horse-thief was
banished from the community. -P-N-^`-u-`c-c,
N, (N, N, N,) to use, to utilize, to consume || How many trees are
consumed each year in the form of disposable chopsticks?

M_-U-N-MEc-CFC-FP-`-`-__-E-T-C-WN-N,
N-, usage, application || The usage of plastic bags should be reduced.
]nC-aC-N-l-N--H-JE-O-CKE-T_-_Cc,
N-EP, bad behavior, misbehavior || The teacher scolded the students for
their bad behavior. NC-P-nc-T-U-W]-N-EP-`-Ca-Ca-TKE-,
N-R, behavior, deed || He regretted his violent behavior. Bc-<%-$A-N-R-ET-`-]nN-R-qc, I cant understand your recent behavior. Ec-mN-l-I-]-N0-`-C-T-`P-U-MT,
N-W`, manner, behavior || My father resented my outspoken manner.
e-Sc-E]-xE-TaN-l-N-W`-`-]WC-R-\c,
N-T\E-, good behavior, ethical, virtuous || His good behavior received
high marks from his teachers and fellow students.

B]-N-T\E-`-NC-P-NE-T-uCc-Wc-_-U-UMP-R-qP,

N-^`, use (of something) || Computer use increased sharply when


computers became cheap.

C-N-l-CE-H--`-cE-T-.%-2!/-/?-C-N-l-N-^`-H-G_-cE-,
-U, ape man || An ape mans skull is in the museum.
-U-ZC-C-MN-_c-NEc-UE-TaUc-P-BE-.-^N,
E-, to beg || Dont beg for money in town. uE-T`-.-_-U-U-E-,
E-T, beggar || The beggar stayed near the bus station.
E-T-N-Ec-]B_-c-WCc-l-I-]B_-Pc-TN,
, cream (the first milk after a mother gives birth) || The cream was rich
and nourishing. -P-U-R-^P-`-TFN-lc-pC
E-, (E-, Ec, Ec,) to mail, to send (letter/information) || Please mail
169

this letter for me.

E]-^-C-]N-Ec-aC

P, cloud || The cloud resembled a man riding a horse.


P-N--U-ZC-NE-]x,
`-, Living Buddha, Reincarnate Lama || The temple identified a new
Reincarnate Lama yesterday. B-cE-NCP-Rc-`--Cc_-T-ZC-Ec-]XP-qc,
`-T, magic || People say he practices magic.
U-Uc-lc-Bc-`-T-E-TZP-R_-TaN,
`, rhesus monkey, macaque || The zoo recently acquired a rhesus
monkey. _-Cc-BE-`-I-_-`-ZC-MT,
, happy, glad, cheerful || Dont be sad, be glad! cUc-U-C-R_---qc,
-N, happiness, blissfulness || I hope the happiness we feel now can
last forever. Ec-E-Wc-N--_`-T]--N-]N-^P-_E-O-CPc-MT-R]-_-T-qN,
-BE-, villa || He built a villa near the forest.
Ec-PCc-W`-NE-I-c<--BE-ZC-`c,
-E-, pleasure, happiness || Being with my family members gives me
great pleasure. <%-$A-mU-U-NE-UIU-O-#R.-o-L%-2-.J?-E-`--E-GP-R-_,
-T]-c-C_, comedy || I liked the comedy better than the tragedy.
E--T]-c-C_-`c--T]-c-C_-`-NC],
-U, pleasant || Many flowers blooming on the grassland make a

l-,%-.-3J-+R$-$-3%-28.-0-=?-;=-uR%?-3R-3R-8A$-20/,

pleasant scene.

-CcE-, picnic || We had a picnic on the grassland. E-Wc--ME-.--CcE-qc,


N, (N, N, N,) to give, to hand || Please give me a bowl of yogurt. E-`Z-N@_-^`-CE-N-NE-,

S, father || My father is a teacher. E]-S-P-NC-P-ZC-^P,


S-C, over there, other side || We have to cross the river to reach the other
side. E-W-S-C-`-]u-T_-G-T-T`-NCc,
S-P, father || Where does your father work? mN-l-S-P-nc-CE-.-q-T-12,
S-N, paternal lineage || I can trace my paternal lineage from Amdo back
to Central Tibet. Ec-<%-$A-S-N-e-UN-Pc-NTc-CVE-`-]NN-MT,
170

S-UM], the other end (of place), edge || He shouted to me from the other
end of the field. Bc-ZE-B]-S-UM]-Pc-E-Tc,
S-P_, inheritance (from precursor/father) || With my inheritance I started
a small business. Ec-S-P_-`-TP-Pc-WE-GE-GE-ZC-C-]C-TUc,
S-U, parents, father and mother || Last year my parents went to Beijing.
P-PE-E]-S-U-R-FP-`-cE-,
S-Uc, ancestor, forefather || His ancestor was a famous herdsman.
B]-S-Uc-P-]{C-R-~/-uCc-FP-ZC-^P,
S-^_, stepfather || My stepfather married my mother when I was ten.
E-`-TF-^P-Oc, E]-S-^_-E]-e-U-NE-CIP-C-qc,
S-^`, hometown, fatherland, ones native place || Ill go to my
hometown this evening. N-NCE-E-S-^`-`-]u--^P,
S-_`, the other side || The other side of the playground was covered with
trash. N-_]-S-_`-`-Cc-Uc-BEc-^N,
SC pig; behind || The pig rolled in the mud. SC-]NU-PE-Pc-]SC Ten
people were behind me in the line. U-TF-MU-R-E]-SC-P-u`-TCc-^N,
SC-N, wild boar/pig || The wild boar ran under the bushes.
SC-N-E-zP-PCc-W`-$?J2-+-TCc,
SC-IP, eavesdropping, bugging || Eavesdropping on other peoples
1

conversations is not polite.

CZP-n-B-T-`-SC-IP-C-R-P-T-UME-qN-R-ZC-UP,
SC-L, secretly || He secretly took money out of my bag.
Bc-E]-BC-U-`c-SC-L-_-U-Ec,
SC-, peeping || Peeping through the crack in the wall at the girls
undressing got him into a lot of trouble.

CP-R-SN-TZP-R]-TN-UN-`-nE-~Tc-Pc-SC--qc-R-Nc-B-`-C-GP-R-T`,
SC-WE-, pigsty || The pigsty smelled bad in summer.
Nq_-B_-SC-BE-`-x-EP-{,
SC-a pork || I like mutton better than pork. E-SC-a-`c-`C-a-`-NC],
SEc, to regret, to be sorry || I regret the harsh things I said.
E-N-G-C\P-R-TaN-R_-^N-SEc,
SP, to be useful, to be effective, to be good for || This medicine is
effective for a cold. P-]N-GU-R-`-SP,
SP-GN, henceforth, onward, since now, from now on || From now on she
171

will come to class on time.

N-SP-GN-Pc-29%-B-U-Oc-MC-L-T-tN-`-^E--_N,

SP-MCc, to be beneficial, to be useful || I want my money to be useful for


my family. Ec-<%-$A-_-Uc-mU-U-`-SP-MCc-P-]NN,
1/-,R$-0,benefit || Your interviewing me benefits you, it doesnt benefit
me.HR.-GA?-%-=-2&<-:SA-L?-0-.J?-HR.-<%-*A.-=?-%-=-1/-3A-,R$

SP-TN, welfare || The welfare of the poor should be a top concern.


NT`-T]-SP-TN-P-C\Cc-E-NE-T-`-]HC-R_-_Cc,
SP-]NCc, to do a favor for someone || I will do you a favor if you will
help me. C`-K-mN-lc-E-`-_Cc-q?-5K, Ec-mN-`-29%-=/-:)=-%J?,
SP-WP, each other, mutual, one another || We share mutual feelings about
this idea. -T-]N]-E-Pc-E-Wc-SP-WP-`-]NN-W`-CFC-UWEc-TFEc,
SP-^P, benefit, advantage || What benefit is your proposal to me?
mN-lc-]G_-]CN-N?-E-`-SP-^P-F-ZC-^N,
ST, to discount; to dismiss from his position || He discounted the
price of his goods because they didnt sell. B]-WE-U-{P-Rc-Bc-NEc-\C-CCE-ST, He was dismissed from his position because he was
irresponsible. Bc-]CP-]B_-NE-`P-U-qN-Rc-B]-C-CPc-ST,
SU-B, defeat, loss || The coach was angry with his teams defeat.
_-BC-`-SU-B-MTc-Rc-`-tN-R-`-BE-t-`Ec,
S_, other side, thither, over there || Your wife is standing over there.
mN-l-GE-U-S_-P-`Ec-Pc-TN-^N,
S_-]u-W_-]E-, association; coming and going, pacing || The two
1

countries long-term association gave rise to improved economic

`-BT-CIc-T_-^P-_E-0R<-S_-]u-W_-]E-L?-0-.J?-NR`-]q_-n-]{`-T-]S`c-c-TKE-, I dont understand his coming and going at night. B-NCEU_-S_-]u-W_-]E-qN-R_-Ec-d-U-C,


S_-`, attack, assault || The army launched an attack early this morning.
8R$?-0--U_-NUC-NRE-Cc-S_-`-qc,
S`-N, colloquial language; dialect || Colloquial and written Tibetan
are quite different. TN-l-S`-N-NE-^C-N-2<-.-mN-R_-G, Amdo is an
important Tibetan dialect. eU-N-P-TN-l-S`-N-$4S-2R-ZC-^P,
S`-G-T, most of, majority || The majority of Tibetans are farmers.
TN-R-S`-G-T-P-ZE-T-^P,
S`-G_, basically, approximately, almost || The problem is basically
ties.

172

solved.

CPN-NP-N-S`-G_-MC-Cc-TFN, I have approximately one hundred

yaks. %-=-$;$-1=-(J<-2o-43-;R., I have almost solved this math


problem.%?-lA?-<A$-$A-.!:-$/.-:.A-1=-(J<-2NR=,

SCc-T`, breakthrough, penetrating || His penetrating intelligence


impressed everyone. B]-SCc-T`-MT-R]--PRc-GA?-U-WE-U-`-TC-GCc-TZC
S-MC decision || I dont agree with your decision.
mN-lc-S-MC-TFN-R-`-E-U-]MN,
S-MC-GN, to settle a problem decisively || The Living Buddha decisively
settled the problem over grazing land.

`-c--c]-N-CZ-N-S-MC-GN-R]-EE-Pc-MC-CFN-qc,
S-Q, brothers || How many brothers do you have? mN-`-S-Q-$-5S.-^N,
S-T, elder brother || My elder brother is a teacher. E]-S-T-P-NC-P-ZC-^P,
SC-`U, tunnel || The train went through a mountain tunnel.
U-]B_-_-T]-SC-`U-TN-Pc-cE-,
SCc-]m`, to maintain || He maintained success in his study.
T-E-C-E-Pc-Bc-`-B]-SCc-]m`,
SCc-TP, dependable, reliable || He has a dependable job.
B-`-q-T-SCc-TP-R-ZC-^N,
SCc-]OP, idea, goal || What is the goal of your study?
mN-lc-T-E-qN-R]-SCc-]OP-P-F-ZC-^P,
SCc-]{c, result, ending, outcome || What was the result of your many
years of meditation? mN-lc-KE-]XP-`-UE-T_-TUc-R]-SCc-]{c-P-F-ZC-^P,
SE-NsC incitement || What was the incitement that led to the
riot? \E-G-TEc-R]-SE-NsC-P-F-ZC-_N,
SE-T, pile; body || There is a pile of grain in my courtyard. E]-c-_-P]{-%%?->A$-^N, His body had become fat. B]-SE-T-WP-R_-IP,
SP-WCc, plentiful, abundant || They have a plentiful supply of clothes
and food. B-W-`-\c-Cc-l-]NP-N-SP-?3-WCc-0R-^N,
S_-T, Jupiter; Thursday; dagger || Jupiter is farther from the earth
than the moon. c]-C-`-`-S_-T-NE--T-CIc-`c-S_-T-MC-_E-, Ill go
shopping on Thursday. C\]-S_-T]-IP-E-WE-C-R_-]u--^P, This dagger
has a bone handle. S_-T-]N-`-_c-R]-^-T-MCc,
S`-O-pP-R, outstanding; accomplished || His speech was outstanding.
B]-CKU-TaN-P-S`-O-pP-R-ZC-_N, She is an accomplished pianist. B-U-P1

173

S`-O-pP-R]--E-.NR=-UBP-ZC-_N,

S, cry, weeping || Weeping is what a bride does before she leaves her
parents home for the grooms home.

S-U-NE-nc-Pc-UC-R-WE-`-U-cE-CE-S-]NTc-R-P-TC-U]-N-R-ZC-^P,
STc, to go, to come (h) || You will have to come to our tent again.
mN-E-W]--PE-`-^E-T_-STc-NCc,
S, male || Male is the opposite of female. S-P-U-^-C--^P,
S-E-, bachelor || He was a bachelor until the age of fifty.
B-`--TF-`-]TN-_C-T_-O-S-E-O-`c,
S-N-R, brave man, hero || A brave man does not run from danger.
S-N-R-IP-B-`-U-q`,
S-I, messenger || I dont know what the letter says, Im only the
messenger. Ec-^-C]-PE-F-ZC-{c-^N-R-U-ac, E-P-S-I-B-P-^P,
S-PN, stomach disease/illness || He became progressively thinner and
was at last diagnosed as having a stomach disease.

B-_U-TZP-H-_N-`-cE-T-NE-UM]-U_-S-PN-^N-R]-PN-Ec-T\E-,
S-pCc, male animal || The male animal is more aggressive than the
female animal. U-pCc-`c-S-pCc-N,
S-T, stomach || Is your stomach full? mN-l-S-T-e-]uEc,
S-{E-, palace || The palace was situated on a tall hill in full view of the
valley. S-{E-N-`E-T-^Ec-c-UME-T]-_-UMP-R-ZC-$A-!J%-P-GCc-;R.,
S-U, man and woman, male and female || Humankind consists of male
and female. U]-_Cc-P-S-U-CIc-lc-uT-R-^P,
S-WN, courage, guts, fortitude, fearlessness || Though he was in great
pain, his courage kept him from complaining.

B-`-P-\C-GP-R-c-_E-, Bc-S-WN-T\E-Pc-]BE-_-U-qc,
S-CZP, young man || When will the young man who lives next door
come to visit us again?

E-W]-mU-UWc-l-S-CZP-Nc-E-W-`-]WUc-]x-]_-nc-PU-WN-qN--_N,
S-^P, widower || The widowers wife had taught school until she was
killed in a bus accident.

S-^P-N]-GE-Uc-B-U-Ec-]B_-n-GC--=c-a-_C-T_-O-T--Pc-T-tN-qc,
S-Cc_, young man || When he was a young man he went to Lhasa.
B-S-Cc_-ZC-^P-Oc--c-`-cE-MR%-,
174

SC

to mention (the key point); 2to fall on; 3to incense; 4to unload || 1I

Ec-_E-Cc-F-TaN-R-Nc-CPN-`SC-^N-R]-_-T-qN, A brick fell on my head. E]-UC-`-?R-1C-ZC-SC His


words incensed me. B]-N-Gc-E-`-SC Please help me unload the
mules. E-`-x`-`c-Nc-R-SC-_Cc-qc,
SC-MC irritation, incense, offending || His irritation was due to what I
said. Ec-TaN-R-Nc-B-`-SC-MC-TKE-,
SCc, wages, salary, payment || Every week Ive been paid seven
hundred yuan in wages. C\]-]B_-__-E-`-SCc-_-U-TOP-T-_,
SEc, to be destitute, to be impoverished || After the father died the
family quickly became destitute. e-S-]Nc-c, mU-WE-N-r_-T_-SEc,
SN, to dare; to be able to stand, to sustain || If you dare say that again,
Ill beat you. mN-lc-N-]_-nc-TaN-SN-P, Ec-mN-`-CIC--^P, I could not
stand the pain. Ec-P-\C-N-T\N-U-SN,
pCc-U, broom, sweeper || This broom is made of straw.
pCc-U-N-cC-Uc-`c,
p, external, outside; to wipe || Internal is opposite of external.
PE-P-p]-C--^P, You have to wipe your wet shoes on the rug
before you come into the home. BE-T]-PE-O-U-]X`-CE-, mN-lc-U-P-R$./-(%-E-O-p-NCc,
p-E-, foreign country || A foreign countrys customs may surprise you.
p-E-`-BT-l-`Cc-~`-nc-HR-^-UW_-O-]HC-~N,
p-E-T, foreigner || Hes a foreigner but I dont know what country he is
from. B-P-p-E-T-ZC-^P, ]P-lE-Ec-B-`-BT-CE-Pc-^E-T-U-ac,
p-UuP, foreign guest || Our foreign guest sang several songs last night.
UNE-NCE-E-W]-p-UuP-nc--NqEc-]C]-Ec,
p-`, foreign country || Were you ever in a foreign country?
mN-p-`-`-]u-e-rE-,
p-`-T, foreigner || A foreigner visited our home last night.
UNE-NCE-p-`-T-ZC-E-W]-mU-O-MP,
p-IP, next day || The next day after taking the medicine I felt much
better. P-TLEc-R]-p-IP-E]-W_-T-H-2.J<-I<,
p-NP, diplomatic/foreign affairs || I have no responsibility for foreign
affairs. E-`-p-NP-n-MC-Pc-]CP-]t-UN,
hope what I said mentioned the key point.
2

175

p-x, afternoon || It rained yesterday afternoon. B-cE-p-x_-G_-T-TTc,


p-$_, to defer, to delay, postponement || I want to defer my decision
until next week. Ec-1-,$-$&R.-o-N-C\]-]B_-c-U]-T_-_C-L-KA-$<-LJ.-]NN,
p-pCc, outside, external || This change in society is due to outside
influences. -WCc-l-]n_-C-]N-P-p-pCc-l-bCc-P-`-_C-`c-R-^P,
p-pCc-I-WE-, external trade || Is your external trade or internal trade
larger? mN-l-p-pCc-I-WE-G]U-PE-pCc-I-WE-G,
p-U, next; outside; latter; || She said that she hoped her next life
would be that of a man. B-Uc-B-U]--T-p-U-`-S]--T-`P-]-_-T-TFEc-^NR_-TaN, The outside of his coat had been faded by the sunshine. B]N-]-p-U-I-Uc-CKCc-Pc-UNC-^`, Of the two choices you presented, I
prefer the latter. mN-lc-TKP-R]-CNU-@-CIc-l-PE-Pc, Ec-p-U-]NN, White
and red are vivid colors but I like the latter one best. N@_-T-NE-NU_-T$*A?-P-2N$-3.%?-(J-2]-B-NC-^P-3R., ]P-lE-E-Gc-NC]-T-P-KA-U-^P,
p-U, outsider, stranger, alien || The outsider could not speak our
language. p-U-Nc-E-W]-N-G-TaN-U-ac,
p-UC backward glance || When we leave the cemetery and go home,
1

dont make a backward glance.

E-W-O_-c-NE-{`-Pc-mU-O-`C-Tc, p-UC-Cc-U-T,
p-W`, outward appearance/form, the surface || From this animals
outward appearance, I assume it is a cow.

ON-]u-]N]-p-W`-`-Tc-P, Ec-T-U-ZC-`-TCU-WN-qN,
p-^`-n-Gc-IN, objective law || Is there a universal objective law that
transcends culture? _C-CPc-`c-]SCc-R]-]HC-P-p-^`-n-Gc-IN-FC-^N-NU,
p-^`-n-_E-TZP, objectivity || Objectivity is qualified by personal interest.
p-^`-n-_E-TZP-N-U-_E-IN-l--Uc-lc-]m_-]u,
p-_Tc-R, next generation || The next generation will know more than we
do. p-_Tc-Rc-E-W-`c-UE-O-ac--_N,
p-_`, outside, external || The wind blew outside my home.
E]-BE-T]-p-_`-P-E-C^Cc,
p-`, next year, coming year || I will graduate next year.
p-`_-E-UM_-pP-]u,
pE-CNP, felt pad || This felt pad goes under the sheet. pE-CNP-]N-_c-CNP-n]C-`-]NE-NCc, We put felt on the bed and then covered it with a sheet.
176

Ec-U`-t-E-`-pE-$./-TKEc-c, N]-MC-`-_c-CNP-ZC-T@T,
pN, to be frost-bitten/chilled || My daughters hands were frost-bitten
during a winter night. NDP-B]-UWP-U-ZC-`-E]-T-U]-`C-R-pN-cE-,
pP-F-`C to be opposite/perverted || His ideas are always opposite of
what most people think. B]--T-N-U-UE-ac-l-TcU-W`-`c-PU-^E-pP-F-`C
pP-GN, henceforth, from now onward, since now || From now onward I
resolve to study English for one hour in the morning. pP-GN-Ec-8R$?0<-(-WN-CFC-`-NqP-^C-T-E-qN-]-N-cUc-TFEc,
p_, back; for || He went back home yesterday. B-?E-B-p_-^`-`-cE-, We
1

study English for a better job.

q-T-N-`c-T\E-T-ZC-C-<J$-GN-O-E-Wc-NqP-^C-E-,
p_-, looking back || Looking back on my life now I realize I did make
many mistakes.

N-Ec-<%-$A-U-W-`-p_--qc-0-P, E-_E-Cc-P_-]GC-UE-T-`c-^N-R-Cc,
p_-]MP, to retreat, to withdraw || The army was defeated and retreated
into the mountains. NUC-NRE-`-SU-B-MTc-Pc-_-PE-`-p_-]MP,
p_-O, for, in order to || In order to live here for a long time I will need an
apartment that is not too expensive.

]N-Pc-^P-_E-T_-]W-p_-O, E-`-_P-CE-_P-R]-BE-T-ZC-NCc,
p_-]xP, export || We want to export our carpets to Nepal and India.
E-Wc-P-R-`-NE--C_-$*A?-`-E-W]-c-CNP-p_-]xP-qN-]NN,
p_-]WE-, to sell, to vend || Last year, we were selling many of our goods
in southern China. P-PE-E-Wc-WE-c-UE-T-sE-C]--B`-`-p_-]WE-qc,
p_-TC to drive out, to expel || The purpose of the ritual was to expel
evil from the village. G-C-N]-NUCc-q-P--T-Pc-CNP-]x-p_-TC--N-^P,
pC rich, wealthy || Those people look very rich. U-]N-W-Tc-WN-`-d-FE-pC
pC-R, rich, wealthy || Rich people dress well. U-pC-Rc-Ta_-qN,
pCc, livestock || How many head of livestock do you have? mN-`-pCc-$5S.-^N,
pCc-m, yak/cattle herd, flock || The yak herd was frightened by the
lightning and ran into the forest. pCc-m-C-NU_-`-]xCc-Pc-PCc-W`-O{c,
pCc-N, breed of cattle || What breed of cattle is that big
bull? E-GP-R-N]-pCc-N-P-F-ZC-^P,
177

pCc-TNC livestock owner || Everyone in this room is a livestock owner.


BE-T-]N]-PE-C-U-WE-U-pCc-TNC-^P,
pCc-PN, livestock disease || After we began vaccinating our animals,
livestock disease has not been a problem.

E-Wc-<%-$A-\C-`-]CC-P-C-]C-TUc-c, pCc-PN-P-CPN-NP-ZC-UP,
pCc-PN-P-R, veterinarian || The township government sends a
veterinarian to nomadic areas on an annual basis.

`-_-`-ZE-(CaC-@)~N-C[E-Cc-]{C-B`-O-pCc-PN-P-R-ZC-UEC-TZP-^N,
pCc-]W, to herd || Yesterday my father told me to herd the sheep on the
mountains. B-cE-E]-e-Sc-E-`-_-]C-Pc-`C-]W-]-TF`-CNUc-qc,
pCc-, herdsman || A herdsman does not have an easy life.
pCc--ZC-`-]W-T-TC-STc-R-ZC-UN,
pCc-\C livestock || What sort of livestock do herders have in your home
area? mN-l-^`-pCc-?-]{C-Rc-pCc-\C-_Cc-F-ZC-E-,
pCc-_, corral || We put the sheep in the corral and then sheared them.
E-Wc-`C-pCc-_-`-T@C-Pc-T`-{Cc,
pCc-`c, pastoral industry, animal husbandry || If animal husbandry is to
be successful there must be plentiful grass and water.

pCc-`c-`-]S`-B-c-NCc-5K--G-]XUc-R-^N-NCc,
p_-T, cheese || We dont make cheese anymore. N--E-Wc-_-v<-p_-T-U-`c,
p, flour, powder || I spilt flour all over my new trousers.
Ec-<%-$A-E-U-$?<-0:A-E-`-p-CK_,
KJ-3<-h%-2,topound into a fine powder || The salt was pounded into a
fine powder. -TEc-Pc-KJ-3<-2+$?,

pN-@ half || Every month I give half of my salary to my wife.


-__-Ec--SCc-l-pN-@-E]-GE-U-`-_,
pN-E-, peninsula || The peninsula was not very large and barren of both
plant and animal life. pN-E-N-G--UN-`--aE-NE-~C-GCc-lE-NTP,
pCc, direction; to tend, to be inclined; side || In which direction is
your home? mN-l-^`-P-pCc-CE-P-^N, I tend to believe him, even
though other people dont. U-Uc-B-`-^N-U-Gc-_E-, E-B-`-^N-Gc-R_-pCc,
What side of the river do you live on? mN-G-T]-pCc-CE-P-]W,
pCc-AP-L, in all directions, everywhere || We threw firecrackers into the
air in all directions. E-Wc-UB]-NqEc-?-pCc-AP-L-aC-C-CK_,
1

178

pCc-BC group, wing, gang || The criminal gang specialized in robbery.


PC-Ic-pCc-BC-Nc-]zC-TFU-GN-CI_-qc,
pCc-]C`, counter, contradiction, conflict || The contradiction between
the two neighbors eventually erupted into an angry quarrel.

mU-UWc-CIc-T_-n-pCc-]C`-N-UM]-U_-B-N-W-T-ZC-L-n_,
pCc-TCc, collection, selection, anthology || Have you read the latest
anthology of modern Tibetan short stories? mN-lc-(J?-*J-=3-IA-TN-l-.J%<2?-E-ME-pCc-TCc-.J-TCc-MR%-%3,
pCc-CFC one side, on the one hand || On the one hand, I can understand
his point of view but, on the other hand, I think he is wrong.

pCc-CFC-Pc-Ec-B]--W`-=-$R-2-=R/-;R.-3R.-:R/-G%-, pCc-CZP-ZC-Pc, Ec-B]GC-^N-R_-TcU,


pCc-CIc, two sides, two sorts, bilateral || Every disagreement has two
sides. TZN-R-M-NN-WE-U-pCc-CIc-?-IJ?-;R.,
pCc-P-]B_-`, compass || Ill use my compass to see in what direction
we are walking.

Ec-pCc-P-]B_-`-T@`-Pc-E-W-pCc-CE-`-TN-TZP-R_-T--^P,
pCc-]MP, prejudice, discrimination, one-sidedness, partiality || His
prejudice was obvious to everyone. Bc-pCc-]MP-qN-R-AP-`-Cc`,
pCc-Tc, collection, summary || This is a brief summary of his
important ideas. ]N-P-B]--T-C`-GP-n-pCc-Tc-aC-^P,
pCc-TUc, summary, conclusion || I did not agree with his conclusion.
E-B]-pCc-TUc-`-U-]MN,
pCc-UN, impartial, unbiased || His decisions were always impartial.
B]--T-P-P-R_-pCc-UN-FC-^P,
pCc-UWEc, similar || I heard a similar folktale last year in Mongolia.
P-PE-Ec-.J-.%-pCc-UWEc-l-NUEc-tN-CKU-N-FC-PE-cC-Pc-Mc,
pCc-_c, discrimination, partiality || Her partiality for her youngest child
angered her other children.

B-Uc-qc-R-GE-ac-`-pCc-_c-T\E-Tc, qc-R-CZP-R-Uc-`-BE-t-`Ec,
pCc-E-, partiality, bias || She had a partiality for her native home place.
U]-S-^`-`-B-Uc-pCc-E-]XP,
z-P, jewel ornament || I bought this jewel ornament in Sichuan a few
days ago. IP-]C]-P-Ec-\-tP-.-z-P-]N-Ic,
179

z-U, thin, slender, fine || Her slender figure drew everyones attention.
B-U]-`c-C\Cc-z-U-Nc-AP-n-^N-NTE-TACc,
zC shoulder || I fell on my right shoulder while I was playing football.
E-E-N--`--Tc-E]-zC-C^c-R]-E-`-]n`,
zC-NC envy, jealousy || Envy for what others have made him always
unhappy. B?-CZP-`-F-^N-R_-zC-NC-qN-R-Nc-_E-IN-P-O-C-`-T`,
zP-T, small, little, slight; few || I have only a little money. E-`-_-U-zPT-`c-UN, There is only a very little chance that you will win the
1

lottery. HR.-=-o/-=?-o=-o:A-$R-{2?-U/-43-=?-3A-$.:,2I have only a few

pieces of luggage to take on our trip.

E-Wc-^`-]u`-qN-Oc-E-`-B_-V-zP-T-

VU-`c-]m_--UN,
zP-WCc, trivial, trifling, small || They often quarrel, even over trivial
concerns. B-Wc-M-P-Ic-NCc-zP-WCc-l-E-Pc-lE-P-R_-B-N-qN,
z, (N{, ]{N, zc,) to subtract from, to cut back || We need to cut back on
the amount of money we spend each month.

E-Wc--_:A-_-U-T@`-WN-N-z-NCc,
z-D, child || My child started school this year.
E]-z-D-N-`_-T-_-]u-]C-TUc,
z-D-]B_, to become pregnant || In order to become pregnant she
consulted a doctor. z-D-]B_-T]-GN-O-B-Uc-P-R-`-TP,
zE-, line, row, series, string (of things) || He hung a string of dried
chilies outside his window. Bc-c-RP-U-R-zE-CFC-]-BE-C-p-`-T@`,
zE-TN, series, sequence || 1-3-5-7-9. . . is a series of odd numbers. 1-35-7-9 P-^-uEc-l-zE-TN-FC-^P,
zE-C to queue, to stand in line || I dont want to stand in line for a long
time to buy a ticket. Ec-R-c-I-T_-Oc-^P-_E-T_-zE-C-P-U-]NN,
zE-T, line, string of beads || Her string of beads was so beautiful that
everybody looked at it. B-U]-zE-T-^C-Rc-U-WE-Uc-.J<-Tc,
]SC (]SC ]SCc,) to rise || Production last month rose twenty percent.
-P-U_-MP-WN-T-G]-I-b-]SCc,
]SC to move, to struggle, to make jerky motions || He had to struggle to
get off the crowded bus. B-]WE-B-(J-2:-Ec-]B_-=?-]SC-:5$-2o2-Pc]TT-NCc-qE-,
]SCc, to be superior || He feels superior to us. Bc-<%-*A.-P-E-W-!/180

`c-]SCc-R_-]NN,
]SCc-UGC sage || Although he lacked formal training, he was
acknowledged as a sage.

B-`-NEc-CZ]-Cc-E-MT-U-rE-_E-, B-P-]SCc-UGC-FC-^P-R-Bc-`P-qN,
]SU, (]SU, SU,) to be defeated, to lose || We will surely lose the
competition if we dont practice. C`-K-E-T_-U-qc-5K, E-W-SU-B-MC-_N,
]S_, to increase, to rise || The number of livestock in our township will
have to increase if we are to become richer.

C`-K-E-W-pC-R_-]n_-NCc-5K, E-W]-ZE-C-pCc-uEc-]S_-NCc,
]S_-P, increment, addition || The addition of a new student to the class
made the other students unhappy.

2<-T-U-CZP-.$-=-.$:-0R-3-L%-,

]XP-_-T-U-Cc_-T-ZC-]S_-P-L%-

]SE-, (]SE-, SE-,) to be on the wane, to cause ones decline or downfall ||


His gambling was the cause of his familys decline.

Bc-P-R-]nN-R-P-B]-mU-WE-SE-T]--^P,
]S_, (]S_, ]S_, ]S_,) to fly, to soar || The birds fly in the sky above the
trees. E-UC]-UB]-NqEc-?-]NT-GCc-]S_,
]S_-N, flight, flying || My mother is so afraid of flying that she refuses
to get on a plane. E]-e-U-]S_-N-qN-R_-C-Pc-CPU-u-`-N-B-U-IP,
]S_-N-R, pilot, astronaut || He was a pilot for six years in the air force.
Bc-UB]-NUC-C-OR.-`-xC-`-]S_-N-R-qc,
]S_-UN], missile, guided missile || The missile did not hit its target.
]S_-UNc-]TP-`-U-1R$
]S`-C to push || Pushing him out the window was not easy.
B-]-BE-Pc-p-`-]S`-C-qN-o-P--U-U-_N,
]SP, (]SE-, ]SEc, SEc,) to throw, to fling, to shoot || This bag of animal
feed is too heavy to throw across the river.

\C-\P-n-BC-U-]N-N-xCc-0c-G]-S-_`-L-]SP-N@],
]S`, to increase, to flourish, to develop || In order for the students
marks to increase, they must have better qualified teachers.

T-U-Uc-l-_-U-]S`-NCc-5K, B-W-`-NC-P-N-Tc-5.-w/-;A/-0-Ec-R_-O-^N-NCc,
]S`-]uT, increase and decrease, rise and fall, wax and wane || The rise
and fall of empires seems to be a constant theme in world history.

`-T]-`-BT-l-]S`-]uT-N-]XU-E-`-c-l-P-GCc-l-2eR.-$8A-ZC-^P-R-]x,
181

]S`-c, development, growth, progress || How much progress have you


made in your English study in the past year?

]Nc-R]-`-`-mN-lc-NqP-^C-T-E-C-MC-Pc-CE-]S`-F-]x-Ec,
]S`-KC profit || The company did not make a profit this year.
AE-\c-N-`_-]S`-KC-F-^E-U-`P,
]S`-Tc, reproductive ability/capacity || The reproductive ability of this
new breed of sheep far exceeds that of the old breeds.

`C-N-Cc_-T-]N]-]S`-Tc-P-`C-N-E-T-`c-Gc-G_-C
]S`-pCc, trend, direction of development || There has been a recent
trend for women to wear short skirts.

I-`U-n-]S`-pCc-aC-`-T-U-Wc-N-C^Cc-ME-E-nP,
]S`-WN, rate of development/growth || The rate of growth in the
economy exceeded our projections.

NR`-]q_-n-]S`-WN-N-E-W]-P-c-`c-T`,
]S-]n_, changes || The recent weather changes are unusual.
N-ZC-C-PU-]-]S-]n_-P-P-P-ZC-UP,
]SEc, (]SEc, SEc,) to be destitute, to be poor; hips (of a horse) || The
beggar was destitute. E-T-N-d-FE-SEc, I put my brother on the horses
hips. Ec-P---T]-]SEc-`-TZC
]p, (]p, ]pc, ]pc,) to deride, to ridicule || Dont ridicule me because I
speak your language poorly. Ec-mN-l-N-_Cc--U-`Cc-Rc-E-`-U-]p,
]p-N, blame, derision, mockery || I dont appreciate your mockery of
what I believe in. mN-lc-E]-^N-Gc-NN-R-qN-c-`-]p-N-qN-R_-E-U-NC],
]pC (pC pCc, pCc,) to sweep || I must sweep the classroom every
morning. *A/-<J:A-8R$?-0<-Ec-T-BE-]pC-NCc,
]pE-, to hang down, to suspend || Colorful paper hung down from the
ceiling. aC-D-UNC-FP-ZC-CPU-P-`c-U_-]pE-,
]p_, (p_, p_, p_,) to raise, to lift || Help me raise the flag.
E-`-N_-G-N-]p_-_Cc-qc,
]p, (]p, ]pc,) to be late || Dont be late for work again or you will be
fired. ]_-nc-`c-@-`-U-]p, N-UP--BEc-Pc-TN--^P,
]pC (]pC ]pCc,) to mistake, to err, to blunder || To err is human.
]pC--^N-R-P-U]-_E-TZP-^P,
]p_, to surge, to swell, to rise || The flood water surged across the
1

182

G-`C--ZE-E-`-]p_,
]p, (]p, ]pc,) to float; to seethe || Garbage floats on the surface of
the lake. CN-Cc-UW]-Ec-?-]p, The water seemed to seethe with fish.
G-I-U-NE-UIU-O-]p-T-]x,
]zE-`U, narrow path || He walked carefully along the narrow path.
Bc-]zE-`U-NN-Pc-cUc-GE-Cc-cE-,
]zN, (]zN, zN,) to meet, to come in contact with || When will I meet you
again? E-mN-`-^E-T_-PU-]zN--^P-PU,
]z`-`, surprise attack || The surprise attack was successful with many
of the enemy killed. Nu-NUC-UE-T-TcN-Pc-]z`-`-`-`Cc-]uT-qE-,
]z`-O, immediately, at once, quickly || I will do my homework
immediately. Ec-`c-q-]z`-O-]{--^P, Please come quickly! :U=-.-aC
]z-]MP, reduction, subtraction || The price reduction meant that he sold a
lot more goods. _P-CE-]z-]MP-qc-R-Nc-Bc-NEc-R-UE-T-TVEc-R-UWP,
]zP, message, letter || When did you receive this
message? ]zP-]N-mN-`-PU-WN-]q_,
]zP-`-BE-, post office || I buy stamps at the post office.
fields.

Ec-]zP-`-BE-.-Cc-Cc-I,

]zP-CKE-,

communication; 2sending message || 1Communication

between that remote area and the city is difficult.

m_-N]-T_-]zP-CKE-qN-R-N@],

^`-]BT-N-NE-uE-

The telegraph office was busy all day

receiving and sending messages.

K_-^C-BE-IP-CE-T_-]zP-CKE-NE-]zP-

T-qN-R_-{`,
]zP-T, signal || The radio signal is very clear in the morning.
8R$?-0_-N-UN-]zP-T-d-FE-Cc`,
]zP-T\E-, good news || No news is good news. C--UN-P-]zP-T\E-^P,
]zP-^C correspondence, letters || We wrote letters to each other until
she died. B-U-]Nc-_C-T_-O-E-Wc-SP-WP-`-]zP-^C-T_,
]zP-`P, reply/answer to a letter || Did you receive the reply I mailed to
you three weeks ago?

C\]-]B_-CcU-n-P-`-Ec-mN-`-T_-T]-]zP-`P-e-]q_,

(\R-2<-):UR$-=J/,to snatch|| The child tried to snatch the money from

qc-R-Nc-E]-`C-/?-_-U-:UR$-c-qc,

my hand.

]zP-`c, mission, duty || His mission is to increase productivity.


183

B]-]zP-`c-P-MP-N-G-WN-UM_-]NCc-qN--N-^P,
]zC (]zC ]zCc, ]zCc,) to scratch || I scratched my back with a
backscratcher. Ec-]zC-qN-lc-E]-N-R-]zCc,
]z`, to have an illusion/wrong impression || You have the wrong
impression if you think I am your friend.

C`-K-mN-lc-E-mN-l-uCc-R-_N-TcUc-5K-mN-:O=-cE-,
]z`-]B_, machine || The machine needed to be repaired. ]z`-]B_-N<ZC-Cc-qN-NCc,
]z`-E-, hallucination, wrong impression, illusion, deception || What I
saw was so bizarre that I thought it must be a hallucination.

E]-UME-T-P-]N-]x]-^-UWP-G-Tc, Ec-N-P-]z`-E-ZC-^P-R_-cUc,
]zN, horizontal, transverse || He drew a horizontal line across the
blackboard. Bc--cU-n-E-`-]zN-MC-FC-{c,
]zN-MC line of latitude || This line of latitude connects your home and
mine on the map. c-t]-E-C-]zN-MC-]Nc-%-5S:C-^`-CIc-`-^N,
]z, (]z, ]zc,) to shine, to radiate, to emanate || Light shone from the
Buddhas eyes. cEc-c-l-P-`c-]N-\_-]zc,
]z-U, remains, survivals || We divided the remains of supper into five
portions. E-Wc-NCE-\c-l-]z-U-`--_-TCc,
]zC (N{C zCc, zCc,) to rob, to take away by force || Bandits may try to
rob us when we go through this area.

E-W-c-]N-TN-Oc-HC-Rc-E-W]-NEc-R-]zC-c-qN-P-tCc-tCc-UN,
]zC-TFU, robbing, looting, plundering || Robbing herdsman is a primary
activity for those people.

U-]N-W-`-UWP-P-]{C-R-`-]zC-TFU-qN-R-P-q-]D`-CV-T-_N,
]zC-`P, robbery || The robbery occurred at night. PU-DE-`-]zC-`P-qc,
]zN, to be suited for, to receive || He seems to be suited for the life of a
student. B-T-U]-]W-T-`-]zN-^N-R-]x,
]zN-TP, health care, hygiene, sanitation || Health care has greatly
improved in rural areas. ^`-UM]-]BT-l-]zN-TP-`-CE-]S`-GP-R-MT, He
is responsible for sanitation at our college. Bc-E-W]-T--GP-U:A-CVE-NC`-]CP-]B_-qN,
]zN-TP-BE-, health center, health clinic || The nearest health clinic is ten
kilometers away. ]zN-TP-BE-MC-I-ac-P--`-TF]-c-P-^N,
184

]zN-TP-_C-R, study of hygiene || In college the nurse had several classes


in the study of hygiene. T-E-.-PN-C^C-R-]zN-TP-_C-R]-T-tN-#->?-=8$?,

T, cow || The black cow walked across the road. T-PC-N-`U-B-TN-Pc-cE-,


T-E-, ox, cattle || The ox pulled the plow. T-E-Cc-Cc-Ca`-xN,
T-NP, banner, sail || The banner flapped in the wind. T-NP-E-$A?-TN,
T-, body hair || He has a lot of body hair. B:A-=?-`-T--UE-T-^N,
T-`E-, cattle || I have ten head of cattle. E-`-T-`E-TF-MU-R-^N,
T-c, ivory || I have a pair of ivory chopsticks. E-`-T-c]-M_-U-G-CFC-^N,
TC-]BUc, to be scared, to be intimidated || Dont be scared of hard work.
`c-@-N@]-U-`-TC-]BUc-U-qN,Im intimidated by my teachers loud
voice. E]-NC-P-n-N-CcE-UMP-R-Nc-E-<%-2$-:#3?-0<-L?,
TC-G, package || I cut the butter package into two parts.
Ec-U_-TC-G-N-BC-CIc-`-TCc,
TC-GCc, impression, effect || What impression did I make on the
audience? Ec-N-U-T_-TC-GCc-F-]x-ZC-TZC-CU,
TC-STc, carefree, at ease || He led a carefree life until he married.
Bc-CIP-C-U-qc-T_-O-TC-STc-R]-]W-T-ZC-T`,
TC-U, bride || The bride wore a beautiful new robe.
TC-Uc--T-aU-FP-Cc_-T-ZC-nP,
TC-UN, unconventional, unrestrained, indiscreet || His unconventional
behavior drew everyones attention.

B]-TC-UN-l-N-R-Nc-AP-`-UIU-]HC-qN-O-TFC
TC-`T, bread || This bread is baked, not steamed.
TC-`T-]N-Tc-U-^P-R-`c-TVc-U-UP,
TE-, (TE-, TEc,) to be drenched, to be wetted || His clothes were drenched
in the sudden rainstorm while he was out herding. #R?-KA-<R=-.-K$?-:5S-

{2?-\R-2<-.-L%-2:A-(<-_%-OR.-.-#R:C-$R/-0-;R%?-(<-(?-2%?-0<-L?,

TE-UXN, storehouse || We put the barley in the storehouse.


185

E-Wc-Pc-TE-UXN-O-TFC
TE-_U, layer, gradation || Cream is a white layer on top of milk.
]--P-]-U]-E-C-TE-_U-N@_-T-ZC-^P,
TE-c, tomb || The soldiers tomb is here. NUC-U]-TE-c-]N-P-^N,
TN, frost || The grass was covered with frost. -TN-lc-BTc,
TT-F`, thoughtless, careless, reckless || His reckless speech got him into
many fights. B]-TT-F`-n-CKU-Nc-B-]tC-N-UE-T]-PE-O-TFC
TT-TE-, tranquility, calmness || The calmness of his character impressed
everyone. B]-TT-TE-P-R]-_E-Cac-lc-U-WE-U_-TC-GCc-\T-U-TZC
TU-R, volumes (of books) || His collected works are available in three
volumes. B]-CcE-U-CFc-Tc-TU-R-CcU-qc-Pc-TCc-^N,
T_, between, among; until || I live in a valley between two mountains.
E-_-T-CIc-T_-n-`E-T-ZC-P-N, Ill wait until you are ready. mN-lc-u-CqN-W_-_C-T_-O-E?-C
T_-Tc-c, at the moment, at a period of time || At the moment Im very
busy. T_-Tc-c, E-{`-]WT-G,
T_-mN, difference, discrimination || What difference is there between
1

British people and American people?

NqP-H-T-NE-e-U-_-B-T]-T_-mN-P-F-ZC-^P,
T_-GN, interruption, obstacle, impediment || Being too busy is an
obstacle in my learning more English.

{`-]WT-G-xCc-R-P-Ec-NqP-^C-C-L-E-T]-T_-GN-FC-^P,
T_-MC distance || Whats the distance from here to town?
]N-Pc-uE-T`-`-T_-MC-C-WN-^N,
T_-O, in between, until || Until we had a teacher we did not learn much.
E-W-`-NC-P-^N-_C-T_-O, E-Wc-E-T-GP-R-U-qc,
T_-]OU, mediation, conciliation || After fighting there was a period of
conciliation and then a lasting peace. ]MT-]tC-C-c-?-;.-43-=-2<-:.3L%-,.J-/?-^P-_E-C-Z-TN-MT,
T_-N, neutral || I have a neutral position concerning that conflict.
E-`-N-CZ-N]-MC-Pc-T_-N-l-$/?-?-^N,
T_-N-R, neutralist, middle-of-the-roader || Whenever there is
controversy, he is always a middle-of-the-roader.

N-CZ-PU-qE-_E-, B-P-PU-^E-T_-N-R-ZC-^P,
186

T_-E-, space, air, sky || The sky was filled with dark clouds.
T_-E-P-PC-Cc-BEc,
T_-T, mediator || He was the mediator that solved the dispute.
B-P-N-CZ-N-c`-T]-T_-T-N-^P,
T_-~Tc, rift, crevice || My hat fell into the rock crevice.
E]--U---N]-T_-~Tc-`-E-,
T_-CcE-, crevice; recess || The rabbit hid in a crevice in the rocks. _-TE]-T_-CcE-`-TEc, The quite child did not go out to play during
recess. T_-CcE-C-Tc-c-qc-R-B-N-U-N--B_-N-O-U-cE-, After this class
1

during your recess, I want you to go outside and get some exercise.

T-tN-]N]-c-GA-2<-$?J%-{Tc-c, Ec-mN-`-_-cE-Pc-`-E-qN-]-_-T-]NP,
T`, wool || This wool was sheared this morning. .J-<A%-}-SR-T`-]N-{Cc,
T`-N, wool yarn || This sweater is made from wool yarn.
T`--]N-T`-N-`c-T\c,
T`-Cc, woolen cloth || He made a shirt from woolen cloth.
Bc-T`-Cc-aC-T\c,
T, son || I have one daughter and one son. E-`-T-CFC-NE-T-U-CFC-^N,
T-C hole || There was a bird nest in the hole in the tree.
E-T]-T-C-P-q-WE-ZC-^N,
T-N, offspring, descendent || He is a descendent of a famous writer.
B-P-U-R-R-uCc-FP-ZC-C-T-N-FC-^P,
T-TF`-BE-, nursery || My baby daughter stays in the nursery each
morning. *A/-<J:A-}-SR-E]-T-U-GE-GE-T-TF`-BE-O-N,
T-GE-, baby, young boy || The hungry baby cried. Cc-lc-C\_-T]-T-GE-Ec,
T-N, womb || I have no memory of being in my mothers womb.
e-U]-T-N-`c-TN-R_-E-`-xP-R-F-^E-UN,
T-zC child || A child is herding sheep and hopping on the grassland.
-ME-.-T-zC-FC-Cc-`C-]W-ZE-UGEc-P-qN-TZP-^N,
T-U, daughter, girl || My daughter does go to school.
E]-T-U-T-_-]u-TZP-^N,
2-3R-(%-(%-, young girl || The young girl danced across the stage.
2-3R-(%-(%-.J?-C_-Cc-E-{-]tT,

T-, babysitter || We should ask the babysitter to take care of the


children tomorrow evening.

187

E-Wc-T--`-cE-IP-NCE-U_-qc-R-CI_-O-]HC-NCc,
T-_U, brown sugar || Apples are tasty when cooked with brown sugar.
A-b-NE-T-_U-$*A?-C^c-_-qc-5K-ZU-R-^P,
T-`P, debt || I paid all my debts before the New Year. `-Cc_-nP-`-Ec-<%-$A-T-`P-WE-U-]H`,
T-`P-UBP, debtor || I dont like being a debtor. E-T-`P-UBP-ZC-qN-U-]NN,
T-`P-TNC-R, creditor || My creditor is demanding that I repay my debt to
him. E]-T-`P-TNC-Rc-Ec-T-`P-]H`-NCc-2:A-_-T-2+R/,
T-`P-]NN, to collect a debt || At the bank my job is to collect debts.
OE`-BE-.-E]-q-T-P-T-`P-]NN--^P,
T-`P-\C to get into debt || After the poor harvest I had to borrow money
and so I went into debt.

`-KC-`-IUc-Ic-qE-Pc-Ec-_-U-T-NCc-qE-, N]-P-nc-E-`-T-`P-\C
TN-UN, woman || My wife is a hard working woman.
E]-GE-U-P-TN-UN-`c-`-TP-UBP-ZC-^P,
TN-aE-, firewood || We collect firewood from the mountain.
E-Wc-_-UC-Pc-TN-aE-]M,
TP-TNC creditor || Who is your creditor? mN-l-TP-TNC-c-^P,
TP-]XP, bond, receipt for a loan, IOU || Ill loan you some money for an
IOU. Ec-mN-`-TP-]XP-qP-Pc-_-U-]C]-T,
TU-R, vase, bottle || Please put this red rose in that black vase.
-c-U-KC-NU_-T-]N-TU-R-PC-R-N]-PE-O-WCc,
TN, profit, use, benefit || Of what use to you is this old stick?
`C-P-E-T-]N-mN-`-TN-F-ZC-^N,
2J.-&/,helpful || The man I asked for directions was not helpful. Ec-=3KR$?-:SA-2l.-L?-0:A-3A-.J-/A-2J.-3J.-&A$-<J.,

TN-GN, to be able to use, useful || Although he was old and ill, he still did
much useful work around the house.

B-`-P-c-/?-PN-CZ-SC-_E-, Bc-N-_E-mU-n-p-PE-Pc-q-T-TN-GN-FC-`c-MT,
TN-N, use, utilization, consumption || Utilization of computers has
increased a lot in the past five years.

C-N-TN-N-qN-R-N-]Nc-R]-`-]-PE-Cc-H-G_-cE-,
2J.-3J.,useless || This old horse is useless. -P-]N-/A-2J.-3J.-&A$-<J., 
TU-R, lifeless object; corpse || Have you heard the Tibetan story about
1

188

mN-lc-TN-l-3A-_-lJ-E-8J?-0:A-$+3-o.-,R?-e-rE-,
This vase is a lifeless object made of clay. TU-R-:.A-P-m-`c-29R?-R]-~CUN-TU-R-ZC-_N,
T], calf || The calf ran to its mother. T]-e-U]-pCc-`-TCc,
TCc, interest, rent || How much rent do you pay for your apartment each
month? -__-mN-lc-BE-T-`-TCc-C-WN-N-NCc,
TCc-$/, lease (paid for use of land) || He has a lease for ten years. B=-`-TF]-TCc-$/-;R.,
TE-T, donkey || They sell donkey meat in that shop but I never buy it.
B-Wc-WE-BE-N]-PE-O-TE-T]-a-]WE-UN-Ec-PU-^E-U-I,
TN, Tibetan || The Tibetan man was learning French and English.
TN-l-c-R-Nc-q-^C-NE-NqP-^C-$*A?-E-TZP-^N,
TN-Gc, Tibetan clothes/attire || I only wear Tibetan clothes during
festivals. Ec-Oc-GP-B-P-`-TN-Gc-nP,
TN-Ec, Tibet || Tibet has beautiful art work.
TN-Ec-?--`-n-TUc-Gc-^C-R-^N,
TN-R, Tibetan (person) || I knew he was Tibetan when I saw his clothes.
Ec-B]-CP-R-UME-Pc-B-P-TN-R-^P-R-ac,
TN-U, Tibetan people || Tibetan people live in Qinghai Province.
UW-P-ZE-GP-.-TN-U-]W-N-qN,
TN-\c, Tibetan food || Steamed dumplings stuffed with beef are a
favorite Tibetan food. Uc-a]-UC-UC-P-TN-\c-29%-T-ZC-^P,
TN-^C written Tibetan || I learned written Tibetan in primary school.
Ec-T-GE-.-TN-^C-T-E-qc,
TN-^`, Tibetan area || What Tibetan area grows rice?
TN-^`-CE-Pc-]{c-]NTc,
TN-_Cc, Tibetan people/nationality || What is the size of the Tibetan
nationality in China? sE-C:A-TN-_C?-=-3A-P%?-$-5S.-;R.,
TN-_E-E-Ec, Tibet Autonomous Region || The Tibet Autonomous
Region is south of Qinghai. TN-_E-E-Ec-P-UW-P-n--pCc-?-^N,
TP, Bn (the pre-Buddhist religion of Tibet) || He was an expert on the
history of Bn. TP-n-`-c-l-MC-Pc-B-P-GN-UBc-R-ZC-^P,
TP-Gc, Bn religion || His belief is in accordance with the Bn
religion. B]-NN-R-TP-Gc-`-]mN,
the enchanted corpse?
2

189

TP-R, followers of Bn || People who live in the village are all


followers of Bn. -T-N]-PE-O-]W-T]-U-WE-U-TP-R-^P,
T_-TC loss || The loss of his livestock was a serious economic blow.
B]-pCc-\C-T_-TC-qE-T-N-P-NR`-]q_-n-nE-DP-WTc-GP-ZC-^P,
q, bird || A bird is something I would never eat.
q-P-Ec-PU-^E-\-U-NR-T-ZC-^P,
q-BE-, chicken coop || There were ten chickens inside the chicken coop.
q-BE-.-q-TF-MU-R-^N,
q-NC], reward, prize || Ive never won any kind of prize.
E-`-q-NC]-_Cc-CE-^E-MT-U-rE-,
q-NC]-NE`, bonus || The bonus was one hundred yuan. q-NC]-NE`-P-_-UT-^P,Last year my bonus for working in the hospital as a doctor
was one thousand RMB. P-PE-Ec-P-BE-`c-P-TEc-R]-L-.$:A-.%=-/A-_E-CFC-^P,
q-E-, egg || I bought one boiled egg from the vendor.
Ec-WE-T]-`C-Pc-q-E-TVc-U-CFC-Ic,
q-, feather || I attached a peacock feather to my hat.
Ec-<%-$A--U]-E-`--q]-q--ZC-]X_,
q-N, behavior, act, deed || We are each responsible for our own deeds.
E-Wc-_E-_E-C-q-N-`-]CP-]B_-NCc,
qE-, north; to be proficient in, to have a good command of || The
school is north of here. T--]N-C]-qE-P-^N, He has a good command
of Tibetan, Chinese, and English. B-TN-N-NE--N, NqP-N-$?3-`-qE^N,
qE-C-]zN-MC northern altitude || There is much snow at this northern
altitude. qE-C-]zN-MC-]N-`-B-T-GP-R-]TT,
qE-N, northern area || In the northern area of our country winters are
cold. _E-`-n-qE-N-O-NDP-B-d-FE-]mCc,
qE-G, proficiency, skill || He has a lot of skill in sewing yak hair cloth.
N-R]-U-T-]WU-R_-B-`-qE-G-GP-R-^N,
qE-GT, to be skilled, to be entirely proficient in || He is entirely
proficient in speaking and writing English. Bc-NqP-^C-]{-]GN-qE-GT,
qE-pCc, northern direction || Walk in a northern direction for an hour
1

and then youll come to the spring.

190

mN-qE-pCc-c-(-WN-CFC-`-cE-NE-G-UC-N-`-MC-]u,
qE-U, northern; experienced || The northern side of the mountain is
colder than the southern side. _-T]-qE-Ec-P-_-T]--Ec-`c-]mCc, Shes
an experienced teacher. B-U-P-NC-P-qE-U-ZC-_N,
qE-cUc, mercifulness of the Bodhisattva, compassion || Through the
1

mercifulness of the Bodhisattva, I was cured of my illness.

qE-GT-cUc-NR]-qE-cUc-`-TP-Pc-E]-PN-xC
qN, face || He has a round face. B-`-qN-_-_-ZC-^N,
qN-C\Cc, face and physique || His face and physique are very special.
B]-qN-C\Cc-P-d-FE-mN-R_-T-ZC-_N,
qT, (qT, qTc, qTc,) to rinse || Lets rinse the cups. F-P-qTc,
qUc, to be merciful/kind || Please be merciful to others rather than
cruel. CZP-`-qUc-R-`c-C-R-U-qN,
qUc-E-, care, protection || I can never repay my mothers care for me.
e-Uc-TNC-`-qUc-E-qc-R_-Ec-xP-`P-PU-^E-]H`-U-MT,
qUc-P, merciful || Be merciful and dont punish me.
qUc-P-nc-NE-E-`-GN-R-U-CFN-FC
qUc-T, love, affection || I never doubted my fathers love for me.
e-Sc-E-`-TFEc-R]-qUc-T-`-Ec-PU-^E-NCc-R-\-U-rE-,
qUc-cUc, kindness, love || The Buddhas love is boundless.
cEc-c-l-qUc-cUc-`-]XN-UM]-UN,
qc-c, achievement || His achievement has impressed everyone.
B]-qc-c-lc-U-Uc-`-TC-GCc-\T-U-TZC
qc-c-FP, meritorious, successful || His meritorious work in building a
village school earned everyones respect.

-T]-T--]XCc-R]-MN-l-B]-q-T-qc-c-FP-`-AP-nc-CE-TA_-qN,

q, to lose (ones hair) || My hair was lost after I became forty years old.
E-`-TZ-TF-`-TN-c, E]--q,
q], baby bird || The baby bird fell out of its nest and was eaten by a cat.
q]-N-q-WE-Pc-U_-E-Pc-q-`c-\c,
qc-IUc, childishness || I dont understand his childishness.
B]-qc-IUc-Ec-Cc-U-MT,
qc-R, child || The child is tall for its age. qc-R-N-`-WN-`-UWP-P-C\Cc-_E-,
qc-R]-Oc, childhood || My childhood was not happy.
191

E]-qc-R]-Oc-P-N-R-UP,
qc-, childish, naive || Dont answer in a childish way.
qc--VU-nc-`P-U-]NTc,
q-_, coral || The coral in her necklace is very expensive.
B-U]--P-tN-l-q-_-N-P-CE-d-FE-G,
q-ME-, desert land || There is much desert land in northern China.
sE-C]-qE-pCc-?-q-ME-GP-R-^N,
q-T, ten million || He earned about ten million dollars in the movie
business. C-TP-WE-`c-l-tN-Pc-Bc-e-_-q-T-CFC-_C
q-{C individual, specific, concrete || Can you give me a specific reason
why you dont want to do it?

mN-lc-N-`c-U-]NN-R]-q-{C-C--UWP-ZC-E-`-TaN-GC-CU,
q-{C-R, individual, specific || Tell me the specific person you visited
yesterday. B-cE-mN-lc-]WUc-]x-qc-R]-U-q-{C-R-N-E-`-aN-NE-,
q-U, sand || Sand mixed with cement and water makes mortar.
G-NE-e_-]NU-NE-G-Tc-Pc-]NU-T\c,
qN, (q, qc, qc,) to do; to engage in (an action) || What do you want to
do tomorrow? cE-IP-mN-lc-F-ZC-`c-c-^N, He spent his whole life
engaged in agriculture. Bc-ZE-`c-qc-Pc-U-W-CE-T-T`,
qN-Ec, the way someone behaves/works || The way a man behaves tells
1

us how intelligent he is.

c-R-ZC-C-qN-Ec-lc-E-W-`-B-P-F-]x]-U-_C-Ts-T-P,
qN-MTc, method, means || What is the best method to learn
English? NqP-^C-E-T]-qN-MTc-T\E-ac-P-F-ZC-^P,
qN-pCc, policy, course of action || This policy has not been successful.
qN-pCc-]N-`-`Cc-]uT-U-qE-,
qN-c, attempt || Your attempt to do work can be successful.
mN-l-q-T-qN-c-^N-R-`-`Cc-]uT-]qE-~N,
LJ?-:PR:A-GT-_U, glacial ice || Glacial ice melts in summer.
Nq_-B_-LJ?-:PR:A-GT-_U-T[-]u,
qP, to arrive, to come || They arrived two days ago.
IP-CIc-l-P-`-B-W-qP,
q`, to avoid, to evade || Dont try to evade my question.
E]-x-T-`-q`-c-U-qN,
192

q`-U, in exile, fugitive || He is a fugitive from the law.


B-P-TF]-tUc-l-q`-U-ZC-^P,
{C rock || This rock must be quartz. {C-]N-P--N@_-BE-^P-Ec,
{C-BE-, cave || There are many fairytales about the cave in the mountain.
_-tN-l-{C-BE-N]-_-`--E-UE-T-^N, There is a cave in that mountain.
_-E-N-P-V$-#%-ZC-^N,
{C-F, echo || The echo of the gunshot caused a boulder to roll down the
mountain. T]-N-l-{C-Fc-_-E-Pc--C_-U-ZC-T`,
{C-_, rocky mountain || Little grass grows on that rocky mountain.
{C-_-`-UE-T-U-,
{E-, chest || My heart is in my chest. E]-E-{E-BC-P-^N,
{P-]B_, servant, serf, vassal || He was a landlords personal servant.
B-P-P-GN-ZE-TNC-FC-C-_-n-{P-]B_-^P,
{P-TNC slaveowner || Many years ago he was a slaveowner.
`-O-U]-P-`-B-P-{P-TNC-FC-^P,
{P-C^C slave || The former slave was unable to read and write.
{P-C^C-}R/-3c-]{-C-qN-U-MT,
{P, to sell, to be marketable || Are you sure these handicrafts are easy to
sell? mN-lc-`C-`-MP-c-]N-NC-{P-MT-R-B-MC-GN-NU,
{P-TN-T, saleable, easy to sell || These thangkha should be easy to sell.
ME-@-]N-NC-P-{P-TN-T-^P-Ec,
{c-U, hand-copied book || This hand-copied book must be very valuable.
NR-G-{c-U-]N-NC-P--GP-^P-B-MC-_N,
{`, to be busy || I like to be busy. E-{`-T_-NC],
{`-T-W-T, very busy || Much work made me very busy.
q-T-UE-Tc-E-{`-T-W-T-`Ec-c-TFC
{, dance; to have/feel (a certain sensation) || The dance was short but
energetic. {-N-ME-_E-E_-bCc-G, That food has a strange smell. \-U-N-`-xU-^-UWP-{,
{-]tT, to dance || I dont know how to dance. Ec-{-]tT-U-ac,
{-TFN-P, nutritious; meaningful || Tsampa is a nutritious food. U-R-P{-TFN-P-R]-\-U-ZC-^P, His article is meaningful. B]-U-^C-`-{-TFN-P,
{c-q`, fleeing, escaping || Fleeing from the bandits was difficult for
him. B-`-UWP-P-HC-R-`-{c-q`-qN-o-N@],
1

193

-P-U-UGc, supreme, incomparable || His knowledge of that areas


history is supreme. ^`-u-]N]-`-c-l-_-Pc-B]-ac-q-P--P-U-UGc,
-`, reincarnate lama || He was discovered to be a reincarnate lama at
the age of seven. B-`-TOP-n-E--`-ZC-`-Ec-]XP-qc,
-U, lama, guru || The lama had many students. -U-N_-T-U-UE-T-^N,
-]WE-, traitor; traitorous || The traitor was discovered and executed.
U--]WE-N-N-Pc-~C-tUc-`-_, The traitorous official sold his
countrys secrets. NRP-U--]WE-Nc-B]-`-BT-l-CcE-T-TVEc,
-~C soul || They believed that a tree was the soul of a cow.
B-Wc-E-T-ZC-P-T-U-N]--~C-^P-R_-^N-Gc-qN,
, (, c, c,) to ransom, to redeem || We must ransom our kidnapped
daughter. E-W]-T-tN-qc-R]-T-U-E-Wc-Ec-R_-O--NCc,
P-CKU, stupid talk || After all this stupid talk I feel like drinking some
liquor. P-CKU-]N-_Cc-TaN-c, Ec-e-_C-]C]-TLE-]NN,
P-R, stupid, a fool,idiot || What a fool he was to give her all his
money. Bc-_-U-WE-U-B-U-`-qP-Rc-F-]x]-P-R-ZC-_N-eE-, Everyone knows
hes an idiot. U-WE-Uc-B-P-]/-0R-ZC-^P-R-ac,
-N@_, sincere, loyal, faithful, devoted || She has been my sincere friend
for a long time. B-U-P-^P-_E-T_-E]-uCc-R--N@_-ZC-^P, He has always
been a loyal friend. B-P-PU-^P-_E-uCc-R-]R-.!<-ZC-^P,
-T@N, idea, strategy, scheme || His strategy proved, ultimately,
unsuccessful. B]--T@N-`Cc-]uT-UP-R-UM]-U_-_-N-qc,
-N, to utilize ones wisdom || Please utilize your wisdom to solve this
problem. mN-lc--N-Pc-CPN-NP-]N-MC-CFN-R_-nc,
-B--CFC-L, attentively || He listened attentively to the radio program.
Bc--B--CFC-L-E-C-E-]zP-`-WP-`-IP,
-BC-GP-R, broad-minded || The broad-minded father sent his daughter to
school. -BC-GP-R-P-R]-e-Sc-_E-C-T-U-T-_-T`,
-]B`, to trust, to rely on || I can rely on my best friend to do whatever I
ask. E]-uCc-R-Gc-29%-T-`-F-ZC-`c-c-]HC-R_-Ec--]B`-GC
-uc, wisdom, intellect || His answer shows his wisdom.
B]-P-WC-Cc-B]--uc-UEP,
-]nN, regret, repentance || I have great regret for my past mistakes.
E-<%-$A-P-GN-l-P_-P-`-]nN-R-GP-R-, He spent all his money to build a
1

194

stupa in an act of his repentance for his past misdeeds. #R?-<%-$A-}R/-

(.-GA-#A$-*J?-,3?-&.-=-]R-:IR.-*J?-3<-<%-=-;R.-0:A-.%=-5%-3-2J.-,.-/?-3(R.gJ/-8A$-28J%?,
--]qN, to enlighten || I study the scriptures to enlighten my mind. %?2!/-2&R?-2a2?-/?-<%---]qN,

-CFC-cUc-CFC-L, wholeheartedly, with one mind || I will work


wholeheartedly to learn English.

Ec--CFC-cUc-CFC-Cc-NqP-^C-`-E-TP-q--^P,
-Tc, courage, guts || He has great courage to face difficulty.
B-`-N@]-E`-Tc-T]--Tc-G,
-MC-N-GN, determined, resolute || He is determined to learn English.
NqP-^C-T-R_-B--MC-N-GN-^P,
-MT reliable || That is not reliable information. ]N-P-CPc-]zP--MT-ZC-UP,
-UMP, comrade || He has been my work comrade for many years.
B-P-`-UE-T-`-E]-`c-uCc--UMP-^P,
-TN-U, at ease, without worry || Im at ease with my new job. <%-$Aq-T-Cc_-T-`-E--TN-U-^P,
-]x-c, adviser, consultant || The project consultant was paid a high
salary. T\-P-]N]--]x-c-`--G-UMP-R-ZC-qP,
-P, intelligent || He is an intelligent monk. B-P-TVP-R--P-ZC-^P,
]R-/?-*R<-2, to recite || Everyday I recite some English out loud.
IP-__-Ec-N-GP-Rc-NqP-^C-]R-/?-*R<,
]R-i3-.$ genuine, sincerity || He speaks with great sincerity. Bc-]R-i3-.$$A?-{.-(-TaN,

--ME-, narrow-minded || Dont be narrow-minded with your friends.


mN-l-uCc-R-`---ME-U-]XP,
-E-, ideological cultivation, improvement of the mind || Reading is a
good form of ideological cultivation. C-]NP-P--E-C-MTc-T\E-T-ZC-^P,
-Uc, interest; agreement, consent || I dont share my fathers interest
in watching television. TP-]zP-`-T-T_-E-NE-E]-e-S-CIc-lc-]NN-Uc-CFCL-U-pCc, Did you obtain her parents consent before marrying her?
B-U-`-CIP-C-U-qc-CE-, mN-`-B-U]-S-U]--Uc-e-]B`,
-NUP, benighted, stupid || That man is so stupid he doesnt know the
1

difference between day and night.

195

c-R-N--NUP-Rc-IP-UWP-n-Nq-T]E-U-ac,
-, will, willpower || He has strong willpower and he could stop
smoking if he wanted to.

B-`---TP-R-ZC-^N-Rc, Bc-O-T-CFN-]NN-5K-CFN-MT,
--TP-R, resolute, iron determination || He had iron determination in
getting what he wanted.

Bc-F-]NN-TP-`P-qN-R]-MC-Pc-B-`---TP-R-ZC-^N,
-, idea, thought || My idea is that I will learn English and then
translate from English to Tibetan.

E]---P-Ec-NqP-^C-E-T-NE-c-Pc-NqP-^C-Pc-TN-^C-L-T_--N-^P,

-_C intelligence, intellect || Her impressive intelligence was obvious in


her writing. B-U]-]{-U-`c-B-U]--_C-\T-U-UEP, How much intelligence
is needed to understand this theory? _Cc-R]-D[E-`Cc-]N-`-C-T-`P-R_-]R<A$-VU-&A-43-:6S3?-NCc,
-Cc`, clever, intelligent || Hes not stupid, hes very clever.
B-P-P-R-ZC-UP, B-P-U-d-FE--Cc`-ZC-_N,
P, minister || He was a minister during the Tibetan empire for many
years. TN-TVP-R]-Tc-c-B-P-`-UE-T_-P-TFc,
P-GP, prime minister || Who is the prime minister of Britain? NqP-H]-NTT[Cc-P-GP-P-c-^P,
NTE-, power, authority; to own || I dont have the authority to make
that decision. E-`-MC-CFN-N-qN-]-NTE-UN, I dont own this apartment, I
rent it. Ec-BE-T-]N-`-TNC-R-U-C Ec-BE-T-]N-c-R-^P,
NTE-T_, to give authority, to commission || I want to give authority to
1

you so that you can solve this problem.

mN-lc-CPN-NP-MC-CFN-MT-GN, Ec-mN-`-NTE-T_-]NN,
NTE-Cc, because, as a result of || As a result of the drought, crop yields
were low. MP-R]-NTE-Cc-`-KC-C-MP-WN-NU],
NTE-uCc, authority || He is recognized as the leading authority in the
field of Tibetan linguistics.

TN-l--_C-R]-mT-BEc-PE-B-`-NTE-uCc-mN-O-]SCc-R-^N-R_-TcUc,
NTE-_, controlling, domination, rule, to bring under ones power || The
ruling class had near complete domination over this area.

NTE-_-u`-_U-nc-^`-u-]N-`-d-`U-^Ec-c-NTE-_-qc,
196

NTE-_-u`-_U, ruling class || The ruling class was quite rich.


NTE-_-u`-_U-P-d-FE-pC
NTE-_-T, ruler || He was the village ruler for many years.
`-O-UE-`-B-P--.0R/-^P,
NTE-G, power, right || A father has the right to tell his children what they
should do. e-S-`-<%-$A-qc-R-Uc-`-F-`c-c-]HC-]-NTE-G-^N,
NTE-ME-, power, force || How much power does that official have?
NRP-U-N-`-NTE-ME-F-]x-^N,
NTE-O-_, to rule, to dominate || I dont want to be dominated by anyone.
Ec-<%-=-CZP-n-NTE-_-,J2?-?-:)$-U-]NN,
NTE-O-TKE-P, hypothetically, supposing || Hypothetically that is true, but
reality is different. N-]uC-R]-NTE-O-TKE-P-GC-UN, ]P-lE-NP-NEc-P-U-]x,
NTE-T, the senses || I see, feel, taste, and hear through my senses.
Ec-NTE-T-`-TP-Pc-UME-Mc-xP-_C-qN-MT,
NTE-T-P-FP, maimedperson || He was seriously maimed in the factory
accident. T\-]-GC--N-`c-B-NTE-T-P-FP-WTc-GP-ZC-L-n_,
NTE-N, transfer of power, to empower || He has a new position after the
transfer of power yesterday.

B-cE-Bc-NTE-N-qc-c-B-`-C-CPc-Cc_-T-ZC-MT,
NTE-, nerves || The nerves in my foot were deadened after my foot
froze. E]-E-T-pN-c-E-T]-NTE--IUc,
NTE-]XP-UBP, person in authority || Who is the person in authority for
this county? E-]N]-NTE-]XP-UBP-c-^P-PU,
NTE-_c, jurisdiction, sphere of influence || Two officials have
jurisdiction for this area. c-pCc-]N-P-NRP-R-CIc-lc-NTE-_c-]XP,
.2%->$?, power || How much power does he really have?
B-`-NP-E-Uc-.2%->$?-F-]x-^N,

NT-T[Cc-P-GP, prime minister || Last year, the Prime Minister of Great


Britain visited several countries.

P-PE-NqP-H]-NT-T[Cc-P-GP-nc-`-BT-UE-T-`-]WUc-]x-qc,
NTCc, breathing, air || The air was stale in the closed room.
-CKP-R]-BE-T]-PE-C-NTCc-`-]D`-T-UN,
NTCc-T, to inhale, to breathe in || At high altitude I inhale quickly.
c-UC-UM-c-Pc-Ec-NTCc-r_-U_-T,
197

NTCc-GN, to stop breathing, to die || After a long illness she finally died.
^P-_E-`-P-c, B-U-UM]-U_-NTCc-GN,
NT`, poor || He is too poor to afford new clothing. B-OT`-Tc-CP-R-Cc_-T-IU-MT, That poor family doesnt have enough to eat. mU-WE-.2=-2R-N-`\?-]NE-T-UN,
NT`-E-, destitute || After losing all his money in gambling he was
absolutely destitute. P-R]-tN-Pc-_-U-a_-c, B-NT`-T-NT`-E-O-n_,
NT`-SEc, poverty || Poverty in China is much less than in the past.
sE-C]-NT`-SEc-P-NE-T_-5K-H-JE-O-GP-R-cE-,
NT`-SEc-FP, poor || To be poor is often not to be very happy.
NT`-5K-P-R_-NC]-T-GP-R-U-]qE-,
NT`-T, poor || Although now I am rich, I was once poor.
E-N--pC-R-^P-_E-, _-ZC-`-E-NT`-T-^P,
NTP, quiet, devoid of || The grassland was devoid of the citys loud
sounds. -ME-.-uE-m_-n-\E-\E-NTP,
NTP-CPc, quiet/peaceful place || This peaceful place is undisturbed by
the sounds of modern life.

NE-_Tc-]W-T]-F-F-^c-NTP-CPc-N-`-NsC-P-U-TKE-,
NTc, to become swollen || After the accident my knee became swollen.
GC-]-c-?, E]--E-NTc,
NqEc, vowel; tune || Tibetan has four vowels. TN-^C-`-NqEc-TZ-^N, I
like that songs tune. E--N]-NqEc-`-NC],
NqEc-, melody || I cant sing that melody. Ec-NqEc--N-EC-`-`P-U-ac,
1

.L%?-lR3-3#/,composer || He is the composer of several famous


musical scores. B-P-_`-U]-S]-V-uCc-FP-]C]-.L%?-lR3-3#/-^P,

NqEc-^C vowel || Which of the vowels is this? ]N-P-NqEc-^C-CE-^P,


NqEc-Cc`, vowel and consonant || Can you distinguish between this
vowel and this consonant? mN-lc-NqEc-Cc`-]N-CIc-l-Nq-T-]qN-MT-TU,
Nq_-B, summer || Summer comes before autumn. Nq_-B-P-B]-P-`-]E-,
NqEc, space, sky || The stars shone in the night sky.
UWP-U]-NqEc-?-_-U-]N-O-]W_,
NqP-N, English language || You are studying the English language.
mN-lc-NqP-N-`-T-E-qN-TZP-^N,
NqP-H, Britain || The capital of Britain is London. NqP-H]-`-c-P-`P-KP-^P,
198

NqTc, shape, form || This room is shaped like a square.


BE-T-]N-NqTc-u-TZ-NE-]x-T-ZC-L-T@N,
NqTc-u-TZ-U, quadrilateral || The shape of the courtyard is a
quadrilateral. c-P-NqTc-u-TZ-U-ZC-^P,
NqC (NqC NqCc, NqCc,) to fling/throw, to brandish || I fling the rock
across the river. Ec--G-MC-Pc-S_-`-NqCc,
Nq, to distinguish, to classify, to differentiate || I want to classify these
plants. Ec--aE-]N-NC-<A$?-Nq-]NN,
Nq-T, distinction, difference || What is the difference between English
and French? NqP-^C-NE-q-^C-$*A?-T_-n-Nq-T-P-F-ZC-^P,
Nq-]qN, differentiation, discrimination, classification || The
classification of plants is called plant taxonomy. -aE-C-Nq-]qN-`-aE-_Cc-]qN-\_,
Nq-UWUc, demarcation, dividing line || A mountain range is the dividing
line between those two countries.

_-N-FC-P-`-BT-N-CIc-l-Nq-UWUc-^P,
NqP, discord, dissension || His constant gossip sowed discord in the
community. Bc-P-R_-z-U-CKE-T-Nc-W-T-`-NqP-NsC-TKE-,
NqP-NsC to sow dissension, to cause discord || Dont cause discord
among your classmates. mN-l-T-uCc-T_-`-NqP-U-NsC
]TC mask || The dancers at the temple wore masks the villages made

last year. :.-#%-.J:A-/%-$A-:(3-0-5S?-/-/A%-#J-3A?-=?-0:A-:2$-.J-5S-IR/-;R.,

]TC (]TC ]TCc,) to be rich || I want to be rich and buy whatever I want.
E-`--Tc-lc-]TCc-Pc-<%-$A?-CE-]NN-I-T_-2?3,
]TEc-]B_, retainer, footman, retinue || There were more than ten people
in his retinue. B]-]TEc-]B_-`-U-TF-C-^N,
]TN, (]TN, ]TN, ]TN,) to endeavor, to strive for || The goal to strive for is
knowledge. ]TN-R]-NUCc-^`-P-ac-q-^P,
]TN-R, endeavor, effort || I will make every effort to see you before you
leave. mN-U-nc-CE-Ec-]TN-R-CE-^N-qc-Pc-mN-`-MC--^P,
]TN-TP-N-UN, constant effort/struggle || After constant effort he learned
English well. ]TN-TP-N-UN-qc-c-Bc-NqP-^C-T\E-T-ZC-TTc,
]TT, (]TT, TTc,) to fall (rain, snow), to land; deserve || These dark
clouds suggest that rain will fall soon. P-PC-]N-NC-Cc-G_-T-r_-T_-]TT1

199

-;A/-0-UWP, He deserves harsh punishment for his crimes. B]-PC-Ic`-GN-R-N-U-]TT,


]TT-, income || What is your monthly income? mN-l--_]-]TT--C-WN-^P,
]TT-ME-, airport || I went to the airport by taxi.
E-TCc-CKE-Ec-]B_-`-TN-Pc-CPU-u-]TT-ME-`-cE-,
]T]-ZC only; little || Farmland is the only property I own. c-ZE-P-E-`^N-R]--P_-]T]-ZC-^P, I have only a little money. E-`-_-U-]T]-ZC-`cUN,
]T_, to burn; to flourish, to enhance || The fire burned fiercely. U-xC-L]T_, Chinas economy is flourishing. sE-C]-NR`-]q_-`--Tc-]T_,
]T_-Cc, explosion || I was awakened by the sound of the explosion.
]T_-Cc-l--Nc-E-CIN-`c-TEc,
]T_-c, explosives; fuel || Explosives will be needed to build this
road through the mountain. _-T-T`-Pc-`U-]N-`c-R_-]T_-c-NCc--_N,
How much fuel does your stove burn in one year? `-<J<-mN-l-CcMT-`-]T_-c-C-WN-NCc,
]T_-[P, match || He struck the match against the side of the matchbox.
Bc-]T_-bTc-l-\_-`-]T_-[P-TT,
]T`, (]T`, T`, T`,) to pluck, to pull out || Every morning I look in the
2

mirror and pluck out a few whiskers.

*A/-<J:A-8R$?-0<-Ec-U-`E-`-Tc-Pc-B--]C]-_-]T`,

]TCc, (NTC ]TCc, SCc) to bore a hole, to drill || The dentist will drill a
hole in my tooth this afternoon.

N-_E-p-x_-c-PN-P-Rc-E]-c-PE-`-BE-T-ZC-NTC--_N,
]T, insect || An ant is an insect. uC-U-P-]T-ZC-^P,
]TE-, (]TE-, ]TEc, ]TEc,) to endeavor, to strive for || Tomorrow I will
endeavor to find him. cE-IP-Ec-B-]W`-T_-]TE--^P,
]TN, (]TN, TN, TN,) to exit; to appear || After class is over we will exit
through that door. T-tN-u`-c-E-W--U-TN-Pc-p-`-]TN--^P, When
does green grass first appear after winter? NDP-B]-c-Pc--B-P-R-MEcNE-T_-PU-WN-]TN,
]TN, (]TN, Tc, Tc,) to blow || He felt tired after blowing the flute.
E-T-Tc-c-B-ME-GN,
]TN-aE-, firewood || I collect firewood from the mountain at least once a
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200

C\]-]B_-<J<-Ec-U-UM_-^E-_-UC-Pc-]TN-aE-MEc-CFC-`-]M,
]TTc, (NTT, ST, STc,) to construct (house), to pitch (a tent) || We will
pitch our tent near the river. E-Wc-G-]uU-.-_c-D_-]TTc--^P,
]TU, hundred thousand || He earned a hundred thousand yuan last year.
P-PE-Bc-_-U-]TU-CFC-`P,
]T_-Tc, relief sculpture || That stone relief sculpture was made by
people in my village. -]T_-Tc-U-N-E-W]--Uc-Tc-R-_N,
]T`, (NT`, S`, S`,) to give, to offer || He offered me a job.
Bc-E-`-q-T-ZC-S`,
]T`-T, donation, offering || What was the amount of your donation to
the temple? mN-lc-NCP-R-`-]T`-T-F-VU-qP,
]T`-^C petition, document submitted to a superior || We sent the
petition to the office yesterday. B-cE-E-Wc-C[E-T-BE-`-]T`-^C-S`,
]Tc, to grow/sprout || The seed began to sprout. c-TP-]Tc-]C-TUc,
]TTc, (NTT, ST, STc,) to order, to bring down, to decide || We will decide
week.

this question in our meeting tomorrow.

cE-IP-WCc-MC-!J%-E-Wc-CPN-NP-]N-CKP-`-]TTc--^P,
]T`-CKU, admonition, informal speech || He always begins his talk with
an admonition. Bc-P-R_-]T`-CKU-ZC-`-TP-Pc-B-T-qN-]C-U, Our very
famous visitor gave a very informal speech, which made us all feel
comfortable and at ease. %-5S:C-~/-P$?-(J-2:A-3PR/-0R?-$+3-z$-0R<-(:2J=-

$+3-)2eR.-0-=?-%-5S-5%-3-]R-2.J-2$-1J2?-L%-,

]TN, (]TN, Tc, Tc,) to call out, to shout out || Dont shout in public.
U-UE-C-tN-Pc-U-]TN,
]TN-`, a call for action || A call for action to solve this problem is
needed. CPN-NP-]N-MC-CFN-R_-]TN-`-CKE--P-NCc-UB-G,
]TN-T, signal, shout/call || I heard his loud shout. Ec-B]-]TN-T-GP-R-Mc,
]TN-WC slogan || He kept repeating the same slogan over and over again.
Bc-^E-^E-O-]TN-`-CFC-UWEc-TCc,
]T_-uEc, quantity, amount || What was the amount of your
purchase? mN-lc-I-G-TT-R]-]T_-uEc-P-F-VU-^P,
]T`-CNP, cushion, mattress || Please put this cushion on the bed.
]T`-CNP-]N-U`-t]-E-`-MEc,
]qE-, (]qE-, qE-,) to digest; to enlighten/ease sin || Ill need some time
1

201

to digest what I ate for lunch.

Ec-DE-\c-`-\c-R]-\-U-qE-T_-(-WN-]C]-_-

NCc, Prayer can ease feelings of guilt over sins committed.


Cc`-]NTc-lc-Ic-R:A-$/R%-:IR.-qE-MT,
]qU, (]qU, ]qUc,) to spread || The disease spread quickly through the
village. PN-CZ--T-`-r_-U_-]qUc,
]qE-, (]qE-, qE-,) to sink; to drown || If I throw this stone in the lake it
will sink to the bottom. C`-K-Ec--]N-UW]-PE-O-NqCc-5K-UW-ZTc-`-]qE-_N, I dont want to drown when Im swimming. E-G-`-`-Tc-G]-PE-`]qE-P-U-]NN,
]qN, (Nq, pc, pc,) to wipe, to clean || Please clean the dirty dishes.
_-U-]TC-TVC-]N-NC-pc,
]qP, (NqE-, pE-, pEc,) to drive out, to eradicate, to get rid of, to throw out
|| There is a campaign to eradicate criminal gangs. Ic-FP-WCc-R-]qPR_-]MT-N-qN,
]qC (qC qCc, qCc,) to smear, to apply || Please smear some of this
lotion on your face. E-SN-]N-mN-l-CNE-`-qCc,
]qE-, (]qE-, qE-,) to happen, to take place, to have || What time will the
flood happen? G-`C-PU-WN-]qE--_N,
]qE-P, cause || The cause of the fire has not been determined.
U-^-]qE-P-N-MC-Cc-TFN-UN,
]qE-BEc, origin, source || Where is the source of the Yarklung River?
^_-E-CVE-T]-]qE-BEc-CE-P-^N,
]qE-]n_, future, coming time || In the future I hope to speak English
fluently. ]qE-]n_-`-Ec-NqP-^C-qE-G-^N-R-ZC--T_-_-T-qN,
]qN, (Nq, p, p,) to open, to unlock || I will unlock the door when I hear
you knock. mN-lc--E-T-C-W-Ec--]qN,
]q, (]q, q, q,) to pour (water) || Pour water on the fire now!
N--U-MC-`-G-q,
]qP, (]qP, qP,) to come, to arrive || What time will you come?
mN-PU-WN-]qP--^P,
]q_, to receive, to arrive || We will arrive at your home this evening.
N-NCE-E-W-mN-WE-O-]q_--^P,
]q_-P, wealthy, rich || Only a wealthy family can own their own car.
mU-WE-]q_-P-B-Pc-_E-C-Ec-]B_-I-MT,
2

202

]q_-P-u`-_U, bourgeoisie || Karl Marx had a lot to say about the


bourgeoisie. B-e_-U_-B-c-`-]q_-P-u`-_U-n-MC-Pc-aN--UE-T-^N,
]q_-T, property, wealth || Most of his property is livestock.
B]-]q_-T-UE-G-ac-P-pCc-\C-^P,
]q_-UN, poor || A beggar is a poor person. E-T-P-U-]q_-UN-^P,
]q_-UN-u`-_U, the proletariat || Most of our countrys population is the
proletariat. E-W]-`-BT-l-U-uEc-UE-G-ac-P-]q_-UN-u`-_U-^P,
]q`, (q`, q`, q`,) to avoid, to step aside, to escape from || Avoid him
and avoid trouble. B-`-q`-5K-C-T`-`-q`-T-^P,
]{E-, (]{E-, ]{Ec, ]{Ec,) to follow, to go after || We will follow you
wherever you go. mN-CE-`-]u-P-E-W-N-C_-eJ?-]{E--^P,
]{N, (N{N, zN, zN,) to scrape, to grate, to scratch || Please scratch my
back. E]-T-zN-NE-, It took a long time for me to scrape away the
burned food from the pot bottom. %?-a-%:A-3,A=-=?-9?-:5B$-<R-U.-0<-

.?-;/-<A%-0R-:$R<,

]{T, ({T, {Tc, zTc,) to lash, to whip || Dont whip your horse hard.
mN-l-ZP-R-`-aN-lc-U-]{T,
]{`, ({`, {`, {`,) to come to be apart, to be separated, to be without || I
dont want to be separated from my husband. E-<%-$A-m-C-NE-#-]{`-U]NN,
]{c, rice || I like rice cooked with butter.
E-U_-NE-TTc-R]-]{c-TVc-U-`-NC],
]{c-Ec, Sikkim || Sikkim is a mountainous place.
]{c-Ec-P-_-B`-ZC-^P,
]{c-T, fruit, result, outcome; fruit; testicles || The result of evil deeds
is unhappiness. N-EP-n-]{c-T-P-cUc-CFE-^P, The tree bore fruit in
autumn. P-@_-E-T-`-]{c-T-MCc, A eunuch is a man who has had his
testicles removed. JC-_U-R-P-]{c-T-TKP-R]-c-T-ZC-^P,
]{c-T-FP, fruitful || It was a fruitful discussion.
]N-P-uc-T_-]{c-T-FP-ZC-_N,
]{c-T-]qP, to castrate || We will castrate the calves tomorrow.
cE-IP-E-Wc-^-_]-]{c-T-]qP--^P,
]{c-UN, fruitless, without an outcome || All of our efforts were, finally,
fruitless. E-Wc-]TN-TP-qc-R-WE-U-UHC-UM_-]{c-UN-_N,
1

203

]{, female yak || Female yaks are smaller than male yaks.
]{-P-C^C-`c-GE-,
]{, ({, {c, zc,) to write; to paint || Ill write the letter for you. Ec-mN-`]zP-^C-N-]{-Ec, The famous artist is now too old to paint. N--_-U-TuCc-FP-N-c-xCc-Pc-_-U-]{-U-MT,
]{-C writing and reading || I want all my children to learn Tibetan
writing and reading. Ec-<%-$A-qc-R-WE-U<-TN-^C-]{-C-E-.-:)$-]NN,
]{-UBP, writer || The writer of the book bought a computer.
NR-G-N-]{-UBP-nc-C-N-FC-Ic,
]{-G, Yangtse River || The Yangtse River is a long river in China.
]{-G-P-sE-C:A-G-T-_E-U-ZC-^P,
]{-NT, notebook || He lost his notebook on the way to school.
T-_-]u-T]-`U-B_-Bc-]{-NT-T_,
]{-U_, yak butter || Fresh yak butter is delicious. ]{-U_-Cc_-T-P-ZU-R-_N,
]{-U, yak cow || The yak cows milk is very rich. ]{-U]-]-U-P-d-FE-U,
]{E-T, middle || I am the middle child in my family.
E-P-EN-WE-C-qc-R-]{E-T-^P,
]{E-_U, middle class || My family is middle class. EN-WE-P-u`-_U-]{E-P?>A$-^P,
]{E-_U-T-, middle school || My son graduated from middle school last
July. P-PE-C--TOP-R_-E]-T-]{E-_U-T--Pc-UM_-pP,
]{N, (]{N, {N, {N,) to lure, to entice || The promise of a high salary lured
1

him to work in that remote area.

-SCc-UMP-R-ZC-_-T-Bc-`P-qc-R-Nc-B-^`-UM]-]BT-N_-q-T-`c-c-]u-T_-{N,
]{, ({, {c, {c,) to dig out || We will have to dig out the mud from
around the tires. E-Wc-]B_-`]-UM]-]B_-Pc-]NU-]{-NCc--_N,
]{, grain || Grain is the main crop in many areas of Qinghai.
UW-P-n-c-G-UE-T<-]{-P-`-KC-CV-T-^P,
]{-BE-, granary || There are a lot of mice in the granary.
]{-BE-.-V-D-UE-T-^N,
]{-_Cc, grains || What grains do people in Sichuan grow? \-tP-O-U-Uclc-]{-_Cc-F-ZC-]NTc, Rice, wheat, barley, millet, and beans are five
important grains. ]{c-NE-u, Pc, U-c-`-KC ~P-U-TFc-P-]{-_Cc-C`-GP-TZ^P,
204

]{C dragon || The dragon has a long tail. ]{C-N-`--U-_E-T-ZC-^N,


]{C-N, thunder || The thunder was so loud that the glass in the
windows rattled. ]{C-N-G-S$?-0c-]-BE-C-a`--`]E-]N_--uCc,
Thunder follows lightning. \R$-8$?-:H$?-3-,$-+-:V$-1-P$?,

]{C ({C {Cc, {Cc,) to cut, to shave off, to shear || Ill have my hair cut
tomorrow. cE-IP-Ec-<%-$A--]{C-L-]HC--^P, I got tired of having a long
beard so I sheaved it off. %-<%-$A-5-<-<A%-0R<-?/-$%-*J?-/?-5-<-VJ$?,we
sheared the sheep yesterday. #-?%-%-5S?-=$-2=-VJ$?,

]{`, to be connected, to be joined, to relate || I dont understand how


these two ideas are related. Ec--W`-]N-CIc-H-_-]{`-^N-R-`-C-T-U-`P,
]{`-GCc, coherent, continuous, to be connected || His explanations are
not very coherent. B]-]u`-TaN-`-N-]x]-]{`-GCc-UN,
]{`-CLC contact; to contact || I no longer have a contact at the
publishing house. Ec-NR-P-BE-`-N--]{`-CLC-qN-lP-UN, After you
leave, how can I contact you? mN-cE-c, Ec-mN-`-]{`-CLC-H-_-qN,
]{`-]xc, connection, familiarity || Dont let your children have a
1

connection with that bad guy.

mN-l-qc-R-Uc-Z-`-EP-R-N-NE-]{`-]xc-qN-O-U-]HC
]{`-T, relationship, connection, link || What is your relationship with
that man? mN-NE-c-R-N:A-]{`-T-P-F-ZC-^P,
]{`-UWUc, place where two things meet, borderline || This is the
borderline between desert and grassland.

]N-P-q-ME-NE--ME-CIc-l-]{`-UWUc-^P,
]{C remote place, pastoral area || I lived in a remote place when I was a
child. LA?-0:A-.?-?, E-]{C-ME-.-TN,
]{C-E-, wilderness || That is a wilderness where no people live.
N-P-U-UN-l-]{C-E-ZC-^P,
]{C-R, herdsman, nomad || The herdsman rode his horse into town.
]{C-R-N-uE--_--`-ZP-Pc-cE-,
]{C-U, female nomad || The female nomad spent her days herding
sheep. ]{C-U-Nc-`C-]Wc-Pc-I-U-T`,
]{C-^`, pastoral area || The pastoral area in this township is much more
than the agricultural area. ZE-(CaC-@) ]N]-]{C-^`-P-_E-B`-`c-d-FE-G,
]{C-`c, herding/pastoral work || I do herding work all day.
205

Ec-IP-CE-T_-]{C-`c-qN,
]{C-`c-BE-, dairy plant || That dairy plant produces cream, butter,
cheese, and yogurt. ]{C-`c-BE-Nc-]--NE-G_-T, Z-TFc-MP-N-qN,
]{C-c, nomads area || The nomads area is a vast grassland.
]{C-c-P--ME-GP-R-ZC-^P,

]{c, (]{, {c, zc,) to escape, to flee || Dont try to escape from
your hometown. mN-l-S-^`-Pc-]{-c-U-qN,
-Tc, wave || The wave of ocean water crashed into the side of the
ship. -UW]--Tc-lc-UW-u]-]uU-`-CKCc,
N-N, absolutely, entirely || I absolutely agree with you.
E-mN-NE-N-N-U-]MN,
-T, bubble, foam || This glass of beer has a lot of
foam. -GE-a`-S_-]N-`--T-UE-T-^N,
C (C Cc, Cc,) to stain, to pollute, to contaminate || Dont pollute
this landscape with garbage. ^`-Ec-]N-CN-Cc-lc-U-C-FC He spilled
a bottle of ink on his shirt, staining it black. #R?-$$-5-.3-2A-$%-<%-$A-5B-

=J/-!J%-.-:1R?-3,<-.J-<%-/$-,A$-$A?-&$?,
C-C-:#R<-=R, motorcycle || It didnt take me long to learn how to ride a
motorcycle. Ec-C-C-:#R<-=R-`-ZP--T-R_-Oc-^P-_E-T-U-]C_,
C-C-3J-3.:,machine gun || This machine gun was made during the
nineteen forties. C-C-U-UN]-]N-1940-=R:A-^c-Uc-c-MP-N-qc,

_, (_, _, _,) to light, to burn || Lets light a fire. U-ZC-_-T_-q,


`-T, frog || A frog lives near water. `-T-G-NE-I-c<-]W,
c-bCc, potential || What is the money-making potential of your
business? mN-l-WE-`c-`-UPC-_C-R]-c-bCc-F-]x-^N,
C-E-, hollow || This plastic ball seems to be hollow inside.
c-]nC-C-E-`-]N]-PE-P-C-E-^P-R-]x,
T, (T, Tc, Tc,) to turn over/upside down || The child turned her toy
upside down and stepped on it.

qc-R-Nc-B-U]-N-N-U_-Tc-Pc-E-`-Tc,
-C wrestling || Wrestling is something I did when I was much younger.
&J-$-/A-%-<%-=R-/-@-&%-U-2:A-.?-?-lJ?-0-8A$-;A/,

-C wrestle || Young men like wrestling with each other.


Cc_-T-W-SP-WP-`--C-C-R_-NC],
206

N, (, c, c,) to hide || He hid his cigarettes under the bed.


Bc-<%-$A-M-UC-U`-t]-]C-`-c,
, (, c,) to swell up, to become inflated || The balloon became inflated
after he blew into it. Bc-NTCc-E-N-`-S-TKT-R-P-NTCc-E-c,
E-, (E-, Ec, Ec,) to soak, to wet || Let me wet this cloth and clean the
table. Ec-_c-]N-Ec-Pc-FC-V-Nq-T_-q,
U-R, thick in circumference; low (voice) || The tree had a thick
circumference. E-T-N-U-R-^P, His voice was so low that I couldnt
understand him. B]-N-U-R-^P-Rc-Bc-TaN-R-Ec-Cc-U-MT,
E-q, assignment, homework || Did you finish yesterdays homework?
mN-lc-B-cE-C-E-q-e-W_,
E-TP, study, diligence in learning || Diligence in learning is important
in order to accumulate knowledge. ac-q-CcC-R<-E-TP-qN-o-P-C`-G,
E-CZ, exercise || The grammar exercise was too difficult.
T-N-l-E-CZ-N-N@]-xCc,
Ec-]{c, fruit of study || What has been the fruit of your study of
English? mN-l-NqP-^C-C-Ec-]{c-P-F-ZC-^P,
_-WC slogan || Have you heard the most recent slogan about water
conservation? G-~E-E-qN-R]-I-`U-n-_-WC-mN-lc-Mc-cU,
P, (P, qP, qP,) to give, to offer, to present || Although its my birthday,
you neednt give me anything. N-_E-P-E]-c-_-^P-UN, mN-lc-E-`-F-^EP-U-NCc,
P-TNC donor, patron || He was an important patron of temple
construction. B-P-NCP-R-]XCc-P-qN-R]-P-TNC-C`-GP-ZC-^P,
P-R, charity, donation || What is the size of the donation you plan to
make? mN-lc-P-R-F-VU-CKE-c-^N,
E-, (E-, Ec, Ec,) to study, to learn; to wash away, to repent || I
want to study Tibetan, Chinese, and English. Ec-TN-^C-NE--^C NqP^C-$?3-.%-]NN, He prayed every day, hoping to wash away his sins.
Bc-C-T-E-TcU-Pc-IP-__-Cc`-T-TKTc,
E-T_, training, practicing || How much training do you have in
medicine? P-n-MC-Pc-mN-`-E-T_-F-VU-MT,
_, (_, _, _,) to stick, to attach || He stuck a stamp to the envelope.
Bc-^C-bTc-l-E-`-C-Cc-aC-_,
1

207

_-T, combining, combination || Water is a combination of hydrogen


and oxygen. G-P-GP-NE-NqE-$*A?-GA-_-T-^P,
, yak hair tent || The yak hair tent swayed in the strong wind.
-N-E-GP-nc-TN,
C-BE-, post office || Im going to the post office to mail a letter.
E-C-BE-O-^-C-T_-O-]u-c-^N,
C-Cc, postage stamp || I bought this postage stamp at the post office.
Ec-C-BE-.-C-Cc-]N-Ic,
E-G_, drizzle, light rain || The light rain fell while the sun was shining.
I-U-]G_-T]-Tc-c-E-G_-TTc,
E-T, bee || The bee stung my hand. E-Tc-E]-`C-R-`-E-UOE-Cc-TT,
E-, honey || Bees make honey. E-Uc-E--]NP,
N, to become numb || My feet are numb from the cold.
E]-E-T-]mC-Pc-N,
N-P, anesthetic || After being given the anesthetic he was operated on.
N-P-TT-c, B-`-CaC-TFc-qc,
N, (, c, c,) to make dough || Ill make the dough and you chop the
meat. Ec-p--NE-mN-lc-a-CVTc,
U, to be pregnant || She is three-months pregnant.
B-U_-UE`-U-Pc--CcU-]C_,
`, snake || Snakes are reptiles. `-P--]u]-~C-GCc-aC-^P,
`, to link, to join together || He joined several short pieces of rope
together to make a long rope.

Bc-MC-R-OU-T-]C]-`-Pc-MC-R-_E-T-ZC-T\c,

U-E-,

stock; 2basis || 1He made a lot of money buying and selling

Bc-U-E-I-WE-qc-Pc-_-U-UE-T-Ec, Buddhism is the basis of his


philosophy. PE-TP-P-B]-UWP-IN-_C-R]-U-E-^P,
U-E-]HC-UBP, stockholder || Any stockholder may attend the
stockholders meeting this afternoon. N-_E-p-x_-U-E-]HC-UBP-?-8A$-;A/2

stocks.

208

<%-U-E-]HC-UBP-n-uc-WCc-`-[Cc-GC

U-C, down there || Down there in the valley there are a lot of flowers.
`E-T]-U-C-P-U-KC-UE-T-^N,
U-UC`, chin || He bruised his chin playing basketball. B?-r%-lJ.-%R-=R-?Tc-U-]C`-c,
U-N, maternal || I have a lot of maternal relatives. E-`-U-N-l-I-O-UE-T-^N,
U-UEP-R, invisible; latent, potential || The strange creature was
invisible to everyone but him. cUc-FP-^-UWP-FP-N-P-B-CFC-R-`c-U-CZPR-`-UWP-P-U-UEP-R-ZC-_N, He has great potential. B-`-Qc-R-U-UEP-R-GP-R^N,
U-Ic-BC-C^Cc, to vilify || He tried every means to vilify me.
Bc-qN-MTc-F-^N-,.-/?-E-`-U-Ic-BC-C^Cc-qN-c-qc,
U-CKCc, except for, unless, besides || My children are all boys except for
1

one girl.2-3R-$&A$-3-$+R$?-%:A-LA?-0-$8/-5%-3-2-;A/,I wont be happy

unless you visit me. HR.-<%-%-=-2v-<-:R%-2-3-$+R$?-%-<%-.$:-0R-;R%-3A-YA.,


I have two hundred sheep besides one hundred yaks.

E-`-C^C-T-U-

CKCc-N-_E-`C-Ic-T-^N,
U-MC as soon as || As soon as you pay the money you can get the goods.
mN-lc-_-U-N-U-MC-NEc-R-`P-MT,
U-UM_, at least || I want to buy at least twenty young yaks this summer.
N-WCc-Nq_-B_-Ec-U-UM_-^E-\C-B-GE-I-b-I-]NN,
U-SN, not dare, unable || I did not dare to tell him that his wife had just
died. Ec-B-`-#R:C-(%-3-:.?-3-,$-;A/-0:A-$/?-5=-TaN-U-SN,
U-p, original (of document); maternal grandmother || Do you have the
original document? mN-`-^C-G]-U-p-e-^N, My maternal grandmother
is older than my paternal grandmother. E]-U-p-P-E]-S-N-l--U-`c-`-Pc,
U-T, mother and son || The mother and son were both killed in the
accident. U-T-CIc-@-GC--`c-TsEc,
U-U, ewe, female sheep || The ewe bleated to her lamb.
U-U-<%-$A-`-D-`-]W_,
U-UC cotton || This shirt is made of one hundred percent cotton.
W-`P-]N-P-T-G-T-T`-`c-29R?,
U-c-`-KC maize || I like to eat boiled maize with butter.
1

209

B-U-c-`-KC-TVc-U-U_-NE-TTc-Pc-\-T_-NC],
U-N, mother and daughter || That mother and daughter are dressed
exactly alike. U-N-CIc-lc-CP-R-CFC-UWEc-c-IRP,
U-, capital || He had enough capital to start the business.
B-`-I-WE-C-]C-U-R]-U--]NE-T-^N,
U--]HC to invest capital || I will have to invest capital in this enterprise
if it is going to be profitable.

C`-K-B-`c-]N-B-FP-ZC-^P-5K, Ec-B-`c-]N]-PE-O-U--]HC-NCc--_N,

U--_E-`Cc, capitalist || He is a capitalist, not a socialist. B-P-U--_E-`Cc-RZC-^P-R-`c--WCc-_E-`Cc-R-ZC-UP,America is a capitalist country. eU-_-B-P-U--<A%-=$?-GA-`-BT-FC-^P,


U-WN, not only, more than || Not only did he rob, but he also committed
murder. Bc-]zC-TFU-qc-R-U-WN-U-^E-TcN,
U-CZ, main, chief || My main worry is getting enough money to pay my
debts. cUc-B_-n-U-CZ-P-_-U-]NE-T-ZC-`P-Pc-E]-T-`P-]H`--N-^P,
U-]Ec, future || He said that, sometime in the future, he would return my
money. Bc-U-]Ec-R]-PU-ZC-`-E]-_-U-p_-_--^P-R_-TaN,
U-^C draft; original || Please read my draft and make corrections. E]U-^C-TCc-Pc-NC-TFc-qc, The original document is very valuable. U^C-N-P-d-FE--G,
U-_Ec, to be displeased, to be undelighted || He was displeased with my
examination score. E]-Cc-]{c-`-B]-^N-U-_Ec,
U-_Tc, scurrilous, unprincipled, vulgar || He is an utterly scurrilous
businessman. B-P-U-CZ-Pc-WE-T-U-_Tc-aC-_N,
U-_Ec-R, malevolent, ill-intentioned || When he looks at me I know that
he is ill-intentioned. Bc-E-`--Oc, Bc-TcU-_-U-_Ec-R-TFEc-^N-R-Ec-ac,
U-`C the main branch || What are the main branches of Buddhism?
PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-l-U-`C-CV-T-P-F-ZC-^P,
U-`P, innocent || Im innocent of that crime. Ic-R-N-E-`-U-`P,
U-`Cc, bad; unlucky, unfortunate || That family received bad news
1

yesterdaytheir son had died.

B-?E-mU-WE-N-`-CPc-W`-U-`Cc-R-ZC-]q_, B-W]-T-]Nc-cE-, Unfortunately,


he could not pass the examination. U-`Cc-R-`, Bc-Cc-U-]zN,
U-~N, impossible || It was impossible for me to come see you last night.
2

210

UNE-NCE-E-mN-`-UH`--NR_-U-~N,
UC-R, bridegroom || The bridegroom is wearing new clothes.
UC-Rc--Cc_-T-ZC-nP-^N,
UE-, many, much, a lot || He has a lot of money. B-`-_-U-UE-,
UE-G-T, the majority, the greatest part || The majority of the students are
Tibetan. T-U-UE-G-T-P-TN-_Cc-^P,
UE-JE-, amount || The amount of money I spent is about fifty yuan.
Ec-T@`-T]-_-U]-UE-JE-P-S`-G_-_-U--TF-^P,
UE-ac, the most, the majority || The majority of Chinese citizens are
Han. sE-C]--NUEc-UE-ac-P--_Cc-^P,
UE-T, many, numerous || He has numerous books. B-`-NR-G-UE-T-^N,
UE-VU, a little more || Id like a little more salt in my tea. Ec-<%-$A-H-PE`--B-UE-VU-^N-P-]NN,
UE-WCc, the masses || This newspaper is for the masses.
WCc-R_-P-UE-WCc-l-GN-O-^P,
UP, below, under || Many audience members stood below the stage
watching the performance.

N-U-T-UE-T-Cc-T]-UP-Pc-`Ec-K-]tT-P-`-C\Cc,
UP-EC secret recipe || I have a secret recipe given to me by my
father. E-`-e-Sc-CPE-T]-UP-EC-FC-^N,
U_, butter || I like butter in my tea. E-H-PE-.-U_-^N-P-NC],
U_-]uT, to become degenerated, to decline || During last year, the
economy declined. P-PE-`_, NR`-]q_-U_-]uT,
U_-GC to be decreased || The number of livestock needs to be decreased
so that the grassland can recover.

pCc-\C-C-uEc-@-U_-GC-L-TFC-Pc--c-_-Cc-^E-T-qN-NCc,
U_-U, butter lamp || Butter lamps lit the temple. U_-U?-z-#%-/%-$?=-2<L?,

U`-t, bed || This bed is too small for two people.


U`-t-]N-U-CIc-`-UWP-P-GE-xCc,
U`-Cc, bedding || I need to wash my bedding today.
N-_E-Ec-<%-$A-U`-Cc-Ts-NCc,
U`->$ sleeping quarter, lodging || Our lodging was expensive.
E-W]-U`->$-$A-CE-d-FE-N@],
211

U, person, human; negative particle || You are a person and I am a


person. mN-P-U-ZC-NE-E-P-U-ZC-^P,
U-E-, bachelor, single || He remained a bachelor all his life.
B-U-W-CE-T_-U-E-O-`c,
U-B, gossip || Ignore gossip and do what you want.
U-B_-U-]XU-R_-_E-]NN-E-,
U-BU-R, busy time || Now that she has been married for ten years, she has
a busy time taking care of her children and her home.N--B-U-CIP-Cqc-/?-=R-2&-:$R<-^N-0?, B-Uc-<%-$A-qc-R-NE-BE-T-`-TNC-qc-Pc-U-BU-R-qE^N,
U-m, crowd || The crowd marched down the
street. U-m-N-C[E-`U-NN-Pc-TN,
U-]m_, migrant, refugee || He is a migrant and finds work wherever he
can. B-P-U-]m_-ZC-^P-0?-q-T-CE-/?-N-,2-5K-.J-C<-:5S=-2-;A/,
U-uEc, population || What is the population of Qinghai Province?
UW-P-ZE-GP-`-U-uEc-$-5S.-^N,
U-NC], to dislike, antipathy || Why do you dislike her?
mN-F]-p_-B-U_-U-NC],
U-NC-T, misconduct, malevolent || Dont worry too much about your
misconduct. mN-lc-U-NC-T-`c-R_-N-]x]-cUc-t`-U-qN,
U-NCc-R, unnecessary || It is unnecessary for you to shoutI can hear
you clearly. Ec-mN-l-N-G-Cc`-T_-C-MT, mN-lc-@-]NTc-R-P-NCc-3J.-ZC-_N,
U-]n_-T, steady, unchanging || His view on the matter is unchanging.
NP-NC-N]-MC-Pc-B]--T-U-]n_,
U-P, old man, senior, veteran/experienced person || He is an
experienced and intelligent old man.

B-P-IUc-rE-Cc-pC-R]-U-P-_C-R-FP-ZC-_N,
U-N, lineage, descendent, generation || His lineage can be traced back
to Lhasa. B]-U-N--c-`-]NN-GCI am the descendant of a famous king.
%-/A-3A%-P$?-(J-2:A-o=-0R-8A$-$A-o.-;A/,

U-_, individual || I am a single individual. E-U-_-B_-E-ZC-^P,


U-EP, evil person || She is an evil person. B-U-P-U-EP-ZC-^P,
U-CFC-R, different || English and Tibetan are different languages.
NqP-N-NE-TN-N-$*A?-P-N-_Cc-U-CFC-R-^P,
212

U-Cc, unable, incapable || I am sure that I am unable to complete this


work by tomorrow. cE-IP-aJ2?-<$-2<-.-<%-$A?-q-T-]N-]uT-U-Cc-0-%?,$-(R.-,2,

3A-(J-$J-3R, somebody || Somebody may know the answer to that question,

B-FC-Cc-x-T-N]-`P-ac-P-tCc-tCc-UN, ]P-lE-Ec-U-ac,
U-GP, important person || He is an important person. B-P-U-GP-ZC-^P,
U-Gc, moral law, principle of humanity || Kindness is a principle of
humanity. qUc-T-P-U-Gc-aC-^P,
U-Gc-_E-`Cc, humanism || His philosophy is essentially humanism. B]-UW]--W`-P-U-CZ-Pc-U-Gc-_E-`Cc-^P,
U-JE-, not little, not small || The number of students in that school is not
small. T--N]-PE-C-T-U]-uEc-@-U-JE-,
U-UIU-R, unequal || Treat your students equally, dont treat them in an
unequal manner. mN-l-T-U-]x-UIU-nc-E-T-`c--W`-U-UIU-R-U-]XP,
U-CK], hostage || He was a hostage for two days. B-IP-CIc-`-U-CK]-_-n_,
U-C-R, impermanent, not everlasting || Life is impermanent.
U-W-P-U-C-R-^P,
U-, to neglect, to ignore || You ignore your health.
mN-lc-_E-C-TN-ME-`-U-,
U-MC generation || The new generation has received more education than
older generations. U-MC-Cc_-T-`-U-MC-P-R-`c-T-Cc-UE-O-MT,
U-UMP-R, in conflict, disagreement, difference || They have had a
disagreement for one year now. N--B-W-`-#-U-UMP-R-qE-Pc-`-CFC-]C_,
U-N_-U, adult, person in the prime of his life || After he married he was
considered an adult. B-CIP-C-qc-c-U-N_-U-ZC-L-UME-,
U-xC aristocrat || They were aristocrats before Liberation.
TFEc-]u`-n-P-`-B-W-P-U-xC-^P,
U-TN, uncomfortable, uneasy || Im cold and uncomfortable.
E]-`c-R-uE-ZE-U-TN,
U-]NN, to be unwilling, to be reluctant || Im unwilling to help you.
Ec-mN-`-_Cc-qN-U-]NN,
U-, member, person || What organizations are you a member of?
mN-P--]XCc-CE-C-U--^P,
U-NRE-, witness || The witness testified in court.
but I dont.

213

U-NRE-Cc-tUc-BE-.-TNP-NRE-qc,
U-NUEc, the people, the mass || He wanted to speak directly to the
people. Bc-U-NUEc-`-MN-@_-O-E-]NN,
U-NUEc--UMP-`-BT, peoples republic || I am a citizen of the Peoples
Republic of China. E-P-sE--U-NUEc--UMP-`-BT-l--NUEc-aC-^P,
U-NUEc-NUEc-CV, peoples democracy || That country is not a monarchy,
it is a peoples democracy.

`-BT-N-P-CE-U]-`-BT-FC-UP-R_-U-NUEc-NUEc-CV]-`-BT-FC-^P,
U-NUEc-~N-NTE-, peoples political power || The peoples political power
should be supreme. U-NUEc-~N-NTE-P--P-UN-R-ZC-^P-R_-_Cc,
U-NUEc-~N-C[E-, peoples government || The peoples government is now
holding meetings. U-NUEc-~N-C[E-Cc-N--WCc-]O-]WC-TZP-^N,
U-CVE-, unclean, dirty || Those clothes are unclean. CP-R-N-NC-U-CVE-,
U-WN, not only, in addition to, model || Not only can he sing well, but he
can also dance well too.

B--NqEc-Ec-P-T\E-T]-U-WN, Bc-ZTc-{-^E-T\E-T-C-ac,
U-W, life || His life was short but meaningful. B]-3A-5K-,%-_E-NP-E-P,
U-WCc, crowd || The crowd had waited for his arrival all day.
IP-CE-T_-U-WCc-GA?-B-MP-R_-TCc,
U-T\E-, not good, bad || The weather today is not good.
N-_E-$/3-$>A?-U-T\E-,
U-_Tc, generation || The new generation was not very interested in
traditional culture. U-_Tc-Cc_-Tc-~`-P-n-_C-CPc-`-NC]-ZP-GP-R-U-qN,
U-_Cc, nationality, ethnic group || What nationality are you?
mN-P-U-_Cc-CE-^P,
U-_Cc-uEc-JE-, minority nationality || China has fifty-five minority
nationalities. sE-C-`-uEc-JE-U-_Cc-E--^N,
U-_Cc-T- nationalities school || He attended a nationalities school in
the city. B-uE-m_-.-U-_Cc-T--`-]uUc,
U-_E-T_, soon, before long || Ill see you soon. Ec-U-_E-T_-mN-.%-UH`--^P,
U-_, everyone, each person || Everyone must come to my party! U-5%-3Ec-R_-O-E]-Cc`-P-`-MP-NCc,
U-`Cc-R, bad || Thats a bad idea! N-P--W`-U-`Cc-R-ZC-_N,
U-ac-ND-ac, erudite with practical knowledge || He is erudite with
214

practical knowledge and can do many different things.

B-U-]N-U-ac-ND-ac, q-T-^E-]x-UP--WCc-`c-MT,
U-ac-R, ignorant || He seems ignorant of modern technology.
Bc-NE-_Tc-l-`C-`-U-ac-R-]x,
U-Cac, human nature, individuals character || Can human nature be
changed? U-Cac-P-T_-MT-R-ZC-^P-PU,
U-cUc, peoples mind || I dont really understand peoples mind.
Ec-U-cUc-E-Uc-U-`P,
U-c_, citizen, populace, subject || I am a citizen of Great Britain. E-P-NqPH]-U-c_-^P,
U-c_-`, to colonize || Africa was colonized by European countries for
many years. ^-_T-`-BT-lc-e-q-_-B-`-UE-T_-U-c_-`-;=-.-2+<,
U-c_-`-^`, colony || The colony was granted its independence last
year. U-c_-`-^`-N-P-PE-=R<-_E-TVP-^P-R-Bc-`P-qc,
U-~N, impossible, impossibility || It is impossible for a bull yak to give
birth. C^C-Cc-T]-TV]-U-~N,
U-~`, humanness, humanity || What did your parents teach you about
humanity? U-~`-n-MC-Pc-mN-l-S-Uc-mN-`-TT-q-F-ZC-]GN,
U-TcU-ac, understanding/enlightened person || When he talks, we know
he is an enlightened person.

Bc-B-T-qN-Tc, Ec-B-P-U-TcU-ac-aC-^P-R-ac,
U-Ec-R, obstinate person || He is such an obstinate person that he never
changes his mind. B-P-U-Ec-R-ZC-^P-Rc-B]--T-PU-^E-U-T,
UC-E-, outlook, vision || His vision for the future of his work unit is
admirable. B]-`c-BEc-l-U-]Ec-R]-MC-Pc-B]-UC-E-P-^N-P-_E-T-ZC-_N,
UC-E-ME-, short-sighted || He is short-sighted in terms of his future.
B]-UOP-`U-n-E-Pc-B-UC-E-ME-,
UC-E-_E-, far-sighted || My father is far-sighted because he sent his
children to school. E]-e-S-UC-E-_E-Tc-qc-R-W-T-_-T`,
UC-_, recently, presently || Recently the weather has been fine.
UC-_-PU--T\E-,
UC-, look || He gave me a nasty look. Bc-E-`-UC--EP-R-ZC-qc,
UC-UN], meaningful glance, amorous glance || With a meaningful glance
he signaled his intention. Bc-UC-UN]-:1%?-/?-<%-$A-TcU-5=-TP,
215

UC-T, eye signal || He indicated his desire to make friends with her with
an eye signal. Bc-UC-T-TP-Pc-B-U-NE-uCc-qN-]NN-R]-]NN-5=-TP,
UC-PN, eye disease || She became blind from an eye disease.
B-U-UC-PN-FC-`c-`E-T_-n_,
UC-NR, model, example || That student is a good model for others to
follow. T-U-N-P-T-U-CZP-.$-c-c-]{E-NCc-R]-UC-NR-T\E-T-ZC-^P,
UC-p, to open the eyes || Please open your eyes and tell me what you
see. mN-l-UC-p-Pc-F-ZC-UME-T-E-`-aN,
UC-NU_, Tuesday || Tuesday comes after Monday.
C\]--T]-p-IP-P-C\]-UC-NU_-^P,
UC-`U, line of vision, before the eye || The man was outside his line of
vision. c-R-N-B]-UC-`U-P-UN,
UC-`C fierce stare || He gave the naughty student a fierce stare.
Bc-T-U-2!/-2>A$-&/-N-`-UC-`C-Cc-Tc,
UC-`E-, blind || The blind beggar sang some songs.
E-T-UC-`E-Nc--NqEc-]C]-Ec,
UC-a`, eyeglasses || Where did you buy your eyeglasses?
mN-lc-mN-l-UC-a`-CE-Pc-Ic,
UE-, name; reputation || What is your name? mN-l-UE-`-F-\_, As a
1

Tibetan poet, he has a high reputation.

TN-l-P-EC-R-ZC-^P-R]-G-Pc, B-`-UE-GP-R-^N,
UE-B_-Pc, in the name of || This gift will be presented in the name of our
whole class. E-W]-]XP--^Ec-l-UE-B_-Pc-`Cc-c-]N-]T`--^P,
UE-Cc, signature || Put your signature here. mN-l-UE-Cc-]N-_-]BN,
UE-M, list of names || I put the list of the students names here. Ec-T-U]UE-M-]N-_-TZC
UE-]NCc, to name || My father will name my son.
E]-e-Sc-E]-T-`-UE-]NCc--_N,
UE-UN, anonymous, nameless || The anonymous letter threatened his
life. ]zP-^C-UE-UN-Nc-B]-W-~C-`-]HCc-E-T`,
UE-WC word || How many words are in your vocabulary? mN-l-WC-UXNPE-UE-WC-$-5S.-^N,
UE-UXN, dictionary || This is a dictionary. ]N-P-UE-UXN-FC-_N,
UE-~E-, brother and sister || The brother and sister look a lot like each
216

other.

UE-~E-CIc-@-SP-WP-`-d-FE-]x,

UN, to swallow || My throat was dry and it was hard to swallow.


E]-UN-MC-U-Pc-UN-N@],
UN-R, throat || My throat is sore. E]-UN-R-P, I have a cold and my throat is
sore. E-`-GU-R-qE-Pc-3A.-0-P,
UP, negative linking verb; not || Hes neither tall nor handsome.
B:A-C\Cc-$8A-<A%-o-3J.-=-1R-|R-G%-35<-0R-3J., Im not the killer, Im
innocent. E-`C-NU_-UP, E-`-Ic-R-UN,
UP-N, beside, except for, apart from || All the eggs are white except for
two brown ones. E-E-C-R-CIc-UP-N-E-E-WE-U-N@_-T-_N,
U]-UWP-IN, human character || Human character is
complicated. U]-UWP-IN-P-d-FE-C-x-G,
U]-_Cc, mankind || The history of mankind is several thousand years
old. U]-_Cc-l-`-c-`-`-E-E-U$-]C]-]C_-^N,
U]-_Cc-l-_C-R, anthropology || He will do a graduate degree in
anthropology. Bc-U]-_Cc-l-_C-R]-ac-_Uc-R]-MT-ME-`P--_N,
U]-Cac-`Cc, human nature || Human nature is both good and evil.
U]-Cac-`Cc-P-T\E-EP-CIc-lc-uT,
Uc-T\c, man-made, artificial || Plastic is man-made. c-]nC-P-Uc-T\c-^P,
Uc-T\c-]B_-_, satellite || The satellite went into orbit this morning.
.J-<A%-}-SR-Uc-T\c-~E-_-]B_-`U-O-[Cc,
U-C, famine || Many people starved to death during the famine.
U-UE-T_-U-C]-tN-Pc-Cc-a-MTc,
U-KC pearl || This is a pearl necklace. ]N-P-U-KC-C--P-ZC-^P,
U-Cc-R, pagan, heretic || That pagan does not believe in Buddhism. 3Cc-R-Nc-PE-TP-`-NN-R-U-qN,
U-UM]-{`, endless, boundless || The ocean is boundless. -UW_-U-UM]-{`,
U-]{`, in sequence || Please do these actions in sequence.
`c-]D`-]N-NC-U-]{`-nc-Tc,
UC-T, poverty alleviation || The government has spent a lot of money
on poverty alleviation. ~N-C[E-Cc-UC-T-qN-R_-PR/-.%=-UE-T-TKE-,
UC-a, death caused by famine || Death caused by famine is rare in China
today. N-Tc-sE-C_-UC-a-]qE-T-d-FE-N@P,
UP-PC darkness, dimness || After the sun set darkness came to the earth.
1

217

I-U-QT-c, c-CZ-`-UP-PC-]MTc,
U_, to chew on; at the same time || I want to chew on a piece of dry
beef. Ec-Uc-a-U-R-`T-U-ZC-U_-P-]NN, She sang and watched the
animals at the same time. B-Uc-pCc-]W-T]-U_-`--Ec,
U, fire || I made a fire with coal. Ec--c`-U-`-Tc,
U-]B_, train || I must catch the train at ten oclock this morning. .J-<A%-x]-(-WN-10E-E-U-]B_-n-c-`-Ec-R_-O-GN-NCc,
U-]B_-]TT-WCc, train station || The train station is near the bus station.
U-]B_-]TT-WCc-N-Ec-]B_-c-WCc-NE-I,
U-C, U.S.A. / America || English is spoken in America.
e-U-_-B-<-NqP-N-,
U-Cc, artillery, cannon || After the battle the cannon were quiet.
]MT-]tC-C-c-Pc, U-Cc-`-uCc--UN,
U-, flame || The flame shot into the night sky. U--UWP-U]-NDE-`-]p_,
U-KC flower || That flower smells nice. U-KC-N]-x-U-ZU,
U-KC-zE-T, wreath || We put a wreath of flowers in the temple this
morning. .J-<A%-}-SR-Ec-U-KC-C-zE-T-ZC-NCP-R]-PE-O-TZC
U-C spark || The spark ignited the gasoline. U-C-Cc-Ec-U-`-U-TP,
U-UN], gun || These bullets are for this gun. UN`-]N-NC-P-U-UN]-]N]-^P,
U-ORE-, flame, fire || I threw water on the fire to put it out.
Ec-U-NRE-CcN-GN-O-G-Cc,
U-]N, flame, blaze || The flame died out. U-]N-IUc-M`,
U-_, volcano || Hawaii has many volcanoes. Z--Nqc-P-U-_-UE-T-^N,
U-_, cinder, ash || Cinders covered the ground near the furnace. MT@]-UM]-`-U-_-^c-BEc,
U-`-a_, to catch fire, to be burned || The house caught on fire and
burned down. BE-T-U-`-a_-Pc--T-Pc-]WCc,
U-`E-, mirror || A mirror shows reflections. U-`E-`c-E-TP-]G_,
U-aE-, firewood || The firewood burned quickly. U-aE-UnCc-Uc-]T_,
U-bCc, heat || Coal gives off much heat when burned.
-c`-]T_-5K-U-bCc-GP-R-_,
U-bCc-]S_-UN], rocket, missile || The rocket struck its target. U-bCc-]S_UNc-NUCc-]TP-`-SC
U-bCc-]S_-UN`, missile || The plane fired a missile. CPU-uc-U-bCc-]S_1

218

UN`-ZC-]SEc,
UN, negative existential verb, there is not, there was not || There is not
one person in our classroom who can speak
French.

UN-R_-T\,

E-W]-T-BE-.-q-N-TaN-MT-UBP-IA-3A-$&A$-lE-UN,

to destroy; 2to alleviate/eradicate || 1To build is better than to

UN-R_-T\-T-`c-]XCc-P-q?-P-NC], He wishes to alleviate


poverty. Bc-NT`-SEc-UN-R_-T\-]NN,
U_, to be full of || The glass is full of water. N@_-^`-PE-O-G-U_,
Uc-`, motherland || We love our motherland. E-W-<%-<J:A-Uc-`-`-NC],
Uc-R, grandfather, ancestor || My grandfather celebrated his eightieth
birthday yesterday. B-?E-E]-Uc-Rc-n-P-qc,
U, female || Female and male should be equal. S-U-CIc-]x-UIU-^P-R_-]c,
U-E-, single woman || She was a single woman until she was forty.
B-U-`-TZ-TF-`-]TN-_C-T_-O-U-E-^P,
U-PN, gynecological disease || She suffers from a gynecological disease.
B-U-`-U-PN-FC-Cc-UP_,
U-`, womans age || What is that womans age? c-U-N-U-`-$-5S.-^P,
U-Cc_, young girl || That young girl has not yet been to school. U-Cc_-NN-_E-T--`-cE-UN,
U-, goddess || I dont know the name of that goddess.
Ec-U--N]-UE-U-ac,
UC dim || Its dim, turn on the light. PU--UC-Rc-C-B_-FC
UC-UC stuffed dumplings; dim, misty || He cooked stuffed dumplings
for supper. Bc-NDE-\c-`-UC-UC-C^-`-qc, It was very misty early this
morning. .J-<A%--U_-PU--d-FE-UC-UC-_N,
UN-R, abundant, plentiful || Grass and water are abundant here.
]N-_--G-UN-R-^N,
UN-`, at the same time, meanwhile || Im going to college, meanwhile, I
2

destroy.

am learning English in my spare time.

E-T--GP-U_-]uU-R]-UN-`, BU-R]-Oc-?-NqP-^C-T-E-qN,
Uc, to like, to be interested in, to admire || Im interested in improving
my English. E-<%-$A-NqP-^C-H-NC]-CKE-T_-Uc,
Uc-Dc, respect || I have no respect for dishonest people.
U-n-n-FP-`-Ec-Uc-Dc-U-qN,
219

r-EP, mourning, grief || They are observing a period of mourning.


B-Wc-Oc-Tc-aC-`-r-EP-qc,
rE-, peep || Dont peep through the window. ]-BE-`c-rE--U-qN,
r-D, seedling, sprout || The young seedling needed water.
r-D-Cc_-T-`-G-NCc-qE-,
r-D-]Tc, to sprout, to germinate || The wheat we planted some days ago
has sprouted. IP-]C]-P-E-Wc-TKTc-R]-u-`-r-D-]Tc,
rC to saunter, to ramble; to shake || Lets go ramble outside for a few
hours. E-W--_-(-WN-]C]-`-rC-R_-]u, He will shake his shoulders when
he doesnt know the answer. Bc-e-`P-_-U-ac-R]-Tc-c-NRE-T-rC-~N,
r_, fast, rapid, swift || That horse runs fast. -N-Cc-R-r_,
r_-N, fast march, going quickly || The army unit did a fast march for
an hour. NUC-NRE-Cc-(-WN-CFC-`-r_-N-qc,
r_-T, emergency aid, first-aid || The doctor gave the accident victim
first-aid. P-Rc-GC--MTc-UBP-r_-T-qc,
M<-3IR$?-C[E-`U, highway || Where does this highway lead?
M<-3IR$?-C[E-`U-]N-CE-`-]MP-^N,
r_-O, quickly || Lets walk quickly or we will be late.
1

E-W-r_-O-]u-NE-N-UP-E-W-]p--_N,

r_-r_-T_, rapidly, quickly || I walked quickly to class.


E-T-tN-`-r_-r_-T_-cE-,
r_-WN, speed || What is the speed of an airplane?
CPU-u-ZC-C-r_-WN-C-WN-^P,
r`, to spy; to roam, to saunter || Dont spy on my activities! E]-q-N`-U-r`, Before he was fifteen he roamed about the countryside. `-TF-`-U-`P-CE-, B-uE-CcT-`-r`,
r`-U, spy || The spy was executed. r`-U-~C-tUc-`-_,
r`-ZT, reconnaissance, investigation || The army spy made a
reconnaissance of the area. NUC-NRE-C-r`-Uc-^`-u-N-`-r`-ZT-qc,
M=-8A2-LJ.-0, to reconnoiter || We will reconnoiter the enemys position
tomorrow evening. ?%-*A/-.$R%-3R<-%-5S?-Nu-NUC-$A-$/?-$8A-=-M=-8A2-LJ.-o1

;A/,

rE-, (rE-, rEc, rEc,) to experience, to undergo, to taste || Have you


experienced living in another culture?

220

mN-lc-_C-CPc-CZP-ZC-C-tN-Pc-]W-T-_`-e-rE-,
rE-W_, experience, feel || What did you feel when you went home after a
long absence?

mN-^`-NE-^/-_E-T_-B-{`-Pc-p_-`C-Tc, mN-`-rE-W_-F-ZC-c,
rc, to be drunk/intoxicated, to be delighted || I am delighted now that
Spring has come. NoN-@-Tc-0c-E-^-^N-cUc-rc,
NUC army, soldier || The army marched for two days.
NUC-Cc-IP-CIc-`-NUC-N-qc,
NUC-tUc, martial/military law || Because of instability martial law was
declared. TP-]HCc-UP-R<-TcUc-Pc-NUC-tUc-TCc,
NUC-]tC war, warfare || He fought in the last war. #R-,J%?-}R/-3:A-.3$-:O$-+8$?,

NUC-u, war ship, naval vessel || The war ship sailed into the harbor.
NUC-u-UW-BC-`-]HC-N-qc,
NUC-]nN, to start war || I dont want to start war, I want to encourage
peace. E-NUC-]nN-R_-U-NC], Ec-Z-TN-`-`-]NN-qN-]NN,
NUC-Gc, military equipment || Tanks and rockets are military
equipment. MP-B-NE-U-bCc-]S_-UN]-$*A?-P-NUC-Gc-^P,
NUC-Tc, armed force, military strength || The armys military strength
was increased with some new tanks.

NUC-ORE-C-NUC-Tc-MP-B-Cc_-T-]C]-`-TP-Pc-H-xC-L-cE-,
NUC-]MT, warfare || Warfare raged for two years. NUC-]MT-`-CIc-`-TN,
NUC-NP-R, military strategist || He works as a military strategist for the
army. Bc-NUC-NRE-C-NUC-NP-R-qc-Pc-q-T-E-,
NUC-NRE-, military force || The newly trained army was a powerful
military force. E-T_-Cc_-T-MT-R]-NUC-NRE-N-NUC-NRE-xC-R-ZC-^P,
NUC-NRP, military officer || He was a military officer before he
retired. B-`c-]m_-U-qc-CE-NUC-NRP-ZC-^P,
NUC-NRP-GP-U, general || When did the general obtain his
position? NUC-NRP-GP-U-N-`-B]-C-CPc-PU-WN-MT,
NUC-, commander-in-chief, generalissimo || He was the commander-inchief of our forces. B-P-P-GN-E-W]-NUC-ORE-C-NUC--^P,
NUC--BE-, military headquarters || I found the general in the military
headquarters. Ec-NUC--BE-.-NUC--N,
221

NUC-E-, military training/drill || The military training lasted for four


months. NUC-E--TZ]-_E-`-qc,
NUC-`, military drill || After the military drill the soldiers were given a
ten day holiday. NUC-`-E-T_-n-c-?-NUC-U-`-IP-TF]-CPE-T-qP,
NUC-aN-FP, warlord || He was a warlord in Northwest China before
Liberation. TFEc-]u`-P-`-B-P-sE-C]-QT-qE-C-NUC-aN-FP-IA-,A-.0R/-ZC-^P,
NUEc-l-E-pCc, public opinion || Newspapers seek to inform public
opinion. WCc-R_-nc-NUEc-l-E-pCc-C--]W`,
NUEc-tN, folk || He collected folk songs from among the folk for ten
years. Bc-`-TF]-_E-`-NUEc-tN-.-NUEc--T-`P-qc,
NUEc-tN-_C-`, folk art || He collects folk art.
Bc-NUEc-tN-_C-`-]W`-N-qN,
NUEc-tN-_C-`-T, folk artist || He is a famous folk artist because of his
paintings. B]-U-WP-_-U]-Tc-lc-B-P-NUEc-tN-_C-`-T-uCc-FP-ZC-^P,
NUEc-, folk song, ballad || I can sing only one folk song.
Ec-NUEc-tN--NqEc-CFC-B-P-`c-`P-U-ac,
NUEc-NP, public/civil affair || The public affair was attended by hundreds
of people. NUEc-NP-n-tN-O-U-T-zC-O-U-[Cc,
NUEc-N, civil, public || The park is a public place.
E-@-P-NUEc-N-c-G-ZC-^P,
NUEc-CV, democracy, democratic || Democracy is one form of
government. NUEc-CV-P-NTE-_-l-U-R-ZC-^P,
NUEc-CV]--UMP, democratic republic || Have you been to the Peoples
Democratic Republic of Korea?

mN-dP-C-NUEc-CV]--UMP-`-BT-`-]u-rE-EU,
NUEc-CV]-U-, democrats, democratic element || The democrats had
much political power. NUEc-CV]-U--`-~N->$?-GP-R-^N,
NUEc-~N, civil administration || The Civil Administration is responsible
for helping people during earthquakes.

c-]D`-tN-U-NUEc-`-_Cc-_-qN-R_-NUEc-~N-lc-]CP-`P,
NUP, inferior || That product is of inferior quality. MP-c-N]-c-@-NUP,
NUP-, to be inferior || Im not inferior to you. E-mN-`c-U-NUP,
NU], low, inferior || He treats his staff as though they were very inferior
to him. B]-`C-C^C-W-B-`c-d-FE-NU]-_E-Bc-B-W-`--`P-qc,
222

NU]-]TTc, degradation, humiliation, insult || He endured the degradation


without a word of complaint. Bc-]BE-_-CFC-lE-U-L?-R_-NU]-]TTc-`-T\NT~P-qc, Ignore insults and feel better. .3:-:2J2?-GA-5B$-`-E-UN-qc-5K-W_T-H-T\E-^P,
NU]-_U, low level, primary || My knowledge of English is still at a low
level. E]-NqP-^C-C-G-WN-N-OE-NU]-_U-ZC-P-^N,
NU]-_U-T- primary school || My daughter is in primary school.
E]-T-U-NU]-_U-T--P-^N,
NU]-c, low position, low-lying area || The river is in a low-lying area.
G-T-N-NU]-c-P-^N,
NU_, red || The sky was red at dusk. c-C-C-PE-O-PU-UB]-P-NU_,
NU_-tN, teaching by practice, demonstration || His most powerful
teaching was teaching by practice. B]-T-tN-l-bCc-G-ac-P-NU_-tN-^P,
NU_-E-, bad omen || I said a prayer to counteract the bad omen.
Ec-Cc`-T-TKTc-Pc-NU_-E-TC
NU_-UGN, sacrifice of killing an animal || The sacrifice of killing an
animal is done once a year for the mountain god.

CZ-TNC-`-`-__-NU_-UGN-MEc-CFC-_-qN,
NU_-P, raw, naked, exposing || He ran naked out of the building into the
cold night air.

B-`c-NU_-P-O-BE-TCc-Pc-KA<-2.-.J-UWP-U]-PU--]mC-R]-PE-O-TCc,
NU_-x, smell of blood || The smell of blood was everywhere in the
slaughterhouse. Tac-_:A-PE-O-NU_-x-CE-c_-]M`,
NU_-]XE-, hand to hand combat || After they ran out of bullets they
fought hand to hand combat. B-W-`-T]-UN`-W_-c, B-Wc-NU_-]XE-qc,
NU_-CcN, slaughter, murder, massacre || The sudden attack resulted in a
massacre of the civilian population.

]z`-`-nc-U-c_-`-NU_-CcN-GP-R-TKE-,
NUCc, to be aimed at, to consider || Your question seems to be aimed at
me. mN-l-x-T-Nc-E-`-NUCc-^N-R-]x,
NUCc-NP, aim, purpose || What is the purpose of your question?
mN-l-]x-WC-C-NUCc-NP-P-F-ZC-^P,
NUCc-]TP, target, goal || Our companys goal is to increase profits.
E-W]-AE-\]-NUCc-]TP-P-B-Cc-]NCc--N-^P,
223

NUCc-WN, target, goal || Our target this year is to increase production by


ten percent. N-`_-E-W]-NUCc-WN-P-MP-WN-T-G]-TF-^c-H-UM_-CKE--N-^P,
NUCc-^`, goal, aim || What is the goal of life? U-W]-NUCc-^`-P-F-ZC-^P,
.3A$?-c, destination || It will take me two days to reach my destination.
E-.3A$?-c_-]q_-T_-IP-CIc-NCc,
NUCc-Tc`, exception, specialty || There is an exception to nearly every
rule. C-~`-_-_-`-d-`U-NUCc-Tc`-ZC-^N,
NU-N, barbaric, savage || His attack on the much weaker man was
completely barbaric. Bc-U-N-Tc-CIU-GE-`-`-T-P-NU-N-a-C-_N,
NUP-R, foolish, stodgy, dull || The stodgy man does not have a good time
at parties. U-NUP-R-N-`--WCc-`c-N-R-U-qE-,
NU_, to chew, to gnaw || The dog gnawed on the bone. m-Nc-_c-R-N-NU_,
NU, polluted, filthy; internal strife/murder || He didnt want to swim
in the polluted river. B-G-T-NU-TVC-N]-PE-O-G-`-qN- U-]NN, Internal strife
occurred in the tribe. W-T-`-PE-NU-qE-,
NUN, to blame, to scold || The teacher will scold us if we come to class
late. E-W-T-tN-l-c-?-`c-5K-NC-P-nc-E-W-`-NUN--_N,
NUN-R, curse, blame, abuse || I dont care about your abuse, just please
speak quietly. N-G-bT-L-aN, Ec-mN-l-NUN-R-`-E-T-U-]XP,
NUN-WC incantation || The monk chanted an incantation.
TVP-Rc-NUN-WC-T_,
Nr`-BUc, hell || Where is Hell and where is Heaven?
Nr`-BUc-NE-TN-T-FP-P-CE-P-^N,
, wound || I washed the wound with hot water. Ec-G-WP-Nc--B-Tsc,
-Nsc, bandage || I need a bandage for my wound.
E]--B-`--Nsc-aC-NCc,
-G, Yellow River || The Yellow River flows into the ocean in
Shandong Province. -G-P-LE-ZE-GP-Pc--UW]-PE-:22,
-q, peacock || I was surprised to find a peacock in my flower garden.
E]-U-KC-U-_]-PE--q-ZC-^N-R-UME-Pc-E-`-^-UWP-c,
-_, scar || The knife wound healed but left a red scar.
u]--B-cc-lE--_-NU_-T-ZC-`c,
-Cc, to cure a wound || The doctor said he could cure his wound. P-RcTaN-P-Bc-B]--Cc-MT-\_,
1

224

E-, foundation, base || What is the foundation of your theory?


mN-l-_Cc-C[E-C-E-P-F-ZC-^P,
E-, foundation stone || Last week we laid the foundation stone of the
house we are building. C\]-]B_-P-U_-E-Wc-`c-TZP-R]-BE-T-`-E--TKEc,
E-CZ-]NE-UBP, founder, originator || Who is the founder of Buddhism?
PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-l-E-CZ-]NE-UBP-P-c-^P,
N, marvelous, wonderful || What you said is very wonderful. mN-lc-{.(-TaN-R-N-d-FE-N,
N-O-qE-, outstanding, marvelous, wonderful || What a marvelous speech
he gave! Bc-CPE-T]-CKU-TaN-P-F-]x]-N-O-qE-T-`-eE-,
c, to be injured, to be wounded || He was wounded in the
battle. ]MT-]tC-OR.-B-=-c-1R$,
c-P, injury || Please let me treat your injury. Ec-mN-l-c-P-`-P-Cc-q,
c-U, wounded/injured person || Please take this wounded person to the
hospital now. c-U-]N-N--P-BE-O-]tN-_Cc,
, (, c,) to dream || I dreamed I saw my parents last night.
UNE-NCE-Ec--`U-O-S-U-UME-T-c,
-`U, dream || I cant tell you about my dream because I cant
remember it. Ec-<%-$A--`U-U-xP-Rc-mN-`-TaN-U-MT, What do dreams
really mean? kA-`U-nc-E-Uc-NP-F-ZC-UWP-R-^P,
-`U-]tCc, to have a nightmare || I had a nightmare and awoke
screaming. E-`--`U-]tCc-R-NE-NEEc-N-FC-`c-cN,
C-R, hoof || The horses front right hoof was caught in the wire fence.
-N]-`C-R-C^c-U]-C-R-Cc-x]-PE-O-WN,
C-UN-O-CKE-, to wipe out, to destroy completely || We will try to wipe
out all polio in the next two years.

E-Wc-c-U]-`-CIc-PE-qc-R]-N-PN-C-UN-O-CKE--^P,
-]NTc, plow and sow || Tomorrow we will plow and sow our
fields. cE-IP-E-Wc-c-ZE-`--]NTc-qN--^P,
-pCc, plowing animal || The yak is used as a plowing animal. C^C-pCc-`-T@`,
-U, grandmother || She became a grandmother last year with the birth
of her first grandchild. P-PE-B-U]-W-T-MC-U-c-Pc-B-U--U-`-n_,
-ZE-, arable field, farmland || Most of the land here is not pasture, its
225

farmland.

]N-C]-c-HR/-UE-G-ac-P--c-UP-R_--ZE-^P,

-`c, tillage || Tillage in this area has already started.


^`-u-]N]--`c-]C-TUc-\P,
C helmet || The motorcycle rider wore a red helmet. C-C-]B_-`-`TP-UBP-Nc-C-NU_-T-ZC-nP,
Ec, to be ignorant || Im ignorant about modern economic theory.
E-NE-Tc-l-NR`-]q_-_C-C[E-`-Ec,
Ec-P, foolish, idiot || I was angry when he called me an idiot.
Bc-E-`-Ec-P-8J?-Tc-R-P-E-:5B$-0-9R?-L%-,
Ec-NN, mystery; blind faith || Religion is a mystery to most people.
U-UE-G-ac-`-UWP-P-Gc-`Cc-P-Ec-NN-^P, He has blind faith in the
Buddha. Bc-cEc-c-`-Ec-NN-qN,
Ec-R, stupid, ignorance || Some people suffer from ignorance about
what is important. F-ZC-C`-G-T-`-Ec-Pc-U-`-ac-lc-C-rE-,
Ec-WN, blind guess || Although his prophesy was a blind guess, it was
correct. B]-`E-TP-P-Ec-WN-FC-^P-UN-, ]P-lE-`E-TP-N-]uC-cE-,
N, (, c, c,) to plow || I plowed the field this morning. .J-<A%-}-SREc-c-ZE-c,
E-, to stretch || After I awoke I stretched in bed, and then stood up. $*A.=?-cN-c, Ec-U`-t]-E-E-`C-E-ZE-N-eJ?-U`-`c-`Ec,
-_, beard || He has a heavy beard. B-`--_-C-R-ZC-^N,
C darkness || He could see nothing in the darkness of the night.
UWP-C-C-PE-O-Bc-F-^E-UME-U-MT,
C-_U, thick darkness || The light cut through the thick darkness of the
room. ]N-\_-nc-BE-T]-PE-C-C-_U-T`,
N, the lower part || The lower part of the tree had been chewed on by
goats. E-T]-N-`-_-Uc-NU_,
N-Cc, skirt, clothing for lower part of body || Her skirt was made of
cotton. B-U]-N-Cc-P-~E-T`-nc-T\c,
N-N, lower part || The lower part of the house was made of bricks.
BE-T]-N-N-P-c-SC-Cc-29R?,
N-G, the second of two parts, lower part || Have you read the second of
1

the two parts of his history of Europe?

B]-^-_T-`-c-l-N-G-mN-lc-e-TCc,
226

N-]WE-U, whore, prostitute || The prostitute became infected with a


sexual disease. N-]WE-U-`-_C-PN-]Cc,
(.-<, calumny, slander || Slander is made by people who themselves are
despised. 5.-<-/A-<%-=-E-GE-,J2?-0:A-3A:A-_-T-ZC-^P,
P, medicine; to be useful || That medicine is expired. P-N-Oc-`c-T`,
His advice is useful for you to achieve your goals. B]-B-K-P-mN-lNUCc-^`-]uT-R_-P,
P-BE-, hospital || He died without ever going to a hospital.
B-P-BE-O-]u-U-rE-T_-W-`c-]Nc,
P-BT, injection || The injection infected his arm.
P-BT-TT-R-`c-B]-NRE-T-TCc,
P-n-UM, efficiency of medicine || The efficiency of the medicine is very
high. P-n-UM-d-FE-G,
P-TFc, medical care, medical treatment || Have you received medical
treatment for your illness? mN-lc-mN-l-P-W-`-P-TFc-qN-O-AJ-TFC
P-TFc-BE-, clinic || The clinic was near the road. P-TFc-BE--`U-NE-I,
P-TFc-U-, medical personnel || That hospital has twenty-four medical
personnel. P-BE-N-P-P-TFc-U--I_-TZ-^N,
P-Gc, medical equipment || The new medical equipment improved
1

medical care in the local area.

P-Gc-Cc_-T-Nc-c-CPc-P-TFc-H-`Cc-c-TKE-,
P-G, liquid medicine || Take two drops of this liquid medicine just
before you go to bed. mN-U-I`-CE-P-G-MCc-G-CIc-MEc,
P-MP, dosage, dose || What dosage of this medicine should I take
everyday? IP-__-P-]N-Ec-P-MP-$-5S.-TLE-NCc,
P-R, doctor, physician || My village does not have one doctor. E-W]--T-`P-R-CFC-lE-UN,
P-NoN-UBc-R, diagnostic specialist || That doctor is a diagnostic
specialist. P-R-N-P-P-NoN-UBc-R-ZC-^P,
P-_, compound of medicine || This substance is a compound of
medicine that can treat several illnesses.

c-]N-P-P-W-UE-T-Cc-MT-R]-P-_-ZC-^P,
P-_-BE-, pharmacy || The Tibetan Medicine pharmacy smells nice.
TN-P-P-_-BE-`-x-ZU-]MTc,
227

P-_-T, pharmacist || She learned to be a pharmacist in night school.


B-Uc-UWP-U]-T--<-P-_-T-ZC-qN-R_-T-E-qc,
P-WE-BE-, drugstore || The drugstore does not have the medicine you
wanted. P-WE-BE-.-mN-`-NCc-R]-P-N-UN,
P-c, medicine || How much did this medicine cost? P-c-]N:A-<A/-`_-U-C-WN-NCc-cE-,
P-C[E-, medical book || He kept a medical book near his bed so that he
could read it at night.

Bc-UWP-U_-P-D[E-C-GN-U`-t]-`Cc-?-P-C[E-ZC-TZC
P-^P, medical treatment fees || This clinic doesnt charge local
residents medical treatment fees.

P-TFc-BE-]Nc-^`-U]-`C-Pc-P-^P-U-`P,
P-C^C nurse || She is studying to be a nurse.
B-Uc-PN-C^C-FC-qN-R_-T-E-qN-TZP-^N,
P, to mature, to ripen || The apples will ripen before late autumn.
A-b-P-UHC-C-P-O-P,
P-R, ripe || That apple is ripe and sweet. A-b-N-P-P-8A%-UE_-U-^P,
P-U, eyebrow || He cocked one eyebrow. Bc-P-U-^-CFC-C\Ec,
C-R, fog, mist || The mountain top was covered with fog.
_-UC_-C-R-]MTc,
, mole || He has a small mole near his mouth. B]-B-]uU-P--GE-ZC-^N,
N, (N, N, N,) to abuse, to insult || He insulted his friend after he
became drunk. T\-c-Bc-uCc-R-`-N,
N-WC curse word || I punished my son for saying a curse word.
E]-Tc-NUN-WC-T_-T_-Ec-GN-R-TFN,
P, to wish, to desire || I wish that you will be a good and diligent
student. Ec-mN-P-TP-]uc-G-T]-T-U-T\E-T-ZC-^P-R_-P,
P-]OP, wish, desire || My wish is that you can be healthy and happy.
E]-P-]OP-P-mN-l-`c-SE-TN-ZE-N-0R<-^E--N-^P,
P-WC good wish, congratulatory wish || He gave me a good wish and
then said goodbye. Bc-E-`-P-WC-T\E-T-ZC-S`-c-TN-U-qc-\_,
c, to say, to speak || I said that I believe in and trust you. Ec-2>.-o<-%mN-`-^N-Gc-aE--]B`-;R.,
c-F-NCc, needless to say || Needless to say a mother loves her children.
228

e-U-qc-R-`-T-T-P-c-F-NCc,
P-R, matchmaker || The matchmaker escorted the bride to the grooms
home. P-Rc-TC-U-UC-R]-mU-O-`-U-qc,
P-qN, media || The media includes magazines, newspapers, radio, and
television. P-qN-l-PE-O-Oc-NT, WCc-R_, E-TCc-NE-TP-]zP-2&?-]Oc,
-D, pen || This pen was not expensive. -D-]N]-CE-U-N@],
C-U, bamboo || Pandas like to eat bamboo. NU-t-C-U-\-T_-NC],
, (, c,) to be mad/crazy/deranged || Her never-ending questions
made me crazy. B]-Cc-UM]-UN-R]-]x-WC-Cc-E--_-TFC
-PN, mental illness, psychosis || The doctor said he has a mental illness.
P-Rc-B-`--PN-qE-^N-R_-TaN,
-T, to pretend to be mad/crazy || I will pretend to be mad to play a
joke on my friends. uCc-R-W-`-NCN-CKU-E-T_-Ec--T-qN--^P,
-`T, crazy talk/speech || I cant understand your crazy
talk. Ec-mN-l--`T-`-C-T-U-`P,

P-R, crazy man, madman, crazy || Hes a crazy man. B-P-P-R-ZC-_N,


P-U, crazy/deranged woman || The crazy woman talked constantly to
herself. P-U-Nc-UWUc-U-GN-R_-B_-`T-qc,
, (, c, c,) to say, to tell, to speak || I must tell you a secret.
Ec-mN-`-CcE-CKU-ZC-Ec-R_-O--NCc,
-, tongue; enunciation || I bit my tongue. Ec-<%-$A---`-c-TKT, His
enunciation is very clear. B]---NC
-Cc, wailing, lamentation || The daughters lamentation for her dead
mother was moving. T-Uc-U-.3-0<--Cc-]NP-R-P-cUc-]D`-MTc-R-ZC-_N,
E-, to be sad, to be downcast || He was sad about his friends death.
uCc-R-]Nc-Pc-B]-cUc-E-,
E-, sad melody, elegy, dirge || The sad flute melody made us all
weep. E-T]-E--^c-E-W-WE-U]-UC-G-xEc,
1

229

V-C-VC-C, trivial || Its a trivial matter so dont worry. NP-N-V-C-VC-C-ZC-^PRc-cUc-B_-U-qN,


V-P, when, at the time, since || When you visited me I was sick.
mN-lc-E-`-]WUc-]x-qN-V-P-E-P-CP-^N,
V-_-_, dropping, trickling || The sound of trickling water made it hard for
me to sleep. G--V-_-_-Nc-E-`-CIN-BC-L-U-TFC
VU, a little; this much; about || I want a little more sugar in my
coffee. E]-B-q:A-PE-O-@-_-p-U-FE-UE-VU-NCc, I want this much sugar in
my coffee. E]-B-q]-PE-O-E-`-@-_-]N-VU-NCc, Ill come to your home at
about three p.m. E-p-x]-(-WN-CcU-VU-O-mN-WE-`-]E-,
VU-O, at about, in about || Ill be at your home at about noon. IP-DE-VU-O-EmN-l-mU-O-MP-^E-, Ill visit your family in about two days. *A/-$*A?-431

IA-eJ?-?-%-HR.-5%-=-;R%-%J?,

VU-ZC about || Please tell me about your family.


mN-WE-C-CPc-W`-VU-ZC-E-`-TaN-_Cc,
V-D, rat, mouse || The rat ate some poison and died. V-Dc-OC-]C]-\c-Pc-a,
VE-`, premier, prime minister || The premier will give a speech
tomorrow morning. cE-IP--x_-VP-`c-CcE-TaN-FC-CPE--_N,
VE-, onion || Lets put some onion in this beef dish.
Uc-a-_-U-]N]-PE-O-VE-]C]-SEc,
CVCc, (CVCc, CVCc, CVCc,) to stab, to pierce || He stabbed him with a
knife. Bc-B-`-uc-CVCc,
CVE-, clean, hygienic; Gtshang (southwest part of Central Tibet) ||
This restaurant is very clean. \-BE-]N-d-FE-CVE, Hes from
Gtshang. B-P-CVE-Pc-^E,
CVE-NC cleaning || Cleaning dirty dishes is something I dont like to do.
_-U-C-TVC-$4%-:KA-LJ.-o-P-Ec-`c-]NN-R-ZC-UP,
CVE-T, river || The river dried up last summer. P-PE-Nq_-B_-CVE-T-U,
CVE-U, clean, hygienic || The new clinic is very clean. |R-TP-(/-BE-Cc_-T1

230

N-d-FE-CVE-U-^P,
CVE-c`, eradication, extermination || The extermination of evil should
be our common aim. CNP-]x-CVE-c`-qN-o-P-E-W]-MP-UE-C-NUCc-^`-^P,
CVTc, (CVTc, CVTc, CVTc,) to chop, to cut up || Please chop this beef.
Uc-a-]N-CVTc,
CVCc, to bare (ones teeth) || The dog will bare its teeth when strangers
visit. U-G-UN-MP-R-P-mc-c-CVCc,
CVC-P_, most valued property; head ornament || My most valued
property is my gold ring. E]-CVC-P_-P-E]-Cc_-n-UXT-Nsc-^P, My
mother gave me this head ornament. E]-e-Uc-E-`-CVC-P_-]N-qP,
CVC-`C classics, scriptures || How many classics have you read?
mN-lc-CVC-`C-C-WN-TCc-\P,
CVC-`C-BE-, temple || The old temple has been repaired.
CVC-`C-BE-E-T-N-IUc-Cc-qc,
CVT, (CVT, CVTc, CVTc,) to rub, to brush || He rubbed the knife against
the sharpening stone. Bc-u-T_-`-CVTc,
CV, (CV, CVc, CVc,) to hurt, to damage || I dont want to hurt your
feelings. Ec-mN-l-T-OE-`-CV-U-]NN,
CV-]CP, the main responsibility || My father has the main responsibility
1

for earning money in my family.

EN-WE-.-_-U-]W`-T_-e-Sc-CV-]CP-]B_,
CV-G-T, main, important, major || This is an important novel.
]N-P-E-CKU-CV-G-T-ZC-^P,
CV-TNC leader, chief || He is the village leader. B-P-E-W--T]-CV-TNC-^P,
CV-S`, principle and secondary, important and unimportant || He
explained to me what was important and unimportant about my
work.

Bc-E-`-%:A-q-T]-MC-C-CV-S`-CE-^P-R-Cc`-TaN-qc,

CV-T, main, major, principle || The main thing that I should do is to


finish my work on time.

Ec-`c-]c-R]-q-T-CV-T-P-<%-$A-q-T-Oc-MC-L-]uT--N-^P,
CV-T_, mainly, foremostly || We mainly grow wheat here.
E-Wc-]N<-CV-T_-u-]NTc,
CV-]XP, leader || Who is the leader of your country?
mN-W]-`-BT-l-CV-]XP-P-c-^P,
231

TVCc, to sift || The flour needs to be sifted before you mix it with water.
p-]N-G-NE-U-c-CE-TVCc-NCc,
TVP-`, force, compelling || He spoke with great force.
Bc-TVP-`-nc-TaN,
TVP-tN, hijacking, holding under duress, kidnap || The airplane hijacking
took place at ten oclock this morning. CPU-u-TVP-tN-qc-R-N-.J-<A%-}-SR:A(-WN-TF]-E-qE-,
TVP-]C`, imposition || I know visiting you unannounced is an
imposition. mN-`-U-TaN-R_-E-CLCc-R-P-TVP-]C`-ZC-^P-R-Ec-ac,
TVP-]CC forcible prohibition || There is a forcible prohibition against
gambling in that country. `-BT-N-Pc-P-R-TVP-]CC-qN,
TVP-`, aggression, attack || The attack happened at dawn.
-_Ec-Tc-c-TVP-`-qc,
TVP-`-_E-`Cc, imperialism || There was much imperialism in Africa.
e-q-_-B-P-TVP-`-_E-`Cc-Cc-G,
TVP-CKU, strongly worded speech || His strongly worded speech was
heard by thousands of people. U-E-zC-O-Uc-B]-TVP-CKU-Mc,
TVP-CPP, oppression, suppression || Oppression of the masses cannot last
forever. UE-WCc-`-TVP-CPP-qN-R-P-C-U-~N,
TVP-R, strong, violent; emperor || Peace is the opposite of violent
activity. Z-TN-P-q-N-TVP-R-`c-pP-F-`C The emperor lived in a huge
palace and had many wives. TVP-R-N-S-{E-GP-R-ZC-C-PE-O-T[Cc-/?-TVP-UUE-T-^E-BT-L-TZc,
TVP-]zC forcible annexation/capture || Iraqs forcible annexation of
Kuwait was short-lived. Nq-_C-Cc-B--M-TVP-]zC-qc-R-N-SCc-U-TP,
TVP-]X`, aggression, invasion || The large countrys policy of
1

aggression toward the small country was criticized by everyone.

`-BT-GP-Rc-`-BT-GE-T-`-TVP-]X`-n-~N-Hc-]XP-R-`-AP-nc-B-E-qN,
TVP-]X`-UBP, invader, aggressor || The invader forces were stopped and
made to retreat. TVP-]X`-UBP-n-NUC-NRE-T@C-Pc-p_-TCc,
TVP-E-, fortress || The old fortress was situated on a mountain top.
TVP-E-E-T-N-_-T]--P-^N,
TVP-T\E-, forcible occupation, forcible seizure || Forcible occupation of
the area by the enemy was sad for all of us.

232

Nu-Tc-^`-N-TVP-T\E-qc-R_-E-W-WE-U-,
TVP-C^U, rape || He was convicted for rape and put in prison.
Bc-TVP-C^U-qc-R-`-_-N-qc-3,<-B-=-24S/-:)$-,J2?,
TVP-bCc, violence, might, force, power || That country uses force to
control other countries. `-BT-Nc-TVP-bCc-T@`-Pc-`-BT-CZP-.$-5S.]XP-LJ.,
TVP-aN, force || He used force to make everyone agree with him.
Bc-U-CZP-_E-NE-UMP-R-^E-GN-TVP-aN-T@`,
TV], (TV], TVc,) to give birth to || My wife gave birth to our son last
night. UNE-NCE-E]-GE-Uc-E-W]-T-TVc,
TV], rust, tarnish; to look after || Rust formed on the unpainted metal.
-U-qCc-R]-Cc-E-`-TV]-GCc, I look after my young students. Ec-TU-GE-GE-Uc-TV],
TV_-CPP, pressing, squeezing, crushing || Pressing oil from the seeds of
oil-seed plants harvested by our family took more than one hour. ENWE-Cc-Tc-R]-U-KC-C-c-TP-`c-C^c-TV_-CPP-qN-R_-(-WN-CFC-C-NCc-qE-,
TVP, righteous, correct (in behavior) || His behavior has always been
righteous. B]-N-R-P-R_-TVP,
TVP-R, monk || That monk is bald. TVP-R-N-UC-^-T-_N,
TVP-U, queen || A queen is a kings wife. TVP-U-P-`-R]-GE-U-^P,
TV-E-, smelting, refining || Iron ore refining requires a lot of coal.
Cc-TV-E-qN-R_--c`-UE-T-NCc,
TVC dirty, contaminated, filthy || His clothes were so dirty that I burned
them. B]-CP-R-d-FE-TVC-0?-Ec-N-NC-U_-T~Cc,
TVP-BE-, jail, prison || The jail was full of prisoners. TVP-BE-.-TVP-Uc-BEc,
TVP-R, prisoner || The prisoner wore a gray uniform.
TVP-Rc-`c-Cc-M`-UNC-FC-nP,
TVP-`-]HC to imprison || The inmate will be imprisoned the day after
tomorrow. CZc-IP-N-uCc-TVP-`-]HC--_N,
TVc-U, cooked || Is this meat cooked? a-]N-TVc-U-^P-PU,
, veins; bottom || He was so thin that you could see all the veins in
his body. B]-`c-R-_N-S$?-0c-mN-lc-B]-`c-E-C--MUc-FN-lE-UME-MT,
The army camp is located at the bottom of the mountain. NUC-_-_-P-CZ-GCc-^N,
1

233

-tUc, constitution || Have you studied the American constitution?


mN-lc-e-U-_-B]--tUc-Ec-cU,
-NP, gist, main idea, principle || What is the gist of what he is saying?
Bc-TaN-R]--NP-F-ZC-^P, The principle of human equality is something
he believes in. U]-_Cc-]x-UIU-n-l-.R/-/A-Bc-^N-Gc-qN-c-ZC-^P,
-CPN, main point, main question, main thesis || I dont think I presented
the main point of my argument clearly.

Ec-<%-$A-E-CZ]--CPN-Cc`-T_-TP-^N-R_-U-]NN,
-T, root, basis, origin, source || What is the root of this problem?
CPN-NP-]N]--T-P-F-ZC-^P,
-UN, annihilation || The annihilation of mice is difficult to achieve.
V-D--UN-O-CKE-N@],
-]XCc, organization || The new organization had its first meeting last
night. UNE-NCE--]XCc-Cc_-T-Nc-WCc-]O-MC-U-]WCc,
C-C trivial, trifling || That is a trivial matter. N-P-NP-NC-C-C-FC-_N,
N-CFN, investigation, inquiry, exploration || Was your investigation
successful? mN-l-N-CFN-`Cc-]uT-qE-EU,
N-ZT, investigation, inquiry, survey || The crime investigation resulted
in several arrests. Ic-R-N-ZT-qc-3,<-U-]C]-]XP-T\E-qc,
`, skill, dexterity || My skill in playing ping-pong could be improved.
E:A-SP-SE-E-`--T]-`-H-T\E-`-CKE-MT,
`-E-, exercise, drill || The morning exercise period lasts about twenty
minutes. 8R$?-0:A-`-E-=-_-U-I-b-VU-:$R<,
, (T, Tc, c,) to count; to obey; to consider as || Did you count
the sheep? mN-lc-`C-Tc-cU, I obey my mother and father. Ec-S-UCIc-`-T, I consider you as my own son. Ec-mN-<%-$A-T-`-T,
-aE-, plant, vegetation || This plant is edible. -aE-]N-T\]-GC
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to pile up; to build || Please pile up all the
stones in the field here. ZE-B]--WE-U-]N-C_-Cc, We will build a new
home next year. cE-`_-E-Wc-BE-T-Cc_-T-ZC-TC--^P,
E-N, violent/crude behavior || I cant stand their crude behavior.
Ec-B-W]-E-N-`-T\N-T~P-qN-U-MT,
E-T, crude, rough || Dont use crude speech when you talk to me.
mN-lc-E-`-B-T-qN-Oc-N-G-E-T-U-TaN,
1

234

N-R, yak hair || The tent is made of yak hair. -D_-N-Rc-T\c,


c, mathematics; calculation, computation || I was always very good
at mathematics. E-Oc-P-O-c-`-d-FE-T\E-, This calculation requires
addition, subtraction, and division. c-]N-`-]z-P-TC-CcU-qN-NCc,
c-]B_, calculator || The calculator needs two batteries to operate.
c-]B_-N-]B_-T_-C-C^c-CIc-NCc,
c-M, records, account ledger || He keeps his records locked in a safe.
Bc-<%-$A-c-M-IP-]CC-Cc-U-ZC-C-PE-O-I_-WCc-qN,
c-N, handing over, transfer || The transfer of money will occur
tomorrow at the bank. cE-IP-NE`-BE-.-_-U-c-N-qN--_N,
c-_C mathematics || My daughter studies mathematics in primary
school. E]-T-Uc-T-GE-.-c-_C-T-E-qN,
c-_C-UBc-R, mathematician || My father is a mathematician.
E]-e-S-P-c-_C-UBc-R-ZC-^P,
c-Ta_, examination, audit, making an inventory || The audit of the
company was done once annually. `-__-AE-\]-c-Ta_-MEc-CFC-qN,
T-R, rough, coarse, violent, harsh || The women left when the men
1

began using rough language.

c-R-Nc-N-G-T-R-TaN-]C-TUc-R-P-c-U-N-TN-cE-,
T-N, rough/violent/outrageous behavior || After they get drunk rough
behavior ensues. B-W-T\-c, T-N-lE-qE-,
, top, summit, peak || The mountain top vanished in clouds.
_--P-_U-`-^`,
, (, c, c,) to play, to dance, to entertain, to recreate || We will go to
the park to play this afternoon. N-_E-p-x_-E-W-E-@-`--T_-]u--^P,
-uc, first class, the best || This is a first class hotel.
]N-P-UuP-BE--uc-aC-^P,
-CFC-L, attentively || We listened attentively as he talked.
Bc-N-G-TaN-Tc-E-Wc-cUc--CFC-L-IP,
-S-{E-, Potala Palace || The Potala Palace is in Lhasa. -S-{E-P--c-P-^N,
-U, summit, top, peak || I dont think I can climb all the way to the
summit. Ec-<%-*A.-`U-ZA=-0R<-:$R?-/?-_]--U-`-aJ2?-,2-0<-U-]NN,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to pile up, to stack up; to bargain; to brocade ||
Lets pile up the rocks here. E-Wc--WE-U-]N-_-TC-R_-q, Lets bargain
1

235

E-Wc-CE-NU]-U-`-TC-R_-q, Im going to brocade


this afternoon. N-_E-p-x_-Ec-_-U-TC--^P,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to erect, to raise up || We will erect the monument
here. E-Wc-c-xP--_E-N-]N-Pc-TE--^P,
N-]H, entertainment, recreation || What should we do for some
entertainment? E-Wc-N-]H-&A-8A$-_`-T_-q-NCc,
N-U, game, play, recreation, entertainment || What game do you like
best? mN-Gc-NC]-T]-N-U-F-^P,
N, (TN, TN, N,) to argue, to debate, to quarrel || I dont want to argue
with you. Ec-mN-NE-TN-U-]NN,
N-E-, argument, dispute, quarrel || After our argument we did not
speak. N-E-C-c-Pc-E-Wc-B-U-uCc,
N-T-_C-R, dialectics || I studied dialectics in college.
Ec-T-E-.-N-T-_C-R-Ec,
N-R, argument, dispute || The argument was over control of grassland.
N-R-P--c]-TNC-]XP-MC-C-_N,
N-]XE-, fight, dispute || What was the fight about? N-]XE-N-P-F]-p_-^P,
N-CZ, subject of debate, basis of controversy/dispute || The subject of
3

for a cheaper price.

our debate is Will Mankind Destroy Itself?

E-W]-N-CZ-P-U]-_Cc-lc-_E-IN-TC-CU\_-T-N-^P,
U, composition, article || He published his article on Tibetan history
last year. P-PE-Bc-<%-$A-TN-l-`-c-_-n-U-`,
U, (TU, TUc, Uc,) to compose, to write || What will you write your
article about? mN-lc-Cc-U-F-ZC-lR3--^P,
U-UBP, author, writer || Who is the author of that book?
NR-G-]N-U-UBP-c-^P,
U-_, translation || My translation will be published next month.
E]-U-_-N--eJ?-U_-NR_-]uU-qN--_N,
U-C editing || Editing translations takes a lot of time.
^C-_-U-C-qN-R-`-Oc-WN-UE-T-NCc,
U-C-R, editor, compiler || He works as an editor at the publishing
house. Bc-NR-P-BE-.-U-C-R:A-q-T-CI_, I was the editor of that book.
E-P-NR-G-N]-lR3-C-R-^P,
U-TLc, selected works, anthology, collection of essays || A collection
236

of essays he wrote twenty years ago has just been published.

Bc-`-I-b]-P-{c-R]-Cc-U-n-U-TLc-N-R_-O-TP-U-MC-^P,
U-R-R, author, writer || How much can an author earn?
U-R-R-ZC-Cc-_-U-C-WN-<J$-MT,
U-^C essay, article, literary composition || My essay was rejected for
publication. E]-U-^C-R_-P-qN--N-NCC-q_-CKN,
U-_C literature || Have you studied British literature?
mN-lc-NqP-H]-U-_C-`-T-E-qc-rE-EU,
U-_C--`, literature and art || He doesnt like literature and arthes
only interested in girls and watching television.

B-U-_C--`-`-U-NC]-T_-TN-UN-NE-TP-]zP-T-o_-B-P-`-NC],
U-_C-R, man of letters || He is a knowledgeable man of letters.
B-P-ac--G-T]-U-_C-R-ZC-^P,
U-`Cc, literary style || I admire his literary style.
Ec-B]-U-`Cc-`-^N-P-qN,
`, (T`, T`, `,) to strive, to endeavor, to work hard || I strive to do
my farmwork well. Ec-ZE-`c-T\E-T_-T-R_-`,
`-T, work, labor, endeavor, diligence || His lifes work was the
compilation of a Tibetan-Tibetan dictionary.

B]-GE-U]-`-T-P-TN-^C-WC-UXN-l-U-C-^P,
`-bCc, drive, vigor, energy || Even though hes more than eighty, hes
got a lot of vigor. B-`-P-TN-F-`c-]Nc-lE-, B-`-`-bCc-GP-R-^N,
, grass || Grass is green. -P-E-B-^P,
-EP, rank grass || Rank grass grew around the deserted home.
mU-E-C-B_-^C-P--EP-c,
-G, vegetation and water || This is a good place for livestock because
there is a lot of vegetation and water.

]N-P--G-]XUc-R-^N-Rc-pCc-\C-`-UWP-P-35K<-c-T\E-T-ZC-_N,
l-(J, precious, valuable || The old painting was valuable.
U-WP-_-U-E-T-N-P-l-(J,
-ME-, pastureland, grassland || The pastureland was covered with
livestock. -ME-`-pCc-lc-BEc,
-]NU, grassy swamp || Two of your sheep are stuck in the grassy
swamp near the river. G-]uU-n--]NU-O-mN-l-`C-CIc-]Mc,
237

`, (T`, T`, `,) to offer, to present, to give, to impart (h) || I will


give my teacher a small gift.

Ec-<%-$A-NC-P-`-`Cc-c-GE-GE-ZC-T`--^P,
T-TA_, respect || I have no respect for dishonest people. Ec-U--TC-FP-`T-TA_-U-qN,
T-]HC respect || I have great respect for my parents.
Ec-S-U-`-T-]HC-GP-R-qN,
T-UME-, respect, regard || I hold my teacher in high regard.
Ec-NC-P-`-T-UME-GP-R-qN,
T-~E-, abide by, comply with, follow, observe || I will abide by your
order. Ec-mN-l-T@]-T-~E-qN-Ec,
T, to love, to have compassion; to tingle || I love my children. E-<%-$Aqc-R-`-T, My teeth tingle after I eat that fruit. Ec-c`-KC-\c-Pc-c-TqE-,
T-OE-, love, affection || I have much love for my children.
1

E-<%-$A-qc-R-`-T-OE-GP-R-^N,

T-cUc, love, affection || Love is the opposite of hate.


T-cUcP-Z-E-C-C--^P,
TP, to strive for, to endeavor || I shall endeavor to read your paper
tonight. N-NCE-Ec-mN-l-NoN-U-C-R_-TP-NCc,
TP-]uc, diligence, industry || I admire his diligence in study.
Ec-B]-T-E-C-MC-C-TP-]uc-`-^N-P-qN,
TP-R, diligence || His success is due to his diligence.
B]-`-B-P-B]-TP-]uc-l-Tc-^P,
TP-`P, striving, endeavoring, exerting oneself, struggle || We are
striving to work as well as we can. E-Wc-_E-Qc-F-Cc-lc-TP-`P-qN,
The struggle for success is not easy.`-B-2lR/-=J/-qN-o-P-`c--U-UP,

238

W, fever, hot || Hes sweating from a fever. B-`-W-TT-Pc-`-G-T[_,


W-B`, tropical area, the tropics || There is no cold winter in the tropics.
W-B`-.-uE-E_-G-T]-NDP-B-UN,
W-uE-, temperature || What is the temperature right now? N--W-uE-C-WN-_N,
W-c, to get a fever || I dont want to get a fever and be sick for several
days. Ec-<%-=-W-c-Pc-IP-]C]-`-P-W-qE-P-U-]NN,
W-G, hot spring || I bathed in the hot spring and felt much better. Ec-W-G]PE-tc-qc-0?-=?-0R-H-TN_-GP-R-cE-,
W-NU, thermos || A thermos keeps water hot. W-NU-`c-G-U-]mC
W-xN, heat || The stove gave out a lot of heat. Cc-MT-`c-W-xN-GP-R-qE-,
W-PN, sunstroke || He didnt wear a hat and got sunstroke.
Bc--U-U-CP-0<-W-PN-qE-,
W-T, hot; extremely, very || This summer is very hot. Nq_-@-P-d-FE-W-T_N, She is extremely beautiful. B-U-P-UXc-U-W-T-_N,
W-T, nephew; grandson || My sisters son is my nephew. E]-~E-U]-T-P-E]W-T-^P, My sons son is my grandson. E]-T]-T-P-E]-W-T-^P,
W-U, niece; grandaughter || My sisters daughter is my niece. E]~E-U]T-U-P-E]-W-U-^P, My sons daughter is my granddaughter. E]-T:A-T-U-PE]-W-U-^P,
W-\C pain, agony || The pain from my broken leg keeps me from
sleeping. E]-E-T-GC-R]-W-\C-Cc-E-`-CIN-BC-L-U-]HC
W-_, lambskin, fleece || His robe is lined with lambskin.
B]-CP-R]-PE-U-`-W-_-TT,
W-`, solder, weld || The weld holding the two pieces of metal together
broke. Cc-`T-CIc-UIU-O-W-`-qc-^N-R-N-M_,
W-`-U, orange || The oranges were produced in south China.
sE-C]--pCc-?-W-`-U-MP-N-qc,
WCc-NU-R, compact, tightly packed || I bought a new compact disk that
1

has my favorite songs on it.

Ec-!J%-.-<%-*A.-(J?-.$:-2:A-\-.L%?-.$-;R.-0:A239

:R.-#J<-WCc-NU-R-Cc_-T-ZC-Ic,All of our clothing was tightly packed in

several cardboard boxes. %-5S:C-H-2-5%-3->R$-|3-:$:A-/%-.-5$?-.3-0R<-

2&$-;R.,

WCc-R_, newspaper || I read the Tibetan newspaper every week.


Ec-C\]-]B_-_<-TN-^C-C-WCc-R_-C
WCc-WN-R, well organized || That is a well organized construction team.
N-P-]XCc-P-_-BC-WCc-WN-R-ZC-^P,
WCc-^C record, document || That document is at least fifty years old.
WCc-^C-N-JE-UM_-^E-`--TF-]C_,
WCc-c-WN, to be prepared, to be well organized || I am prepared for
anything. E]-q-T-MUc-FN-WCc-c-WN,
WE-, nest; household, family || The little bird fell out of its nest.
q]-WE-Pc-E-, There are six people in my family. EN-WE-`-U-xC-^N,
WE-, to be complete || Im writing a song but its not yet complete.
Ec--NqEc-aC-]{-TZP-^N, ]P-lE-N-N-_E-B-WE-UN,
WE-U, all, every || Do all of you agree? mN-W-WE-U-e-]MN,
WE-WE-, very dense/thick || The trees in the forest are so thick that you
1

cant ride a horse through it.

PCc-W`-WE-WE-G-Tc-mN-PCc-CcT-+--ZP-Pc-]u-U-MT,
WEc-N, good deed/behavior || You will be rewarded for every good
deed that you do. mN-lc-WEc-N-]XP-MEc-__-mN-`-q-NC]-_--_N,
WN, measurement; degree, level || I dont agree with your
1

measurement of who is a good student and who is a bad student.

mN-lc-T-U-T\E-EP-?-;A/-R-MC-CFN-R]-WN-`-E-U-]MN, He has a high level


of knowledge of Buddhism. PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-l-E-Pc-B]-^P-KP-n-WN-UM,
WN, (WN, WN, WN,) to measure, to weigh || Lets weigh ourselves. E-W:A-=?0R:C-uA.-5.-WN,
WN-Ec-FP, some extent, definite limit || To some extent I believe what he
says. Bc-F-TaN-R-`-WN-Ec-FP-ZC-Pc-E-^N-Gc,
WN-]H`, to measure || Lets measure you and see how tall you are.
E-Wc-mN-l-C\Cc-WN-]H`-Pc-mN-F-]x-UM-T-`-T-NE-,
WN-P, standard; qualified || He speaks standard Chinese. Bc--N-WNP-ZC-, Do you think he is qualified to teach written Tibetan? mNlc-B-P-TN-^C-]tN-R_-WN-P-ZC-^P-e-]NN,
2

240

WN-U, criterion, standard, truth || What criterion do you use to judge


people? mN-lc-U-`-CNE-]HC-qN-R_-WN-U-F-ZC-]XP,
WN-UN, limitless, boundless, infinite || Space is limitless.
UB]-NqEc-P-WN-UN,
WN-CZ, standard, specification || This machine part needs to be made
exactly to standard. ]z`-Gc--`C-]N-)A-3-)A-28A/-.-5.-$8A<-$8A$?-/?`c-NCc,
WN-`P, measurement || Measurement of the students heights required an
hour. T-U-W]-D\Cc-`-WN-`P-qN-R_-(-WN-CFC-NCc-qE-,
WN-`Ec, to be able to reach the standard/qualification || The quality of
this product reached my standard. MP-c-]N]--c-E]-WN-`-`Ec,
WP-BC department, section, division || Which department do you teach
in? mN-lc-WP-BC-CE-P-T-tN-qN,
WP-GE-, small section/group/division || I work in a small section.
Ec-WP-GE-ZC-P-q-T-CI_,
WP-R, paragraph, section || This paragraph should be deleted from your
article. WP-R-]N-mN-l-U-^C-`c-T?2-R_-_Cc,
WP-_C science || Chemistry is a science. c-]n_-P-WP-_C-FC-^P,
WP-_C-BE-, Academy of Sciences || He is a member of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences. B-P-sE-C]-WP-_C-BE-C-U--ZC-^P,
WP-_C-R, scientist || He is a nuclear scientist. B-P-IE-`-WP-_C-R-ZC-^P,
WP-_C-`C-`, scientific technique || Scientific technique questions all
assumptions. WP-_C-`C-`-nc-}R/-.0$-WE-U-`-NCc-CZ-]SP,
52-+, on behalf of || On behalf of all of us here, I want to give you this
gift. Ec-]N-C]-E-W-WE-U]-52-L?-/?-`Cc-c-]N-mN-`-]T`,
WT-N, compensation, reparation || Your error made me lose money and
I want compensation. mN-l-P_-]GC-C-P-nc-E-`-_-U]-nE-DN-MTc-Rc, mNlc-E-`-*A/-WT-N-NCc,
WT-T-WT-T, flurried, flustered || His flustered face told me he was worried
and too busy. B]-E-UNC-WT-T-WT-T-N-`c-Ec-B-cUc-]B_-NE-{`-]WT-G-T-ac,
WT-U, substitute, replacement, on behalf of || This substitute cloth is poor
quality. _c-WT-U-]N--c-ZP,
WTc-G, serious, severe || He has a serious illness. B-`-PN-WTc-G-ZC-^N,
WU-U-WU-U, hesitation, shilly-shally || His hesitation in business has
241

meant that he has lost many opportunities.

B-P-WE-C-R_-WU-U-WU-U-ZC-^P-R-Nc-Bc-C-Tc-UE-T-]G_-T-UWP,
W_, to be finished, to be completed; time || What time will class be
finished? T-tN-PU-WN-W_--_N, How many times did you read this
book? mN-lc-NR-G-]N-W_-$-5S.-TCc,
W_-CFN, eradication, annihilation || The eradication of the grassland pest
was not successful. -ME-C-$/R.-:2-i3?-W_-CFN-qN-R_-`Cc-]uT-U-qE-,
W`-U, vegetable || I thought the vegetable that we had for supper was
overcooked. Ec-E-Wc-NCE-\c-`-\c-R]-W`-U-Wc-xCc-^N-]NN,
W`-T, a half || I have half of a piece of bread. E-`-C-_-W`-T-ZC-^N,
W, dirt, filth || Your clothes are covered with dirt. mN-l-CP-R-`-W-^c-BTc,
WC word || I dont understand what this word means. Ec-WC-]N]-PE-NP-U-C
WC-E-, sentence || This sentence is too long. WC-E-]N-_E-xCc,
WC-]u`, explanatory note || After I read her explanatory note I
understood her better. Ec-B-U]-WC-]u`-TCc-c, Ec-B-U-`-C-L-c-`P,
WC-MC decision || I dont agree with your decision.
E-mN-lc-WC-MC-TFN-R-`-U-]MN,
WC-MC verbal, oral || It was an oral promise. ]N-P-WC-MC-C-Bc-`P-ZC-^P,
WC-_, rhetoric, phrasing || His rhetoric was emotional.
B]-WC-_-`-OE-cUc-]S_,
WC-l2, harsh/rough word || The rough word the teacher used surprised
all the students. NC-P-nc-2>.-T]-WC-l2-Nc-T-U-Uc-d-`c-c-TFC
WC-UXN, dictionary, glossary || This Tibetan-English dictionary is very
useful. TN-NqP-WC-UXN-]N-P-NC-SP-d-FE-G,
WC-P, lie || Dont tell a lie, tell the truth. WC-P-U-TaN-R_-TNP-CKU-aN,
WC-`C retort, contradiction || His retort angered the man he was talking
to. B]-WC-`C-Nc-Bc-B-T-qN-^`-n-c-R-N-BE-t-`Ec-c-TFC
WCc, joint; station || The old dancers joints are no longer flexible.
C_-UBP-P-R-N]-WCc-`-N--UIP-G-UN, The gas station ran out of gas.
U-P-c-WCc-l-U-W_,
WU, (WU, WUc,) to be satisfied/content || We will be content when you
pay the price we are asking. mN-lc-E-Wc-2+RP-R]-CE-qP-5K-E-W-^N-WU--_N,
WU-R_-qN, to satisfy, to cater to || I want to satisfy your every wish.
Ec-mN-l-_-T-WE-U-WU-R_-qN-]NN, Catering to the leaders is something that
1

242

he always does.

UC-tN-i3?-5B3-0<-qN-R-P-Bc-PU-^E-IUc-`P-qN-R-ZC-^P,

WCc, to be started, to be founded, to set up || The project was started last


month. T\-P-N--P-U_-]C-WCc,
WCc-@ posture, pose || Her pose in the photograph looks unnatural.
]x-R_-E-C-B-U]-WCc-@-N-`c-a-NN-R-ZC-UP,
WN, to get included in, to fit into || Will my short story be included in the
anthology you are editing?mN-lc-U-C-qN-TZP-R]-U-TLc-l-PE-O-E]E-ME-WN--^P-PU, He was included in the group of best students. B-/AT-U-Gc-T\E-T]-P?-?-5N,
WP, since, from, until || Ive known him since he was a little boy. B-/Aqc-R-ZC-^P-R]-WP-/?-29%-Ec-B-ac,
WP-GN, since, from, until || Since I was a child I have liked to listen to
music. qc-0-8A$-;A/-0:A-WP-GN-/?-29%-E--NqEc-`-IP-R_-,
W_, hither, toward this side || Please walk toward this side. W_-`-aC
W_-`, attack || What time was the attack? W_-`-PU-WN-qc-cE-,
W_-E-, reflection || I can see the reflection of trees in the lake. E-T:A$9$?-2f/-UW-PE-Pc-W_-E-qN-R-Ec-3,R%-MT,
W_-pCc, this side || Boys are sitting on this side of the room.
Z-`-W-BE-T-]N]-W_-pCc-c-N,
W`, manner, way, method, how || He has a courteous manner.
Bc-BEc-E-C-W`-]XP,
W`-tUc, moral law, commandment || That monk abided by moral law
well. TVP-R-Nc-W`-tUc-T\E-T-T\E-,
W`-O, in manner/way of, as if || He talked in a frightened manner.
Bc-C-E-G-T]-W`-O-E-U`-qc,
W`-UP, immoral, improper || My behavior last night was improper and I
apologise. UNE-NCE-E]-N-R-W`-UP-ZC-^P-R<-Ec-NCEc-NC-[,
W`-`Cc, manner, virtue, custom || He did not know local custom and
soon had no friends. Bc-c-CPc-l-W`-`Cc-U-ac-Rc-U-]nEc-R_-uCc-UN-#J<n%-.-n_,
W-CE-, lifetime, whole life || He has spent most of his life working as a
farmer. Bc-W-CE-T]-UE-G-ac-ZE-T-ZC-C-W`-O-`c-@-`c-Pc-T`,
W-uCc, spouse; friend for lifetime || He is my spouse. B-P-E]-W-uCc-^P,
She has been my friend for all my lifetime. B-U-P-E]-W-CE-T]-W-uCc1

243

^P,
W--U, previous life || I wonder who I was in my previous life? Ec-<%-$AW--U-c-^P-R-ac-]NN,
W-CFC one lifetime || A person can accomplish a lot in one lifetime.
U-ZC-Cc-W-CFC-`-q-T-UE-T-]uT-MT,
W-UHC the later part of life || He became a scholar in the later part of his
life. W-UHC-`-E-ZT-]HC-R-ZC-^P,
W-c-U, next life, reincarnation || In my next life I want to be a rich
woman. W-c-U-`, E-TN-UN-pC-R-ZC-L--]NN,
W-N, the first part of life || In the first part of my life I was a student.
5-N-`-E-P-T-U-ZC-^P,
W-MC lifespan || The average lifespan is now more than seventy years.
N--G-Uc-l-W-MC-P-`-TOP-F-C-^P,
W-M_, saving life, sparing life || Im interested in sparing life not taking
life. E-W-M_-`-^N-pCc-R-`c-~C-CFN-R_-U-NC],
W-P, living, alive || Living creatures deserve humans protection.
W-P-n-~C-GCc-`-U]-_Cc-lc-~E-T-qN-]c,
W-TVP, life imprisonment || He was found guilty of murder and
sentenced to life imprisonment.

B-`-NU_-CcN-l-Ic-R-^N-R-ac-Pc-W-TVP-TFN,
W-_E-, long life, to be long-lived || He had a long life and died at the age
of ninety-four. B-P-W-_E-Pc-`-ND-TF]-MC-5K-=?-]Nc,
W-~C life || All sorts of life should be protected.
W-~C-WE-U-`-~E-T-qN-R_-_Cc,
W-~C-GN, to die || Im afraid to die. E-W-~C-GN-R_-C
W-TcN, happy lot, good fortune || He has a happy lot in lifeenough
food, enough clothes, and a nice family. B]-U-W]-tN-O-W-TcN-FC-^N,
N-P-\c-Cc-]NE-T-NE-mU-WE-T\E-T-ZC-^N-R-N-^P,
WC dot (used between syllables in Tibetan) || You forgot to put a dot
between these syllables. mN-lc-WC-mU-]N-NC-C-T_-O-WC-]HC-o-TN-cE-,
WCc, to suffer; to work hard; difficulty || I suffered from too much
work. E-`c-@-UE-xCc-Pc-WCc, I work hard until Im exhausted during
harvest season. P-T]-Tc-c-ME-GN-_C-T_-O-E-`c-@_-WCc, Did you have
any difficulty in finding my apartment? mN-lc-BE-T-]W`-T_-WCc-UE-T1

244

rEc-cU,
WCc-G, very difficult || Learning a foreign language is very difficult.
p-`-n-N-G-E-T-P-d-FE-WCc-G,
WU, (TVU, TVUc, WUc,) to sew || She will sew the buttons on the shirt
soon. B-Uc-r_-U_-W-`P-n-MC-`-C-D-TVU--_N,
WU-xT, needlework, embroidery || She is famous for her skilful
needlework. B-U-WU-xT-`-qE-Tc-UE-uCc-G,
WU-T-T, tailor || That tailor is from South China.
WU-T-T-N-P-sE-C]--pCc-Pc-^E-,
Wc, date; day of the month; to begin || What is todays date? N-_E-PWc-$-5S.-_N, Today is the fourth day of the month. N-_E-P--]N]-Wc-TZ^P, Next month will begin tomorrow. -eJ?-U-cE-IP-Wc--_N,
Wc-R, date || What is the date of your wedding? mN-l-CIP-P-P-Wc-R-/35S.-^P,
W-BC tribe, group, unit || What tribe do you belong to?
mN-P-W-BC-CE-`-CKCc,
W-NRP, tribal chief || Hes our tribal chief. B-P-E-W]-W-NRP-^P,
W-T, tribe || The tribe has become very large. W-T-N-d-FE-GP-R_-n_,
WCc-BC group, unit || Which group is responsible for this project?
T\-P-]N-`-WCc-BC-CE-Cc-]CP-`P,
WCc-BE-, assembly hall, auditorium || The auditorium was full of people.
WCc-BE-O-U-^c-T@E-,
WCc-GP, meeting, conference || Will the meeting be in the auditorium?
WCc-BE-O-WCc-GP-]WC--^P-PU,
WCc-]O, assembly, meeting || The assembly included students and
teachers. WCc-]O]-tN-O-T-U-NE-NC-P-$*A?-!-]Oc,
WCc-R, organization, group, association || How old is that organization?
WCc-R-N-TVCc-Pc-`-$-5S.-]C_,
WCc-NRP, leader of organization/group || She is the leader of the
womens group. B-U-P-c-U]-WCc-R]-WCc-NRP-^P,
WCc-U, member of organization/association || Are you a member of the
Youth League? mN-P-P-CZP-WCc-R]-WCc-U-^P-PU,
WCc-2?$?, fortune, luck || Luck was not with him. B-`-WCc-2?$?-V=,
WE-, trading, business || His business is mainly buying and selling
1

245

incense.

B]-WE-P-CV-T_-c-I-WE-qN-R-N-^P,

WE-BE-, shop, store || Where did you say the shop was?
mN-lc-WE-BE-N-CE-P-^N-\_-_U,
WE-uCc, business partner || Would you like to be my business partner?
mN-E]-WE-uCc-qN-]NN-NU,
WE-]u`, commercial intercourse, trade relation || Commercial
intercourse between Russia and China is very brisk.

e-_-c-NE-sE-C]-T_-n-WE-]u`-P-d-FE-d_-R-^P,
WE-C-R, marketable, saleable || These goods are of such poor quality
that they arent marketable.

WE-\C-]N-NC-C-c-WN-d-FE-ZP-Rc-WE-C-R-^E-C-U-]OC
WE-Cc, trademark || The Panda trademark is common. WE-Cc-NU-x`
P-P-]qUc-aC-^P,
WE-TNC shopkeeper, merchant || The merchant lost money and closed his
shop. WE-TNC-Cc-U--GC-Pc-WE-BE-C--TT,
WE-T, trader, merchant || The trader opened a shop yesterday.
B-cE-WE-T-Nc-WE-BE-ZC-pc,

WE-{P, to be marketable || I want my goods to be marketable all across


China. Ec-sE-C-^Ec-?-_E-C-WE-{P-P-]NN,
5S%-L%-,label||The beer bottle label was so attractive that sales
boomed. Y-GE-NU-T]-5S%-L%-^N-NTE-]DCc-R-ZC-^P-Rc-d-FE-{P-0R-L%-,

WE-\C commodity, goods, merchandise || Where can I buy good quality


merchandise? Ec-WE-\C-c-`Cc-FP-CE-.-I-MT,
WE-\C-NR`-]q_, commodity economy || The buying and selling of goods
is a commodity economy. WE-\C-I-WE-qN-R-P-WE-\C-NR`-]q_-^P,
WE-^, business partner || My business partner and I leave for Lhasa
tomorrow. E]-WE-^-NE-EN-CIc-cE-IP--c-`-]u--^P,
WE-_, market || You can buy food and many other things at the market.
mN-lc-WE-_-Pc-\-U-NE-NEc-R-CZP-R-UE-T-I-MT,
WE-`c, commerce, trade || Commerce between China and other countries
has increased. sE-C-NE-`-BT-CZP-T_-n-WE-`c-`-CE-]S`-qE-,
WN, amount; limit || What amount of barley did you buy? mN-lc-Pc-CWN-Ic, Is there a limit on the amount of money you want to spend?
mN-lc-_-U-C-WN-T@`-]-E-WN-ZC-^N-NU,
1

246

WN-TCU,

to test, to try out; 2to elicit || 1Would you like to test this car

mN-lc-Ec-]B_-U-Ic-CE-Ec-]B_-`-WN-TCU-qN-e-]NN,
We tried to elicit an answer but were unsuccessful. E-Wc-xc-`P-KA<.L%-2_-WN-TCU-qc-lE-`Cc-]uT-U-qE-,
WN-, experiment, trial, test || Ill try to sell this product as an
experiment. WN-]-GN-O-Ec-MP-c-]N-TVE-MTc-qN--^P,
WN-:A-BE-, laboratory || A scientist does experiments in a laboratory.
WP-_C-Rc-WN-:A-BE-.-WN--qN,
WN-NRC estimation, guess || My guess is that this yak weighs four
hundred kilograms. Ec-WN-NRC-qc-P-C^C-]N-`---TZ-T-^N,
WN-U, vegetable || Spinach is a vegetable. R-W`-P-WN-U-ZC-^P,
WN-UN, no limitation, no control || There is no limitation on how much
you can buy. mN-lc-F-VU-I-GC-R_-WN-UN,
WN-]XP, control, restriction, limitation || How much control do you have
over your children? mN-lc-<%-$A-qc-R-Uc-`-WN-]XP-&A-VU-qN,
WP, dye, color || I want to buy some black dye. Ec-WP-PC-R-]C]-I-]NN,
WP-UNEc, color, luster, hue || That red color is very bright.
WP-UNEc-N-d-FE-TsCc,
WP-UNC color || Red is my favorite color. NU_-T-P-E-Gc-NC]-T]-WP-UNC-^P,
WP-R, fat || I like to eat fat beef. E-Uc-a-WP-R-\-T_-NC],
WP-{c, painting || The painting was done by a famous Western artist.
WP-{c-N-QT-pCc--`-R-uCc-FP-ZC-Cc-{c,
WP-, enamel; varnish || The enamel on the cup was chipped. N@_-^`Ec-l-WP--BCc, He put varnish on the chairs. Bc-WP--T-Cc-l-E-`TZC
WU, to hesitate, to vacillate, to have doubt || When faced with a problem,
he will hesitate. N@]-E`-`-]zN-W-B]-^N-WU,
WUc-BE-, hall || In winter the hall is very cold.
NDP-B_-WUc-BE-N-d-FE-]mCc,
W_, to sense, to know, to feel || I sense that you are unhappy. Ec-mN-?J3?U-N-R-W_,
W_-T-IUc, to lose the sense of feeling || Ive lost the sense of feeling in
my right hand. E]-`C-R-C^c-R]-W_-T-IUc,
Wc, dye; to be cooked || Where can I buy red dye? Ec-Wc-NU_-T-CE-.before you buy it?
2

247

I-MT, This food needs to be cooked before six p.m. p-x]-(-WN-xC-C-P`-\-U-]N-Wc-NCc,


, salt || I like salt in tea. E-H]-PE-`--^N-P-NC],
-U5K:, salt lake || The salt lake has little water. -U5K::A-PE-G-JE-E-`c-UN,
UWE-, fault, crime, delinquency || Constant quarrelling in that household
2

is the fault of the entirefamily.

N-R-WE-Pc-P-R_-B-N-qN-R-P-T\]-U-WE-U]-UWE-_N,
UWE-T`, exposing/showing fault/crime || Exposing crime is the duty of
the police. UWE-T`-T-P-IP-C-R]-`c-]CP-^P,
UWP, name (h); night-time || What is your name? mN-l-UWP-`-F-ZC-\_,
I watch television at night-time. UWP-U_-Ec-TP-]zP-`-T,
UWP-P, burglar || A burglar stole my television set.
UWP-P-nc-E]-TP-]zP-Tc,
UWP-CE-, all night || We sang and danced all night.
E-Wc-UWP-CE-T_--`P-C_-N-qc,
UWP-IN-_C-R, philosophy || He studied Buddhist philosophy for five years
1

at the monastery.

Bc-NCP-R-Pc-`-]-_E-`-PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-l-UWP-IN-_C-R-`-ZT-]HC-qc,
UWP-IN-<A$-R-2, philosopher || Karl Marx was a philosopher.
B-e_-U_-B-c-P-UWP-IN-<A$-0-2-ZC-^P,
UWP-P, reputation, fame || His fame has spread far and wide.
B]-UWP-P-pCc-^Ec-c-mT,
UWP-Cc, omen, sign, symbolization || Those dark clouds are an ill
omen. P-PC-N-W-P-UWP-Cc-EP-R-ZC-_N,
UWP-c, sign, omen, symbolization || A dream of death is a bad omen.
]Nc-P-n--`U-P-UWP-c-EP-R-ZC-^P,
UWP-Oc, night-time || They went for a night-time walk.
B-W-UWP-Oc-l-]GU-]GU-`-cE,
UWP-U, mark, sign, symbol; genitals || The tiger is the symbol of our
football team. C-P-E-W]-E-N--`-_-BC-C-UWP-U-^P, A gynecologist
treats diseases of the female genitals. TN-UN-WP-BC-C-P-Rc-c-U]-UWPU]-PN-`-P-TFc-qN,
UWP-U, night, evening || We looked for the missing yaks at night.
E-Wc-UWP-U_-C^C-T_-cE-T-N-TV`,
1

248

UWP-`c, night shift, night work || Night work pays more than daytime
work. IP-`c-`c-UWP-`c-`-\-.%=-UE-T-_,
UWUc, place where two or more things meet, demarcation, joint,
boundary || This mountain is where the boundaries of two countries

_-T-]N-P-`-BT-CIc-l-`-UWUc-c-$/?-^N,
UWUc-BE-, hermits cottage || The hermits cottage is small but
comfortable. UWUc-BE-N-GE-^E-TN-U-^P,
UWUc-CFN, to stop, to discontinue || I want to stop smoking and
drinking. Ec-O-GE-UWUc-CFN-]NN,
UWUc-R, hermit || The hermit lived alone on the mountain.
UWUc-R-N-_-UC-Pc-CFC-R_-TN,
UWUc-P, rosy cloud || As the sun set a single rosy cloud slowly moved
out of sight. I-U-QT-Tc, UWUc-P-SE-T-ZC-N`-U_-UC-`U-Pc-^`,
UWUc-_, recommendation || I need your recommendation in order to
get a job. E-`-q-T-N-]MT-R_-mN-l-UWUc-_-NCc,
UWUc-UWUc, sometimes || Sometimes I like to listen to the radio.
UWUc-UWUc-c-E--N-]B_-`-`-IP-R_-NC],
UW_-CKU, jest, farce || That was such a good jest that we all laughed.
N-P-UW_-CKU-N-]x-T\E-T-ZC-^P-Rc-E-W-WE-U-TCN,
UW_-C beauty || Her beauty made us all notice her.
B-U]-UW_-C-Cc-E-W]-^N-NTE-B-U:A-KR$?-?-xEc,
UW_-T, miraculous, fantastic, wonderful; strange || It was a wonderful
song. ]N-P--NqEc-UW_-T-ZC-_N, His ideas are very strange. B]--T-N-NCd-FE-35<-2R-_N,
UWEc, like, similar, equal, same || That little boy is like his father. Z-`GE-GE-N-B]-e-S-NE-UWEc,
UW-U, twins || The twins looked exactly alike.
UW-U-N-CIc-Tc-WN-`-CFC-UWEc-_N,
UW_-E-, shyness, bashfulness || He lost his shyness when he went to
school. B-T--`-pP-R-P-B]-UW_-E-^E-UN-R_-n_,
UW_-c, pasture || Herdsmen have a summer pasture and a winter pasture.
]{C-R-Uc-`-Nq_-NDP-n-UW_-c-^N,
UW, lake || The lake water is very cold. UW-G-N-d-FE-]mCc,
UW-B, coast, shore || The coast is covered with sand. UW-B-q-Uc-BTc,
meet.

249

UW-BC bay || The ship sailed into the bay. UW-u-N-UW-BC-`-]HC-TN-qc,


UW-u, ship || The ship moved slowly across the ocean. UW-u-N--UWTN-Pc-N`-T_-TN,
UW-]CC strait || The boat moved into the narrow strait.
u-GE-UW-]CC-NC-U-ZC-L-T[N,
UW-]u`, sea travel || Sea travel is slower than air travel.
UW-]u`-P-UB]-]u`-`c-N`,
UW-N, along the coast, off-shore || The fishing boats moved along the
coast. I-]XP-UW-u-UW-N-NN-Pc-TN,
UW-ECc, shore, beach || How far from the shore is that boat? u-GE-N-UWECc-`c-MC-F-]x-_E-,
UW-Ec, sea level || Shanghai is only a few meters above sea level. E-dUW-Ec-`c-c-]C]-VU-`c-UN,
UW-HC pirate || The pirate was caught by the police and imprisoned.
IP-C-Rc-UW-HC-T\E-Pc-TVP-BE-O-TFC
UW-MC maritime || That office is in charge of maritime affairs.
C[E-T-BE-Nc-UW-MC-q-T-`-]CP-B_-qN,
UW-NUC navy || The navy recently obtained some new battleships. UWNUC-`-I-`U-]MT-]XE-NUC-u-Cc_-T-]C]-MT, The navy warships were
huge. 35S-NUC-C-NUC-u-P-d-FE-G,
UW-Tc, wave, tide || The wave of water pushed the swimmers
ashore. UW-Tc-lc-G-`-UBP-NC-UW-ECc-`-NN,
UW-`U, marine route, shipping route || This marine route is short but
dangerous. UW-`U-]N-P-MC-I-^E-IP-B-G,
UW-~E-, sea defense || The new battleships have strengthened our sea
defense. ]MT-]XE-NUC-u-Cc_-Tc-E-W]-UW-~E-H-xC-L-TKE-,
UWP, to symbolize, to show, to represent, such as || What does this
drawing symbolize? _-U-]Nc-F-ZC-UWP,
UWP-G, weapon || A gun is a powerful weapon.
U-UN]-P-UWP-G-Tc-bCc-FP-ZC-^P,
UWP-G-FP, armed || The armed bandit is dangerous.
HC-R-UWP-G-FP-N-P-IP-B-G,
UWP-Cc, symbol, sign, embodiment || That symbol means fertility.
UWP-Cc-Nc-c-CaP-RUWP,
250

UWP-NP, meaning, significance || What is the meaning of that symbol?


UWP-Cc-N]-UWP-NP-P-F-ZC-^P,
UWP-P, for example; in terms of || China has many different
nationalities, for example, Tibetan, Han, Mongolian, etc. sE-C-`-U_Cc-UE-T-^N-N, NR_-UWP-P, TN-NE-, cC-R-cCc-c, In terms of your
academic work, you need to improve yourself. mN-l-_C-C[E-q-T-`-UWPP, mN-lc-.J-<%-CE-`-O-CKE-NCc,
UWP-qN, indicator, symbol || Increased income is an indicator of social
development. ^E-]TT-]S_-T-P--WCc-CE-]S`-n-UWP-qN-FC-^P,
]WC (TVC TVCc, WCc,) to strain, to sift || After we finish frying the bread
we will strain the oil. E-Wc-C-_-TVc-W_-c-C^c-TVC--^P,
]WE-, (]WE-, ]WEc,) to force ones way, to jostle, to push oneself in || We
1

had to force our way to the front of the line.

UOP-u`-O-]TN-R_-E-W-]WE-NCc-qE-,
]WE-, (TVE-, TVEc, WEc,) to fill, to stuff in || Lets fill this wooden box
with grain. aE-U-]N]-PE-O-]{-_Cc-WEc,
]WE-, (]WE-, WE-,) to be clogged, to be blocked || The drain was blocked.
G-C-WE-,
]WE-B, crowd || There was a crowd at the cinema last night.
UNE-NCE-C-TP-BE-O-]WE-B-^N,
]WE-B-aC-aC crowded together, shoulder to shoulder || The passengers
were crowded together inside the bus.

-N-Ec-]B_-n-PE-O-]u`-T-]WE-B-aC-aC-qN,
]WT, (]WT, ]WTc,) to be nervous, to be anxious || Im nervous about the
talk I must give tomorrow. cE-IP-Ec-CKU-TaN-qN-NCc-R-`-E-]WTc,
]WT-]WT, hurry, haste || Dont be in a hurry. ]WT-]WT-U-qN,
]WU, (]WU, ]WUc,) to be proper, to be suitable || What do you think is a
proper name for my child? mN-lc-Tc-P-E]-qc-R-`-UE-F-ZC-]WUc,
]WUc-]x, visit; sending ones regards/respect || Our visit was a short
one. E-W]-]WUc-]x-P-Oc-ME-E-ZC-^P, While we were sending our
1

regards to old people in the village, it began to snow. E-Wc--T-N]-U-P-R-

`-]WUc-]x-qN-Tc-B-T-]TT-]C-TUc,

]WUc-R, proper, suitable, appropriate || What would be a proper gift for


the old people in our village?

251

E-W]--T]-U-P-R_-`Cc-c-F-ZC-P-]WUc-R-^P,
]W_, (]W_, W_) to finish, to end || We will finish the harvesting work in
ten days. E-Wc-P-T]-`c-@-IP-U-TF]-PE-`c-W_--_N,
]W_-`Ec, growth || The growth in the economy has surprised everyone.
NR`-]q_-n-]W_-`Ec-`-U-WE-U-^-UW_,
]WC (]WC WC) to get burned || My hand got burned when I accidentally
put it in the fire. Ec-!2?-3-=J$?-0<-`C-R-U-MC-`-TZC-R-P, E]-`C-R-]WC
]WC to be anxious || Im anxious about the weather.
Ec-PU-]-NP-O-cUc-]WC
]WC-R, anger || Anger should be rarely expressed.
]WC-R-\-T-P-O-p_-`-UEP-U-_E-,
]W_, (TV_, TV_, W_,) to wring, to squeeze || Please wring the water out of
these wet clothes. CP--P-R-]N-NC-`c-G-W_,
]WN, (]WN, WN,) to get included in, to get put into || My short story was
included in this published collection.

U-TLc-R_-U-]N]-PE-O-E]-E-CKU-ME-E-WN,
]WT, (]WT, ]WTc,) to be turbulent; to be full of || The weather will
surely be turbulent tomorrow. cE-IP-PU--]WT-B-MC-_N, The sports
field is full of students. `c-`-_-T-P-T-U-]WT,
]WT-U, whirlwind; storm || The whirlwind picked up a small bush and
moved it a few meters. E-]WT-Uc-E-zP-ZC-CPU-`-TKCc-Pc-]NU-R-]C]-`]m_, The rain storm brought heavy rain. G_-E-]WT-U-`c-G_-T-GP-RTTc,
]WU, (TVU, TVUc, WUc,) to close || Please close your eyes and go to sleep.
mN-lc-UC-TVUc-Pc-I`,
]W, to hurt, to harm || Please dont hurt me! E-`-U-]W,
]WU-xT, embroidery, needlework || She uses silk thread in her
needlework. B-Uc-]WU-xT-qN-R_-Cc-N-T@`,
]W_, to shine; to feel bashful; to neigh || The stars shine in the night
sky. UWP-U]-UB]-NqEc-c-_-U-]W_, I felt bashful when many girls
looked at me. TN-UN-UE-Tc-E-`--Tc, E]-E-T-]W_, The horse neighed
to another horse. -T--CZP-ZC-`-]W_,
]W_-E-, bashful feeling, embarrassment || I felt such embarrassment that
1

my cheeks turned red and I couldnt talk.

252

E-`-]W_-E-GP-R-c-Pc-UB_-UWc-NU_-T-n_-`-N-G]E-aN-U-MT-R_-n_,
]W, to live || How long do you want to live? mN-_E-Oc-^P-C-WN-`-]W-]NN,
]W, (]W, ]Wc, ]Wc,) to herd || My son is ill, so Ill have to herd the sheep
tomorrow. E]-T-`-P-W-qE-Tc, cE-IP-Ec-`C-]W-NCc,
]W-E-, rearing, looking after || Im busy rearing my children. E-<%-$Aqc-R-Uc-]W-E-qN-R_-{`,
]W-TFN, nutrition || Water has little nutrition. G-`-]W-TFN-UN,
]W-P, foodstuffs; livelihood || The bag was full of foodstuffs. BC-U-N]PE-P-]W-P-nc-T@E-^N, Farming is my livelihood. c-PU-P-E]-]W-P-^P,
]W-MTc, livelihood, means of livelihood || Business is her livelihood.
WE-`c-P-B-U]-]W-MTc-_N,
]W-T, life || Life has both sadness and happiness.
]W-T-P-N-C-CIc-]XUc-^P,
]WCc, (]WCc, WCc, WCc,) to convene, to assemble, to hold a meeting ||
1

We will convene in the large meeting hall.

E-W-WCc-BE-GP-U]-PE-]WC--^P,
]WE-, (TVE-, TVEc, WEc,) to sell || I will try to sell some of my wheat in
order to earn more money.

Ec-_-U-]C]-`P-GN-O-<%-$A-]{-_Cc-]C]-TVE--^P,
]WN, (TV, TVc, Wc,) to cook || Please cook some mutton for our supper.
E-W]-NCE-\c-`-`C-a-]C]-Wc,
]WT, to fuse together || The ice of the two sides of the river fused
together in the second week of winter.

NDP-B]-C\]-]B_-CIc-R]-PE-G-T-]uU-CIc-l-N_-B-]WT,
]W`, (TV`, TV`, W`,) to look for, to seek || Tomorrow we will look for
the missing yaks. cE-IP-E-Wc-C^C-T_-U-N-]W`--^P,
]W`-]x, inquiries || He did not answer any of my inquiries.
Ec-]W`-]x-qc-R-`-Bc-`P-F-^E-U-TKTc,
]W`-N, collection, compilation || Have you seen his collection of
Buddhist writings? mN-lc-Bc-TP-TFc-]W`-N-qc-^N-R-`-Tc-cU,
]W`-ZT, search, investigation || The search lasted several days but they
did not find the missing livestock.

IP-]C]-`-]W`-ZT-qc-_E-, B-Wc-pCc-T_-U-Uc-U-N,
253

X-xC urgency, seriousness || I understand the urgency of the situation.


Ec-CPc-TT-l-X-xC-_E-TZP-Cc,
X-xC-FP, urgent, serious, violent || She has a serious illness. B-U-`-P-WX-xC-FP-ZC-qE-^N,
UXEc-N, upright manner || He always behaves in an upright manner.
Bc-PU-^P-^E-UXEc-N-]XP,
UXEc-U, intelligent/learned woman || That intelligent woman is a
university graduate. UXEc-U-N-P-T--GP-U]-UM_-pP-T-U-ZC-^P,
UXN, to do (h) || What do you want to do tomorrow?
cE-IP-mN-lc-F-ZC-UXN-]NN,
UXN-, ritual, ceremony || The religious ritual will be done tomorrow
morning. cE-IP-8R$?-0<-Gc-`Cc-l-UXN--`--_N,
UXN-R, deed, act || Did you do a good deed today?
N-_E-mN-lc-UXN-R-T\E-T-ZC-`c-cU,
UXN-R-R, maker; author || He is the maker of the religious images. B-P-N]-UXN-R-R-^P, He is the author of more than ten books. B-P-NR-G-TF-CC-UXN-R-R-^P,
UX], friendly, harmonious ||That is a harmonious family. .J-P-UX]-UMP-nmU-WE-ZC-^P,
UX]-uCc, bosom friend || He has been my bosom friend since
childhood. qc-R]-Oc-Pc-T\E-B-P-E]-UX]-uCc-^P,
UX]-CFCc, harmonious, intimate, friendly || My dormitory roommates
1

and I live a harmonious life.

E-NE-E]-I`-BE-C-]OC-_Cc-Wc-UX]-CFCc-P-R]-]W-T-`,
UX]-UMP-`-BT, friendly country || Thats not an enemy country, thats a
friendly country. N-P-Nu-T]-`-BT-FC-U-^P-R_-UX]-UMP-`-BT-FC-^P,
UX]-T, intimate friend; boyfriend || I went to see a movie with my
intimate friend. E-<%-$A-UX]-T-NE-UIU-O-C-TP-`-T-_-cE-, I married my
boyfriend last week. C\]-]B_-P-U_-E-<%-$A-UX]-T-NE-CIP-C-qc,
1

254

UX]-U, girlfriend, intimate female friend || I walked with my girlfriend


to her home. E-<%-$A-UX]-U-NE-]uCc-Pc-E-ME-O-B-U]-mU-`-cE-,
UX]-T, friendship || Real friendship is hard to find.
UX]-T-E-U-P-N-R_-N@],
UX]-cUc, friendship, love, good will || He offers friendship to
everyone. Bc-U-5%-3<-UX]-cUc-CKN,
UXT, finger || He wore a large gold ring on his finger.
Bc-UXT-E-`-Cc_-n-UXT-Nsc-GP-R-ZC-CP,
UXT-Nsc, finger ring || My husband gave me this finger ring. E]-m-Cc-E-`UXT-Nsc-]N-qP,
UXT-tN, instruction, guidance || My teacher provided me with good
guidance. E]-NC-P-nc-E-`-UXT-tN-T\E-T-CPE-,
UXT-D, finger || I burned my finger on the stove. Ec-Cc-MT-l-E-<%-$AUXT-D-T~Cc,
UXT-GE-, little finger/toe || I broke my little finger.
Ec-<%-*A.-GA-UXT-GE-TFCc,
UXT-P, direction, instruction || His direction to his students was in the
form of interesting short stories.

Bc-T-U-Uc-`-UXT-P-qN-R_-E-ME-UW_-T-aN-R]-U-R-N,
UXc, beautiful, showy || Shes beautiful wearing those expensive
clothes. B-Uc-CP-R-CE-GP-N-NC-nP-P-UXc,
UXc-P, decoration, ornament || That gold decoration costs more than
ten thousand yuan. Cc_-n-UXc-P-N-`-_-U-t-CFC-C-NCc,
UXc-]Gc, decoration || Where did you buy this decoration?
mN-lc-UXc-]Gc-.J-CE-Pc-Ic-R-^P,
UXc-Ec, beautiful scene || I painted this beautiful scene last year.
P-PE-Ec-UXc-Ec-]N-{c,
UXc-IUc, beauty, charm || She had such charm that everyone wanted to
talk to her. B-U-`-N-]x]-UXc-IUc-P-Rc-AP-nc-B-U-NE-B-T-qN-R_-]NN,
UXc-C beauty || The landscapes beauty attracted many
tourists. ^`-Ec-l-UXc-C-Cc-^`-_-T-UE-T-xEc,
UXc-U, beautiful girl || The beautiful girl had many boyfriends. UXc-U-N-`NC]-_Cc-UE-T-^N,
UXc-`-_C-R, aesthetic || Aesthetics is the study of beauty.
255

UXc-`-_C-R-P-UXc-C-C-ZT-]HC-`-TP,
UX, cross between a yak and a cow || Its not a cow, its a cross between
a yak and a cow. ]N-P-T-U-ZC-UP, ]N-P-UX-ZC-^P,
UXN, storehouse, treasury || He keeps his valuable possessions in the
storehouse. Bc-UXN-BE-O-<%-$A-NEc-R--GP-I_,
UXN-BE-, storehouse, warehouse || The grain was put in the storehouse.
]{-_Cc-UXN-BE-O-TFC
]XC (]XC \Cc,) to leak || Water is leaking from that bucket.
\-T-N-`c-G-]XC-CP-^N,
]XN, (]XN, \N,) to run out, to be exhausted || We have run out of flour.
E-W]-p-\N,
]XN-uP, expenditure || The expenditure for food during our travel was
less than we expected. E-W]-`U-Cc-l-]XN-uP-N-E-W]-TcU-WN-`c-JE-,
]XN-N, consumption, utilization || Consumption of sugar has increased
in the last ten years. @-_-p-U]-]XN-N-N-I-T]-`-TF]-_E-`-H-UM_-pP,
Consumption of coal is increasing. -c`-n-:6.-,R.-5.-)J-3,R<-]u,
]XU-E-, the world, the earth || The world consists of many countries.
]XU-E-P-`-BT-UE-Tc-uT,
]X]-ME-, currency value, exchange rate || What is the present exchange
rate for renminbi? U-NUEc-aC-_-n-]X]-ME-P-C-WN-^P,
]X_, (C\_, T\_,) to hang down || A red tassel hung down from the top of
his hat. aU-T-NU_-T-ZC--UC-Pc-M_-`-]X_,
]XE-, (]XE-, ]XEc, ]XEc,) to fight, to battle || The two armies will fight
tomorrow. cE-IP-NUC-ORE-CIc-]XE--_N,
]XP, (C\E-, T\E-, \Ec,) to hold, to grasp, to seize, to keep; to recognize,
to remember || He held my hand and would not let go. Bc-E]-`C-RT\E-Pc-]u-_-U-]HC Because I had not seen her for ten years I did not
recognize her. Ec-B-U-`-TF-`-U-UME-Tc-B-U-Ec-T\E-U-MT,
]XP-, class (in school) || My class had a picnic
today. N-_E-E]-]XP--p-_--CcE-`-cE-,
]XP-^C diploma; receipt || His diploma is from a famous university.
B]-UM_-pP-]XP-^C-P-T--GP-U-UE-uCc-aC-Pc-`P, Did you get a receipt
for that purchase? I-G-TT-R-`-mN-lc-]XP-^C-Ec-cU,
]XCc, (C\C TVCc, WCc,) to establish, to set up, to plant, to found || We
1

256

will establish three more companies next year.

cE-`_-E-Wc-AE-\-CcU-UE-O-]XCc--^P,
]XCc-P, construction || Building construction requires water, concrete,
and bricks. BE-TCc-]XCc-P-qN-R-`-G-NE-e_-]NU, c-SC-2&?-NCc,
]XU, to smile, smile || Youll smile when I tell you this story. Ec-CKU-N]N-TaN-R-P, mN-]XU--_N,
]XU-UNEc, smiling appearance || Everyone thought her smiling
appearance was charming.

U-WE-Uc-B-U]-]XU-UNEc-P-^N-NTE-]DCc-R-ZC-^P-R_-]NN,
]X_, (C\_, T\_, \_,) to avoid, to elude, to give way || I try to avoid
trouble in my life. Ec-U-W]-tN-Pc-N@]-C-`-C\_,
]X`, to enter, to come in || Please come in and sit down.
PE-`-]X`-Pc-ME-`-N,
]XC (]XC ]XCc, ]XCc,) to climb up, to ascend || Lets climb up that
mountain. E-W-_-N-`-]XC-R_-q,
]XN, (T\N, T\N, \N,) to hold a bag open; hold out || Please hold the bag
open while I put in these potatoes. Ec-ZC-BC-]N-NC-C-Oc-N-B-\N,
Hold out your hand and Ill give you a piece of candy. mN-l-`C-R-\NNE-Ec-mN-`-@-_-ZC-_,
]XU, (C\U, ]XUc, ]XUc,) to refrain from, to shun, to shy away from ||
1

Please refrain from drinking too much during the lunar New Year

`Cc-E-`-Cc_-n-.?-(J/-Tc-c-GE-TLE-xCc-R-`-]XU-_Cc, He

holidays.

refrained from eating too much salt because he had high blood
pressure. #R-=-O$-$/R/-3,R/-0R-;R.-0?-D-3R.-0R-9-o<-:6K3?,

]XU-R, shyness, restraint || Shyness is not appropriate in business. B-WEC-R_-]XU-U-]c,


]XU-TC scruple || That businessman has not a single scruple.
WE-T-N-`-]XU-TC-K`-VU-^E-UN,
]XU-TC-FP, modest, discreet || Be modest, dont boast. ]XU-TC-FP-ZCqN-R-`c-]N-aN-U-qN,
]XU-\P, carefulness, heed || Please pay heed to what the enemy plan to
do. Nu-NUC-Cc-F-ZC-q-c-^N-R-`-]XU-\P-nc,
]X_, to be jarring/grating on the ear || His loud voice was grating on the
ear. B]-N-UMP-R-N--`-]X_,
257

]X_, to stab; to nail || The butcher stabbed the sheep in the throat.
TaP-Rc-`C-C-UN-MC-`-u-]X_, Please nail these boards together.
aE-`T-]N-NC-UIU-CFC-L-]X_,
]XE-]XE-, conical-shaped || The barley flour and butter mixture was
1

made into a conical-shaped ritual object.

U-Rc-CK_-U-NqTc-]XE-]XE-ZC-T\c,
]XU, (]XU, ]XUc,) to be abundant/plentiful; to gather || That family
has an abundant supply of food. mU-WE-N-`-\?-]XUc-0R-;R., Villagers
gathered in the temple last night. UNE-NCE--U-WE-U-NCP-R-`-]XUc,
]XUc-R, abundant, plentiful || This grassland has an abundant supply of
water. -c-]N-`-G-]XUc-R-^N,
]X`, to be mistaken, to make mistake, to lose the way || I now
understand that my earlier ideas were mistaken. Ec-N--<%-$A-P-GN-l-T-]X`-^N-R-ac,
, rock; clay || This old house is made of rock. BE-T-E-T-]N-P--`c-T\c,
Clay is sticky when its wet. -P-R_-n_-P-]NC-]NC-L-]n_-]u,
-BC pot || The peony was growing in a flower pot.
>A%-Rz-N--BC-PE-O--TZP-^N,
-Gc, pottery || His pottery is expensive but good quality.
B]--Gc-l-CE-N@]-_E--c-NC
-OC altitude sickness || The symptoms of altitude sickness are nausea
and headache. -OC-C-PN-Cc-P-UC-^U-]B_-ZE-UC-T-P,
-N, clay vessel || When he dropped the clay vessel it shattered on the
floor. Bc--N-ME-`-]SEc-R-P, -N-GC-Pc-ME-`-]M_,
-T-T-T, hypocritical, sham || No one believed his hypocritical speech.
B]-CKU-TaN--T-T-T-`-c-ZC-lE-^N-U-Gc,
-U, vat, clay vessel || The vat is full of water. -U]-PE-O-G-^c-T@E-,
-_, slate mountain || Theres no road up the slate mountain north of
here. ]N-C]-qE-pCc-l--_-N-`-`U-UN,
-=J2, tile || Tiles are made in a kiln. -=J2-P-c-NE-PE-`c-0-;A/, This roof is
made of tiles. -STc-]N-P-m-=J2-=c-P2,
c, material thing, chemical, element || Hydrogen is an element.
NqE-NTCc-P-c-aC-^P,
c-]n_, chemistry || Chemistry is the study of elements.
1

258

c-]n_-P-c-_Cc-l-ZT-]HC-`-TP,
c-]n_-_C-R, chemistry || Chemistry and physics are related subjects.
c-]n_-_C-R-NE-NEc-`Cc-_C-R-$*A?-P-]{`-^N-l-_C-C[E-WP-BC-^P,
c-]n_-_C-R-T, chemist || My father is a chemist and my mother is a
physicist. E]-e-S-P-c-]n_-_C-R-T-ZC-NE-E]-e-U-P-NEc-`Cc-_C-R-T-ZC-^P,
c-, substance || Im not able to identify this substance.
Ec-c--]N]-E-\P-U-MT,
, (T, Tc, c,) to knead; to mix; to trample on || You knead the
dough for the steamed dumplings. mN-lc-UC-UC-`c-R_-p-c, Please
mix some water with the cement. G-NE-e_-]NU-$*A?-c-NE-, The horse
trampled on thestraw. -Nc-cC-U-TmAc, The livestock trampled the
crops when they crossed the field. |R-9R$-ZE-B-TN-Oc-`-KC-2mAc,
-T, herdsman, protector || The herdsman slowly drove the sheep back to
the tent. -Tc-`C-N`-Uc-p_--D_-pCc-`-NN,
-U, eyelash || He accidentally burned his right eyelash with a
lighter. Bc-Tc-U-`Cc-R_-U-G-^c-B]--U-T~Cc,
C-IUc, awe-inspiring, elegance || His voice is awe-inspiring. B]-N-=mA$-*3?-(J,It was an awe-inspiring speech. N-P-C-IUc-G-T]-CKU-TaNFC-_N,
C-CKU, intimidating/frightening word || He said listen so loudly it
1

became an intimidating word.

Bc-IP-Zc-N-CcE-UMP-Rc-TaN-R-N-C-CKU-ZC-L-n_,
C-R, majestic, mighty in appearance || The lion is a majestic animal.
cE-C-P-_-Cc-C-R-ZC-^P,
C-C intimidation || The teachers intimidation angered the students.
NC-P-nc-C-C-qc-Pc-T-U-Uc-`-BE-t-`Ec-c-TFC
, (T, Tc, c,) to disguise || He disguised himself as a businessman.
Bc-_E-*A.-WE-T-ZC-L-Tc,
-]z`, magic, enchantment || The practice of magic has a long history.
-]z`-IUc-`P-`-`-c-_E-T-P,
TC hypocrisy, pretence || His hypocrisy was immediately obvious to
everyone. Bc-TC-]XP-R-N-U-WE-Uc-]z`-O-ac,
-TC-FP, hypocritical, insincere || Everyone knows hes hypocritical so
they dont believe him.

259

U-WE-Uc-B-P--TC-FP-ZC-^P-R-ac-Pc-B-`-^N-Gc-U-qN,
P, lie || No one will believe your lie. mN-l-P-`-U-CFC-lE-^N-U-Gc,
P-`, liar, falsifier, crook || Hes not honest, hes a liar.
B-P-U-xE-T-ZC-UP, B-P-P-`-ZC-^P,
P-C fabrication, to concoct a lie || His story is a complete fabrication.
B]-E-P-P-C-_E-_N,
P-CKU, lie, deception || I dont believe your lie. E-mN-l-P-CKU-`-^N-U-Gc,
P-U, fake, phony, false, counterfeit || This looks like fake money to
me. Ec-Tc-P-]N-P-_-U-P-U-^P-R-]x,
P-T\c, false, forged (not real) || This is a false passport. ]N-P-P-T\c-l`C-m_-ZC-^P,
c-T\, to forge, to counterfeit || He was imprisoned because he planned
to counterfeit money. Bc-_-U-c-T\-qN-c-qc-Rc-TVP-BE-`-TFC
, (T, Tc, c,) to fold up, to roll up || Its hot so Im going to roll up
my sleeves. PU--WN-R-G-Tc-Ec-S-_E-T--^P,
Cc, to be finished, to be fulfilled, to come to the end || Our lives will
be finished in some years. `-]C]-eJ?-?-E-W]-W-~C-Cc--_N,
E-, fort, fortress || The fort was built near an important road.
E-N-`U-C`-GP-ZC-NE-I-c<-`c,
E-, county || Im from an autonomous Tibetan county.
E-P-TN-_E-E-E-ZC-Pc-^E-T-^P,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to send, to forward; to stuff in || The brides
father sent her dowry to the grooms home. UP]-U]-e-Sc-U]-Ec-`UC-R-WE-`-TEc, Dont stuff your dirty clothes under your bed. mN-lCP-R-TVC-R-U`-t]-]C-L-U-TE-,
E-`, dowry || What is the brides dowry? TC-U]-E-`-P-F-ZC-^P,
E-UB_, fortress || The fortress was built on top of a mountain. E-UB_-N_-UC-ZC-Pc-`c,
E-NRP, county head, county magistrate || The county head has just been
replaced. E-NRP-N-Tc-U-MC-^P,
E-T, dowry || The brides dowry included three yaks.
TC-U]-E-T]-PE-O-C^C-CcU-^N,
N, (TN, TN, N,) to blemish, to disgrace; to contaminate || The sons
crime disgraced his parents. T]-PC-Ic-lc-S-U-TN, Dont contaminate
1

260

G-U-CVE-T-Nc-G-CVE-U-]N-U-N,
T, dirty, unclean || Those clothes are very dirty. CP-R-N-NC-d-FE-T,
this clean water with that dirty water.

Y, fox || The hunter killed a fox yesterday. B-cE-P-Rc-Y-ZC-TcN,


Y-U, female fox, vixen || The female fox had beautiful fur.
Y-U-N-`--B-^C-R-ZC-^N,
Y-, fox-fur hat || The fox-fur hat was red and brown. Y--N-P-NU_-C-^P,
Y-^, hey || Hey! he shouted to me from across the road. Y-^Zc-Bc-`U-n-S-C-Pc-E-Tc,

Z, to become paralyzed, to be disabled || He had a stroke and became


paralyzed. B-`-_%-1R$-Pc-Z-cE-,
Z, to have responsibility || I have the responsibility to finish this report
before tomorrow morning.

cE-IP--x]-P-`-P-[-]N-W_-NCc-R]-`c-]CP-E]-UC-`-Z,
Z-I, lead || Lead is a metal. Z-I-P-Cc-_Cc-aC-^P,
Z-T, lame, handicapped || Handicapped people come here for medical
service. U-Z-T-NC-P-TFc-qN-R_-]N-C_-]E-, His limp became worse after
the operation. CaCc-TFc-qc-c-B:A-8-2R:C-$/?-22-H-C-`-cE-,
ZC-uEc, number of days || I cant remember the number of days Ive
been ill. Ec-<%-`-P-W-qE-Pc-ZC-uEc-&A-43-]C_-T-^N-`-xP-U-MT,
ZC-]C], some nights || There has been no moon in the sky for some
nights. ZC-]C]-`-PU-UB]-_--T-U-]G_,
ZC-FP, greasy || I couldnt eat greasy food. Ec-\-U-ZC-FP-\-U-MT,
ZC-N, staying overnight || Staying overnight at your home will only
261

give you trouble so we will go home now.

mN-l-mU-.-ZC-N-qc-5K-mN-`-C-T`-~N-Rc, E-W-N--^`-O-TN-]u,
ZCc-R, lasso, lariat || The lasso got wet in the rain. ZCc-R-G_-Gc-TEc,
ZE-T, maternal uncle || The maternal uncle was the most important
wedding guest. ZE-T-P-CIP-P-n-UuP-R-Gc-C`-GP-R-^P,
ZN, flaw, blemish || The clay image was without a single flaw. ]TC-N-`-ZN-K`-VU-^E-U-]xc,
ZP, weak, bad, inferior || These products are of inferior quality.
MP-c-]N-NC-C--c-ZP,
ZP-G, shortcoming, drawback || His one shortcoming is his hot temper.
B]-ZP-G-CFC-P--cN-UN-R-N-^P,
ZTc, bottom; feet (h) || The bottom of the well had no water. tU-R]ZTc-P-G-UN, I washed Fathers feet. Ec-e-S]-ZTc-Tsc,
ZTc-KC, service (h) || How much do I owe you for your service?
mN-l-ZTc-KC-`-Ec--^P-C-WN-N-NCc,
ZTc-KC-R, male servant || The male servant quietly brought and lit a
cigarette for the customer. ZTc-KC-Rc-UuP-R-`-M-UC-]m_-^E-Pc-U-TP,
ZTc-]xP, disgrace, shame || Your behavior was a disgrace to us all.
mN-l-N-R-E-W-WE-U_-UWP-P-ZTc-]xP-n--ZC-_N,
ZTc-]xP-R, scum || His criminal misdeeds are typical of the scum of
society. B]-Ic-N-P--WCc-ZTc-]xP-R]-NR-UWP-ZC-^P,
ZTc-`, to get a hole in the bottom || My water bucket has got a hole in
the bottom. E]-G-\]-ZTc-T`,
ZTc-p, service || The service at that hotel is very good.
UuP-BE-N]-ZTc-p-d-FE-T\E-,
ZTc-{, dance || Can you perform that dance? mN-lc-ZTc-{-N-]tT-ac-cU,
ZTc-[, service || The service in that shop is slow. WE-BE-N]-PE-C-ZTc-[-dFE-N`, What service do you provide? mN-lc-ZTc-8-F-ZC-T-lP-^N,
ZTc-8-2, servant, waiter || The wages for a waiter are very low. ZTc-82:C--SCc-d-FE-NU],
Z_, to be blind || I dont want to be blind when Im old. E?-<%-*A.-`-cP?-UC-Z_-P-U-]NN,
Z_-T, blind || The blind man sat quietly in a corner all day.
U-Z_-T-N-Cc-UWUc-N-Pc-IP-CE-T_-B-_C-C_-TN,
1

262

Z_-qE-, additional, appended || I did not add additional material to the


textbook. Ec-T-NT-`-Z_-qE-C-tN-CZ-U-TP,
Z_-U, blind woman || The blind woman sang sadly.
Z_-U-Nc-^N--T]-EE-Pc--Ec,
Z_-Z_, in passing, incidentally; at the same time || He told me in
passing that his father had died. Bc-Z_-O-E-`-B]-e-S-]Nc-R:A-{R<-TaN, He
smoked and talked at the same time. Bc-O-T-]MP-Z_-O-B-T-qc,
Z`-]NTc, donation, contribution || I will give a donation tomorrow to the
monastery. cE-IP-Ec-NCP-R-`-Z`-]NTc-C--^P,
Z, to calm down, to be tranquil, to be pacified, docile || The quarrel
1

between the two clans has now calmed down.

W-BC-N-CIc-T_-n-N-CZ-N--Z-cE-,
Z-]HCc, calm, peace || He has a calm personality.
B-`-Z-]HCc-l-Cac-@-ZC-P,
Z-]HU, peaceful, gentle || She has a gentle personality.
B-U-`-Z-]HU-n-_E-Cac-aC-^N,
Z-MTc, peaceful means || I hope the quarrel can be settled by peaceful
means. Ec-N-CZ-N-Z-MTc-lc-MC-CFN-R_-_-T-TFEc-^N,
Z-O`, gentleness, gentle, docile || The gentle yak calf followed me
wherever I went. E-CE-`-cE-_E-Z-O`-n-T]-N-E]-c-`-]{Ec,
Z-O`-FP, meek, docile || His meek manner encouraged other people to
take advantage of him.

B]-q-N-Z-O`-FP-n-NTE-Cc-CZP-Rc-B-TN-N-qN-]NN,
Z-TN, peace || Our country has been at peace for many years. E-W]-`-BT`-UE-T_-Z-TN_-CPc, Peace is better than war. Z-2.J-P-.3$-]tC-`c-UGC
Z-TN]-_E-`Cc, pacifism || Pacifism promotes the idea that violent
struggle is wrong.

Z-TN]-_E-`Cc-lc-N-R-TE-T-W`-UP-O-]NN-R]--T-^_-`-qN,
Z-`, boy || That boy plays the flute well. Z-`-N-E-T-]TN-R_-UBc,
ZC a, an, one || A boy ate an apple. qc-R-ZC-Cc-A-b-ZC-\c,
ZC-Cc, restoration, repair || The temple repair will be finished
soon. NCP-R-ZC-Cc-qN-R-N-r_-U_-]uT--_N,
ZE-, agriculture field, area, crops || The agriculture field was planted to
barley. ZE-`-Pc-TKTc,
263

ZE-BUc, area || Our area has irrigated fields. E-W]-ZE-BUc-P-ZE-G-U-^N,


ZE-t`, agriculture tax || We pay the agriculture tax with grain.
E-Wc-]{-_Cc-lc-ZE-t`-]H`,
ZE-uE-, agricultural town || I live in a small agricultural town.
E-ZE-uE-GE-GE-ZC-P-N,
ZE-Gc, agricultural implement || A plow is an agricultural implement.
ME-Ca`-P-ZE-Gc-aC-^P,
ZE-GP, province || The capital of Qinghai Province is Xining.
UW-P-ZE-GP-n--CPc-P-\-`E-^P,
ZE-TNC landowner || He was a big landowner before Liberation.
TFEc-]u`-n-P-`-B-P-ZE-TNC-GP-R-ZC-^P,
ZE-, village || The village has sixteen households.
ZE--N-`-ON-WE-TF-xC-^N,
ZE-R, farmer, peasant || My father is a farmer. E]-e-S-P-ZE-R-ZC-^P,
ZE-{P, serf || She was a serf before Liberation.
TFEc-]u`-P-`-B-U-P-ZE-{P-ZC-^P,
ZE-{P-`U-`Cc, serfdom, serf system || The serf system was abolished
after Liberation. TFEc-]u`-c-?-ZE-{P-`U-`Cc-UN-R_-TKE-,
ZE-`c, agriculture, farming || Agriculture is only twenty years old in
that township. CaC-@-N-Pc-ZE-`c-`-`-I-b-KC-KC-U-CKCc-]C_-UN,
ZE-`c-NR`-]q_, agricultural economy || Most countries with many
farmers have an agricultural economy.

ZE-R-UE-T]-`-BT-UE-G-ac-?-ZE-`c-NR`-]q_-^N,
ZE-`c-WP-_C agronomy, the science of agriculture || He studied
agronomy at the agricultural university.

Bc-ZE-`c-T--GP-U-<-ZE-`c-WP-_C-Ec,
ZE-c, arable land land || The arable land at the foot of the mountain
produces wheat and barley. <A-:.2?-GA-ZE-c-`c-u-Pc-MP-N-qN, That
land is too rocky to be cultivated. U-c-N--c-^P-xCc-Rc--ZE-O-C-U-MT,
ZT, detailed, careful, thorough, fine || His detailed description helped us
1

all understand the situation better.

B]-ZT-]{-Nc-E-W-CPc-W`-`-N-Tc-G-c-^N-O-TFC
ZT-]CN, detailed statement || Please write a detailed statement
explaining exactly what you did last year.

264

ZT-]CN-qc-Pc-P-PE-mN-lc-F-ZC-TTc-R-`-]u`-TaN-CVE-U-qc,
ZT-c, detailed, elaborate || His novel is a detailed account of Tibetan
life in the late twentiethcentury. B]-TUc-E-P-Oc-_Tc-I-b-T]-UHC-C-TNU]-]W-T-UWP-qN-ZT-c-aC-^P, He had an elaborate plan but I didnt
agree. B-`-]G_-CZ-8A2-o?->C-^N-lE-E-N-`-U-]MN,
ZT-]HC research, examination || He has done a lot of research on
Tibetan wedding songs. Bc-TN-l-CIP-TaN-,.-ZT-]HC-UE-T-qc,
ZT-L, in detail, thoroughly || He cleaned the house thoroughly.
Bc-BE-T-`-ZT-L-CVE-OC-qc,
ZT-, looking into, careful examination/investigation || His careful
1

investigation of the problem led him to offer several solutions.

Bc-CPN-NP-`-ZT--qc-Pc-CPN-NP-MC-CFN-MTc-]C]-N,
ZT-T_, detailed discussion; detailed comparison || We had a detailed
discussion about our factorys future. E-W]-T\-]-UOP-`U-n-MC-Pc-E-WcZT-T_-qc, The teacher made a detailed comparison between the
British and American systems of government. NC-P-nc-e-U-_-B-NENqP-H]-~N-C[E-C-`U-`Cc-T_-ZT-T_-qc,
ZT-z, detailed, thorough || He wrote a detailed description of Tibetan
funerals. Bc-TN-l-]Nc-UGN-l-_-Pc-]{-U-ZT-z-ZC-qc,
ZT-U, detail, careful || Please pay attention to detail when you write your
article. mN-lc-U-^C-]{-Tc-ZT-U-^E-T-`-UIU-]HC-nc,
ZT-Ta_, check-up, inspection, investigation || The police investigation
1

of criminal activity required three months.

IP-C-Rc-PC-Ic-q-N-`-ZT-Ta_-qN-R_--T-CcU-]C_,
ZU, tasty, delicious || This mutton is tasty. `C-a-]N-ZU,
[, ([, [c, [c,) to tell, report; to copy; to ask || Ill tell you what
happened tomorrow. cE-IP-Ec-mN-`-NP-F-ZC-qE-T:A-{R<-[--^P, Please
copy this letter. ^-C-]N-[-_Cc, The monk asked the Living Buddha to
visit his home. TVP-R-Nc-`--B-WE-O-STc--[c,
[-CLC prosecute, sue || To prosecute the criminal in court will require
much time. tUc-BE-`-Ic-FP-[-CLC-qN-R_-Oc-WN-UE-T-NCc--_N,
[-CLC-UBP, plaintiff, accuser || His accuser refused to appear in court.
B]-[-CLC-UBP-N-tUc-BE-`-^E-B-U-IP,
[-P, present for asking a favor || His present for asking a favor was two
1

265

bottles of liquor.

Bc-_Cc-_U-[-T]-[-P-P-GE-a`-NU-CIc-_N,

[-NC proof-reading, correction || Proof-reading the newspaper articles is


his job. WCc-R_-n-U-^C-`-[-NC-qN-R-P-B]-q-T-^P,
[-T, petition, request || Last year, the village residents all signed a
petition. P-PE--U-Uc-lc-[-T-ZC-`-UE-Cc-T@N,
[-]T`, petition, request || The official received a petition from the local
people. NRP-U-N-`-^`-U]-[-]T`-ZC-]q_,
[-^C written petition || We submitted a written petition two weeks ago
to the authorities. E-Wc-C\]-]B_-CIc-l-P-`-C[E-pCc-`-[-^C-FC-S`,
[Cc, to participate in, to attend; to be blemished || Will you
participate in the meeting? mN-WCc-]O-`-[Cc--e-^P, His character
was blemished after he was arrested. B-]XP-T\E-qc-c-B]-Cac-@-TNcE-,
[N, to be thin || Ill be thin after not eating for ten days.
IP-TF-`-\-U-U-\c-R]-c-Pc-E]-`c-a-[N--_N,
[P, molten liquid; a Tibetan food (solidified mix of cheese, barley
1

flour, sugar, and butter) || 1He heated the gold until it became molten

Bc-Cc_-[P-O-]n_-_C-T_-O-U-`-T~Cc, Eating sweet Tibetan food


will make you energetic. [P-UE_-U-\c-5K-`c-Tc-c,
[U, to be intimidated, to be afraid; to be discouraged || The students
were intimidated by their teachers. NC-P-nc-T-U-Uc-l-NR]-[U-O-TFC
He was discouraged after making a low examination score. Bc-Cc]{c-NU]-U-ZC-Ec-c-Tc-R-[U,
[U-R-UN, dauntless, fearless || He is dauntless in the face of danger.
IP-B]-UOP-O-B-`-[U-R-UN,
[`, to digest; to melt || Pandas can digest bamboo. NU-t]-BC-Pc-C-U[`-MT, The ice melted in the sun. I-:R.-]C-+-GT-_U-[`,
Z, heart, love || I loved my girlfriend with all my heart.
E-<%-$A-uCc-U-`-Z-CKE-Pc-NC],
Z-]BP, hatred || Over time her love for him slowly turned to hatred
because of his cruel character. B]-Cac-@-TE-T-N]-Tc-lc, B-Uc-B-`TFEc-R]-OEc-cUc-N-Oc-WN-]C_-T-NE-TP-Pc-N`-Uc-Z-E-`-n_,
Z-]uc, animosity, hate || The hate between them was mutual.
B-W-SP-WP-Z-]uc-c-cE-,
2

liquid.
1

266

Z-N, naughty || My young son is very naughty. E]-T-Z-N,


Z-EP, malevolent intention, bad mind || No one trusted him because of
his malevolent intention.

B]-Z-EP-n-Tc-lc-B-`-^N-Gc-qN-UBP-CFC-lE-UN,
Z-CFC forty-one || He lives in apartment number forty-one.
B-aC-WE-Z-CFC-R-P-N,
Z-CIc, forty-two || In nineteen forty-two I was a primary school
student. -`-CFC-E-ND-T-Z-CIc-`_, E-P-T-GE-C-T-U-ZC-^P,
Z-MC-Rc, sincerely, truly || I sincerely hope that you will be successful.
Ec-Z-MC-Rc-mN-`-`-B-]MT-R]-_-T-]XP,
Z-UMP, compatible, harmonious || They are a compatible husband and
wife. B-W-P-m-bC-Z-UMP-ZC-^P,
Z-xC forty-six || Its now seven forty-six a.m.
N---x]-(-WN-TOP-NE-_-U-Z-xC-_N,
Z-TOP, forty-seven || My class has forty-seven students.
E]-]XP-]-PE-T-U-Z-TOP-^N,
Z-E-, hatred, animosity || His hatred for new ideas is something I do not
understand. Bc--T-Cc_-T-`-Z-E-]XP-R-P-Ec-Cc-U-MT-R-ZC-_N,
8J-$/$-0R, sinister || The man had a sinister look on his face.
c-R-N]-TZP-=-8J-$/$-0R:C-*3?->A$-><-:.$
Z-WC honorific word || Do you know the meaning of this honorific
word? mN-lc-Z-WC-]N]-C-NP-ac-cU,
Z-TZ, forty-four || This building is approximately forty-four meters tall.
BE-TCc-]N]-UM-5.-`-d-`U-c-Z-TZ-^N,
Z-CcU, forty-three || This year, I am forty-three years old.
N-`-E-`-Z-CcU-^P,
ZE-, width || What is the width of this building?
BE-TCc-]N]-ZE-`-C-WN-^N,
ZE-GE-, narrow || A narrow road went up the mountain.
`U-U/-ZC-_-E-`-]MP,
ZP, to love || I love you, he whispered to his girlfriend.
Bc-<%-$A-UX]-U-`-E-mN-`-ZPZc-bT-`T-qc,
ZP-B, love, fondness; hobby || He felt such love for his children that
he spoiled them. Bc-<%-$A-qc-R-Uc-`-ZP-B-GP-R-T\E-Pc-qc-R-W-EP-`E-`1

267

TKE-, My hobby is stamp collecting. E]-ZP-B-P-Cc-Cc-]W`-N-qN-^P,


ZP-GCc, to be reluctant to part with, greediness || He is reluctant to part
2

with his daughter for two months.

-T-CIc-`-B]-T-U-NE-]{`-T_-B-ZP-GCc,
ZP-R-`C to dislike || I dislike drinking and smoking. E-.-(%-=-ZP-R-`C
Zc-R, so-called || That so-called teacher cant even read. NC-P-Zc-R-NcM-P-;A-$J-C-:.R/-lE-LJ.-U-MT,
Z, yogurt || Yak yogurt is richer than cow yogurt.
]{]-Z-/A-T-U]-Z-`c-U,
ZC-BC potato || I like to put butter on my potatoes.
E-ZC-BC-C-E-O-U_-T-T_-NC],
N-PEc, this morning || I saw you exercising this morning on the sports
field. 8R$?-0<-mN-lc-`c-`-_-T-<-=?-`-E-2h<-qN-TZP-R-Ec-3,R%-L%-,
ZCc-R-}-3R, early morning || Though it was early morning I couldnt sleep
so I got up. ZCc-R-}-3R-^P-_E-, E-`-CIN-U-BCc-Rc-U`-`c-`Ec,
ZP, (TZP, TZP, ZP,) to ride || Do you know how to ride a horse?
mN--`-ZP-ac-cU,
Z_, incidentally, in passing; meanwhile || Incidentally, he mentioned
that he had received an important promotion. Z_-O-Bc-<%-*A.-C-CPc-C`GP-ZC-L-_-T:A-{R<-E-, He was a teacher, meanwhile, he did research
on Tibetan culture. B-P-NC-P-ZC-^P, Z_-`-Bc-TN-l-_C-CPc-`-ZT-]HC-qc,
Z_-`c, side-job, sideline || A major sideline production in the village is
1

making Tibetan handicrafts.

-T-N]-Z_-`c-MP-N-CV-T-ZC-P-TN-l-`C-`-MP-c-`c-R-N-^P,
Z`, lower part, below, bottom || There is a big tree at the bottom of the
mountain. _-N]-Z`-P-E-T-GP-R-ZC-^N,
, hat || Where did you buy this fox-skin hat? mN-lc-Y--]N-CE-.-Ic,
CZP-NC others || Did you tell others what I told you last night?
UNE-NCE-Ec-mN-`-TaN-R-N-mN-lc-CZP-NC-`-e-TaN,
CZP-R, others, other people || We are farmers and the other people here
are herdsmen. E-W-P-ZE-T-^P-`-]N-C]-CZP-R-NC-P-]{C-R-^P,
CZT, (CZT, TZTc, CZTc,) to skim off || Did you skim the cream off the
milk? mN-lc-]-U-`c-]--TZTc-cU,
268

CZ], to hide || The child hid behind a wall. qc-R-N-nE-T-L-;A2?,


CZ_, (CZ_, TZ_, CZ_,) to shave, to cut off || He cut off his long hair.
Bc-<%-$A--_E-T-TZ_,
CZ-mP, scale, size || What is the size of your new house?
mN-l-BE-T-Cc_-T]-CZ-mP-P-C-WN-^P,
CZ-, basis, foundation || Learning English is a good foundation for
learning other European languages.

NqP-^C-T-R-P-^-_T-l-N-_Cc-CZP-R-E-T]-CZ--T\E-T-ZC-^P,
CZ-_U, primary level, basic level || The basic level of production is the
rural area. MP-N-l-CZ-_U-P-^`-MC-_E-ZC-^P,
CZC (CZC CZCc, CZC) to examine, to think about || We need to
carefully think about how we can increase agricultural production.

ZE-`c-MP-N-H-_-H-c-c-CKE-MT-R:A-{R<-=-E-Wc-ZT-L-2?3-CZC?-$+R%-NCc,
CZc-@ estate (agriculture) || His grandfather owned a large estate.
B]--T-`-CZc-@-GP-R-ZC-^N-rE-,
C[, (C[, C[c, C[c,) to beat, to strike, to hit, to slap || I was so angry that
I slapped him. E-`-BE-t-GP-R-`Ec-P?-B-`-:P3-t$-&A$-C[c,
C[C behind, following || Four people are waiting to get on the bus
behind me. U-TZ-E]-C[C-P--N-Ec-]B_-`-C-TZP-^N,
C[C-Pc, in future, afterward || In future please study harder for
examinations. C[C-Pc-Cc-l-GN-O-T-E-`-C-L-TP,
C[C-U, next one || I want to sell this ticket to the next one in line.
Ec-R-c-]N-u`-E-C-U-C[C-U-N-`-]WE--^P,
C[E-, center, middle; official; theory || The arrow hit the center of the
target. UN]-^c-]TP-n-C[E-`-SC He works as a government official.
B?-C[E-3A:A-q-T-12, Not everyone believes in the theory of evolution.
U-WE-U-]S`-]n_-n-C[E-`-^N-U-Gc,
$8%-12-#%-, office || My office is downtown. E]-$8%-12-#%-PR%-HJ<-.GA=.2?-?-^N,
$8%-.R/-3A-$, civil servant, cadre || He got a job as a civil servant.
B-`-$8%-.R/-3A-$:-q-T-MT,
C[E-pCc, official side, official || The official agricultural policy was
1

well received by local farmers.

C[E-pCc-l-ZE-`c-~N-Hc-`-c-CPc-U-NUEc-l-NE-`P-T\E-T-MT,
269

C[E-WT-BE-, embassy, consulate || The embassy is located near a large


department store. C[E-WT-BE-N--UE-WE-BE-GP-R-ZC-C-`Cc-?-^N,
C[E-WT-GP-U, ambassador || He was an ambassador to three foreign
countries. B-P-KA:A-`-BT-CcU-.-TN-R]-C[E-WT-GP-U-ZC-^P,
C[E-`c, government work || When I asked him what his job was he said
that it was government work.

Ec-B-`-B]-q-T-F-ZC-^P-R-xc-R-P, Bc-B]-q-T-P-C[E-`c-^P-\_,
C[E-`c-BE-, government office || The government office is near the
hospital. C[E-`c-BE-N-P-BE-$A-I-c<-^N,
C[E-`Cc, theory, doctrine || His latest book discusses his theory.
B]-I-`U-n-NR-G]-PE-O-B]-C[E-`Cc-{R<-E-;R.,
C[E-`Cc-R, theoretician || Hes a theoretician with no interest in
practical matters. B-P-*3?-=J/-=-3A-.$:-R]-C[E-`Cc-R-ZC-^P,
C[E-~E-, to confess; to narrate || I dont want to confess anything that
I didnt do. Ec-<%-$A?-3-212?-0:A-NP-NC-$&A$-G%-C[E-~E-P-U-]NN, I
narrated my misdeeds to my supervisor. Ec-]C-T-`-_E-C-Ic-N-C[E-~Eqc,
C[_, (T[_, T[_, C[_,) to skim off || He liked to skim the cream off the
milk and eat it secretly. B-]-U-`c-]--C-L-T[_-Pc-(]-)\-T_-NC],
C[c-IP, three days after today || Ill come visit you three days after
today. CZc-IP-E-mN-`-T-_-]E-,
CZc-PE-, the year before last year || I got married the year before last
year. E-CZc-PE-CIP-C-qc, The year before last year we visited the
Great Wall and then traveled to Shanghai. $8J?-PE-`_-E-W-Cc-_-_E-T-`v-{R<-L?-eJ?-E-d]-=-^`-_-qc,
C[C, (CZC, TZCc, CZCc,) to whittle || I want to whittle a new walking
stick. Ec-`C-P-Cc_-T-ZC-CZC-]NN,
CZCc, the side, by, near || Please come here and sit by me.
]N_-aC-Pc-E]-CZCc-?-N,
CZP, young || Hes not young, hes old. B-P-WN-U-CZP, B-P-`-P-G,
CZP-Q, youth || The youth of the village like dancing. -T]-CZP-Q-5S-ZTc-{C-R_-NC], A youth is a young person. $8R/-/-P-=R-/-$8R/-0:A-3A-=-9J<,
CZP-R, vice-, deputy, assistant || Ill ask my assistant to solve your
problem. Ec-<%-$A-`c-_Cc-CZP-R-`-mN-l-CPN-NP-MC-CFN-qN-O-]HC
1

270

CZP-_Tc, the young generation || The young generation dresses


differently than the old generation. CZP-_Tc-Rc-P-_Tc-0-Uc-v<-.-H-23A-nP,
CZP-a-FP, youthful, young looking || Though shes fifty years old shes
young looking. B-U-`--TF-`-TN-lE-, B-U-P-CZP-a-FP-ZC-^P,
CZT-x, bad smell of something burnt || His home was filled with the bad
smell of something burnt. B]-BE-T]-PE-.-CZT-x-]M`,
TZN-CN, laughter (h) || His laughter filled the room.
B]-.$R.-1-BE-T]-PE-`-BEc,
TZ, four || I have four brothers. E-`-P--TZ-^N,
TZ-T, four hundred || I sold that big sheep for four hundred yuan. Ec-`CGP-R-N-_-U-TZ-T-`-TVEc,
TZ-TF, forty || I was forty years old yesterday. B-cE-E-`-TZ-TF-`-TN,
TZ-G, fourth || A fourth of the students are Mongolian.
T-U]-TZ-G]-CFC-P-cC-R-^P,
TZ-E-, four thousand || Four thousand sheep were sold here yesterday.
B-cE-]N-Pc-`C-TZ-E-TVEc, The small apartment costs four thousand
yuan. #R.->$-GE-GE-N-`-_-U-28A-!R%-NCc,
TZ-UN, crossroad || A tree grows at the crossroad. TZ-UN-N-<-E-T-ZC-,
TZ-T, the fourth || Im the fourth child in my family.
EN-WE-Pc-E-P-qc-R-TZ-T-^P,
TZ-T, the four of || The four of us ate lunch together.
EN-TZ-Tc-UIU-O-DE-\c-\c,
TZP, just like; face || He looks just like his mother. Tc-WN-`-B-P-B]-eU-H-TZP-_N, She has a pretty face. B-U-`-TZP-^C-R-ZC-^N,
TZP-T\E-U, pretty woman || Shes a young pretty woman.
B-U-P-`-P-GE-T]-TZP-T\E-U-ZC-_N,
T[Cc, to have a seat (h); to reside (h), to live (h) || Please ask Father
to have a seat here. e-S-]N-Pc-T[Cc-c-GCc, Where do you reside? mNCE-.-T[Cc-^N,
T[Cc-t, throne (h) || The Living Buddha sat on a throne.
`--T[Cc-t-`-T[Cc,
T[Cc-U`, discussion || What time shall we have our discussion?
E-Wc-T[Cc-U`-PU-WN-:5S$--^P,
1

271

T[Cc-U`-WCc-]O, round-table discussion || They held a round-table


discussion in the meeting room.

E-Wc-WCc-]O-BE-.-T[Cc-U`-WCc-]O-Tc,
T[Cc-c, seat; residence (h) || Which seat shall the Living Buddha sit
in? `--T[Cc-c-CE-`-T[Cc--^P, His residence is on a mountain. B]T[Cc-c-P-_-tN-.-^N,
T[N, to set (for sun and moon); to pass (time); to leave || What time
will the sun set this evening? p-x_-I-U-PU-WN-T[N-]u, The time passed
quickly. Oc-WN-r_-U_-T[N, What time will you leave? mN-PU-WN-T[N-^P,
T[P-U, skilful, delicate || The tape recorder is a delicate product.
-ST-]B_-`-N-P-MP-c-T[P-U-ZC-_N,
1

T[_, to flow || The rainwater flows down the mountain into the river.
G_-G-_-UC-Pc-G-T]-PE-O-T[_,

TZE-, (TZE-, TZEc, TZEc,)

to get up, to stand up; 2to build || 1What time

mN-8R$?-0_-PU-WN-TZE-T-^P, When will


you build your new house? mN-lc-<%-$A-BE-T-Cc_-T-PU-WN-TZE--^P,
2

do you get up in the morning?

TZN-W`, intention, thought || I knew that her intention was not good.
Ec-B-U]-TZN-W`-U-T\E-T-ac,

TZc, to eat, to have some food;


1

to promise (h) || 1Please eat some

C-_-]C]-TZc-_Cc, The leader promised to help the local


people. ]C-tN-Nc-c-CPc-U-NUEc-`-_Cc-_-qN-]-Bc-`P-TZc,

bread.

\ (T\], \c, \,) to eat || Dont eat too much and be sick.
\-U-\c-R-UE-xCc-Pc-P-_-U-]HC

\ (\, \c,) to get (angry) || Dont get angry. ]WC-R-U-\,


\-BE-, restaurant || That is a Tibetan restaurant. N-P-TN-l-\-BE-ZC-_N,
\-E-\E-E, confusing, unrest, unsettled || This is a very confusing situation.
]N-P-\-E-\E-E-d-FE-G-T]-CPc-TT-ZC-_N,

\-]zC itch || I have had an itch on my back for a long time.


272

Oc-^P-_E-T_-E]-T-+-\-]zC-`Ec,

\-]z, leftover || This leftover food is spoiled. \-]z-]N-_`-^N,


\-T-\-T, haphazard, reckless || He does his homework in a haphazard
way.

Bc-mU-n-`c-q-\-T-\-T-EE-O-{c,

\-U, food || What is your favorite food? mN-Gc-NC]-T]-\-U-P-F-ZC-^P,


\-WN, appetite || If you dont control your appetite youll get fat.
C`-K-mN-lc-_E-C-\-WN-U-T\E-5K, mN-`-a-Cc-R-GCc--_N,

\-\, vague, indistinct || The mountain top was indistinct in the fog of the
early morning.

ZCc-R]-P-TP-n-tN-P-_--P-\-\-VU-O-E-,

\E-\E-, noise || Please stop that noise, Im trying to sleep.


\E-\E-U-qN, E-CIN-c-qN-TZP-^N,

\Ec, copper || His ring isnt made of gold, its a copper ring.
B]-UXT-Nsc-P-Cc_-nc-`c-R-U-_N, N-P-\Ec-l-UXT-Nsc-aC-_N,

\Ec-N, copper wire || Cooper wire is often used in electrical cords.


\Ec-N-P-R_-C-N-`-T@`,

\Ec-Gc, copperware || All my cooking pots are copperware. E]-C^-`-nN-WE-U-P-\Ec-Gc-^P,

\N, to run out of, to be exhausted || We exhausted our supply of tea and
then bought more.

E-W]-H-\N-Pc-H-UE-T-Ic,

\N-UN, inexhaustible || The river has an inexhaustible supply of water.


CVE-T-Nc-\N-UN-l-G:A-,R/-#%?-]NP-N-qN-MT,

\T, deep, abstract || I think that the theory is very abstract. Ec-_Cc-C[EN-P-d-FE-\T-R_-]NN,

\T-E-, advanced study || He undertook advanced study at the university.


Bc-T--GP-U-Pc-\T-E-qc,

\T-U, deep, abstract || He often expresses abstract thoughts.


Bc-P-R_-TcU--\T-U-]GN,

\T-^Ec, deep and wide || The river here on the plain is deep and wide.
]N-C]-ME-GP-.-:22-0:A-G-T-P-\T-&A%-^Ec,

\T-TE-, composure, calm || He was not calm during the crisis.


IP-B]-Tc-c-B-P-\T-TE-UP,

\Tc, depth || What is the depth of this lake? UW-]N]-\Tc-WN-P-F-]x-^P,


\U-R, bridge || The bridge was made of stone. \U-R-N--`c-T\c,
\U-U-GN-R, continuous || The rain was continuous for three days.
273

G_-T-IP-CcU-`-\U-U-GN-R_-TTc,

\U-U-\U-U, perfunctory || He gave a perfunctory greeting and then sat


Bc-:53?-:SA-\U-U-\U-U-ZC-qc-Pc-U_-TN,
\c, food || Meat is a food. a-P-\c-<A$?-aC-^P,
down.

\c-Cc, food and clothes || I spend money every year for my childrens
food and clothes.

Ec-<%-$A-qc-R]-\c-Cc-l-GN-O-`-__-_-U-T@`,

\c-TFN, nourishment || There is much nourishment in a kilogram of


mutton.

`C-a---CE-C-PE-O-\c-TFN-UE-T-^N,

\c-]H, to digest || Fat meat takes some time to digest.


a-WP-R-]H-0<-Oc-WN-NCc,

\c-_Cc, edibles || Meat and vegetables are edibles.


a-NE--WN-P-\c-_Cc-^P,

\c-C leftovers || Lets heat the leftovers from yesterday for our
breakfast.

E-W]-8R$?-9?-?-B-cE-C-\c-C-~-T_-nc,

\-_-_, buzzing noise || The bee made a buzzing noise. E-T-\-_-_-uCc,


\E-]tC disturbance, unrest, turmoil || What caused the disturbance?
P-F-ZC-Cc-\E-]tC-N-TEc,

\E-G, turmoil, confusion || The turmoil lasted a few weeks.


\E-G-N-C\]-]B_-CIc-]C_,

\E-\E-, unkempt || Just after he got up his hair was unkempt.


U`-`c-`Ec-.?-B]--\E-\E-_N,

\P, already;
1

to catch, to get hold of || 1Ive already washed the dishes.

Ec-_-U-Tsc-\P, He ran after me but he couldnt catch me. B-E]-C[C`-Cc-lE-E-U-\P,


\P-M, note, record || I cant read this note. Ec-\P-M-]N-C-U-MT,
2

\P-{c, draft, note || I know this is just a draft, but it needs a lot more
work.

Ec-]N-P-\P-{c-aC-^P-R-ac, ]P-lE-]N]-E-`-q-T-UE-T-`c-NCc,

\U-\U, drizzle || The drizzle lasted three hours.


(-WN-CIc-<A%-G_-T-\U-\U-O-TTc,

\`, might, power || That country has a lot of military power.


`-BT-N-`-NUC-bCc-l-\`-G,

\`-UE_, nectar || This liquor is as sweet as nectar. (%-:.A-/A-TON-lA-)A-28A/UE_-U-;A/,

\`-CPP, suppression, subduing || He resented his parents suppression


274

S-Uc-B]-q-N-`-$&/-L%-R_-B-<%-]WC-R-\c-L%-,
\`-T, dew || My shoes are wet with dew. E]-U-\`-Tc-P-R_-TKE-,
of his activities.

\`-bCc, impact, might, power || What was the impact of this latest

I-`U-n-C-~`-N:A->$?-nJ/-&A-:S-<J., His voice has a lot of


power. B]-N-`-9A=->$?-(J/-0R-w/,

regulation?

\C pain;
1

to be pierced || 1How bad is the pain in your leg?

mN-l-E-T]-P-\C-F-]x-_N,

C-]N-PU-UB]-`-\C
\C-, pain || Over time your pain will lessen. Oc-WN-]C_-0-.%-2!/-/?, mNl-\C--H-GE-`-]u-Ec,
\E-, pair, two || Those birds fly in pairs. ]NT-GCc-N-NC-\E-<J-qc-Pc-]S_,
2

Lightning pierced the sky.

\E-]{`, in conjunction with, combined || A banquet is usually food in


conjunction with liquor.

Cc`-P-n-MC-L-P-R_-9?-GE-$*A?-:6S3?-;A/,

\Ec, energy, strength || Do you have enough energy to climb the


mountain?

mN-`-_-N_-]C-]-`c-\Ec-^N-NU,

\U, to get closed, to close || The door was closed so I didnt knock.
-\U-^N-Rc-Ec--U-TEc,

\_, corner, side, angle || How many corners does a square have? u-TZ:A.LA2?-`-\_-$-5S.-^N,

\_-CKCc, adjunct to, subsidiary || This temple is subsidiary to the big


one in the valley.

NCP-R-]N-P-`E-T-N]-PE-C-NCP-R-G-T-N]-\_-CKCc-^P,

\_-, sidelong glance || She gave him a sidelong glance indicating her
interest.

TP,

B-Uc-B-`-\_-3A$-$A?-2v?-/?-B-U]-^N-cUc-#R:C-KR$?-?-]B_-^N-R-

\_-O, side, by || A soldier stands at the side of the building.


BE-TCc-l-\_-.-NUC-FC-]uE-,

\_-T, hint, clue || Ill give you a hint and then see if you can guess
what it is.

Ec-mN-`-\_-T-ZC-TP-Pc-mN-lc-N-F-^P-NRC-MT-UP-`-T,

\_-P, supplement || Take some vitamin C everyday as a dietary


supplement.

IP-<J<-\-3:A-\_-P-`-]W-TFN-C ]C]-_-MEc,

\_-T, former, previous || I wonder who was the former leader of that
country?

Ec-`-BT-N]-]C-]XP-\_-T-c-^P-R-ac-]NN,

\_-pCc, side || Come sit on this side of the room. BE-T-\_-:.A<-Pc-N,


\_-VU, a little, a bit; a hint || He mentioned a little about his secret
1

business.

Bc-<%-$A-CcE-T]-B-WE-C-_-Pc-\_-VU-`c-U-TaN,
275

We understood

his hint about what he had done in the past.

Bc-<%-$A-P-GN-F-ZC-`c-R-

\_-VU-E-T-N-E-Wc-Cc,
\_-\, satire, sarcasm || His voice was full of sarcasm as he criticized his
sons behavior. Bc-T]-N-R-`-Ca-Ca-CKE-Tc-B]-N-]-PE-`-\_-\c-BEc,
9<-9:A-lR3-<A$ satire, mockery || His novel is a satire of intellectuals.
B]-E-CKU-P-ac-^P-R<-9<-9-LJ.-0:A-2l3?-(R?->C-^P,

\_-CcU, triangle || A triangle has three sides. \_-CcU-U-ZC-`-\_-DcU-^N,


\Cc-U, drops || Many drops of water spattered off the roof.
BE-MC-Pc-G]-\Cc-U-UE-T-CE-c_-]pc,
\]-]{, flower anther || The bee flew near the flower anther.
U-KC-C-\]-]{]-UM]-P-E-U-]B_,
\_, to call, to address (names) || What do you call computer in
Tibetan? TN-N-lc-C-N-`-F-ZC-\_,
\_-~`, a customary saying || Ive heard that customary saying many
times before. Ec-\_-~`-N-MEc-UE-T<-Mc-MR%-,
\-T, bucket, pail || Put the garbage in this bucket. CN-Cc-\-T-]N]-PE-O-SEc,
\C goods, merchandise; animal || How much did you spend for these
goods? NEc-\C-]N-NC-`-mN-lc-_-U-$-5S.-qP, A cross between a yak
and a cow is a very important pack animal. UX-P-B`-U-d-FE-C`-GP-ZC^P,
\C-CE-, price || What is the price for this hat? -U-N]-\C-CE-P-C-WN-^P,
\U, bucket; summit, top || I got water out of the well with a bucket.
Ec-(-\U-nc-tU-R-`c-G-Ec, The summit of the mountain was covered
with snow. _-\U-B-Tc-BTc,
\_-T, sickle || This sickle is used to cut grass. \_-T-]N--]{C-R_-T@`,
\`, hypocrisy || Im tired of his hypocrisy. E-B]-C^-\`-`-^N-GN,
\`-_, hypocrisy, pretence || His bragging is all a pretence.
Bc-]N-aN-qN-R-P-\`-_-_E-_N,
\`-UN, candid, frank || I like his frank talk. E-B]-\`-UN-l-B-T-`-NC],
, lock || I put a new lock on my door yesterday.
B-cE-Ec--`--Cc_-T-ZC-N,
-CU, semi-circular || He made a semi-circular drawing in the dust with
a small stick. Bc-aE-zP-ZC-C-E-`--CU-.LA2?-&/-IA-_-U-ZC-{c,
-uCc, friend || He is my best friend. B-P-E]--uCc-Gc-29%-T-^P,
1

276

-]C, the beginning part of a month || The ritual is always held in the
beginning part of a month. G-C-N-P-R_--]C_-`,
-`, merger || The merger of the two companies benefited
both. AE-\-CIc--`-qc-R-N-CIc-@_-SP,
-UHC the end portion of a month || The moon is big in the end portion
of a month. -UHC-`--T-G,
-N, the beginning part of a month || What is the moons size at the
beginning part of a month? -N-`--T]-G-GE-C-WN-^P,
-M, calendar || I bought this calendar yesterday. Ec--M-]N-B-cE-Ic,
-SCc, monthly salary || How much is your monthly salary?
mN-l--SCc-P-C-WN-^P,
-pN, half a month, half moon || I was sick for half a month.
E--pN-VU-`-P,
-T, moon || What time does the moon rise? -T-PU-WN-a_,
-T, companion, friend || I went to a movie with my companion. E-<%-$A-T-NE-UIU-O-C-TP-`-T-T_-cE-,
-U, girlfriend || I dont have a girlfriend. E-`--U-UN,
-UN, matchless || Her beauty was matchless. B-U]-UXc-C-`-]uP--UN,
-Wc, month and day || I count every month and day, wanting so much
to see you again. Ec-mN-]_-nc-UME-]NN-(J-2c--Wc-Tc-Pc-TCc,
-UWP, menstruation || She was ill and her menstruation stopped.
B-U-`-P-W-qE-Pc--UWP-GN,
-]XP, lunar eclipse || The lunar eclipse lasted three minutes.
-]XP-_-U-CcU-]C_,
-]N, moonlight || Bright moonlight shone through the curtains.
-]N-Cc`-T-N-x-^`-`c-]zc,
U-R, globular, round || He made a round ball of tsampa.
Bc-U-C-U-R-ZC-2mA?,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to force back, to repel; to reject || We forced the
enemy back across the river. E-Wc-Nu-T-G-^-S-_`-L-TCc, I rejected his
invitation to attend his wedding. Ec-B]-CIP-P-IA-CNP-[-TCc,
c-C_, drama, play || I thought the play was well-performed.
c-C_-N-]tT-R-Ec-T\E-C-]NN,
c-C_-BE-, theatre || The theatre regularly features Tibetan plays.
1

277

c-C_-BE-Cc-TN-l-c-C_-mN-Gc-c-]XP,
c-C_-UBP, actor || The young actor spoke loudly.
P-GE-c-C_-UBP-Nc-N-CcE-UMP-Rc-TaN,
c-CKU, repeated speech || Im tired of his repeated speech on the same
topic. Bc-TN-CZ-CFC-C-E-c-CKU-aN-R_-E-cP-E-c,
C\P, feed, food || What feed are you giving your animals?
mN-lc-pCc-`-C\P-F-ZC-_-CP-^N,
C\P-R, harmful || This chemical is very harmful if you get it on your
skin. c-]N-mN-l--RCc-MC-`-]Cc-P-d-FE-C\P-R-^P,
C\P-, fodder, grass || He had only a little fodder prepared for his
livestock when the winters first snow fell. NDP-B]-B-T-MEc-NE-T<]TT-Oc, Bc-<%-$A-pCc-\C-`-C\P--JE-E-VU-`c-u-C-qc-UN,
C\T, (T\T, T\Tc, C\Tc,) to be earnest/serious, to be cautious || He is
cautious when he talks to his students.

Bc-_E-C-T-U-W-`-B-T-qN-Tc-C\T,
C\T-c, grand || What a grand festival it is!
F-]x]-C\T-c-l-Oc-GP-ZC-_N-eE-,
C\T-UG_, attire || He was wearing unusual attire.
Bc-P-P-UP-R]-C\T-UG_-ZC-c-^N,
C\T-PP, serious || He is very serious about saving money.
_-U-I_-CcC-qN-R_-B-d-FE-C\T-PP-^P,
C\T-C\T, careful, watchful || He did everything in a careful manner.
Bc-q-T-WE-U-C\T-C\T-lc-TTc,
C\]-]B_, week || My special class lasts only a week.
E]-GN-E-]XP--N-C\]-]B_-CFC-KC-KC-]C_,
C\]-UHC weekend || This weekend Im going to visit a friend.
C\]-UHC-]N-`-E-uCc-R-ZC-`-]WUc-]x_-]u-c-^N,
C\]-I-U, Sunday || I have no classes on Sunday. C\]-I-U_-E-`-T-tN-UN,
C\]-PN, epilepsy || He had suffered from epilepsy since childhood.
B-`-GE-Oc-Pc-C\]-PN-lc-UP_,
C\]-R-cEc, Venus; Friday || I could see Venus through his powerful
telescope. Ec-B]-E-UME-Tc-FP-`-TP-Pc-C\]-R-cEc-UME-, This Friday
afternoon lets get together and drink beer. ,J%?-]N]-C\]-R-cEc-*A/-IAp-x_-E-W-UIU-O--GE-]ME-T_-]u,
1

278

C\]-P-R, Saturday; Saturn || On Saturday lets go see a movie. C\]P-R]-IP-%-5S-C-TP-`-T-_-]u, Saturn is far from earth. C\]-P-R-c]-C`-`c-2<-MC-d-FE-_E-,
C\]-S_-T, Thursday; Jupiter || We will have an examination on
Thursday. C\]-S_-T]-IP-E-W-`-Cc-`P--_N, Jupiter is a distant planet.
C\]-S_-T-P-E-_E-C--_-ZC-^P,
C\]-UC-NU_, Tuesday; Mars || Ill come see you on Tuesday. C\]-UCNU_-IP-E-mN-`-T-T_-]E-, Mars is also called the Red Planet. C\]-UC1

NU_-`--_-NU_-T^E-\_,

C\]--T, Monday; moon || Monday is the day after Sunday. C\]-I-U]-pIP-P-C\]--T-^P, Monday has the same meaning as moon in
Tibetan. TN-^C-C-PE-O-C\]--T`--T]C-NP-^E-^N,
C\]-C-R, Wednesday; Mercury || Where did you go last Wednesday?
,J%?-}R/-3:A-C\]-C-R-IP-mN-CE-`-cE-, How far is Mercury from the
moon? -T-Pc-C\]-C-R-`-T_-MC-F-]x-^N,
C\_-T, steep || I panted as I walked up the steep mountain.
E-_-C\_-T-`-]Cc-R-P-NTCc-]WEc,
C\-U, majesty, dignity || He spoke with great dignity.
Bc-C\-U-GP-0Rc-TaN,
C\-TN, majesty, grandeur, magnificence || The magnificence of the
1

Potala Palace impresses everyone.

S-{E-R-K-`]-C\-TN-lc-U-WE-U-`-TC-GCc-\T-U-TZC
C\-TN-FP, majestic, magnificent || The view of the valley from the
mountain top is magnificent.

_-UC-Pc-Tc-P-{C-_E-N]-T@N-R-P-C\-TN-FP-ZC-_N,
C\-UNEc, radiance, good complexion || She had a beautiful clear
complexion. B-U-`-C\-UNEc-qP-GCc-R-ZC-^N,
C\-qP, magnificence || I can not describe the magnificence of the
mountain scene. _-T]-^`-Ec-l-C\-qP-P-E-`-TN-MTc-{`,
C\-]N, brilliance || The brilliance of the sun was such that I put on
sunglasses. I-U]-C\-]N-G-2?-Ec-UC-a`-PC-R-CP-NCc-qE-,
C\C-Cc, leopard skin || The leopard skin sold for a thousand
dollars. C\C-Cc-N-e-_-E-W-CFC-`-TVEc,
C\Cc, to look, to see (h) || Please look at those dances.
279

ZTc-{-N-NC-`-C\Cc-_Cc,
C\Cc-E-, looking after || The governments policy provides for looking
after poor people. ~N-C[E-C-~N-Hc-P-U-NT`-T<-C\Cc-E-qN-R_-TKP-R-^P,
C\Cc-ZT, inspection || When will the inspection of our dormitory rooms
begin? E-W]-U`-BE-`-C\Cc-ZT-PU-WN-qN--_N,
C\U, (C\U, C\Uc, C\Uc,) to sleep, to go to bed (h) || He will sleep at
midnight. B-PU-DE-`-C\U--_N,
C\U-BE-, bedroom (h) || The Living Buddhas bedroom had only a bed,
table, and chair.

`--N]-C\U-BE-PE-O-U`-t-CFC-NE-FC-V-CFC eE-Cc-CFC-`c-UN,
C\_, to be afflicted, to suffer || I suffer from hepatitis. E-UGP-PN-lc-C\_,
C\-T, mediator || He was the mediator that settled the quarrel.
B-P-N-CZ-`-]OU-LJ.-3#/-C\-T-N-_N,
C\-T, upright, honest; impartial || He is an honest man.
B-P-U-C\-T-ZC-^P, He treats all his students equally, so his students
1

think he is an impartial teacher.

Bc-<%-$A-T-U-W-_c-UN-O-E-Tc, T-U-Wc-B-P-.$J-c/-C\-T-ZC-^P-R_-]NN,
C\Cc, form, body, physique || I like his strong physique.
E-B]-C\Cc-Tc-FP-`-NC],
C\Cc-FP, tall; visible thing || How tall you are! mN-P-F-]x]-C\Cc-FP-ZC_N-eE-, Air is not a visible thing. UB]-NTCc-P-NEc-R-C\Cc-FP-ZC-UP,
1

$9$?-&%-(%-2, the lower one || The lower one is my yak.


$9$?-&%-(%-2-N-P-E]-C^C-^P,

C\Cc-TP, figure, reflection || When I saw my reflection in the mirror I


was surprised at how thin I had become. Ec-U-`E-=?-_E-*A.-F-]x]-_N-R_n_-^N-R-UME-Oc-E-`-^-UWP-c,
C\Cc-R, body || My body does not move as quickly as it used to.
E]-C\Cc-R-N-P-GN-PE-TZP-UnCc-R_-]D`-U-MT,
C\Cc-qN, physique || We were all attracted by her healthy physique.
B-U]-TN-ME-C-C\Cc-qN-lc-E-W]-^N-NTE-]zCc,
C\Cc-NqTc, shape, form || What is the shape of a rectangle?
u-TZ-P_-U]-NqTc-P-F-]x-^P,
C\Cc-UN, invisible, immaterial || Time is invisible. Oc-WN-P-C\Cc-UN-^P,
C\Cc-U, drop || Drops of water fell from the ceiling. CPU-P-=c-G-MC?280

9$?,

C\E-, (C\E-, C\Ec,) to be tangled, to be unkempt || His hair is tangled.


B]--C\Ec,
C\Ec-Cc, medal || He was given a medal for his bravery. B]NR]-E_-(J2-C\Ec-Cc->A$-qP,
C\Ec-TN, praise, compliment || Thank you for your compliment. mN-lcC\Ec-TN-qc-R-`-MCc--G,
C\_, to pain, to suffer || I suffer from constant back pain.
E]-T-P-R_-C\_,
C\, (C\, C\c, C\c,) to return kindness, to remember kindness || The filial
son returned kindness to his parents. T-^-_Tc-Nc-_E-C-S-U-`-xP-C\c,
T\E-, good || A good son respects his parents. T-T\E-2Rc-S-U<-TP-TA_-qN,
T\E-EP, good and bad || Human nature is both good and bad.
U]-Cac-@-P-T\E-EP-CIc-lc-uT,
T\E-T, good, fine || Today is a fine day. N-_E-P-IP-U-T\E-T-ZC-_N,
T\E-U, kind woman || She is a kind woman who often helps old ladies in
our village. B-U-P-E-W]--T]-P-U-Uc-`-P-O-_Cc-_U-qN-R]-T\E-U-ZC-^P,
T\]-Gc, foodstuffs || His cloth bag was full of foodstuffs.
B]-_c-BC-C-PE-O-T\]-Gc-lc-T@E-^N,
T\]-TLE-, food and drink || What food and drink do you want?
mN-`-T\]-TLE-F-ZC-NCc,
T\]-U-, husband and wife; family member || The husband and wife
divorced, although they had been married only a few months. T\]-WETCc-Pc--]C]-`c-]C_-UN-lE-, 3,<-T\]-U-N-CIc-#-M_, I have only one
living family member. E-`-T\]-U-CFC-E-E-`c-UN,
T\]-WE-, family || Where does your family live now?
mN-l-T\]-WE-N--CE-O-^N,
T\]-, couple, husband and wife || Just after they were married, the
1

couple traveled to Shanghai.

T\]--N-$*A?-CIP-C-q?-U-MC-E-d-`-^`-_-O-pP,
T\, to get drunk, to be intoxicated || He got drunk last night and talked a
lot of nonsense. UNE-NCE-B-T\-Pc-E-CKU-UE-T-`T-qE-,
T\, (T\, T\c, T\c,) to make, to manufacture || Our company can make all
kinds of shoes. E-W]-AE-\c-U--F-_Cc-T\-MT,
281

T\-T@N, design || I dont like this design. E-T\-T@N-]N-`-U-NC],


29R-]CN, designing || Designing buildings is what an architect does.
BE-T-29R-]CN-qN-o-P-T\-`-Rc-`c-!-^P,
T\-P, construction || The building construction will begin as soon as
spring comes. NoN-@-Tc-U-MC-BE-TCc-T\-P-n-`c-]C-U--_N,
T\-, factory, plant || That factory pollutes the river.
T\--Nc-G-T-TVC-R_-TKE-,
T\-TFc, alteration, revision || This paper you wrote needs revision.
mN-lc-{c-R]-U-^C-`-T\-TFc-qN-NCc,
T\-, appearance, look || I dont like his appearance. E-B]-T\--`-U-NC],
T\-T, worker || My father is a worker. E]-e-S-P-T\-T-ZC-^P,
T\-NqTc, shape, form || The shape of the object was circular.
NEc-R-N]-T\-NqTc-P-_-_-_N,
T\-`, technology ||Technology has made work easier.
T\-`-nc-`c-@-H-^E-`-TKE-,
T\-WCc, labor union || The labor union represents the interests of the
workers. T\-WCc-lc-T\-T]-B-SP-n-WT-qN,
T\-WE-, industry and commerce || Industry and commerce are important
in the economy. NR`-]q_-n-H2-#R%?-tN-O-T\-WE-P-C`-G,
T\-ZE-, industry and agriculture; workers and farmers || Industry and
agriculture are that countrys main economic activities. T\-ZE-P-`BT-N]-NR`-]q_-=?-<A$?-CV-T-^P, The numbers of workers and farmers
in that country are about the same. `-BT-N]-T\-ZE-U-uEc-d-`U-]x-UIU^P,
T\-`c, industry || The textile industry is important to our economy.
E-W]-NR`-]q_-`-UWP-P-]B`-]MC-T\-`c-P-C`-G,
T\-`c-`-BT, industrial country || Britain is an industrial country.
NqP-H-P-T\-`c-`-BT-FC-^P,
T\-`c-MP-c, industrial product || Nylon is an industrial product.
P-`P-P-T\-`c-MP-c-aC-^P,
T\-`c-R, engineer || My father is an engineer. E]-e-S-P-T\-`c-R-ZC-^P,
T\-`c-NR`-]q_, industrial economy || Germany has an industrial
economy. ]H_-UP-`-T\-`c-NR`-]q_-P,
T\N, to be able to bear, to be able to tolerate/withstand || I can tolerate
1

282

extreme heat and cold.

Ec-W-uE-GP-R-T\N-MT,

T\N-U, tolerance, forbearance || He has a high tolerance for other


peoples rudeness. Bc-U-CZP-R]-E-N-`-T\N-U-GP-R-qN-MT,
T\N-R, tolerance || How much tolerance do you have? mN-`-T\N-R-H-VU-^N,
T\N-T~P, tolerance, forbearance || I dont always have as much tolerance
as I should. <%-$A?-Oc-P-O-T\N-T~P-qN-]c-<%-%?-.J-<%-L-,2?-V=,

]-]_, noise, clamor || Where is that noise coming from?


]-]_-N-CE-Pc-uCc-qE-,
]-FC we, us || We are Tibetan. ]-FC-P-TN-R-^P,
]-MC to be at the end of ones wits, to be desperate || Im at the end of
my wits as to how and solve this problem. CPN-NP-]N-H-_-MC-CFN-qNR]-MN-Pc-E-]-MCAfter his wife died he was at the end of his wits
because he didnt know how to cook or take care of his children.

GE-U-]Nc-c, Bc-C^-`-NE-qc-R-H-_-CI_-NCc-R-U-ac-Rc-:-MC

]-`C corve labor || Each year every person in our village must do
corve labor. `-__, E-W]--T]-U-_-_c-]-`C-]H`-NCc,
]C-R, owl || The owl has large eyes. ]C-R-`-UC-GP-R-$*A?-^N,
]N-TN, exaggerated praise || Im tired of hearing my employees
exaggerated praise. E-<%-$A-`C-C^C-Cc-]N-TN-qN-R-`-cP-cE-,
]N-aN, boasting, exaggeration || Your boasting is hard to believe.
mN-l-]N-aN-`-^N-Gc-N@],
]_-, noise, bluster || The noise of the trucks on the road kept me
awake. `U-B]-]uU-]u`-n-]_-c-E-CIN-O-U-TFC
], kiss || A kiss should be done in private, not in public.
]-P-C-L-qN-R-`c--TCc-c-qN-U-IP,
]-`, we, us || We are learning English.
]-`-nc-NqP-^C-`-T-E-qN-TZP-^N,
]-T`, fatigue, weariness, tiredness; disturbance || If you avoid
working hard, you avoid fatigue. C`-K-mN-lc-`c-N@]-U-`-q`-5K, mN-]1

283

T`-`-q`-T-^P, My request for your help is a disturbance. Ec-mN-l_Cc-_-`-[-T-qN-R-P-]-T`-ZC-^P,


]-NN, lamentation || She sang one lamentation so sadly that everyone
present wept. B-Uc-d-FE--T]-EE-]-NN-K%-3,<-.J<-;R.-GA-U-WE-U-Ec,
]-P, well then, in that case || In that case, I dont want to go with you.
]-P, E-mN-NE-UIU-O-]u-U-]NN,
]-, cream || I like cream in my coffee. E-B-q]PE-O-]--C-R_-NC],
]-p, milk powder || Ill make milk tea with milk powder.
Ec-]-pc-]-H-T`--^P,
]-U, milk || Yak milk is rich. ]{]-]-U-P-d-FE-U,
]C below, under, beneath || I put my shoes under my bed.
Ec-U-U`-t]-]C-`-TZC
]C-_U, lower rank || That soldier has a lower rank than the other one.
NUC-U-N-NUC-U-$8/-.J-.%-2#<-5K-]C-_U-P-^N,
]E-, (]E-, ]Ec,) to come, to arrive || What time will you come?
mN-PU-WN-]E--^P,
]N, light || The light was very dim. C-]N-N-P-d-FE-UC-UC-_N,
]N-E-, brilliance, splendor || The brilliance of the sun filled the land.
I-U]-]N-E-c-CZ-;R%?-?-mT,
]N-]z, to shine, to emit light || The sun emits light. I-U]-]N-]z,
]N-\_, light ray || The light ray shone through the window.
|J:-#%-=?-]N-\_-]zc,
]P, to be deaf || Hes deaf. B]--T-]P,
]P-lE-, but, however || I like warm weather, however, I dont like hot
weather. E-PU--xP-R-`-NC]-2-=?-PU--W-T-`-U-NC],
]P-R, deaf || Are you deaf? mN-P-]P-R-^P-PU,
]_, again || He visited me again last night. UNE-NCE-B-E-`-]_-nc-T-_-^E-,
]`-WN, assumption, estimation || My assumption is that we will not have
class on Saturday. E]-]`-WN-`-C\]-P-R]-IP-E-W_-T-tN-^N--U-_N,
]c, to be worthwhile; to be suitable, to be proper || It is worthwhile to
help people. U-$8/-`-_Cc-_U-qN-]c, Your clothes seem proper to me.
mN-l-CP-R-P-E-`-]c-R-]x,
]c-UBP, qualified person || He is a qualified person for this job.
B-P-q-T-]N-12-0<-]c-0:A-3A-ZC-^P,
2

284

]c-]CP, obligation || What obligation do you have for your parents?


S-U]-E-Pc-mN-`-]c-]CP-F-ZC-^N,
]c-R, fitting, proper || Is it fitting that I visit my parents now? Ec-<%-$AS-U-`-N--]WUc-]x-L?-/-]c-R-ZC-^P-PU,
]c-U, right person; candidate || He is the right person for the job.
q-T-]N-12-3#/-`-B-P-]c-U-ZC-^P, He is a candidate to be the new
chairman. B-P-s]-Z-Cc_-T:A-$R-$/?-`-]c-U-ZC-^P,
]c-UN, improper, unfitting || It is improper for me to call my parents by
their names. Ec-_E-C-S-U-`-UE-Cc-Tc-P-]c-UN-FC-_N,
]c-]WUc, proper, fitting || Your clothes are not proper for the party
tonight. mN-l-CP-R-N-N-NCE-C-NCE-WCc-`-]c-UWUc-aC-U-_N,
]c-`Ec, uprising, revolt || An uprising suggests that people are not
happy. ]c-`Ec-=c-U-NUEc-=-2.J-*A.-V=-2-UWP,
1

^-P, upper palate || I have a sore on my upper palate.


E]-^-P-P-C\_-UC-FC-^N,
^-C up there || There are some sheep up there. ^-C-P-`C-]C]-^N,
^-uEc, odd number || Three is an odd number. CcU-P-^-uEc-aC-^P,
^-E-, Asia || China is in Asia. sE-C-P-^-E-.-^N,
^-UC`, upper jaw || He broke his upper jaw playing basketball. Bc-r%lJ.--`-lJ?-Pc-^-UC`-TFCc,
^-E-T, frightful, horrible || It is a horrible story. N-P-CKU-N-^-E-T-ZC-_N,
^-CFC one of a pair || He is one of a pair of twins. B-P-UW-U]-^-CFC-^P,
^-MC primitive, old time || That story dates back to a primitive time.
CKU-N-N-P-^-MC-C-Oc-?-TN,
^-UN, matchless || His singing ability is matchless.
Bc--`P-Qc-l=-P-^-UN-FC-^P,
^-UWP, surprise, wonder || His sudden visit was a surprise.
Bc--T_-`-]WUc-]x-qc-R-N-^-UWP-ZC-_N,
285

^-UWP-R, wondrous, surprising || The temple on the high mountain was a


wondrous sight. _-UMP-R-N]-E-C-NCP-R-N-P-3,R%-i3-^-UWP-R-ZC-_N,
^-^, shifting from side to side || The pack on the yak is shifting from
side to side. B`-U]-E-C-Nc-R-N-^-^-qN,
^-_Tc, righteous, upright, decent || He taught his children to be upright
citizens. Bc-_E-C-qc-R-Uc-`--NUEc-^-_Tc-aC-qN--CNUc,
^-`P, response, answer || I cant understand your answer.
Ec-mN-l-^-`P-Cc-U-MT,
^C good; pretty || This story is very good. CKU-N-]N-d-FE-^C She is
very pretty. B-U-P-d-FE-^C
^C-R, good || His written English is very good. B]-NqP-^C-P-d-FE-T\E-C,
^E-T_, again, once more || Please read that sentence again.
WC-N-^E-T_-O-Cc,
^E-, weight || The weight of this stone is the same as that one.
-]N]-^E---.J-NE-]x-UWEc-_N,
^E-NC accurate, correct || Your answer is correct. mN-l-`P-P-^E-NC-^P,
^E-P, or, either or || You may go with us or stay at home.
mN-E-W-NE-UIU-O-]u-GC.J-3A/-;=-.-#R.-.$R?,
^E-U-NC incorrect || Your answer is incorrect. mN-l-`P-P-^E-U-NC
^E-U, light || This box is light so Ill let my young son carry it.
U-]N-^E-U-^P-Rc-Ec-<%-$A-T-GE-`-]B_-L-]HC--^P,
^E-, summit, peak, top || It was windy on the mountain top.
_]-^E-<-E-G,
^E-W, great-grandson || My great-grandson has just started school.
E]-^E-W-P-T-<-]uUc-U-MC-^P,
^E-^E-O, again and again || I read the text again and again.
Ec-T-WP-N-^E-^E-O-2[C?,
^E-~N, reincarnation || He doesnt know what his next reincarnation will
be. Bc-<%-$A-^E-~N-P-F-ZC-^P-R-U-ac,
^Ec-R, spacious, wide, roomy || He has a spacious home. B-`-BE-T-^Ec-RZC-^N, I like to be on the spacious grassland. E-;%?-0:A-C-,%-.-2*R.-o<1

.$:,

^P, above || There are several shelves above his head.


B]-UC-T]-^P-P-U-Cc-]C]-^N,
286

^P-`C limb || An arm is a limb. NRE-T-P-^P-`C-FC-^P, A large limb was


torn off the old tree by the storm last night. 3.%-.$R%-_%-:52-GA?-#R%-

c/-.J-=?-;=-$-(J/-0R-8A$-2&$?,

^T, father (h) || Father asked me to turn off the television.


^T-lc-E-`-TP-]zP-C\Uc-c-TFC
^_, up, upward || Lets go up the hill and have lunch.
E-W-N]-]T_-n-E-^_-`-cE-Pc-DE-\c-\,
^_-`, inspiration; promotion of development || The leaders honest
behavior was an inspiration to his staff. ]C-tN-l-N-R-xE-U-N-B]-`c-_CcUc-`-UWP-P-^_-`-ZC-_N, This office works for promotion of
development projects in remote, impoverished areas. C[E-T-BE-]NcNT`-SEc-l-^`-UM]-]BT-^_-`-qN-R_-q-T-T,
^_-c, development, improvement, progress || China has made much
progress since 1949. 1949`-Pc-T\E-sE-C-`-^_-c-GP-R-qE-,
^_-, admiration, look with respect || I have much admiration for your
success. Ec-mN-l-`-B-`-^_--GP-R-qN,
^_-MP, progress || Have you made any progress in your study of
English? NqP-^C-E-T]-MC-Pc-mN-`-^_-MP-qE-^N-NU,
^_-MP-FP, advanced, progressive || That is an advanced work unit.
]N-P-`c-BEc-^_-MP-FP-ZC-_N,
^_-U_, up and down || The child jumped up and down in excitement.
qc-R-N-;A.-rc-Pc-^_-U_-`-UGEc-E-qc,
^_-[, making a request, report || We will make a report to the officials
about this incident. E-Wc-NP-P-]N-=?-.0R/-i3?-`-^_-[-qN--^P,
^_-cUc, good will || I trust in your good will to do what is right.
mN-lc-NP-T\E-T-R]-^_-cUc-`-Ec-^N-Gc-qN,
^`, to disappear, to fade away || Slowly, the evening light faded away.
UWP-U]-C-:R.-N`-Uc-^`,
^`-C branch (of tree) || He used a tree branch as a broom.
Bc-E-T]-^`-C-ZC-pCc-U:A-5=-.-T@`,
^c-Uc, about, around, approximately || I have approximately two
hundred sheep. E-`-`C-Ic-T-^c-Uc-^N,
^-C appetite || When I drink liquor I have a better appetite.
GE-TLE-Oc-E-`-^-C-N-Tc-GP-R-^N,
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287

^-C letter; writing || Ill write a letter to you soon. Ec-U-]nEc-R_-mN-`-^C-ZC-]{, I cant read his writing. Ec-B]-^-C-C-U-MT,
^-C-UBP, writer, intellectual, scribe || She is a famous poet and writer.
B-U-P-P-EC-UBP-NE-^-C-UBP-uCc-FP-ZC-^P,
^-C-T, calligrapher || Today, fewer and fewer people can make money as
a calligrapher. N--^-C-T-ZC-qc-Pc-_-U-TV`-MT-UBP-H-JE-H-JE-^P,
^-GN, to be disappointed || I was disappointed when my football team
lost. E]-E-N--`]-_-BC-SU-R-P-E-^-GN,
^-_E-, admiration || I am full of admiration for your success.
Ec-mN-l-`-B-`-^-_E-GP-R-qN,
^C-N, written language || The English written language is very close to
oral English. NqP-^C-P-.LA/-N-NE-d-FE-I,
^C-`, postal service || Computers are increasingly used by the postal
service. ^C-`-ZTc-[]-tN-O-C-N-N-R-P-H-c-H-c-_N,
^C-`-T, mailman || The mailman comes to our village once every other
day. ^C-`-T-N-E-W]--T_-IP-CIc-_-`-MEc-CFC-__-]E-,
^C-UBP, secretary, scribe || The secretary retired and was replaced by a
young woman. ^C-UBP-nc-`c-]m_-qc-R-NE-TN-UN-N_-U-ZC-Cc-WT-qc,
^C-_, translation || This Tibetan-English translation was done
carefully. TN-NqP-^C-_-]N-cUc-`-Uc-T_-^N,
^C-G, document, record || She filed the document. B-Uc-^C-G-N-I_,
^C-MC in written form || Will you please put what you just said in
written form? mN-lc-_E-Cc-F-`T-R-N-^C-MC-`-T@`-GC-CU,
^C-P_, incorrect character || Other than this incorrect character, your
paper is perfect. ^C-P_-]N-U-CKCc, mN-l-NoN-U-P-1=-.-L%-2-8A$-_N,
^C-]{, a single letter || He cant read a single letter.
Bc-^C-]{-CFC-lE-]NP-U-MT,
^C-Ec, illiterate || He is literate in Chinese but illiterate in Tibetan.
Bc--^C-ac-lE-TN-^C-C-MC-Pc-^C-Ec-^P, Within the rural population
too many people are still illiterate. ^`-UM]-]BT-l-U-uEc-tN-P-U-UE-T-P;A$-Ec-^P,
^C-C\Cc, penmanship, handwriting || I practice my handwriting for a
half hour each day. IP-__-Ec-(-WN-pN-@-`-^C-C\Cc-E-C-^N,
^C-`P, answer (by letter) || I hope to have your answer soon.
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288

mN-l-^C-`P-U-]nEc-R_-]q_-T_-Ec-_-T-qN,
^C-bTc, envelope || The post office refused to accept the oversized
envelope. C-~N-BE-Cc-^C-bTc-G-xCc-R-N-U-Ec,
^N, mind, thought || What did you have in mind? mN-l-^N-`-F-ZC-xP-^N,
^N-, to be sad || Im sad because I miss my family.
Ec-<%-$A-mU-U-xP-Pc-^N-,
^N-GCc, to become attached || She became attached to her students and
was sorry to see them graduate.

B-U-B-U]-T-U-Uc-`-^N-GCc-Pc-T-U-Uc-UM_-pP-R-UME-2-=-^N-,

^N-Gc, belief, faith || My faith in him has been destroyed.


Ec-B-`-TFEc-R]-^N-Gc-`-CK_-TC-TKE-,
^N-]HC attention || I tried to get my students attention by telling them
humorous stories.

Ec-CKU-NCN-{-T-TaN-Pc-E]-T-U-Uc-`-^N-]HC-qN-O-]HC-c-qc,
^N-P, confidence, reliance || Confidence in yourself is important for
success. mN-lc-_E-`-^N-P-qN-o-P-`-B-`P-R_-UWP-P-C`-G,
^N-UMP, agreement || The two sides reached an agreement yesterday.
B-cE-pCc-CIc-`-^N-UMP-qE-,
^N-O-]E-, beautiful, pleasant || The view from the mountain top was
beautiful. _-UC-Pc-Tc-P-^`-Ec-P-^N-O-]E-,
^N-, pleased, happy || I am pleased that you agree. mN-]MN-R_-E]-^N-,
^N-SU, to be downcast, to be unhappy, to be disappointed || She is
unhappy because she doesnt have any new clothing.

B-U-`-CP-R-Cc_-T-CFC-lE-UN-Rc-B-U]-^N-SU,
^N-]zC to fascinate, to captivate || This novel will captivate you.
TUc-E-]Nc-mN-l-^N-]zC--_N,
^N-Uc, to admire || I admire people who can read, write, and speak
several languages.

N-_Cc-]C]-]{-C-]GN-CcU-qN-MT-R]-U-`-Ec-^N-Uc-GP-R-qN,
^N-P, admiration || My admiration for people who know several
languages is great. Ec-N-_Cc-]C]-ac-R]-U-`-TFEc-R]-^N-P-P-d-FE-G,
^N-WU, satisfaction; to be satisfied || I take great satisfaction in my
students success. <%-$A-T-U]-uT-]{c-MN-Pc-E-`-^N-WU-GP-R-, My
1

teacher is satisfied with my performance in class. aR2-OA.-{2?-GA-%:A-

289

,R.-=3-=-.$J-c/-i3?-;A.-5B3-0R-L%-,
;A.-=-]GE-2, I remember many of my mothers stories.
Ec-e-U]-CKU-N-UE-T-^N-`-S/,
;A.-=-S/-0, to remember || I remember what the teacher said.
NC-P-nc-F-TaN-R-E]-^N-`-S/,

^P, is, am, are, to be || What is his name? B]-UE-P-F-ZC-^P,


^P-lE-, even though, nevertheless, but || I love my children,
nevertheless, sometimes I must punish them.

E-<%-$A-qc-R-Uc-`-T, ^P-lE-UWUc-UWUc-c-Ec-B-W-`-GN-R-CFN-NCc,
^P-CFC-UP-CFC must, have/has to || I must go see my ill sister.
E]-PN-SC-R]-~E-U-`-E-^P-CFC-UP-CIc-2v-<-:PR-NCc,
^P-P, if it is || Id like to visit you if it is convenient.
Tc-TN-^P-5K, Ec-mN-`-]WUc-]x-qN-]NN,
^P-P]E-, nevertheless, but, even though || Even though I have a lot of
money, I dont want to waste any of it. E-`-_-U-UE-T-^N, ^P-P]E-Ec-<%$A-_-C-CFC-lE-GN-\c-c-CKE-U-]NN,
^P-R-]x, it seems to be || This movie seems to be based on a novel I read
some years ago. C-TP-]N-`-]C]-P-Ec-TCc-R]-TUc-E-ZC-`-$8A<29%-/?-20/-R-]x,
^P-UP, whether it is or not; right and wrong || Whether you did it or
not is not important. NP-N-mN-lc-`c-R-^P-UP-C`-U-G, You are now old
enough to know the difference between right and wrong. N-v-mN-/<?R/-Pc-^P-UP-n-Nq-T-:LJ.-ac-R]-Oc-`-MP,
^P-UN, although, but, however || Its cold but I still want to play
outside. PU--]mCc-UN, ]P-lE-E-N-OE--p-<--]NN,
^T, (^T, ^Tc, ^Tc,) to hide || You hide and Ill try to find you.
mN-^Tc-NE-Ec-mN-]W`,
^-T, handle || The bucket handle was broken. \]-^-T-GC-cE-,
^-T, bald || Ive been bald since I was thirty.
E-`-cU-F-`-TN-R-Pc-T\E-UC-^-T-n_,
^C-R, oats || This field was planted to oats last year.
P-PE-ZE-]N-`-^C-R-TKTc,
^Cc-S, widower || The widower will remarry tomorrow.
cE-IP-^Cc-S-N-]_-nc-CIP-C-qN--_N,
1

290

^Cc-U, widow || The widow had a lot of money and adopted several
children. ^Cc-U-N-`-_-U-UE-T-^N-0c-ME-zC-]C]-~R<,
^N-VU, short time, instant || For an instant I thought the bus would roll
down the cliff. ^N-VU-ZC-`-Ec--N-Ec-]B_-N-C^E-C\_-.-E--_N-]NN,
^P, period, time, duration || How much time will it take to go to
Beijing? R-FP-.-aJ2?-0<-Oc-^P-C-WN-NCc,
^P-ME-, short time || I watched the TV program for only a short time.
Ec-TP-]zP-`-WP-`-^P-ME-E-VU-`-Tc,
^P-O, for a long time; eternally, forever, permanently || I have lived
here for a long time. E-]N-Pc-^P-O-TN, A family permanently moved
from our village to the big city. E-W]--T]-ON-WE-ZC-uE-m_-G-T-N-`-^P-O_,
^P-_E-, long time, prolonged || He suffered from a prolonged illness.
B-`-^P-_E-PN-lc-COEc,
^P-_E-T, long time, prolonged || Weve had bad weather for a long time.
E-W-`-^P-_E-T_-PU--C-0R-qE-,
^_, to weed; to go to sleep || Ill go weed the field this morning. 8R$?0<-E-ZE-`-^_-U-^_-O-]u--^P, I go to sleep as soon as I go to bed. E-I`U-MC-CIN-`-^_,
^_-U, weed || She pulled the weed out of the field. B-Uc-ZE-`-^_-U-^_,
^`, home; location || Where is your home? mN-l-^`-CE-P-^N, Your
home is in a good location. mN-l-S-^`-P-^`-T\E-T-ZC-P-^N,
^`-N, dialect || Can you understand my local Tibetan dialect?
mN-lc-E]-TN-N-l-^`-N-]N-d-e-C,
^`-_, tour || I went on a tour this summer. N-`]-Nq_-B_-E-^`-_-`-cE-,
^`-BUc, region || Im from the southwest region of China.
E-P-sE-C]-QT-pCc-?-#=-Pc-^E-,
^`-]m_, exile, wandering around || While in exile, he missed his family.
^`-]m_-n-Tc-c-Bc-_E-C-mU-U-xP,
^`-n-CaN-U, local tyrant || The local tyrant heavily taxed the people.
^`-n-CaN-U-Nc-U-NUEc-`-t`-N-U-T@`,
^`-u country, region || What region are you from?
mN-P-^`-u-CE-Pc-^E-T-^P,
^`-Ec, landscape, scenery || The mountain landscape is beautiful.
1

291

_-T]-^`-Ec-N-d-FE-UXc,
^`-MP, locally produced || This bread comes from locally produced
wheat. C-_-]N-P-^`-MP-]{-_Cc-lc-`c,
^`-pCc, district, region || Many Tibetans live in that district.
^`-pCc-N-P-TN-3A-UE-T-]W-N-qN,
^`-q`, going into exile || Going into exile in Siberia was something the
Russian writer was forced to do.

c-e_-T]-^-`-^`-q`-qc-R-P-e-_-c]-U-R-R-Nc-3A-LJ.-!-3J.-L%-2-8A$-;A/,
^`-U, native, local inhabitant || I am a native of this area.
E-P-^`-u-]N]-^`-U-ZC-^P,
^`-c, local product || Traditional Tibetan boots are a local product of
this village. ~`-P-n-TN-U-P--T-]N]-?-$/?-,R/-c-aC-^P,
^`-~`, local custom, mores || Tell me about the local custom in your
home area. mN-l-S-^`-n-^`-~`-{R<-E-`-aN-NE-,
^`-, guardian deity of a place || What is the guardian deity of your
home place? mN-l-S-^`-n-^`--CE-^P,
^-_-_, shaky || That old jeep will give you a shaky ride.
mN-F-S-Ec-]B_-E-T-N-`-TN-5K-^-_-_-qN-Ec,
^-b]-Gc-`Cc, Christianity || Many Western people believe in
Christianity. QT-pCc-R-UE-Tc-^-b]-Gc-`Cc-`-NN-R-qN,
^, to incline, to be out of perpendicular, lean || The telephone pole
leaned to one side. B-R_-n-C-E-N-pCc-CFC-`-^,
^-qN, equipment, tool, implement || What tool do we need to buy?
E-Wc-^-qN-F-ZC-I-NCc,
^-_T, Europe || Spain is in Europe. c-SP-P-^-_T-P-^N,
^-`E-, entertainment || What shall we do this evening for entertainment?
N-NCE-E-Wc-N-]H]-^-`E-F-ZC-_`--^P,
^-T~E-, rectification || Rectification of the problem will require several
years. CPN-NP-^-T~E-qN-R_-`-]C]-NCc--_N,
^E-, to come, to gain || Money will come to you if you work hard.
C`-K-mN-lc-q-T-`-d_-TP-qc-5K-|R<-3R-<J$-,2,
^E-BEc, source, origin || What is the origin of the Tibetan language?
TN-N-l-^E-BEc-P-CE-^P,
^E-, income || How do you spend your income?
292

mN-lc-^E--H-_-T@`-TZP-^N,
^E-]TT, income || What is your yearly income?
mN-l-`-<J:A-^E-]TT-P-C-WN-^P,
^Ec, all, the whole || All the students in my class are Tibetan.
E]-]XP-]-PE-C-T-U-^Ec-P-TN-_Cc-^P,
^Ec-mT, widespread, large scale || Prosperity is widespread.
]W_-`Ec-^Ec-mT-L-]qE-,
^Ec-uCc, well known, famous || She is a famous singer.
B-U-P-^Ec-uCc-l--U-ZC-^P,
^Ec-TCc, proclamation, declaration || The government proclamation
was posted everywhere. ~N-C[E-C-^Ec-TCc-N-CE-c_-TsUc,
^Ec-]XP, tutor, teacher (h) || He is my teacher. B-P-E]-^Ec-]XP-^P,
^Ec-Cc, all, entire, whole || I read all the book. Ec-NR-G-^Ec-Cc-C
^Ec-c, thoroughly, completely || Thoroughly learning English requires
many years of study. NqP-^C-`-^Ec-c-T-E-qN-R_-`-UE-T-NCc,
^N, have/has; there is; there are || I have two English books. E-`-NqP^C-C-NR-G-CIc-^N, There is an English book on my desk. E]-FC-V]-E.-NqP-^C-C-NR-G-ZC-^N, There are two English books on my desk. E]FC-V]-E-.-NqP-^C-C-NR-G-CIc-^N,
^N-ND, everything, all || I ate everything in my bowl.
Ec-<%-$A-N@_-^`-PE-C-9?-^N-5.-\c-5<,
^N-WN, everything || I like everything about you. E-mN-l-^N-WN-`-NC],
^P, fare, fee || How much is the bus fare? -N-Ec-]B_-n-\-^P-P-C-WN-^P,
^P-KP-FP, knowledgeable, educated person || He is very knowledgeable
1

about modern philosophy.

NE-_Tc-l-UWN-IN-_C-R]-E-Pc-B-P-d-FE-^P-KP-FP-ZC-^P,
^P-TNC patron, donor || He is a big temple donor.
B-`-NCP-R]-^P-TNC-GP-R-ZC-^N,
^U, to totter, to sway || The wall swayed back and forth when a car
crashed into it. Ec-]B_-GE-T-ZC-$A?-nE-`-TTc-R-P-nE-^U,
^U-^U, rocking, tottering || Tottering on his feet, the old man slowly
walked forward. U-P-R-N-^U-^U-qN-TZP-UOP-O-N`-Uc-T[N,
^`, to pass, to elapse || Ten days must pass before I can leave the
hospital. E-P-BE-Pc-]TN-_C-T_-IP-TF-MU-R-Fc-lE-^`-NCc,
293

^`-T, curtain || My mother pulls the curtain back every morning. *A/-<J:A8R$?-0<-E]-e-Uc-^`-T-]qN,
C^C yak || Yaks provide special transport on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
C^C-P-UW-TN-UM-E-C-`-]xP-^-qN-mN-R_-T-ZC-^P,
C^C-a yak meat || I like mutton better than yak meat.
E-C^C-a-`c-`C-a-`-NC],
C^E-, prosperity, luck; ravine || I hope your family has prosperity.
Ec-mN-l-mU-WE-`-C^E-]TN, The horse fell down the muddy slope and
into the ravine. -P-P-n-`-Ec-!J%-]n`-Pc-C^E-`-E-,
C^E-FP, lucky thing || A lucky thing happened to me this morning. .J-<A%}-SR-E-`-q-T-C^E-FP-ZC-qE-,
C^E-<R%-, abyss, precipice || The rock rolled down the abyss.
--C^E-.-]u`,
C^], rust, tarnish || I could not rub way the tarnish on the silver bowl.
NE`-N@_-E-C-C^]-N-Ec-CVE-U_-C-U-MT,
C^], to be rusty || This old spoon is rusty. BU-T-E-T-]N<-C^]-($?-^N,
C^c, right || I hurt my right arm yesterday. B-cE-Ec-E]-NRE-T-C^c-U-c,
C^c-_, going around clockwise || Lets go clockwise around the
temple. %-5S?-NCP-R-`-C^c-_-qN-R_-]u
C^c-pCc, right side || You sit on the right side and Ill sit on the left
side. mN-C^c-pCc-Pc-N-NE-E-C^P-pCc-?-]OC
C^c-pCc-R, rightist || The rightist liked to argue about politics.
C^c-pCc-R-GT-~N-{R<-N-E-qN-R_-NC],
C^c-C^P, both sides, right and left || The tree was blown right and left
in the strong wind. E-GP-n-tN-O-E-T-N-C^c-C^P-O-TN,
C^-UNC turquoise color || This plastic is a turquoise color.
c-]nC-]N-`-C^-UNC-P,
C^C (D^C C^Cc) to throw, to swing, to brandish; to blow, || Please
throw me the ball. E-`-E-`-N-C^C-_Cc, Dust flies when the wind
blows. E-D^Cc-0-P-?-`-]p_,
C^E-, mild, gentle || This horse is gentle. -]N-P-C^E-3R-;A/,
C^E-xE-, swastika || The Buddhist swastika was carved on the rock.
-MC-`-PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-l-C^E-xE-Tc-^N,
C^_-\-T, fruitful, abundant || We had an abundant harvest this year.
1

294

N-`_-E-W-`-`-KC-$A-:V?-2-C^_-.-\-T-MT,
D^`, battle, war, fighting || The battle lasted two days.
C^`-IP-CIc-`-TN,
C^`-B, threshing floor || The threshing floor is packed earth.
C^`-B-`-c-TFCc-qc,
C^`-]nN, campaign, battle || A famous battle was fought here one
hundred years ago. `-T]-P-`-]N<-C^`-]nN-uCc-FP-ZC-L%-,
C^`-E-, battlefield || The battlefield was covered with dead bodies.
C^`-E<-U-_c-BEc,
C^E-, (C^E-, C^Ec, C^Ec,) to be inattentive, to wander (of the mind) || I
was inattentive during the long speech. CKU-TaN-_E-T]-Tc-c-E:A-cUcC^Ec, My mind wandered because the lecture was boring. GN-NP-]GNtN-`-E-T-UN-Rc-E:A-cUc-C^%?,
C^U, fornication, sexual intercourse || A monk makes a vow not to have
sexual intercourse. TVP-Rc-`C-C^U-U-qN-R]-NU-WC-TZC
C^_-R, wise, intelligent || He is a wise man. B-P-U-C^_-R-ZC-^P,
C^`, to open (clothes) || Open your shirt and let me see your chest.
mN-lc-W-`P-C^`-NE-Ec-mN-l-{E-B_-T,
C^, (C^, C^c, C^c,) to agitate; to move; deception || I was agitated
by the emotional speech. E_-N-R]-CKU-TaN-lc-B]-cUc-R-C^c, The
strong wind moved the grass from side to side. E-GP-nc--UC-C^c,
Deception is rarely successful. C^-`-`-B-]MT-R_-N@],
C^-tU, deception, guile || I understood his deception when he first
contacted me. Bc-E-`-MC-U_-]{`-CLC-qN-Oc, B]-C^-tU-Ec-ac-cE-,
C^-]D`, movement, vacillation, unsteadiness || Her vacillation on this
1

issue makes her appear indecisive.

B-U-NP-]N]-MC-Pc-C^-]D`-qN-R-Nc-B-U-P-]R-lJ-$*A?-;A/-0-TP,
C^-, guile, deception || He will use guile if it will help him get what he
wants. C^-c-B-`-F-]NN-]uT-R_-C-GN-5K, Bc-C^--qN-~N,
C^--FP, deceitful, cunning || His cunning words did not persuade me.
B]-CKU-C^--FP-Nc-E]-cUc-U-BC
$;R-&/-2.-3J., female demon, cunning woman || She is the most cunning
woman you can imagine. B-U-P-HR.-GA-^N-`-]G_-.!:-R]-TN-UN-(J?-$;R-&/8A$-^P,
295

C^-Hc, intrigue || I refuse to become involved with the intrigue. <%-*A.C^-Hc-N:A-/%-.-5.--Ec-NE-`P-U-qc,


C^-MTc, trick, deceitful maneuver || Your trick was cruel and
unnecessary. mN-l-C^-MTc-P-E--UN-R-NE-NCc-UB-UN-R-ZC-_N,
C^-]zC usurping by guile || He is trying to usurp his leader by guile.
Bc-<%-$A-]C-tN-l-C-CPc-C^-]zC-qN-c-qN,
C^-\, embezzling || He was convicted of embezzling his companys
money. Bc-AE-\]-_-U-C^-\-qc-R_-Ic-GN-TFN,
C^-\`, deception, dishonesty || Criticize dishonesty and praise
truthfulness. C^-\`-`-cP-]qP-NE-TNP-NP-`-TN-TCc-nc,
C^-`P, taking guile/fraud || By taking guile some people are able to
become successful officials.

U-`-`-C^-+-`-TP-Pc-:UA/-`c-N_-T]-NRP-U-`-]n_-MT,
C^-TaN, verbal deceit/fraud || I understand your verbal deceit and I
dont trust you. Ec-mN-l-C^-TaN-gR$?-0?-mN-`-^N-Gc-U-LJ.,
C^C (C^C C^Cc, C^Cc,) to cover, to dress || I dressed my children in
new clothes. Ec-<%-$A-qc-R-Uc-`-CP-R-Cc_-T-C^Cc,
C^C-]B_, servant || The servant gave his master a cup of water.
C^C-]B_-Nc-B]-TNC-R-`-G-S_-CE-qP,
C^C-R, waiter, servant || The waiter brought food to the table.
C^C-Rc-FC-V]-E-O-\-U-T`,
C^C-U, maid-servant || She worked as a maid-servant for a year before
getting a better job.

B-U-`-q-T-N-`c-T\E-T-ZC-U-MT-CE-, B-Uc-`-CFC-`-C^C-U-qc-Pc-q-T-`c,
C^P, left || The boy on the left is my nephew. C^P-n-Z-`-N-P-E]-W-T-^P,
C^P-_, going around counterclockwise || The Bn devotees were
going around the temple counterclockwise.

TP-R-N?-NCP-R-`-C^P-_-o$-TZP-^N,
C^P-Ec, left side || After the stroke his left side was paralyzed.
B-`-E-C-MTc-c, B]-`c-C^P-Z-cE-,
C^P-R, left one || My book is not the right one, its the left one.
E]-NR-G-P-C^c-KR$?-UP-R_-C^P-KR$?-?-;R.-0-N-^P,
C^P-pCc, left side || The chair is on the left side of the room.
eE-Cc-BE-T]-C^P-pCc-?-^N,
296

C^P-pCc-R, leftist || Hes not a rightist, hes a leftist.


B-P-C^c-pCc-R-UP-R_-C^P-pCc-R-^P,
C^P-`C left hand || His left hand is stronger than his right one.
B]-C^c-`C-`c-C^P-`C-aN-G,
C^T, (C^T, C^Tc, C^Tc,) to sway, wave; to have sex || The servant
slowly waved the fan back and forth for her master. C^C-Rc-TNC-R-`E-D^T-N`-Uc-C^Tc, When you have sex, use a condom. mN-lc-C^TOc-UH-bTc-T@`-N-qc,
C^_, (C^_, C^_, C^_,) to borrow, to lend || Please lend me some
money. E-`-_-U-]C]-C^_-NE-,
C^`, to avoid, to shun || I try to avoid unpleasant things.
Ec-q-T-C-0R-`-C^`-c-qN,
1

_,

corral, enclosure; 2goat || 1We put the sheep in the enclosure.

Ec-`C-

_-PE-`-T`, The goat climbed up the mountain. _-_-E-`-]Cc,


_-UN], trace, tracking || Tracking the enemy through the mountains tired
us all. _-`E-TN-Pc-Nu-T-`-_-UN]-qc-3,<-E-W-WE-U-ME-GN,
_-T, enclosure, corral, yard || We built a simple enclosure with adobe
bricks. E-Wc-c-SC-Cc-_-T-MTc-Cc-aC-`c,
_-U, female goat || That female goat gives a lot of milk.
_-U-N-`-]-U-UE-T-^N,
_-`C goats and sheep; the cross of a goat and sheep || Our livestock
includes horses, yaks, goats, and sheep. E-W]-pCc-H:A-P?-?--NEC^C_-`C-TFc-^N, Have you ever seen the cross of a goat and a
sheep? mN-lc-_-`C-UME-rE-EU,
_-a goat meat || I like mutton better than goat meat. E-_-a-`c-`C-a-`-NC],
_C-`c, depending on || Depending on how hard I study I may pass the
2

examination.

Ec-T-E-`-C-_c-F-]x-,.-R-`-_C-`c-Rc, Ec-Cc-]zN-P-tCc-tCc-UN,
_C-?J<-0R, brass || The icon is made of brass. ]x--N-_C-?J<-0R-=?-29R?,
297

_Cc, dam, dike, embankment || The dam restrained the lakes water.
_Cc-Nc-UW-G-T@C-`-qc,
_Cc-Tc, summary, brief || I want you to bring a summary of that book
to me by tomorrow afternoon.

mN-lc-NR-G-N]-PE-NP-_Cc-Tc-aC-cE-IP-p-x_-E-`-]m_-^E-NCc,
_Cc-R, coarse, rough || This is a very rough estimate of the situation.
]N-P-CPc-TT-l-}R/-lA?-d-FE-_Cc-R-ZC-^P,
_Cc-VU, a little; in general || He only talked a little about his
background. <%-$A-`-c-l-o2-uR%?-_-Pc-Bc-_Cc-VU-`c-U-TaN, He
described the situation in general. Bc-CPc-TT-_Cc-VU-TaN,
_Cc-c, rough estimate || This rough estimate gives us an idea of the
situation. _Cc-c-]Nc-E-W-`-CPc-TT-IA-$/?-5=-<$?-43-o?-`P-O-TFC
_Cc-_U, rough, simple || My uncle gave me a rough account of the
accident. E]-e-Bc-E-`-GC--N-_Cc-_U-ZC-TaN,
_E-, one, oneself || One should learn as much as one can.
U-ZC-Cc-T-F-MT-FC-E-NCc,
_E--]S_-T,, independent || One should be independent at the age of
eighteen. U-ZC-`-TF-TN-`-TN-.?-_E--]S_-NCc, Unlike her brother, she
is an independent person. B-U]-%/-NE-U-]x-T_, B-U-P-<%--]S_-T]-U-ZC^P,
_E-E-, autonomy || Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous
1

Prefecture in Qinghai has autonomy.

UW-P-ZE-GP-n-UW-QT-TN-cC-_E-E-B`-P-_E-E-^P,
_E-E-B`, autonomous prefecture || Mtshonub Tibetan Autonomous
Prefecture is in Qinghai. UW-QT-TN-_Cc-_E-E-B`-P-UW-P-P-^N,
_E-E-Ec, autonomous region || Inner Mongolia, Tibet, and Xinjiang
are three autonomous regions in China.

PE-cC-NE-TN-Ec, ZP-FE-P-sE-C]-_E-E-Ec-CcU-^P,
_E-P, ones own mistake || It is important to admit ones own mistake.
_E-P-Bc-`P-o-P-C`-G,
_E-B, self-sufficiency || Students should be taught self-sufficiency.
T-U-`-_E-B-<%-Cc:A-{R<-]GN-NCc,
_E-B-_E-Cc, self-sufficiency, self-reliance || Through years of poverty
and hard work he had learned self-reliance.

298

`-O-U]-NT`-SEc-NE-N@]-`c-TN-3,<, Bc-_E-B-_E-Cc-qN-MTc-TTc,
_E-NC_, presumptuousness || His presumptuousness upset many of his
friends. B]-_E-NC_-nc-B]-uCc-R-UE-T-U-NC]-T_-29R?, Her
presumptuousness in visiting us unannounced is unbearable.

B-Uc-E-W_-T-U-TKE-T_-2v-<-:R%-o-<%-.$<-$&A$-$&R.-L?-0-/A-T\N-MTc-{`-28A$-<J.,
_E-UC-MP, to be self-sufficient, to stand on ones own feet || After
graduating from school one must stand on ones own feet.

U-ZC-T--Pc-UM_-pP-c-_E-UC-MP-NCc,
_E-]D`-FP, automatic || That washing machine is automatic.
Cc-]tN-]z`-Gc-N-P-_E-]D`-FP-^P,
_E-`, our country || Our country has a long history.
_E-`-`-`-c-_E-T-ZC-P,
_E-Ec, subjective || That is a subjective opinion. N-P-_E-Ec-l--T-ZC-_N,
_E-FC we, us || We will go to the picnic together. _E-FC--CcE-`-UIU-O-]u,
_E-IN, oneself, ones own || Taking care of oneself is important.
_E-IN-`--C-qN-o-P-C`-G,
_E-Ic, ones own crimes || One should look at ones own crimes
honestly. _E-Ic-`-Ec-\P-xE-U-qN-NCc,
_E-TN, self-praise, self-glorification || Wealth can lead to selfglorification. Tc-]q_-nc-_E-TN-E-~N,
_E-NP, individual benefit, individual issues || This idea wont help us,
instead, its for his individual benefit.

-T-]N-/A-B]-_E-NP-`c-E-W-`-SP-U-MCc,
_E-]NN, ones desire || One should acknowledge what ones desire is and
then carefully decide if it should be pursued. _E-]NN-F-ZC-^P-R-`-Ec-\Pqc-c-.J-<%-:5S=-~J$-LJ.-_E-UP-`-C\T-PP-nc-,$-$&R.-qN-]c,
_E-/?, own ability/capacity || He became successful entirely through his
own ability. Bc-_E-/?-#R-=-2gJ/-/?-3A-P2-:V?-&/-8A$-+-I<,
_E-CPc, own address || This is my own address. ]N-P-E]-_E-CPc-^P,
_E-E-, subjective view, ones own perception, subjectivity || Subjective
views may not be realistic. _E-E-P-NEc-^N-UP-`c-G,
_E-pCc, our group/side, ones own side || If you are too intimate with
our group, you may be criticized by others.

299

C`-K-mN-_E-pCc-`-MP-xCc-5K-CZP-nc-P-TN-qN-~N,

_E-qE-, natural, nature || Love and hate are both natural impulses.
T-cUc-NE-Z-E-CIc-P-_E-qE-C-E_-bCc-aC-^P,
_E-qE-BUc, nature || Nature should be protected, not polluted.
_E-qE-BUc-`-~E-T-qN-R-`c-]TC-TVC-T\-U-_E-,
_E-NTE-, freedom, liberty || Everyone loves freedom. U-WE-U-_E-NTE-`-ZP,
_E-]TT-G, running water || The sound of the running water kept me from
sleeping last night. _E-]TT-G]--Nc-UNE-NCE-E-CIN-O-U-TFC
_E-E-, independent study || Through independent study he has learned a
lot about Tibetan folklore.

_E-E-qc-R-TN-3,<, Bc-TN-l-NUEc-tN-U-_C-{R<-IA-ac-q-UE-T-Ec,
_E-U, own people || He wanted to help other people more than his own
people. Bc-_E-U-`-C-GN-R-`c-CZP-`-_Cc-_U-qN-R_-Uc,
_E-Uc, free || You are free to do whatever you like.
mN-lc-_E-Uc-|R?-F-]NN-TT-GC
_E-Uc-_E-`Cc, liberalism || Liberalism is the opposite of
conservatism. _E-Uc-_E-`Cc-P-E-ZP-_E-`Cc-l-C--^P,
_E-TVP, independence || When did Kazakhstan get its independence?
d-cC-c-MP-`-_E-TVP-PU-MT-R-^P,
_E-TVP-`-BT, independent country || Great Britain is an independent
country. NqP-H-P-_E-TVP-`-BT-FC-^P,
_E-WCc-,2-0, self-controlled || Although he has a bad temper, he is
usually self-controlled. B--cN-ME-_E-, Bc-_E-WCc-MT, When they grow
older, children want to be free of their parents. qc-R-W-/<-?R/-0-NE-TPPc-S-U-`-U-TP-R_-_E-5$?-,2-0<-LJ.-]NN,
_E-CZP, oneself and others || You should consider the feelings of
yourself and others. mN-lc-_E-CZP-n-TcU-W`-`-]NE-C-]c,
_E-TZP, nature, character || How would you describe your own nature?
mN-lc-_E-C-_E-TZP-`-ZT-]{-H-_-qN,
_E-TZP-nc, naturally, spontaneously || This precious stone formed
naturally. -_P-R-G-]N-P-_E-TZP-nc-uT,
_E-^`, own home place || My own home place is Ngawa.
E]-_E-^`-P--T-^P,
_E-_Cc, our race, our nationality || Lets work together to better the
300

education of our nationality.

%-5S?-3*3-.-@<-2lR/-qc-Pc-_E-_Cc-l-T-Cc-H-`Cc-c-CKE-0<-L,

_E-bCc-lc, naturally || The sun, naturally, rises in the morning and sets
in the evening. I-U-_E-bCc-lc-8R$?-0<-a_-ZE-YR.-.?-?-QT,
_E-aN-W-T, stubborn, obstinate || Hes stubborn and wont change his
mind. B-P-_E-aN-W-T-^P-Rc-B]--T-T-U-~N,
_E-Cac, personality, character || The personality of that man is very
different from that of his wife.

U-N]-_E-Cac-P-B]-GE-U]-_E-Cac-NE-d-FE-U-]x,
_E-~E-, self-protection || He carries a knife for self-protection and as an
ornament. _E-~E-qN-GN-NE-P-G-ZC-L-Bc-u-ZC-]NCc,
_E-~C ones own life || Ones own life should mean something.
_E-~C-`-NP-E-^N-R_-]c,
_P, to be fitting, to be appropriate, to come to the time || We have now
come to the time when the children must go to bed.

N--qc-R-W-U`-L-]u-NCc-R]-Oc-`-_P,
_P-R, fitting || A suit of clothes is a fitting wedding gift.
-T-G-WE-ZC-P-CIP-P-n-`Cc-c-_P-R-ZC-^P,
_T, the best || It is the best to have children form independent ideas.
qc-R-Uc-`-_E-WCc-l--T-uT-L-]HC--P-_T-^P,
_T-L, very, thoroughly || He was very pleased by the compliment.
C\Ec-TN-lc-B-_T-L-NC]-_-TFC
_T-NE-_U-R, a series of, many || I have many stories to tell you about my
time in France.

E-q-_P-c-<-TN-R]-_-Pc, mN-`-CKU-N-_T-NE-_U-R-TN--E-`-^N,
_T-CPc, consecration || The consecration of the new temple took place in
the afternoon. z-#%-Cc_-T-`-p-x_-_T-CPc-qc,
_T-T-_T-T, dim, vague || My memory is dim about what happened so
many years ago.

`-]C]-P-NP-F-ZC-qE-T]-MC-Pc-E-`-xP-R-_T-T-_T-T-VU-`c-UN,
_U-]NCc, help, supplementary || Do you need any help during your
sons wedding? mN-l-T]-CIP-P-n-Tc-c, mN-`-_U-]NCc-qN-NCc-cU,
_U-]NCc-R, helper, assistant || I am his helper when he cooks.
Bc-C^-`-qN-Oc, E-P-B]-_U-]NCc-R-^P,
301

_`, to get torn || My jacket was torn when I rode through the forest.
E--`-ZP-Pc-PCc-$?J2-TN-Oc-N--_`-2<-29R?,
_`-u, sword || He wears a sword in his belt.
Bc-@-T]--_Cc-l-PE-O-_`-u-ZC-TKCc,
_`-T, long braid || His long braid hung down his back.
B]-_`-T-_E-U-N-B]-T-`-NoEc,
_c, cloth || That cloth is silk. _c-N-P-Cc-^P,
_c-N, thread || Please put this thread through the eye of this needle.
_c-N-N-BT-UC-`-]xP-R_-nc,
_c-]MC-T\- textile mill || That textile mill exports most of its products.
_c-]MC-T\--Nc-MP-c-UE-ac-p_-]xP-qN,
_c-U, canvas shoes || These canvas shoes are perfect for summer.
Nq_-B_-_c-U-]N-NC-@-&%-</-0R-;A/,
_, mountain || The mountain was covered with trees. _-2R-PCc-W`-nc-BTc,
_-E-, rivers and mountains || We crossed rivers and mountains to reach
your home. E-W-_-E-TN-3,<-mN-l-^`-`-MP,
_-c, wild || Wild animals should not be hunted. _-c-~C-GCc-P-U-_E-,
_-BC gorge, valley || A river was at the bottom of the gorge.
_-BC-C-Z`-P-G-T-ZC-^N,
_-B`, mountainous area || Qinghai is a mountainous area.
UW-P-P-_-B`-ZC-^P,
_-tN-R, hermit || When he grew old he became a hermit.
B-`-P-c-R-NE-TP-Pc-_-tN-R-ZC-L-n_,
_-UC, mountain top || A single tree grew on the mountain top.
_-UC-P-E-T-IC-CFC-c,
_-N, bare mountain || Sand covered the bare mountain. q-Uc-_-N-BTc,
_-N, mountain range || The mountain range seemed endless.
_-N-N-`-U-UM]-UN-R-]x,
_-E-, peak, summit || An eagle flew above the mountain peak.
C-FC-_-E-TN-Pc-]S_,
_-G, mountains and rivers || Mountains and rivers separated us from our
destination. _-Gc-E-W-NUCc-c-`-]q_-O-U-TFC
_-Cc, animal || What animal is that on the mountain?
_-E-C-CP-P-_-Cc-F-ZC-^P,
302

_-]NTc, mountain foot || A small house was built at the mountain foot.
_-]NTc-?-BE-T-ZC-TA$c-;R.,
_-T, mountain || What is the name of that mountain? _-T-N]-UE-`-F-\_,
_-TE-, rabbit || A rabbit hopped across the grassland.
_-TE-ZC--,%-.-UGEc-E-qN-TZP-cE-,
_-U, non-irrigated land || The fields on the mountain side were all nonirrigated land. _-Ec-l--ZE-P-_-U-^P,
_-U, painting || I like that painting on your wall.
mN-l-nE-Ec-l-_-U-N-`-E-NC],
_-U-T, painter, artist || Hes a famous painter, although he never studied
painting in school. Bc-T--<-_-U-`-E-T-U-qc-lE-B-P-_-U-T-uCc-FP-ZC-^P,
_-, base of a mountain || The base of the mountain was covered with
flowers. _--U-KC-Cc-BTc,
_-, mountain top || The mountain top was too high for anyone to climb.
_--N-UM-xCc-Pc-c-^E-]C-U-MT,
_-C\_, towering mountain || The towering mountain was, the local
people believed, a powerful deity.

^`-Uc-_-C\_-N-P-CZ-TNC-Tc-FP-ZC-;A/-0<-2?3?,

_C to catch sight of || At night from the mountain top, we can catch


sight of the citys many lights.

UWP-U_-_-UC-Pc-E-Wc-uE-m_-n-C-[P-UE-T-UME-MT,
_C-FP, intelligent || Hes not intelligent, hes stupid.
B-P-U-]R-_C-FP-ZC-U-_N, B-P-P-R-ZC-_N,
_C-Tc, intellectual power || I was impressed by the professors
intellectual power. NC-Tac-GP-U]-_C-Tc-lc-E-`-TC-GCc-\T-U-TZC
_C-CPc-R, scholar, intellect || He is acknowledged as a great Buddhist
scholar. B-P-PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-l-3#?-GP-ZC-`-T,
_C-R-FP, intelligent || How intelligent are you? mN-P-_C-R-FP-F-]x-ZC-^P,
_C-`, art, literature and art || Did you study art in college?
mN-lc-T--GP-U-<-_C-`-e-Ec,
_C-`-T, artist || Is he an artist or an actor?
B-P-_C-`-T-ZC-^P-PU-;%-/-]tT-P-R-ZC-^P,
_C-C[E-, academic study || What academic study was your major in
university? T--GP-U-<-mN-l-GN-E-_C-C[E-P-F-ZC-^P,
303

_Cc, race, breed; category || What breed is that cow? T-U-N]-_Cc-P-FZC-^P, Yaks and cows belong to the same animal category. C^C-NET-U-$*A?-P-~C-GCc-<A$?-CFC-^P,
_Cc-N, lineage, race || Tell me about your lineage. E-`-mN-l-_Cc-N-{R<aN-NE-,
_Cc-N-]xc-U, mixed ancestry || His lineage is one of mixed ancestry.
B]-_Cc-N-P-]xc-U-^P,
_Cc-EP, low birth || Although he was of low birth he became a wealthy
businessman. B-P-_Cc-EP-ZC-^P-_E-, ]P-lE-B-WE-T-pC-R-ZC-L-n_,
_Cc-R]-C[E-`Cc, theory || What theory explains why the sky is blue?
_Cc-R]-C[E-`Cc-CE-ZC-Cc-PU-UB]-P-P-R-^P-R_-]u`-TaN-qc,
_Cc-]qN, to classify || What system is used to classify plants?
-aE-_Cc-]qN-qN-R_-3-=$-F-ZC-T@`,
_E-, long; during the time of || Because I could not sleep, the night
seemed very long. E-`-CIN-U-MTc-R]-P-nc-UWP-U-P-d-FE-_E-T-]x, During
the time of my grandfather there were no cars. E]--T]-_E-`-Ec-]B_UN,
_E-ME-, length, distance || What is the distance from here to Lhasa?
]N-Pc--c-`-`U-,$-&A-43-;A/,
_E-T, long; tall || I havent seen you in a long time. Ec-mN-^P-_E-T-ZC-`U-UME-, My brother is tall but I am short. E]-P-`-C\Cc-_E-T-ZC-^N-3R.:R/-G%-E]-C\Cc-ME-,
_E-WN, length, distance || The length of this rope is three meters.
MC-R-]N]-_E-WN-`-c-CcU-^N,
_E-`Cc, doctrine, -ism || We are studying various doctrines in our
1

philosophy class.

E-W]-UWP-IN-_C-R]-T-tN-{2?-?-E-Wc-_E-`Cc-]x-UP--WCc-`-T-E-qN,
_N-R, thin, emaciated || After his illness he was emaciated.
B-`-P-W-qE-c-=?-_N-R_-n_,
_P, price, fee || What fee must we pay in order to enter the museum?
NEc-UE-TaUc-P-BE-O-:6=-0_-E-Wc-_-U-C-WN-_-NCc,
_P-CE-, price || What is the price of that coat? N-Cc-N]-_P-CE-C-WN-^P,
_P-ME-, value, worth || What is the value of this earring?
-P-]N]-_P-ME-C-WN-^P,
304

_P-ME-FP, precious, valuable || He put the precious Buddhist icon into a


black bag. Bc-PE-T]-]x--_P-ME-FP-N-BC-U-PC-R-ZC-C-PE-O-TZC
_P-ME-UN-R, priceless || This is a priceless work of art.
]N-P-_C-`-MP-c-_P-ME-UN-R-ZC-^P,
_P-R-G, precious; jewel || The most precious thing I have is my
daughter. E-`-^N-R]-_P-R-G-l-G-ac-P-E]-T-U-^P, This jewel is a diamond.
_P-R-G-]N-P---S-`U-^P,
_U-nc, gradually || He gradually became accustomed to getting up very
early. B-8R$?-0--U_-U`-`c-E-T_-_U-nc-`Tc,
_U-uc, class, stratum || What class of society do you belong to?
mN-P--WCc-l-_U-uc-CE-`-CKCc,
_U-R, rank, level || His rank was that of general.
B]-$R-$/?-P-NUC-]-_U-R-^P,
_U-qE-, successive occurrence || A successive occurrence of disasters
struck the family. CPN-]W-_U-qE-Cc-mU-WE-N-`-CVc,
_U-qP, coming in succession || The Tibetan kings coming in succession
1

for centuries is the content of many history books.

Oc-_Tc-UE-T]-<A%-C-TN-l-TVP-R-_U-qP-P-`-c-NR-G-UE-T]-TN-q-^P,
_U-TZP, gradually || I gradually was able to speak more and more
English. Ec-_U-TZP-NqP-^C-N-`c-UE-T-aN-MT-R_-n_,
_Uc-]CC epidemic prevention || That clinic is responsible for epidemic
prevention. P-TFc-BE-Nc-_Uc-]CC-`-]CP-`P-qN,
_Uc-PN, epidemic || There was an epidemic of several diseases after the
flood. G-`C-qE-c-_Uc-PN-]C]-qE-,
_`-T, pill; round || This is a medicine pill. ]N-P-P-_`-T-ZC-^P, A ball
is round. E-`-P-_`-T-^P,
_`-_`, round || The earth is round. c]-C-`-P-_`-_`-^P,
_c, form, shape || The statues shape is graceful. ]TC-_c-N-UC-`-^C
_c-UN, impartial, unprejudiced || Teachers should treat their students in
an impartial manner. NC-P-nc-T-U-Uc-`-_c-UN-l--Ec-]XP-NCc,
_-_, group of herding families || That group of herding families camps
here every summer. _-_-Nc-=R-<J:A-Nq_-#_-]N<-UW_-c-]XP,
_-BC team, unit || The basketball team got on a bus.
r%-lJ.--`-_-BC-N--N-Ec-]B_-ZC-`-TN,
1

305

_-TCc, to line up in a row || The students were lined up in a row and


then given a vaccination. T-U-Uc-_-TCc-c-B-W-`-]CC-P-TT,
_-N_, team flag || Our team flag was colored red and gold.
E-W]-_-N_-P-NU_-c_-]xc-U-^P,
_-NRP, head of a team || He is the head of a team of construction
workers. B-P-]XCc-P-T\-T]-_-NRP-^P,
_-WCc, team, group || The group of women played football well.
c-U]-_-WCc-N?-E-N--`-c-R-T\E-,
_E-, even though, although || Even though you are very clever, you need
to learn a sense of modesty.

mN-P-_C-^C-UW_-T-ZC-^P-_E, mN-lc-BEc-Ec-l-TcU-R-TN-NCc,
_T, to gather, to get || The clouds gathered in the western part of the
sky. PU-UB]-QT-pCc-?-P-_T,
_U, arm; to cover; to hatch || I held my child in my arms. Ec-<%-$Aqc-R-_U, Cover the child with a blanket. qc-R-I`-M`-nc-_U-ZC The
hen hatched several eggs last month. -P-U_-q-Uc-E-E-]C]-_U,
_`, to rot, to spoil || Lets cook the meat before it rots. a-N-U-_`-CE-WN,
_`-x, rotten smelling || We should throw away this food because it is
rotten smelling. \-U-N-`-_`-x-{-Tc-E-Wc-]SE-P-]c,
_`-T, rotten, decayed || The old decayed wood would not burn. aE-G-fA%<=-]T_-U-~N,
_`-cEc, corrupted, rotten smelling || The mutton was rotten smelling so
we fed it to the dogs. `C-a-`-_`-SA-VR-2?-E-Wc-m-`-qP,
_c, lineage; bone || What lineage are you descended from? mN-P-_c-CEPc-3(JN-R-^P, There was no meat on the bone. _c-E-P-a-UN,
_c-N, lineage, descent group || His descent group and mine are the
same. %-.%-#R:C-_c-N-CFC-^P,
_c-CFC-R, kinsmen || Those people are my kinsmen.
U-N-W-P-E-NE-_c-CFC-R-^P,
_c-R, bone || What is the biggest bone in your body?
mN-l-`c-E-Pc-_c-R-Gc-GP-R-P-CE-^P,
_c-`, turtle || The turtle fed on fish. _c-`-nc-I-`-]W-P-qN,
_c-UE-, family name || My family name is Sngo tshang ba.
E]-_c-UE-`--WE-T-\_,
1

306

_c-WCc, joint || She injured her elbow joint when she fell off the horse.
B-U--MC-Pc-E-Pc-B-U]-u-U]-_c-WCc-c,
_, to depend; to yearn, to desire, to hope || I depend on my mother for
my food and clothes. E]-B-T-WE-U-E]-e-U-`-_, I yearn to go to school
and get a good job. E-T--`-cE-Pc-q-T-T\E-T-ZC-]MT-R_-_,
_-]C], some, a few || I have only a few friends. E-`-uCc-R-]C]-_-`c-UN,
_-TF`, entrusting, commissioning || Your entrusting me with the care of
your children and livestock is not something I can agree to. mN-lc-mNl-pCc-\C-NE-qc-R-CI_-E-qN--N-E-`-_-TF`-qN-R-P-Ec-NE-`P-qN-MT-R-ZC-UP,
_-c, expectation || I did not fulfill my fathers expectation. Ec-<%- $A- e-S]_-c-U-]uT,
_-E-, delusion, fantasy || Your belief that you can have instant
1

happiness is delusion.

mN-GA?-<%-=-]z`-O-TN-N-]MT-MT-0<-2?3?-0-N-P-_-E-^P,
_-]OP, hope, desire, wish || My desire is that all my children will be
responsible adults.

E]-_-]OP-P-<%-$A-qc-R-WE-U-_E-]CP-`P-R]-U-N_-U-ZC-L-]n_-]NN-R-N-^P,
_-]NN, hope, wish || What is your wish? mN-l-_-]NN-P-F-ZC-^P,
_-T, hope, wish; requirement || My hope was to marry a good man and
live happily. E]-_-T-P-c-R-T\E-T-ZC-NE-CIP-C-qc-Pc-]W-T-N-R-_`--N-^P,
Your wish is my command. mN-l-<J-2-Ec--T_-]XP, It is my wish that
you can be rich and famous. mN-`-Tc-]q_-.%-UWP-P-c--P-E]-_-2-^P,
1

He mentioned a new requirement after we had finished our work.

E-Wc-<%-<%-$A-`c-@-]uT-c, Bc-E-W-`-<J-2-$8/-8A$-TKP,
_-UN, hopeless || After failing the examination I felt hopeless.
Cc-U-]zN-R]-c-?-%:A-<J-,$-(.,
_-Uc, desire, wish || My desire is to be rich and famous.
E]-_-Uc-P--Tc-NE-UWP-P-c--N-^P,
_-ZC moment, short time || He thought for a moment about what he
should do. Bc-<%-$A?-F-ZC-`c-NCc-R:A-,.-`-]NE-_-ZC-TT,
_-_, each, every, everyone || He gave each of us the same amount of
money, which satisfied everyone. Bc-E-W-U-_-_-`-_-U-UE-JE-UN-R-qP-/?5B3-0<-L?, Each of us wants you to get well quickly. E-W-3A-<J-<J?-mN-r_U_-xC-P-]NN, Each and every one of us wants you to be a good student
307

and have an opportunity for a very successful life. %-5S-3A-<J-<J?-HR.-<%-

aR2-3-29%-0R-8A$-+-I<-/?-P2-:V?-w/-0:A-3A-5K-8A$-<R=-2:A-{=-2-w/-0<-L%-/:.R.,

_-_-TZP, one by one || He called the students names one by one.


Bc-T-U]-UE-_-_-TZP-O-Tc,
_-c, patron || His patron died and left him a lot of money.
B]-_-c-]Nc-Pc-B-`-_-U-UE-T-TZC
_], baby goat || The baby goat had long white hair.
_]-N-`-N-R-N@_-T-_E-T-^N,
_]-UC chart, diagram || The chart showed population in the province.
_]-UC-N]-PE-ZE-GP-N]-U-uEc-T@N,
_C to touch; to gain || Dont touch this because its very hot. ]N-d-FEW-U-^P-Rc-=$-0?-U-_C How much money did you gain in that
transaction? I-WE-N]-tN-Pc-mN-lc-_-U-C-WN-_C
_C-q, sense of touch || That blind man has a very keen sense of touch.
U-Z_-T-N-`-_C-q]-W_-T-P-R-ZC-^N,
_Ec-R, rigid, obstinate || He has rigid views about the subject.
_Cc-C[E-N]-E-Pc-B-`--T-_Ec-R-^N,
_N, verb be || He is a student. B-P-T-U-ZC-_N,
_U, to hurry, to be quick || Please hurry, or you will be late.
_U-NE-N-UP-mN-]p--_N,
_c, turn, by each || Lets do the cooking in turn.
E-Wc-_c-Uc-q?-Pc-C^-`-qN,
_c-_, turn, shift || Its your turn to clean the classroom.
T-BE-`-CVE-NC-qN-R]-_c-_-mN-`-Tc,
_, taste; corpse || This soup has a salty taste. B-T-]N]-_-T, The corpse
was put in a wooden coffin. _-N-aE-C-_-U-PE-O-TZC
_-U, coffin || The coffin was made of wood. _-U-N-aE-`c-29R?,
_-TFN, nutriment || What nutriment prevents colds?
_-TFN-F-ZC-Cc-GU-R-]CC-MT,
_-U, remnant, sediment || There is some sediment in the bottom of the
kettle. NU-n-ZTc-?-_-U-`c-^N,
_-UN, tasteless || This food is tasteless. ]N-P-\-U-_-UN-FC-_N,
_-V, carnal desire || He learned as he got older to control his carnal
1

308

B-P-WN-c-R-NE-TP-Pc-B]-_-V-`-WN-]XP-qc,
_C-_C black || I had only one black yak. E-`-C^C-_C-_C-CFC-U-CKCc-UN,
_Cc, companion; help || My dearest companion is my husband. E]-EC-^-_Cc-P-E]-m-C-^P, I can never repay the help that my teacher gave
me. NC-P-nc-E-`-_Cc-qc-R-`-Ec-xP-`P-PU-^E-]H`-N@],
_Cc-T, rescuing; assistance || He drowned while rescuing the child
that had fallen into the water. G-PE-O-E-T]-qc-R-T-Oc, B-G-PE-`-]MUc,
desire.
1

The physical needs of the local people were met by international

assistance.

c-CPc-U-NUEc-`-NEc-c-l-_Cc-_-UB-T-`-]-_Cc-T-lc-WU-

R_-qc,
_Cc-_, help, aid, assistance || How much assistance did your county
receive last year from the government?

P-PE-mN-W]-E-`-~N-C[E-C-_Cc-_-H-VU-MT,
_Cc-NE`, relief money, subsidy || The relief money was to buy food for
the herdsmen. _Cc-NE`-P-]{C-R-Uc-`-\--I-GN-O-^P,
_Cc-R, helper, assistant || My helper took notes as I talked. Ec-{.-(TaN-Tc-_Cc-Rc-\P-M-T@N,
_Cc-_U, assistance, help || That poor family needs any sort of help that
you can give. mU-WE-.2=-2R-N-`-HR.-GA-_Cc-_U-F-_Cc-NCc,
_Cc-`c, co-operation || Co-operation between various people made the
book a good one. U--WCc-lc-_Cc-`c-qc-Pc-NR-G-N-`Cc-R-ZC-L-TKE-,
_E-, ravine, deep valley || There is no farming in that deep valley.
{C-_E-\T-U-N-P-ZE-`c-UN,
_E-T, agriculturist, farmer || My father is a farmer. E]-e-S-P-_E-T-ZC-^P,
_E-U-]{C agro-pastoral || This is an agro-pastoral area.
]N-P-_E-U-]{C-C-c-G-ZC-^P,
_T-VU, brief, roughly || Let me tell you roughly what happened.
Ec-mN-`-.R/-F-ZC-qE-T:A-{R<-_T-VU-TaN,
_U-R, thick, deep (sound) || He sings in a deep voice.
Bc-N-_U-Rc--NqEc-Ec,
_`, to enjoy || I enjoy recreation. E-N-]H-`-_`,
_`-G, musical instrument || Do you play a musical instrument?
mN-lc-_`-G-Ns`-ac-cU,
_`-NqEc, music || My favorite kind of music is Tibetan music.
309

E-Gc-NC]-T]-_`-NqEc-l-_Cc-P-TN-l-_`-NqEc-^P,
_`-U, music || What kind of music do you like? mN-_`-U-_Cc-CE-`-NC],
_`-U-T, musician || He is a nationally-recognized musician.
B-P-`-^Ec-c-uCc-R]-_`-U-T-ZC-^P,
_`-N, amusement, entertainment || What do you do for entertainment?
mN-lc-_`-N-F-ZC-<R=-2-^P,
_`-N-BE-, recreation club || We had a recreation club but it closed last
year. E-W-`-_`-N-BE-ZC-^N-UN, ]P-lE-N-P-PE-=R<--TT,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to destroy, to ruin || The heavy rain has ruined my
crops. G_-ZN-lc-E]-`-KC-TCc,
Ec-]B_, vehicle, automobile || The vehicle raced down the road.
Ec-]B_-N-`U-NN-Pc-TCc,
Ec-G, distilled water || I only drink distilled water. Ec-Ec-G-B-P-]ME-,
Ec-R, steam, vapor || Steam came from the boiling water.
G-B`-U-=?-Ec-R-]p_,
P, moisture, humidity || The humidity was sixty percent.
P-n-WN-P-T-G]-xC-F-^P,
P-UN, dry || A desert is dry. q-ME-`-P-UN,
P-Ca_, humidity, dampness || The humidity in southern China is high.
sE-C]-QT-pCc-?-P-Ca_-d-FE-G,
Tc, wave, surge || He felt a surge of sadness when he recalled his dead
mother. Bc-e-U-NU-R-xP-R-P-B-`--COE-C-Tc-]p_,
Tc-GP, great, outstanding || Who is the most outstanding writer you
know? mN-lc-ac-R]-U-R-R:A-P?-?-Gc-Tc-GP-P-c-^P,
Tc-zE-, wave || The wave of water lifted the boat and moved it closer to
the shore. Tc-zE-Cc-u-GE-TKCc-Pc-UW-]uU-O-.J.,
C-R, testis, testicle || The little boy had an operation because one of his
testicles had not descended.

T-GE-N]-C-R-CFC-M_-O-U-NoEc-Rc-B]-C-R-`-CaC-TFc-qc,
E-, wind || The wind is cold. E-]mC-U-_N,
E-BUc-GP-R, the atmosphere || The atmosphere surrounds the earth.
E-BUc-GP-Rc-c]-C-`-T_-,
E-P, air current || I feel an air currentplease close the window.
E]-E-T_-E-P-ZC-^N-Rc-]-BE-N-T,
310

E-PC dust storm || I am able to see nothing in the dust storm.


E-PC-N]-PE-O-Ec-F-^E-_C-U-MT,
E-]zP, radio || The radio station has Tibetan programs.
E-]zP-c-WCc-`-TN-N-l-`-WP-^N,
E-NU_, storm || The storm had a lot of thunder and lightning.
E-NU_-OR.-]{C--wA<-wA<-P$?-/?-C-8$?-GP-R-]mC
E-]WT, storm, hurricane || The storm will hit our area tomorrow.
cE-IP-E-W]-^`-pCc-?-E-]WT-$;$--_N,
E-C^T, fan || I use a fan when its hot. PU--x-Tc-Ec-E-C^T-T@`,
E-^_, sail (of a ship) || The ships sail was made of strong
cloth. UW-u]-E-^_-N-P-_c-~-Uc-T\c,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to wet, to drench || The rain drenched me. G_-Gc-E:A=?-;R%?-P-R_-TKE-,
P-R, wet, damp, moist || After the rain the air was moist.
G_-TTc-c, UB]-NTCc-2_/-$>J<-(J,
U, to trust; to be conceited || I trust you to do the right thing. mN-lc-qT-]uC-R-`c-^N-R_-E-U, Dont be so conceited that you wont listen to
what others have to say. mN-`-_E-U-G-xCc-Pc-CZP-nc-aN-NCc-R:A-{.-(-`-T-U-CKN-R-U-qN,
U-cUc, presumption, conceit || He has so much conceit that he wont
listen to criticism. B-U-cUc-G-Tc-CZP-n-P-TN-`-IP-U-NR,
T, thigh || He broke the bone in his left thigh.
Bc-<%-$A-T-C^P-R]-_c-R-TFCc,
T-a flesh of the thigh || The bullet passed through the flesh of his
thigh. T]-UN`-B]-T-a-TN-Pc-p_-TN,
TE-T, violent, cruel || He was a violent man who often fought with
others. B-P-U-CZP-NE-E-_c-qN-R]-U-TE-T-ZC-_N,
2_/-Ca_, dampness, wetness || The dampness of the weather made me
uncomfortable. PU-]-2P-Ca_-nc-E-TN-_-U-]HC
TE-T, unmoved, impassive || His impassive expression suggested that
1

he had no sympathy for the grieving family.

B]-E-UNEc-TE-T-Nc-Bc-C-T`-nc-UP_-T]-mU-WE-N-`-E--TFEc-UN-R-UWP,

311

`, mountain || Did you recently climb a mountain?


I-`U-mN-`-ZC-`-]Cc-cU,
`-B, mountain top || The mountain top is not easy to reach.
`-B<-aJ2?-N@],
`-G, sealing wax || I put sealing wax on the envelope.
Ec-^C-bTc-l-E-`-`-G-Tc,
`-I, ability, capacity || He lacks ability and could not outwit his
opponent. B-`-`-I-UN-Rc-<%-$A-:P/-;-`c-lE-`-U-MT,
`-SC radish || This radish is red. `-SC-]N-NU_-T-_N,
`-`, some || Some students went to school and some played truant.
T-U-`-`-T--`-cE-2-.%-`-`c-T-q`-L?,
`-cCc, etc., and so forth || Ive visited Lhasa, Xining, Chengdu, etc.
E--c-NE-\-`E-, tP-L]-cCc-c-cE-,
`C-BC handbag || My handbag is made of leather.
E]-`C-BC-P-@-2-=?-T\c,
`C-UBc, skilled, adept || He is skilled at writing Tibetan.
B-TN-^C-]{-T_-`C-UBc,
`C-]m_, certificate || This is a wedding certificate.
]N-P-CIP-C-C-`C-]m_-^P,
`C-NE`, cash, money on hand || How much cash do you have in your
pocket? mN-GA-#$-3:A-/%-.-N--`C-NE`-C-WN-^N-NU,
`C-G, implement, weapon || This thing can be used as a weapon.
NEc-R-]N-35S/-G-ZC-L-T@`-GC
`C-]H, handle; hand in hand || My bag doesnt have a handle. E]-BC-U`-`C-]H-UN, The two lovers walked hand in hand across the
grassland. NC]-uCc-CIc-lc-`C-]H-qc-Pc--ME-E-TuN,
`C-c, handprint || The pane of glass had a handprint.
a`-]-x-U]-E-O-`C-c-aC-^N,
`C-L-]q_, to get, to obtain || How did you get the letter?
1

312

]zP-^C-N-mN-l-`C-L-H-_-]q_,
`C-Cc, gift || What gift will you give him on his birthday?
B]-c-_-n-IP-mN-lc-B-`-`C-Cc-F-ZC-_--^P,
`C-E-, empty-handed || I was so poor, I had to visit him empty-handed
when I asked for a favor.

E-UN-R-^P-Rc-Ec-B-`-_Cc-_U-[-T_-]u-Tc-`C-E-O-]u-NCc-qE-,
`C-MC on hand || What goods do you have on hand?
mN-l-`C-MC-P-NEc-\C-F-ZC-^N,
`C-NU-R, stingy, tight || He is so tight, he wont spend anything unless he
has to. B-`C-NU-R-^P-Rc-Bc-T@`-NCc-P-U-CKCc-_-U-CFC-lE-U-T@`,
`C-NT, pocketbook || My mother made my pocketbook.
E]-e-Uc-E]-`C-NT-`c,
`C-COT, bracelet || Where did you buy your silver bracelet?
mN-lc-mN-l-NE`-n-`C-COT-N-CE-Pc-Ic-R-^P,
`C-U, armless || The armless man begged for money.
U-`C-U-Nc-_-U-E-,
`C-T, hand gesture || I didnt understand your hand gesture.
mN-l-`C-T-Ec-d-U-C,
`C-R, hand || One hand has five fingers. `C-R-CFC-`-UXT-D--^N,
`C-pc, handkerchief || I put my handkerchief in my pocket. Ec-<%-$A`C-pc--T]-BC-U]-PE-O-TZC
`C-{c, hand-written || The old manuscript was hand-written.
3-KA-E-T-N-P-`C-{c-^P,
`C-]TU, hand grenade || The hand grenade exploded near the soldiers.
`C-]TU-N-NUC-U]-`Cc-Pc-T@N,
`C-`, hand in hand || They walked hand in hand down the street.
B-W-`C-`-qc-Pc-~E-`-cE-,
`C-NU_, murderer || The murderer was arrested. `C-NU_-]XP-T\E-qc,
`C-`, craft, skill, technology || What craft does he know? Bc-`C-`-FZC-ac, Technology is an important part of a modern society. T\-_C-RP-NE-_Tc--WCc-l-uT-G-C`-GP-ZC-^P,
`C-`-UBP, technician || He is an electrical technician.
B-P-C-=?-`C-`-UBP-ZC-^P,
`C-`-T, technician, craftsman || He is a highly paid technician.
1

313

B-P--^P-UM-T]-`C-`-T-ZC-^P,
`C-]XE-, hand to hand combat || When the two groups of soldiers met,
hand to hand combat ensued. NUC-NRE-CIc-CNE-]zN-R-P-`C-]XE-qc,
`C-]XP, receipt || Do you have a receipt for this expense?
]u-uP-]N]-`C-]XP-mN-`-e-^N,
`C-T\c, handmade || These shoes are handmade. U-]N-NC-P-`C-T\c-^P,
`C-C^C assistant, helper || My assistant does all my typing.
E]-`C-C^C-Cc-E]-^-C-WE-U-C
`C-_Cc, helper, assistant || My helper takes care of my children in the
afternoon. p-x_-E]-`C-_Cc-lc-E]-qc-R-CI_-E-qN,
`C-`c, manual labor || Did you ever do manual labor?
mN-lc-`C-`c-qN-e-rE-,
`C-`P, practice || Practice makes perfect. `C-`P-`c-U-NC-]qE-,
`C-bTc, glove || This is a fur glove. ]N-P-C-R]-`C-bTc-aC-^P,
`C-ac, handicraft || The only handicraft done in our village is bootmaking. E-W]--T]-PE-`C-ac-aC-N-R-P-U-T\-^P,
`C-Cc_, rookie || The rookie worker made some mistakes.
T\-T-`C-Cc_-Nc-P_-]GC-]C]-29R?,
`E-, (`E-, `Ec, `Ec,) to get up, to stand up, to rise; to cause || Its nine
oclock and time for you to get up. (-WN-ND-_N, N-mN-U`-`c-`Ec-_P-<J.,
What will cause you to become angry? P-F-ZC-Cc-mN-`-BE-t-29R?-01

;A/,

`E-W-FP, youthful, young || She is so youthful even though shes in her


sixties. B-U-`-xC-F-`-TN-lE-N-_E-U-`E-W-FP-ZC-_N,
`E-`E-, hubbub || The hubbub of the huge crowd made him nervous.
U-WCc-`E-`E-Cc-B-<%-?J3?-:52-L-TFC
`E-a_, spoiled, pampered || He is an only child and very spoiled.
B-P-qc-R-CFC-R-^P-Rc-EP-R-`E-a_-O-TKE-,
`Ec-pCc, standpoint, view || I dont agree with your view of this
problem. CPN-NP-]N]-E-E-mN-l-`Ec-pCc-`-U-]MN,
`N-U, imitating || My children like imitating me.
E]-qc-R-Uc-E-`-`N-U-qN-R_-NC],
`N-c, imitating || He is very funny when he is imitating our teacher.
Bc-E-W]-NC-P-`-`N-c-qc-P, B-P-d-FE-NCN-{-T-ZC-_N,
314

`P, answer || Your answer is wrong. mN-l-`P-P-U-]uC


`P-GCc, retribution || My present suffering is retribution for my past
misdeeds. E]-N-]-C-T`-P-P-GN-l-3A-.$J-=?-GA-i3-(A/-<J.,
`P-C to act in response to || We will have to act in response to his
aggressive language. B]-CKU-TN-lA%-2R-N-`-E-Wc-`P-P-NCc--_N,
`T, to say, to tell,to speak || She will say anything to please her
teachers. B-Uc-NC-P-NC]-_-]HC-GN-{.-(-&A-<A$?->R.-%J?, He speaks a lot
when he is drunk. B-T\-^N-Oc-Bc-N-G-UE-T-=2,
`T-E-, talk, discussion || The discussion went on all night.
UWP-CE-T_-`T-E-qc,
`U, road, path, way || Where does this road lead? `U-]N-CE-`-]MP-^N,
`U-lC curving road || The curving road up the mountain is dangerous
when it is raining. G_-T-]TT-R]-Oc-c-_-E-O-]MP-R]-`U-lC-N-IP-B-G,
`U-B, on the way; road || We are now on the way to my friends
home. E-W-N--E]-uCc-R]-mU-O-]u-T]-`U-B-P-^N, That road was covered
with tar last year. P-PE-`U-E-`-c-SC-N@_--U-TKEc,
`U-uCc, traveling companion || I and my traveling companion visited
Shanghai last month. -P-U_-E-NE-E]-`U-uCc-E-d-`-cE-,
`U-uP, travel expenses || My travel expenses were less than I expected.
E]-`U-uP-`-E]-TcU-WN-]x-ZC-U-a_,
`U-]u`-T, traveler || The traveler carried a large bag.
`U-]u`-T-Nc-BC-U-GP-R-ZC-B_,
`U-Cc, provision for a journey || Provision for our journey consisted of
meat, butter, and cheese. E-W]-`U-Cc-`-a-NE-U_, G_-T-TFc-^N,
`U-Ec, surface of a road || The surface of that road is concrete.
`U-Ec-P-e_-]NU-^P,
`U-Gc, preparation for traveling || Our preparation for traveling required
two days. E-Wc-`U-Gc-C-R_-IP-CIc-NCc-qE-,
`U-Cc, road sign || The road sign had faded and we couldnt read what
it said. `U-Cc-l-UNC-^`-Pc-E-Wc-N]-E-F-ZC-T@N-^N-R-U-UME-,
`U-P-R, guide || Our travel guide explained the temple paintings to us.
E-W]-`U-P-Rc-E-W-`-NCP-R]-ME-C:A-{R<-UWUc-_-qc,
`U-R, guide || Im learning English so that I can be a tourist guide.
E-`U-R-ZC-qN-MT-R_-Ec-NqP-^C-E-TZP-^N,
1

315

`U-pN, halfway, midway || Halfway to our destination, our bus broke


down. E-W]-NUCc-c]-`U-pN-`-]q_-T-P-E-W]-,A-,R.-Ec-]B_-=-GC-*R/-L%-,
`U-pCc, principle; road; policy || What is the schools study
principle? T-]-T-E-C-`U-pCc-P-F-[C-^P, Where does this road go?
`U-pCc-N-CE-`-]MP-^N, A policy to improve peoples lives is
something every country shares. U-Uc-l-]W-T-`Cc-TFc-qN-R]-`U-pCcP-`-BT-WE-Uc-N-R-ZC-^P,
`U-Z_, on the way || On the way to your home we saw a wolf.
mN-WE-`-^E-T]-`U-Z_-E-Wc-E-@-ZC-_C
`U-^C travel document || I forgot my travel document at home.
Ec-`U-^C-mU-Pc-TN-cE-,
`U-`Cc, way, system || Planning a market system requires much time.
WE-_]-`U-`Cc-Hc-]CN-qN-R-`-Oc-WN-_E-T-NCc,
`U-`C wrong way, aberrant behavior || I punish my children when they
behave in the wrong way. E]-qc-R-W-`U-`C-`->R<-5K-Ec-GN-R-CFN,
`U-cE-, at once, right away || Come to my home at once!
E]-mU-`-`U-cE-aC
`U-~`, custom || Everybody must abide by this custom.
U-WE-Uc-`U-~`-]N-Ec-R_-O-T-~E-qN-NCc,
`c, to do; to work; to build; luck, karma || What do you want to do
tomorrow? cE-IP-mN-lc-F-ZC-`c-]NN, After I work all day Im tired.
Ec-IP-CE-T_-`c-Pc-ME-GN, We will build a new school here. E-Wc-]N-PcT--ZC-`c--^P, His luck seemed suddenly to turn bad. B]-`c-N--T_O-H-C-`-cE-, He must have good karma because everything he does is
1

successful. #R:C-L-2-,3?-&.-:P2-:PR-2?-#R-=-=?-2?R.-;$-0R-8A$-:.$-0-,$-

(R.-<J.,

`c, from || This bread is made from wheat flour. C-_-]N-u-p-`c-TFc,


`c-@ work, job,business || My fathers job is a teacher. E]-e-S]-`c-@-PNC-P-ZC-^P, What sort of business do you do? mN-lc-=?-!-F-ZC-$*J<2-;A/,
`c-lE-, than even || Im older than even the oldest person in your
village. E-mN-W]--T]-U-Gc-`-`P-`c-lE-`-P-UM,
`c-E-, work position || He got a work position at the new factory.
B-`-T\--Cc_-T-N-Pc-`c-E-ZC-MT,
316

`c-`,

destiny; 2ones share of work || 1It must be my destiny to be

-E-N-R-P-E]-`c-`-^P-R-B-MC-_N, Ill do my share of


work if you do your share. mN-lc-<%-$A-`c-`-`c-5K-Ec-<%-$A-`c-`-TT,
`c-BE-, workshop || The workshop was busy twenty-four hours every
day. IP-<J<-`c-BE-N-(-WN-I_-TZ-`-{`-T-G,
`c-B_, duty, job || My job is to guard the building. E]-`c-B_-P-MC-BE-Y%-N-^P,
`c- workshop || Which workshop do you work in?
mN-lc-`c--CE-P-q-T-qN,
`c-uCc, assistant, helper || My assistant is sick today.
N-_E-E]-`c-uCc-`-P-W-qE-,
`c-TCc, division of labor || The division of labor between men and
2

optimistic.

women should be equal.

c-R-NE-c-U]-T_-n-`c-TCc-P-]x-UIU-^P-R_-_Cc,
`c-]CP, task, duty, mission || What task do you want me to do?
mN-lc-E-`-`c-]CP-F-ZC-TF`--^P,
`c-]D`, movement, campaign || The anti-smoking campaign has had
some success. M-UC-T@C-]CC-C-`c-]D`-`-`-B-FE-\N-MT,
`c-, work, job || What work do you do? mN-lc-`c--F-ZC-CI_,
`c-EP, bad luck, misfortune, unfortunate || Its bad luck that you lost
your job. mN-lc-<%-$A-q-T-T_-T-P-`c-EP-0?-_N, It is a great misfortune I
did not learn English when I was young.%?-GE-Oc-?-NqP-^C-`-E-T-Uqc-R-P-<%-$A-=?-%/-0?-<J.,
`c-FP, lucky, fortunate || You are lucky to get such a good job!
mN-`-q-T-]N-]x-T\E-T-ZC-MT-R-P-`c-FP-;A/-0?-_N,
`c-GN, work efficiency, work output || The new machinery has
increased our work efficiency. ]z`-Gc-Cc_-T-Nc-E-W]-`c-GN-H-UM_-TKE-,
`c-CI_, management; to manage || When management improved the
factory made a profit. `c-CI_-H-`Cc-c-TKE-5K, T\-c-UPC-\-MT, He
manages a factory as the general director. Bc-T\--ZC-C--mT-T@N]NUc-R]-`c-CI_-qN-TZP-^N,
`c-CI_-T, manager || He is the manager of that shop.
B-P-WE-BE-N]-`c-CI_-T-^P,
`c-MC present || The present prime minister of the UK will soon visit
1

317

China.

_N,
`c-NP,

NqP-H]-`c-MC-NT-T[Cc-P-GP-nc-U-]nEc-R_-sE-C_-]WUc-]x-qN--

cause; 2undertaking || 1Im sorry that I cant contribute any

MCc-T`-U-TZEc, Ec-mN-l-`c-NP-`-_-U]-Z`-]NTcF-^E-C-U-MT, Your undertaking is admirable. mN-l-`c-NP-P-^N-(R/-<%R-ZC-_N,


`c-CPc, position, rank || He worked hard to get a better position.
Bc-`c-CPc-N-`c-C-R-ZC-]MT-0<-2lR/-=J/-qc,
`c-P, processing || Iron ore processing requires a lot of fuel.
Cc-CK_-`c-P-qN-R_-]T_-c-UE-T-NCc,
`c-NRP, supervisor of laborers || He had been a supervisor of
money to your cause.
2

construction laborers for twenty years before he retired.

B-`c-]m_-U-qc-CE-, Bc-`-I-b]-_E-`-]XCc-P-E`-`-T]-`c-NRP-qc,
`c-]z, unfinished work || When can you complete the unfinished work?
mN-lc-`c-]z-]N-PU-WN-`c-W_-MT,
`c-NTE-, fate, destiny || It must be my fate to have a long life.
W-MC-_E-T-ZC-^N-R-P-E]-`c-NTE-^P-NCc--_N,
`c-`, labor, work || Farm work is tiring. c-PU-n-`c-`-P-N@]-WCc-G,
`c-`-T, laborer || How long have you worked as a laborer?
mN-lc-`c-`-T-qc-Pc-`c-@-Oc-^P-C-WN-`-`c,
`c-WN, amount of work || What amount of work is required everyday in
your job? IP-__-mN-l-q-T]-`c-WN-P-F-]x-^P,
`c-]XP-R, manager || Please tell the manager Im ill and cant work
today. E-`-P-W-qE-Pc-N-_E-`c-@-`c-U-MT-Fc-`c-]XP-R-`-TaN-_Cc,
`c-]X`, mistake (in work) || This mistake will cost the company a lot of
money. `c-]X`-]Nc-AE-\-`-_-U]-nE-DP-GP-R-29R--_N,
`c-Z_, spare time; amateur || In my spare time I read scripture. Ec-`cZ_-`-Gc-]NP, He is an amateur dancer. B-P-`c-Z_-n-C_-UBP-ZC-_N,
`c-^`, working area || The working area is not very safe.
`c-^`-N-P-N-]x]-TN-]HCc-U-_N,
`c-_Cc, kind of occupation || What kind of occupation would you like
to have? mN-lc-`c-_Cc-F-ZC-CI_-]NN,
`c-_c, work shift || The work shift lasts eight hours.
`c-_c-`-(-WN-TN-]C_,
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318

`c-_Cc, help, assistance || Your help was very important to my success.


mN-lc-`c-_Cc-qc-R-N-E]-TcU-NP-]uT-R-`-d-FE-C`-G,
`c-_Cc-R, assistant, helper || The assistant did not speak English.
`c-_Cc-Rc-NqP-N-U-TaN,
`c-aC work hostel; house || The rooms in the work hostel had dirt
floors. `c-aC-PE-C-BE-UC-C-ME-P-c-^P, The house was made of wood.
`c-aC-N-aE-`c-29R?,
=?-a-2R?, easily, without problem || I can run that distance easily.
E-`U-MC-N-43-`-=?-a-2R?-C-MT,
`-M, calendar || The Tibetan calendar is different from the Gregorian
calendar. TN-l-`-M-P-`Cc-Cc_-IA-`-M-NE-U-]x,
`, (`, `c, `c,) to cough || I coughed all night. E-UWP-CE-T_-`c,
`-D lamb || The lamb followed its mother all day. IP-CE-T_-`-D-<%-$Ae-U]-c-`-NN,
`C sheep || How many sheep do you have? mN-`-`C-&A-43-^N,
`C (`C Cc,) to flow || Mucus flowed from the childs nose.
qc-R-N]--BE-`c-Tc-`C
`C-m, flock of sheep || A flock of sheep grazed on the mountainside.
`C-m-ZC-Cc-_-Ec-Pc--\c,
`C-RCc, sheepskin || He sold the sheepskin to a trader.
Bc-WE-T-ZC-`-`C-RCc-N-TVEc,
`C-T`, sheep wool || This sweater is made from sheep wool.
T`--]N-P-`C-T`-nc-T\c,
`C-, shepherd || The shepherd took the sheep out to graze every day.
IP-<J<-`C-c-KA-<-`C-]W-T_-]NN,
`C-a mutton || I dont like mutton overcooked. E-`C-a-Wc-xCc-0<-U-NC],
`Cc, to coin, to mould || The Qing Dynasty coined a lot of money.
GP-`-_Tc-lc-NE`-_-UE-T-`Cc,
`Cc, custom || Being hospitable to visitors is a Tibetan custom.
UuP-T-G-T-P-TN-l-`Cc-aC-^P,
`Cc-E-, old custom || Dancing during the lunar New Year is an old
custom. `Cc-E-C-`-Cc_-`-{-]tT-R-P-`Cc-E-ZC-^P,
`Cc-UMP, proper, lawful || Obtaining a marriage certificate is a proper
thing. CIP-C-C-`C-m_-`P-R-P-`Cc-UMP-n-q-T-ZC-^P,
1

319

`Cc-~`, custom || What is an important custom in your home area?


mN-l-^`-pCc-?-`Cc-~`-C`-GP-P-F-ZC-^P,
`E-, order, document || The Living Buddha gave me a religious
document. `-c-E-`-`E-ZC-CPE-,
`E-TP, prophecy, prediction || What is your prediction about rainfall
this summer? N-`]-Nq_-B_-G_-G-]TT-R]-_-Pc-mN-`-`E-TP-F-ZC-^N,
`E-]xP, to quote, to cite || He likes to quote famous sayings when he
speaks. Bc-CKU-TaN-Tc-CKU-NR-uCc-FP-n-`E-]xP-R_-NC],
`E-T, valley || The valley was covered with trees and grass.
`E-T-N-E-T-NE--^c-BTc,
`N, fertilizer, muck || Without fertilizer, crop yields are lower. `N-UN-5K]{-_Cc-l-MP-WN-NU], We collected the muck from the pigsty, dried it,
and then used it to fertilize our fields. %-5S?-1$-#%-=?-=.-]%?-/?-*A-3<-

{J3?-eJ?-<%-$A-8A%-?<-2!R=-2-;A/,

`N-R, phlegm || His phlegm contained small dots of blood.


B]-`N-R]-PE-P-tC-MC-GE-GE-^N,
`N-c, chemical fertilizer || Chemical fertilizer is sold in bags.
`N-c-BC-U<-]$?-Pc-]WE-,
`c, to be left behind, to be left with || I want to study hard and not be
left behind the other students.

Ec-T-E-=-@<-2lR/-(J/-0R-L?-/?-T-U-CZP-R]-c-=-`c-c-U-]HC
`c, body || You have a strong body. mN-`-`c-T@P-U-ZC-^N,
`c-BUc, the body || The body has countless cells.
`c-BUc-P-z-SE-TuE-`c-]Nc-R-^N,
`c-tC blood || Blood flowed from his wound. B]--B-`c-tC-T[_,
`c-P, body, physique || Daily exercise has given him a healthy body.
IP-_]-E-T_-nc-B-`-`c-P-TN-ME-ZC-T`,
`c-Tc, vitality, physical strength || Good food and lots of exercise will
give you vitality. \-U-T\E-T-NE-`-E-UE-T-qc-5K-mN-`-`c-Tc-c-~N,
`c-R, body || Where does your body hurt? mN-l-`c-R-CE-Pc-P,
`c-SE-, body || Without exercise his body became fat.
E-T_-U-qc-Rc-B]-`c-SE-WP-R_-n_,
`c-`, sport, physical exercise || Volleyball is my favorite sport.
S]-GC-E-`(-T)P-E-Gc-NC]-T]-`c-`-^P,
320

`c-`-BE-, gymnasium || The basketball game was held in the


gymnasium. `c-`-BE-.-r%-lJ.--`]-]uP-T_-`,
`c-`-ME-, sport field || The long distance race was held at the sport
field. `c-`-ME-.-E-C-]uP-T_-qc,
`c-`-T, athlete || He was an athlete when he was young.
GE-Oc-c-B-/A-`c-`-T-ZC-^P,
`c-\Ec, vitality || I would like to have more vitality because I often feel
tired. E-P-O-ME-GN-Rc-`c-\Ec-N-Tc-GP-R-^N-P-]NN,
`c-aN, physical strength || Lifting weights can increase your physical
strength. N-]NCc-.R%-2h<-L?-5K-mN-l-`c-Tc-c-MT,
`c-cUc, body and mind, physical and mental || Good physical and
mental health are important to a feeling of well-being.

W_-T-N-R-^E-T_-UWP-P-`c-cUc-l-TN-ME-P-C`-G,
`c-~C life || Someone should save that drowning mans life.
U-ZC-Cc-G-`-]MU-R]-c-R-N]-`c-~C-T-]c,
`-T_, kilometer || It is about a kilometer from here to the train station.
]N-Pc-U-]B_-c-WCc-.2<-S`-G_-`-T_-CFC-^N,
`-WP, section, chapter || I wrote one chapter of that book.
Ec-NR-G-N]-`-WP-CFC-{c,
`-`, laziness || Laziness will not lead to success. `-`-`c-`-B-U-]qE-,
`-`-FP, lazy || Lazy people rarely get rich. U-`-`-FP-pC-R_-]n_-T-JE-,
`], chapter || I didnt understand this chapter. Ec-`]-]N-`-C-T-U-`P,
`Cc, good || This situation is very good for me.
CPc-TT-]N-E-`-UWP-P-d-FE-`Cc,
`Cc-c, gift, award || The gift was small but she appreciated it.
`Cc-c-GE-_E-B-Uc-N-`-NC]-Uc-qc,
`Cc-]uT, accomplishment, fulfillment || The accomplishment of what
he had set out to do made him famous.

B:A-.3A$?-.R/-`-`Cc-]uT-qE-Pc-B-`-UE-uCc-c,
`Cc-C co-ordination || Co-ordination between different offices is
important for the work unit to be efficient. `c-BEc-]HP-ME-P-R_-CKET_-C[E-T-BE-U-]x-T]-T_-Pc-`Cc-C-qN--P-C`-G,
`Cc-TFc, improvement || Improvement is needed to make the factory
more efficient. T\-]-`c-GN-H-c-c-CKE-T_-`Cc-TFc-aC-qN-NCc,
321

`Cc-G, advantage || What is the advantage of doing it this way?


NP-]N-]N-_-`c-NCc-R]-`Cc-G-P-F-ZC-^P,
`Cc-Ic, good and bad, right and wrong || He has qualities that are good
and badlike everybody else. U-CZP-R-NE-]x-T_-B-`-`Cc-Ic-CIc-@-P,
`Cc-R, good, well || The relationship between my mother and
grandmother is very good. E]-e-U-NE--U-CIc-l-]{`-T-P-d-FE-`Cc-R-^P,
`Cc-R_, successfully || He successfully learned English through
independent study. Bc-_E-E-`-TP-Pc-NqP-^C-`Cc-R_-Ec,
`Cc-_, Sanskrit || Sanskrit is an Indian language.
`Cc-_-P--C_-n-N-_Cc-aC-^P,
`Cc-TaN, maxim || Hard work brings success, is a maxim. `c-TP-`c`-B-]qE-Zc-R-P-`Cc-TaN-FC-^P,
`P, (E-, Ec, `Ec,) to accept, to receive, to take || Please accept my gift.
E]-`Cc-c-`P-_Cc,
`T, flat || The table top is flat. FC-V]-!J%-%R?-P-`T-3R-;A/,
`T-`T, flat || A plateau is a large flat area. UM-E-P-c-CZ-`T-3R-GP-R-ZC-^P,
`, year; age || One year later Ill graduate and have a job. `-CFC-C-c?-E-UM_-pP-]u-T-NE-q-T-ZC-lE-^N-]u, At the age of seven I began
attending primary school. `-TOP-E-E?-T-GE-]uU-]C-TUc,
`-]B_, anniversary; annual || We invited several monks to our home
to chant on the tenth anniversary of my mothers death. E]-e-U-]NcP?-`-]B_-TF-`P-R_, E-Wc-TVP-R-]C]-EN-WE-O-Gc-]NP-O-CNP-xEc, Our
village has several annual festivals. E-W]--T-`-`-]B_-n-Oc-GP-]C]-^N,
`-c, history || China has a long history. sE-C-`-`-c-_E-U-ZC-P,
`-c-T, historian || He is a historian specializing in Tibetan history.
B-P-TN-l-`-c-GN-CI_-qN-R]-`-c-R-ZC-^P,
`-Ic, bad harvest || Little rain means a bad harvest. G_-U-TTc-5K-`-Ic-]qE-,
`-KC crop || Barley is a crop. Pc-P-`-KC-FC-^P,
`-N, the first half of the year || Ill go to Xian during the first half of
the year. `-N-`-E-Z-eP-O-]u--^P,
`-N_-U, young || When I was young I never saw a car.
E-`-N_-U-ZC-^P-Oc-Ec-Ec-]B_-_C-U-rE-,
`-P, age || What is your age? mN-`-$-5S.-^P,
`-P-z-, young, youthful || My students are all young. E]-T-U-WE-U-`-P-z,
1

322

`-U, leaf || He drew a picture of a leaf. Bc-`-U:A-_-U-8A$-{c,


`-, translation || The translation of this book is not as good as I
expected. NR-G-]N]-`--P-E:A-2?3-5S.-=?-#$-0R-:.$
`--T, translator || He works as a Tibetan-Chinese-English
translator. Bc-TN--NqP-n-`--T]-`c-@-qN,
`-, time; year and month || Now that the hard time has passed, our
lives are better. N--N@]-WCc-G-T]-`--T[N-cE-Tc, E-W]-]W-T-H-`Cc-c-cE-,
Please tell me the year and month in which you were born. E-`-mNc-R]-`--aN,
`-^P, period || The period after Liberation has seen many Tibetans
educated. TFEc-]u`-eJ?-GA-`-^P-PE-TN-U-UE-T-`-T-Cc-MT,
`-_U, grade || Im in Grade Three. E-P-`-_U-CcU-R-^P,
`-`Cc, bumper harvest || Good weather meant a bumper harvest.
PU--T\E-Tc-`-`Cc-`P-R-UWP,
`-`P, to age; aged, senior || Every human being ages. U-WE-U-`-`P-]u,
The senior members of our village met for a party yesterday. E-W]-T]-`-`P-WE-U-B-cE--WCc-`-]WCc,
`-Cc_, new year || I will stay at home during the Lunar New Year
holiday period. `Cc-E-`-Cc_-n-CPE-T]-Tc-c-E-<%-HA3-.-#R.--^P,
`-`-T, whole year || I went to school for only nine months, not the
whole year. E-T-_--ND-`-cE-T-VU-`c-`-`-T_-U-cE-,
`C to return, to come/go back; to fall down || Please come back and
visit us again. p_-`C-Pc-E-W-`-^E-T_-UH`-T_-nc, That old house will
fall down soon. BE-T-E-T-N-U-]nEc-R_-`C--_N,
`C-, heretical view || I dont agree with your heretical view.
E-mN-l-`C--`-U-]MN,
`C-N, reactionary, perverted action || Your views are reactionary and
few people will accept them. mN-l--T-P-`C-N-^P-Rc-NE-`P-qN-UBP-N@P,
`C-N-R, reactionary || He called anyone who didnt agree with him a
reactionary. Bc-B-NE-U-]MN-R-WE-U-`C-N-R_-Tc,
`C-WE-, black market || He sold gold on the black market.
Bc-Cc_-n-`C-WE-TT,
`C-C^U, sexual perversion, adultery || She divorced her husband on the
grounds of adultery. m-Cc-`C-C^U-N-R-`-P-qc-Pc-B-U-m-C-NE-M_,
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323

`Cc, near, on the side of || My family lives near here, on the side of a
river. EN-WE-]N-C]-G-T]-]uU-.-^N,
`E-, (`E-, `Ec,) to be enough; to reach (certain number) || This product
quality is high enough to satisfy the standard. MP-c-]N]-c-@-WN-CZ-``E-MT, Our production has reached one thousand units a month. E-W]MP-c-GA--<J:A-,R/-*J.-5.-P%?-:2R<-E-CFC-`Ec,
`E-T, blind; blind person || If you are blind you cant see. C`-K-mN-`E-TZC-^P-5K-mN-lc-UME-U-MT, The blind person walked with a stick. `E-T-N`C-P-ZC-`-TP-Pc-cE-,
`E-T, bail || The buckets rope bail broke. \-T]-`E-T-GN,
`E-`E-, seething, churning || The seething river water was as cold as ice.
`E-`E-]p_-T]-CVE-T-]mCc-R-N_-NE-]x-T-ZC-_N,
`Ec-c-N, to consume || Last year my family consumed a lot of flour and
oil. P-PE-EN-WE-Cc-p-NE-U-UE-T-`Ec-c-N,
`P, to get, to reach, to acquire, to obtain || How much money can you
1

get by working for that company?

mN-lc-AE-\-N-`-q-T-`c-Pc-_-U-C-WN-`P-MT,
`T, (`T, `Tc,) to get used to, to get accustomed to || I cant get used to
the sound of the cars on the road. E--`U-E-C-Ec-]B_-n--`-`T-U-MT,

a meat, flesh || I like meat better than vegetables. E--WN-`c-a-`-NC],


a-U, dried meat || Dried meat is my favorite food.
a-U-P-E-Gc-NC]-2:A-9-3-^P,
a-BE-, meat shop || The meat shop had no beef today.
N-_E-a-BE-P-Uc-a-UN,
a-tC flesh and blood || My daughter is my flesh and blood.
E]-T-U-P-E]-a-tC-^P,
a-I, kinsman, blood relative || I accidentally met my kinsman in Xining
on the street. \-`E-C--~E-Pc-c-NTE-Cc-E-E]-a-I-`-]zN,
a-C complete; certain || He is a completely good man.
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324

B-P-c-R-T\E-T-a-C-FC-^P, I certainly need that. E-`-N-UB-T-a-C-^P,


a-UNC skin color || The sun darkens my skin. I-Uc-E]-a-UNC-H-PC-L-CKE-,
a-C meat without fat, lean meat || I like meat without fat better than fat
meat. E-a-WP-R-`c-a-C-`-C-L-NC],
a-U, mushroom || He cooked the big mushroom in butter and garlic.
Bc-a-U-GP-R-ZC-U_-NE-C-R-$*A?-.%-UIU-O-C^c,
a-W, love, concern, affinity || Love is a strong emotion.
a-W-T-P-W_-T-xC-R-ZC-^P,
a-ZP, love, fondness || Parents have much love for their children.
S-U-<%-$A-T-zC-`-a-ZP-G,
a-C\P, carnivorous || A lion is a carnivorous animal. cE-C-P-a-C\P-ZC-^P,
a-P-R, fresh meat || Fresh meat tastes better than old meat.
a-P-R-a-E-T-`c-ZU,
a-`P, revenge || A common proverb says Revenge is sweet.
CKU-NR-Cc-G-T-ZC-`-a-`P-P-UE_-U-^P-\_,
a-aN, fatness of livestock || With a single glance the buyer could guess
the fatness of the livestock. I-UBP-Nc-Tc-U-MC-L-pCc-\C-C-a-aN-W_-MT,
-T, deer || A deer ran across the road. -T-ZC-`U-E-Pc-]zN-O-TCc,
aC-R, intimate friend || My intimate friend and I went to a movie
together. E]-aC-R-NE-EN-CIc-UIU-O-C-TP-`-T-T_-cE-,
aC-WE-, dwelling || Their dwelling is a tent. B-W]-aC-WE-P--D_-ZC-^P,
aCc, wordplay || He likes to tease people through wordplay.
Bc-aCc-TaN-Pc-U-Uc-`-A-_-lJ-2_-NC],
aN, comb; to comb || Where did I put my comb? Ec-<%$A--aN-CE-`-TZC-M`, I comb my hair every morning. *A/-<J:A-8R$?-0<Ec-<%-$A--aN,
aP, patch; difference; influence || The blacksmith made a metal
patch for the saddle. UC_-Tc--`-Cc-aP-ZC-TT, Can you tell the
difference between good and bad? mN-lc-T\E-EP-n-aP-]qN-MT-TU, Oral
Tibetan has a strong influence on spoken Chinese in Qinghai. TN-Nlc-UW-P-n--N-`-aP-GP-R-ZC-TKE-^N,
aP-]qN, to distinguish, to differentiate || I cant distinguish one brother
from the other. Ec-P-^-CIc-@-aP-]qN-U-MT,
aP-_, comparison || A comparison of English and Tibetan shows that
2

325

they are very different languages.

TN-N-NE-NqP-^C-aP-_-qc-R-`c-N-_Cc-]N-CIc-d-FE-U-]x-T-UWP,
aU-aU, drooping, hanging down || His robe was hanging down.
B]-TN--aU-aU-qc-^N,
a_, east; to rise, to arise; to appear || Your lost yak is over there in
the east. mN-l-T_-cE-T]-C^C-N-^-C]-a_-pCc-P-^N, The sun will rise in
the east tomorrow morning. cE-IP-8R$?-0<-I-U-a_-KR$?-?-a_--_N, A
beautiful landscape appeared when I woke up in the car. E-Ec-]B_!J%-$*A.-=?-cN-R-P-^`-Ec-^C-R-ZC-UC-`U-O-a_,
a_-TN, going straight ahead || After going straight ahead for an hour,
turn left. UOP-O-(-WN-CFC-`-a_-TN-qc-c-C^P-O-Cc,
a_-n-C[E-MC east longitude || What is the east longitude of your home?
mN-l-^`-a_-n-C[E-MC-CE-P-^N,
a_-CKE-, to send straight || Please send the message straight to his office.
B]-C[E-T-BE-`-^C-]zP-a_-CKE-qc,
a_-pCc, the east, the eastern direction || The sun rises in the east.
I-U-a_-pCc-Pc-a_,
a_-, southeast || The wind came from the southeast.
E-a_-]-UWUc-Pc-qE-,
ac, a few, several || Only a few people in my village have visited
Lhasa. E-W]--T]-U-B-ac-VU-`c--c_-]u-U-rE-,
ac-G, maybe || Maybe I can visit you soon.
U-]nEc-R_-E-mN-`-T-_-^E-ac-G,
a-P, death || Death comes to every human. U-WE-U-`-a-P-MTc-~N,
a-B, the moment of death || He stopped breathing at the moment of
death. a-B_-B]-NTCc-l--T-GN,
a-WN, mortality rate, death rate || What is the infant mortality rate in this
area? ^`-pCc-]N]-qc-R]-a-WN-P-C-WN-^P,
a-`U, dangerous road || Only a dangerous road went up the mountain.
_-T-N-P-a-`U-U-CKCc-UN,
aC louse, lice; a, an || A louse crawled down his sleeve. aC-FC-B]-S_E-PE-Pc-U_-`-]SC A boy sold a yak yesterday to an old businessman.
B-cE-qc-R-ZC-Cc-5S%-2-c/-0-8A$-=-Uc-aC-TVEc,
aE-, wood || Wood is a material. aE-P--G-ZC-^P,
1

326

aE-, wooden statue || He put the wooden Buddha statue near the
window. Bc-cEc-c-l-aE--N-x-U]-`Cc-c-TZC
aE-BE-, wooden house || The wooden house caught fire and burned.
aE-BE-N-U-`-a_,
aE-G, timber, lumber || The new temple required a lot of timber.
NCP-R-Cc_-T-N-`-aE-G-UE-T-NCc,
aE-KC fruit || Is this fruit a strawberry? aE-KC-]N-P-]{-K-c-]XP-^P-PU,
aE-, cart || The cart was made of wood. aE--N-aE-`c-uT,
aE-E-, tree || The tree blew over in the high wind. aE-E-N-xC-R-E-`-TN,
aE-]{c, fruit || An apple is a fruit. A-b-P-aE-]{c-aC-^P,
aE-T\, carpentry || After he learned carpentry he got a lot of small jobs
making things for various families.

Bc-aE-T\-TTc-c, mU-WE-UE-T-`-NEc-R--WCc-`c-]-q-T-C-C-B-`-MT,
aE-T\-T, carpenter || The carpenter made a new wooden chest for our
family. aE-T\-T-Nc-EN-WE-`-aE-N-Cc_-T-ZC-`c,
aE-`T, board, plank || This plank is made of pine. aE-`T-]N-P-CcU-aE-`c29R?,

aE-cT-cT, spongy wood || This spongy wood is not good quality.


aE-cT-cT-]N]--c-U-T\E-,
aP-L, very || He is very tall. B]-C\Cc-aP-L-UM,
ac, to be lucky, to be auspicious || I want to be lucky all my life.
E]-W-MC-`-Ec-E-_E-Ts-ac-R_-]NN,
ac-TN, congratulation word || Congratulations on the birth of your son!
mN-l-T-zC-c-R_-ac-TN-]T`,
ac-WC word of congratulation || Congratulations on your marriage!
mN-l-CIP-C-`-ac-WC-]T`,
bC-R, juniper || Juniper trees grow on mountains. _-UC-Pc-bC-R]-E-T-,
bCc, strength, power || His voice has a lot of strength. B]-N-`-bCc-GP-RP, The wind blew with great power. E->$?-S$-Rc-C^Cc, His poetry
has power. B]-P-EC-`-bCc-S$-0R-P,
>$?-(J/-0R, strong, powerful || The powerful wind blew away our tent.
E-S$-0Rc-E-W]--D_-_, That monk has a powerful voice. TVP-R-N-`-NCNEc->$?-GP-R-^N,
bCc-P, influence, effect || Buddhism has much influence on Tibetans.
327

PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-lc-TN-U-`-bCc-P-GP-R-29R?,
bCc-TP, implication || Have you thought about the implication of your
actions? mN-lc-mN-l-q-N-l-bCc-TP-`-]NE-TT-TU,
bCc-P, strengthening, reinforcing || Teachers are strengthening their
students knowledge. NC-P-nc-T-U]-ac-q-`-bCc-P-qN-28A/-;R.,
bN, to slip || I slipped on the ice and broke my hip. E-N_-MC-Pc-bN-.J-<%-$ANo-UC-TFCc,
bP-RCc, peel, skin || I never eat apple peel. Ec-A-b]-bP-RCc-PU-^E-U-\,
bT, (TbT, TbTc, bTc,) to whisper || Dont whisper, speak loudly.
N-G->2-bT-+-3A/-0<-UMP-R_-aN,
bT-bT, whispering || I cant hear what you are whispering.
mN-lc-bT-bT-+->R.-28A/-0-N-Ec-C-U-MT,
bTc, sheath, case || I put my knife into a leather sheath.
Ec-<%-$A-u-bTc-`-TFC
b_, ravine || Junipers grow in that ravine. bC-E-`E-b_-N-Pc-,
b_-U, striped; corduroy || I bought a pair of striped trousers. Ec-E-Ub_-U-G-CFC-Ic, I wear corduroy trousers in winter. Ec-NDP-B_-E-Ub_-U-nP,
b`, remain, track, trace, anything left behind || What will remain after
we die? E-W-a-c-c-b`-F-ZC-^N,
b`-P, heritage, inheritance, legacy || Every culture has a heritage that
needs to be preserved. _C-CPc-c-c-`-~E-]XP-qN-NCc-R]-b`-P-_-^N,
b`-]XP, inheritance || After your parents die, what will be your
inheritance? mN-l-^T-^U-]Nc-c, mN-lc-F-aC-b`-]XP-qN--^P,
b`-]XP-UBP, successor, heir || The kings son will be his successor.
`-~c-P-`-T]-b`-]XP-UBP-^P,
aN, fat || The sheep gained a lot of fat after the grass grew well.
-UC-c-R-T\E-5K, `C-`->-aN-GP-R-c,
aN-bCc, strength, power, force || The wrestlers strength is sufficient to
1

overpower all his opponents.

-C-UBP-N-`-BE-C-]MT-^-WE-U-`c-`-T]-aN->$?-^N,
a`, crystal, glass || The glass in the windows was broken by boys
throwing rocks. qc-R-Wc--:1%?-Pc-]-BE-C-a`-Uc-TFCc,
a`- glass || I bought a new piece of glass for the broken window.
328

Ec-]-BE-GC-R-`-a`--`T-U-Cc_-T-ZC-Ic,
a`-NU, bottle || Do you want a bottle of beer?
mN-`--GE-a`-NU-CE-NCc-cU,
a`-UC eyeglasses || Wearing eyeglasses is troublesome.
a`-UC-CP-R-P-N@]-`c-aC-_N,
ac, to know, to understand || I understand what you are saying.
mN-lc-{.-(-F-TaN-TZP-R-Ec-ac-;R.,
ac-, knowledge || The lama has a profound knowledge of
Buddhism. -U-N-`-PE-TP-n-ac--\T-U-^N, He has much knowledge of
Tibetan traditions. TN-l-~`-P-n-_-Pc-B-`->J?-o-GP-R-^N, What
knowledge do you have about this local area? ^`-pCc-]N]-_-Pc-mN-`o?-=R/-F-43-^N,
ac-Cc, understanding, comprehension || What is your students English
comprehension level? mN-l-T-U]-NqP-^C-$R-Cc-l-G-WN-F-]x-^P, I am
beginning to have a greater understanding of life. Ec-]W-T:A-.R/-~A%gR$?-:$R-2l3?-?R%-,

ac-P, learned, intelligent || The learned teacher had many famous


students. NC-P-ac-P-N-`-T-U-uCc-FP-UE-T-^N,
ac-R, consciousness, knowledge || How long does it take to obtain much
knowledge? ac-R-GP-R-]MT-R_-Oc-^P-C-WN-NCc,
ac-q, knowledge || How much knowledge do you have of American
history? e-U-_-B]-`-c-l-_-Pc-mN-`-ac-q-F-]x-^N,What is your
knowledge of English? mN-l-NqP-^C-C->J?-L:A-5.-F-]x-^P,
ac-NUP, ignorant, lowbrow || That book only appeals to lowbrow
tastes. NR-G-N-ac-NUP-NC-C-BUc-B-P-`-UMP,
ac-^P-FP, intellectual || He is an intellectual, although he has received
little formal schooling.

B-`-NEc-CZ]-T-Cc-FE-VU-`c-U-MT-_E-B-P-ac-^P-FP-ZC-_N,
ac-_T, wisdom || I question your wisdom in making this decision. T_-a]N-CFN-R]-MC-Pc-E-`-mN-l-ac-_T-UB,Wisdom is the opposite of
ignorance. ac-<2-P-Ec-R]-C--^P,
ac-_T-FP, genius || The genius math professor was often impatient with
his students. c-_C-3#?-&/-C-P-GP-U-N-B]-T-U-Uc-l-MC-`-EE-ME-ZC-^P,
a, gambling || I quit gambling when I was seventeen years old. `-TF329

TOP-.?-?-Ec-a-TFN,
a-`-@ four lines of poetry (as a style) || Writing poetry in the style of
four lines was more popular in the past than today.

P-EC-a-`-@-]{-T-N-N-Tc-`c-P-GN-Cc-G,
a-N, gambling, the game of dice || Do you like gambling?
mN-a-N-qN-R_-e-NC],
aC come! || Come here and hear what I have to say! ]N_-aC-Pc-Ec-{.-(F-ZC-aN-R_-IP,
aC-D paper || I put a piece of paper over the broken window.
Ec-x-U-GC-R]-E-O-aC-D-ZC-_,
aC-uEc, number of pages || What is the number of pages in this book?
NR-G-]N-`-aC-uEc-$-5S.-^N,
aC-U, cardboard box || I put everything valuable that I owned in one
cardboard box. Ec-<%-$A-l-(J/-.%R?-0R-WE-U-aC-U-ZC-C-PE-O-TZC
aC-Ec, page || Turn to page twenty. aC-Ec-I-b-T-`-c,
aC-T, paper || What is paper made of? aC-T-P-F-ZC-Cc-T\c-R-^P,
aC-q, kite || The kite sailed in the sky. aC-q-UB]-NqEc-?-]S_,
aC-C firecracker || The firecracker popped loudly.
aC-C-C--UMP-R_-uCc,
aC-, sheet of paper || I wrote a letter on a sheet of paper.
Ec-aC--ZC-C-E-O-^-C-ZC-{c,
aE-, to fit, to have room || Is there room for me to ride in your car?
mN-l-Ec-]B_-GE-GE-C-PE-O-E-aE-MT-TU,
aE-WN, capacity || What is the capacity of this vat?
-U-]N]-aE-WN-P-F-]x-^P,
aU, splendid attire, rich dress || He wears splendid attire during
festivals. Oc-GP-n-Tc-c-Bc-aU-qc,
aU, (TaU, TaUc, aUc,) to exhibit, to display || The paintings will be
exhibited next week. U-WP-_-U-N-C\]-]B_-c-U_-TaU--_N,
CaC (CaC CaCc, CaC) to cut through, to cleave || The sharp knife
quickly cut through the cloth. u-P-R-Nc-_c-N-r_-U_-CaCc,
CaCc-TFc, operation || When will your fathers heart operation take
place? mN-l-e-S]-E-`-CaCc-TFc-PU-WN-qN--_N,
CaU-O, below || You must remember the three points mentioned below.
330

CaU-O-E-T]-CPN-NP-CcU-mN-lc-Ec-R_-O-^N-`-]XP-NCc,
CaU-Cc`, listed below, cited below || The references for my article are
cited below. E]-U-^C-C-\_-]-NoN-CZ-N-CaU-Cc`-O-T@N-^N,
Ca_-E-, exercise || Did you do this English exercise?
NqP-^C-C-Ca_-E-]N-mN-lc-{c-cU,
Ca`, (Ca`, Ta`, Ca`,) to rinse || After I rinsed my mouth I went to
bed. Ec-<%-$A-B-Ta`-c-I`-O-cE-,
CaP-, Lord of the Dead || This book has several stories about the Lord
of the Dead. NR-G-]N]-PE-O-CaP-]-CKU-N-]C]-^N,
CaP-R, fertile; dead, deceased || This is a fertile field. ]N-P-c-ZE-CaP-RZC-_N, The dead man was buried yesterday. CaP-R-N-B-cE-O_-`-c,
CaT, (TaT, TaTc, CaTc,) to parallel, to be in close contact || I would like
1

to be in close contact with you for the next few months.

,J%?-eJ?-3:A--]C]-PE-O-E-mN-NE-CaT-Pc-TN-]NN,

Cac, nature, character || The nature of man is evil and good.


U-Cac-`-T\E-EP-CIc-@-P,
Cac-@ character, personality || Please tell me about your personality.
mN-l-Cac-@:A-{R<-E-`-aN-NE-,
Cac-N, personality || Personality is formed in childhood.
Cac-N-P-qc-R]-Oc-Pc-GCc,
Cac-EP, bad character || As soon as people learned of his bad character,
they did not want to be friends with him.

U-Uc-lc-B]-Cac-EP-ac-U-MC B-NE-uCc-R-qN-U-]NN,
Cac-xE-, upright, honest || Hes not honest, hes dishonest.
B-P-3A-Cac-xE-ZC-U-^P-R_-C^--FP-ZC-_N,
Cac-N, behavior || I dont approve of your rude behavior.
Ec-mN-`-Cac-N-T-U-]XP-O-U-]HC
Cac-T\E-, good character || My friend has a good character.
E]-uCc-R-`-Cac-T\E-ZC-P,
Cac-`Cc, character || I dont like his character. E-B]-Cac-`Cc-`-U-NC],
Cb, (Tb, Tbc, bc,) to peel, to pare || Help me peel these apples.
E-`-A-b-]N-NC-C-bP-RCc-Cb-_Cc-lc,
Cb_, (Tb_, Tb_, Cb_,) to whittle || When I have nothing to do, I like to
whittle little wooden figures.

331

E-`-`c--F-^E-UN-Oc, Ec-aE--GE-GE-Cb_-]NN,
Ca-Ca scolding || Her scolding started the minute he came home from
work. B-U-`c-`-`c-p_-mU-O-`C-U-MC-L-B-`-Ca-Ca-CKE-]C-TUc,
CaCc, to go; to die || The leader went home.]C-tN-N-^`-`-CaCc, She
died earlier this year. B-U-N-`]-`-N-`-CaCc,
Ca_-B, liquid || Water is a liquid. G-P-Ca_-B-^P,
Ca_-C\Cc, liquid, fluid || Milk is a liquid. ]-U-P-Ca_-C\Cc-^P,
Ca (Ca Cac,) to form an erosion ditch || The heavy rain is forming an
erosion ditch down the hill. G_-G-xC-Uc-c-Cac-Pc-_-`-uC-U-pE-,
CaC-@ township || What township are you from? mN-P-CaC-@-CE-Pc-^E-,
CaC-R, wing || One of the birds wings hit the electrical line.
q-N]-CaC-R-;-CFC-C-N-`-MC
CaE-, (TaE-, TaEc, CaEc,) to take out || I took the knife out of its sheath.
Ec-u-bTc-`c-u-TaEc,
CaE-c, low-lying place || That low-lying place is very wet.
CaE-c-N-TP-d-FE-G,
TaC-R, remorse || He felt much remorse for his mistake.
Bc-B]-P_-]GC-`-TaC-R-GP-R-qc,
TaE-CFP, urine || His urine had turned very yellow because of his illness.
B-`-P-W-qE-T]-P-nc-B]-TaE-CFP-d-FE-c_-T_-n_,
TaN, to say, to tell || I will tell you again. Ec-mN-`-]_-nc->R.--^P,
TaN-P, legend, tale || There is a legend about that mountain.
_-T-N]-_-`-TaN-P-ZC-^N,
TaN-`Cc, the way of talking || I dont like his way of talking.
E-B]-TaN-`Cc-`-U-NC],
TaN-W`, hearsay; the way of saying || I dont know if it is true or not,
its only hearsay. N-P-TaN-W`-VU-^P-R-`c-Ec-N-TNP-UP-U-ac, Her way of
saying things is very convincing. B-U]-TaN-W`-N-P-^N-Gc-]c-R-ZC-_N,
TaUc-P, exhibit, display || The museums latest exhibit is of Tibetan
paintings. TaUc-P-BE-C-Gc-UHC-U,:A-TaUc-P-P-TN-l-ME-C]-_-^P,
TaUc-P-BE-, museum || The museum is now closed.
TaUc-P-BE-N-N---TT-]OC
Ta], (Ta], Tac, ac,) to kill, to slaughter || I will kill this sheep
tomorrow. Ec-cE-IP-`C-]N-Ta]--^P, We will kill a yak tomorrow.
1

332

cE-IP-E-Wc-Uc-CFC-2>:--^P,
Ta`-PN, diarrhea || Ive had diarrhea for two days and I feel very weak.
E-`-Ta`-PN-qE-Pc-IP-CIc-]C_-Tc-E]-Tc-bCc-\N,
Tac-_, slaughter house || This slaughter house is operated by people
from the city. Tac-_-`-uE-m_-Pc-^E-T]-Uc-N-NU-qN,
TaC-CK_, destruction, demolition || The destruction of the old buildings
required six weeks. BE-TCc-E-T-TaC-CK_-qN-R-`-C\]-]B_-xC-NCc-qE-,
Tb-CZC exploitation || The exploitation of the workers was criticized.
T\-T-`-Tb-CZC-qc-R_-P-TN-,J2?,
Ta_, decking, dressing up || Dressing up for the party required a lot of
time. -WCc-`-Ta_-qN-R_-Oc-WN-UE-T-NCc-qE-,
Ta`, (Ta`, TZ`, TZ`,) to postpone, to delay; to retreat || I will have to
postpone tomorrows meeting. Ec-cE-IP-n-uc-WCc-p_-Ta`-NCc, We
are defeated and must retreat. E-W-SU-Rc-Ec-R_-O-p_-Ta`-NCc,
1

c, soil, land, earth || This soil is infertile. c-]N-P-CaP-R-UP,


c-BUc, geography || The geography of Qinghai is characterized by high
mountains. UW-P-n-c-BUc-`-_-UMP-R]-Cc-UWP-G,
c-BUc-_C-R, geography (science of) || I studied geography last semester.
T-Tc-P-U_-Ec-c-BUc-_C-R-Ec,
c-B`, region, zone || Hawaii is in a sub-tropical zone. Z-T-Nq-P-5-#=-2<3<-$/?-R]-c-B`-^P,
c-BEc, territory || The territory of Qinghai is very large.
UW-P-n-c-BEc-P-o-d-FE-G,
c-mP, land area || The land area of Yulshul is 267,000 square kilometers.
^`-b`-n-c-mP-P--`-u-TZ-U-]TU-CIc-t-xC-E-TOP-^P,
c-t, map || We have a map of China on our classroom wall.
E-W]-]XP-]-nE-Ec-?-sE-C]-c-t-ZC-^N,
c-]D`, earthquake || The earthquake killed eighteen people.
c-]D`-n-tN-Pc-U-TF-TN-]Nc,
333

c-N, uncultivated land || South of the village there is much uncultivated


land. -T]-QT-pCc-?-c-N-GP-R-ZC-^N,
c-, land area || Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China has a
very large land area. sE-C]-PE-cC-_E-E-Ec-`-c--GP-R-ZC-^N,
c-TFN, chapter, section || Have you finished reading Chapter Six?
mN-lc-c-TFN-xC-R-TCc-e-W_,
c-TFN, fertility of the soil || The fertility of the soil here is very low.
]N-C]-c-TFN-P-d-FE-ZP,
c-G, place, land || What place are you from? mN-P-c-G-CE-Pc-^E-,
c-G, water and earth, the natural environment || Mankind should respect
the natural environment. U]-_Cc-lc-c-G-`-T-UME-qN-]c,
c-CK_, mineral || Gold is a valuable mineral. Cc_-P-CK_-#--GP-ZC-^P,
c-Cc, landmark || There was no landmark to tell us where we were.
E-W-$/?-CE-P-^N-R-P-LJ.-c-Cc-UN,
c-E-, uninhabited area || We saw no people or animals in the vast
uninhabited area. E-Wc-c-E-N-<-U-NE-_-Cc-CFC-lE-U-_C
c-UM], remote area || He comes from a remote area. B-P-c-UM]-ZC-Pc-^E-,
c-CNP, floor carpet || I bought a red floor carpet yesterday.
B-cE-Ec-c-CNP-NU_-T-ZC-Ic,
c-TNC landowner || He rents land, hes not a landowner.
Bc-c-ZE--2-`c, B-P-c-TNC-FC-UP,
c-`, dust || Dust covered the books. NR-G-c-`-nc-TLUc,
c-, earth and rock || Earth and rock tumbled down the mountain.
_-E-Pc-c--]u`,
c-CPc, locality, region || That locality is famous for its fruit.
c-CPc-N-aE-KC-`-TP-Pc-UE-O-uCc,
c-U, petroleum, oil || Oil was found on his land and he became rich.
B]-c-MC-Pc-c-U-N-Pc-B-pC-R_-n_,
c-pCc, direction; local affinity || In what direction should I go? E-cpCc-CE-`-]u-NCc, He has a strong sense of local affinity. B-`-c-pCcGP-R-^N,
c-TT, topography || It was difficult to map the topography of this area.
^`-pCc-]N]-c-TT-c-t_-]CN-o-d-FE-N@],
c-T-cT-T, vague || I have a vague sense of unhappiness.
1

334

E-`-cUc-U-N-R]-E-T-c-T-cT-T-ZC-^N,
c-TP, seed || Did you buy wheat seed today? N-_E-mN-lc-u-^-c-TP-Ic-cU,
c-NqTc, topography || Tell me about the topography of northern China.
E-`-sE-C]-qE-pCc-l-c-NqTc-aN-NE-,
c-WCc, station || We stopped at the police station to report the theft of
our money. E-W-IP-C-c-WCc-Pc-TN-.J-_-U-Tc-R:A-$/?-5=-^_-[-L?,
c-UWUc, boundary line, border || The border between the two counties
passes right here. `-BT-CIc-l-c-UWUc-KC-KC-$/?-]N-<-2o.-;R.,
c-ZE-, farm; field || How long have you owned this farm? mN-lc-c-ZE]N-Oc-^P-F-VU-`-TNC-qc, Ive always planted barley in this field. ZE-B]N-`-Ec-P-O-Pc-]NTc,
c-CZ, earth || Fertile earth grows good crops. c-CZ-CaP-R-`-`-`Cc-,
c-]C underground || An underground river runs through this cave.
c-]C-C-G-T-{C-SC-]N-TN-Pc-T[_,
c-^, million || He earned a million yuan in one year.
Bc-`-CFC-`-_-c-^-CFC-_C
c-_T, to become night, to become dark || It has become night now.
N-c-_T-M`,
c-bP, earths crust || The drill penetrated the earths crust.
C\_-nc-c-bP-SC
c-Cac, geology || The geology of this area is complicated.
^`-u-]N]-c-Cac-C-x-G,
c-Cac-_C-R, geology (science of) || When I was in university I studied
geology. E-T--GP-U-P-^N-Oc-Ec-c-Cac-_C-R-Ec,
c-~E-, border defense || He has been engaged in border defense for many
years. Bc-`-O-UE-`-c-~E-C-q-T-CI_,
c-~E-T, border policeman || He works as a border policeman between
China and Mongolia. Bc-sE-C-NE-p-cC-CIc-l-T_-P-c-~E-T-qN,
c-~c, dusk, nightfall || He was tired and went to sleep at dusk.
B-ME-GN-Pc-c-~c-l-Tc-c-I`,
cE-IP, tomorrow || I will see you tomorrow. cE-IP-E-mN-`-T-_-]E-,
cE-, clear sound || The bells clear sound was heard by all.
C^_-x`-n-cE--U-WE-Uc-Mc,
cE-`, next year || I hope you have a good harvest next year.
1

335

cE-`_-mN-`-`-`Cc-]MT-R_-Ec-_-T-qN,
cEc, to be clear, to be enlightened || After he woke up his mind was
clear. B-CIN-`c-cN-c, B]-N-R-cEc,
cEc-c, Buddha || The Buddha achieved nirvana.
cEc-c-`-MUc-FN-UmP-R]-C-]SE-MT,
cN, frost; to awaken, to wake up || Frost had turned the grass white.
cN-lc--UC-N@_-T_-TKE-, I wake up in the morning at six oclock. E8R$?-0:A-(-WN-xC-C-E-cN,
cT-cT, vague, obscure || I could only see a vague outline of the building
in the distance. E-_E-.-Ec-BE-TCc-l-NqTc-cT-cT-FC-UME-,
c]-C-`, earth, globe || The earth is round. c]-C-`-P-_-_-^P,
cC-cC trembling, shaking || I was trembling from the cold.
E:A-=?-uE-Pc-]N_-cC-cC-qN,
c`, fruit || Do you want some fruit for lunch?
mN-lc-DE-\c-`-c`-T\]-e-]NN,
c`-T, fragment, piece || The rock was broken into many
pieces. --c`-T-UE-T_-]M_,
c`-]WE-, retail sale || These products are only for retail sale.
MP-c-]N-NC-c`-]WE-B-P-qN,
c, Who? || Who are you? mN-P-c-^P,
cC-K, limb (animal) || The sheep broke all its limbs when it fell down
the mountain. `C-_-UC-Pc-E-!J-cC-K-WE-U-TFCc,
cP, to get tired of, to get sick of || I am becoming so tired of his endless
talk. E-B]-W_--UN-R]-B-T-`-cP-]C-TUc,
cP-]qP, exposure || Exposure of what you did will result in your losing
your job. mN-lc-F-`c-R-cP-]qP-q?-R-Nc-mN-l-q-T-a_-O-]HC-~N,
?/-$4K<, harm, disturbance || The disturbance from many visitors meant
1

he couldnt get any work done.

]u`-T-UE-T]-?/-$4K<-29R?-0-Nc-Bc-q-T-CFC-lE-`c-U-MT-R-UWP,
?/-$4K<-29R-2, to harm, to disturb || Dont disturb other people when they
are reading. U-CZP-nc-NR-G-C-Tc-?/-$4K<-3-29R
cT, (CcT, TcTc, cTc,) to erase, to rub out || I accidentally erased what
you had recorded on this cassette tape.

mN-lc--ST-P-MC-]N]-E-ST-^N-R-Ec-Tc-U-`Cc-R_-TcTc,
336

cU, (TcU, TcUc, cUc,) to close || Close your books. NR-G]-B-cUc,


cU-T, three hundred || My family has three hundred sheep.
EN-WE-`-`C-cU-T-^N,
cU-F, thirty || There are thirty students in my class.
E]-]XP-]-PE-T-U-cU-F-^N,
cU-E-, three thousand || I earned three thousand yuan in the last three
months. -P-U-CcU-n-PE-Ec-_-U-cU-E-Ec,
cU-UN, T-intersection || The accident occurred at the T-intersection.
cU-UN-N-<-GC--qE-,
cU-TCc, three stories/layers || The building is three stories high.
BE-TCc-N]-UM-`-cU-TCc-^N,
cC to tingle || The sound of chalk on the blackboard made my teeth
tingle. c-C-Cc--cU-E-{c-R]--Nc-E]-c-cC
cE-, to become bald; to shrink and have spaces (wooden bucket) || As
I get older, I become more and more bald. E-`-c-R-NE-TP-Pc-UC--HcE-/?-H-cE-_N, As the wooden bucket dried, it shrank and had spaces
between the pieces of wood. \-T-U-Pc-cE-,
cE-C lion || The lion roared. cE-Cc-E-<R-TCc,
cE-_c, gauze || I put gauze around my wound. Ec-E]--B-`-cE-_c-Nsc,
cUc, the mind, heart; to think || He always thought about it in his
mind. Bc-/3-o/-cUc-?-NP-.J:A-{R<-=-TcU-CZCc-qc, I think you will soon
be well. Ec-mN-U-_E-T_-TN-ME-^E-T_-cUc,
cUc, (TcU, TcUc, cUc,) to think, to consider || I hope you think carefully
1

about it before you make a decision.

mN-lc-MC-CFN-U-qc-CE-ZT-L-TcU--/A-E:A-_-T-;A/,
cUc-`, encouragement || What words of encouragement can you give
her? mN-lc-B-U-`-cUc-`-F-ZC-CKE-MT,
cUc-, sadness, to feel sad || Please be happy, dont feel sad!
N-R-qN-R-`c-cUc--U-qN,
cUc-B, mood, morale || I was in a bad mood yesterday.
B-cE-E]-cUc-B-U-Ec,
cUc-BUc, mood || I am in a happy mood today. N-_E-E]-cUc-BUc-Ec-^N,
cUc-BUc-_C-R, psychology || I studied psychology for one year.
Ec-`-CFC-`-cUc-BUc-_C-R-T-E-qc,
337

cUc-t`, concern, worry, anxiety || What is your biggest worry?


mN-l-cUc-t`-G-ac-P-F-ZC-^P,
cUc-B_, concern, worry || I can feel my parents concern for me.
S-Uc-E-`-cUc-B_-qN-R-Ec-ac-MT,
cUc-]tCc, to be upset, to be agitated|| Im upset about what you
said. mN-lc-TaN-R-`-E]-cUc-]tCc, I was agitated all last night. UNENCE-^Ec-?-%:A-?J3?-:O$?-L%-,
cUc-nE-T, tough, hard-hearted || That teacher is hard-hearted.
NC-P-N-P-cUc-nE-T-ZC-_N,
cUc-]DC to attract, to charm || She will charm you with her
beauty. B-U]-UXc-C-Cc-mN-l-cUc-]DC--_N,
cUc-EP, malicious thought || She is so sweet that I dont think she ever
1

had a malicious thought in her life.

B-U-P-T\E-U-N-]x-ZC-^P-Rc, U]-W-CE-T_-U-`-cUc-EP-ZC-c-^N-0<-Ec-U-]NN,
cUc-FP, sentient being, living being || A human being is a sentient being.
U]-_Cc-P-cUc-FP-^P,
cUc-GE-, carefulness || Carefulness and erudite knowledge are required
for writing a book. NR-G-ZC-]{-T-`-cUc-GE-NE-ac--$*A?-!-:6S3?-NCc,
cUc-CKN, to trust || Do you trust me? mN-lc-E-`-cUc-CKN-NU,
cUc-MC decision, resolution || I have made a decision that I will not
change. Ec-E-_E-U-]n_-T]-cUc-MC-TFN-\P,Each New Year I make a
resolution to correct one of my bad habits. =R-<J:A-`-Cc_-`-Ec-_E-C-CUcCac-EP-R-#->?-;R-T~E-LJ.-o-?J3?-,$-$&R.-0-;A/,
cUc-xE-T, honest, upright || He is an honest official.
B-P-NRP-3A-$8%-xE-ZC-_N,
cUc-C sadness, depression || His feeling of sadness lasted several
weeks. Bc-C\]-]B_-]C]-`-cUc-C-qc,
cUc-PC meanness, malice, ill will || I feel such malice toward her when
she talks to me. B-Uc-E-`-B-T-qN-Oc-E-B-U:A-!J%-=-cUc-PC-GP-R-c,
cUc-PN, heart disease || His heart disease worsened. B]-cUc-PN-H-C-`-cE-,
cUc-SU, to be dejected || I was dejected after I failed the examination.
Ec-Cc-U-]zN-1c-cUc-SU,
cUc-CV, idealistic || Dont be idealistic, be realistic.
cUc-CV-U-]XP-R_-NEc-CV-\Ec,
338

cUc-]WT, worried || Im worried about my examination score.


E-<%-$A-Cc-]{c-`-cUc-]WT,
cUc-C^E-, to be inattentive, to be absentminded || I absentmindedly left
my glasses at home. Ec-cUc-C^E-Pc-UC-a`-mU-.-T_,
cUc-a_, to be fond of, to fall in love || I am fond of my students.
E-<%-$A-T-U:A-KR$?-?-cUc-a_,
cUc-Cc, consolation, comfort || If it is any consolation, you almost
passed the examination.

]N-cUc-Cc-ZC-^P-P, mN-l-Cc-{<-S`-G_-`Ec-cE-,
c_-C crack, fissure || A long crack ran through the large rock.
-GP-R-N]-E-O-c_-C-_E-T-ZC-^N,
c_-UNC yellow || An egg yolk is yellow. E-E]-PE-E-P-c_-0R-^P,
c_-, stinginess || I cant stand his stinginess.
Ec-B]-c_--`-T\N-T~P-qN-U-MT,
?J<-$-&/, stingy || He is stingy with his money and with everything that
he owns. <%-$A-|R_-U-NE-o-/R<-$8/-.$-5%-3:A-MC-Pc-B-/A-?J<-$-(J,

c_-T, yellow || The monk wore a yellow hat. TVP-R-Nc--c_-ZC-UPTc,


c_-T, hail || The hail beat against the window. c_-Tc-x-U]-E-`-CKCc,
c`, (Tc`, Tc`, c`,) to clear, to sift, to solve || Please help me solve this
mathematical problem. E-`-c-_C-C-CPN-NP-]N-c`-_Cc-qc-NE-,
c, teeth || I brush my teeth twice a day. Ec-IP-CFC-`-c-MEc-CIc-Ts,
c-TKT, to bite || The dog bit my calf. m-Nc-E]--`-c-TKT,
c-PN, dental disease || A dentist treats dental disease.
c-PN-P-Rc-c-PN-`-P-TFc-qN,
c-PN-P-R, dentist || A dentist pulls teeth. c-PN-P-Rc-c-]T`,
c-PU, farming || My parents are engaged in farming. E]-S-Uc-c-PU-n-=?!-qN,
c-PU-R, farmer, peasant || My brother is a farmer. E]-P-^-P-c-PU-R-ZC-^P,
c-PU-_C-R, agronomy || Agronomy is the study of crops.
c-PU-_C-R-P-`-KC-C-ZT-]HC-`-TP-R-^P,
c-T, sentry, sentinel || The sentry stood at attention.
c-T-N-uE-E_-`Ec-Pc-TN,
c-SC brick || This is a red brick. ]N-P-c-SC-NU_-T-_N, You will need to buy
bricks in Lanzhou to build this school. T--]N-`c-GN-mN-lc-`P-sC-+-?R339

1$-I-NCc,

c-UE-, comb || The comb was made of plastic. c-UE-]N-c-]nC-Cc-`c,


c-P, toothpaste || I put some toothpaste on the toothbrush. Ec-c-]{N-lMC-`-c-P-qCc,
c-_c, linen || We washed all the linen this morning.
8R$?-0<-Ec-c-_c-WE-U-Tsc,
c-c, every, each one, separate || Every person needs food and clothing.
U-c-c-`-\c-Cc-UB,
c-c_, separately || I talked to each of my students separately. Ec-<%-$AT-U-_-_-`-c-c_-B-T-qc,
c-~Tc, gap between the teeth || A piece of meat got caught in the gap
between my teeth. a-`T-U-ZC-E]-c-~Tc-`-]WEc,
cC-N, Mongolian language || He speaks Mongolian and Tibetan.
Bc-cC-N-NE-TN-N-$*A?-!-,
cC-R, shoulder blade || We had a boiled sheeps shoulder blade for
supper. E-Wc-NCE-WCc-?-`C-C-cC-R-TVc-U-ZC-\c,
cC-R, Mongols, Mongolians || About fifteen percent of Inner Mongolias
population is Mongolian. PE-cC-C-U-uEc-l-T-G]-TF--P-cC-R-^P,
cC-U, straw, hay || The sheep are eating hay. `C-Cc-cC-U-\-TZP-^N,
cC-`, saw || A saw cuts wood. cC-`c-E-T-TFN,
cCc, etcetera, such as || I like many colors such as red, blue, and green.
E-B-NC-UE-T-`-NC], NR_-P-NU_-T-NE-P-R, E-B-cCc-c,,
cP, to reach; seed || When he reached the age of seventy he quit
working in the fields. B-`-TOP-F<-aJ2?-0-/, Bc-ZE-`c-qN-o-T_, How
much barley seed did you buy? mN-lc-Pc-cP-C-WN-Ic,
cP-T\E-, good seed || I only want to buy good seed.
Ec-cP-T\E-]T]-ZC-I-]NN,
cT-R, spongy, soft || After the rain the earth was spongy.
G_-T-TTc-c-c-CZ-cT-R_-n_,
cU-I, doubt, suspicion || I doubt what he said was true. Bc-{.-(TaN-R-TNP-R-^P-UP-`-Ec-cU-I-]XP,
c_-U, the width of one finger || The book was about as thick as the width
of one finger. NR-G-N]-UMC-WN-`-c_-U-CE-^N,
c_-COT, finger ring || Her finger ring is made of gold.
1

340

B-U]-c_-COT-P-Cc_-nc-`c,
c`-CK_, coal mine || The coal mine was closed last year.
c`-CK_-]N-P-PE-=R<-2!$-#R3-L?-;R.,
c`-T, charcoal || We roasted mutton over charcoal.
E-Wc-c`-T]-E-`-`C-a-T~Cc,
c`-Ec, gas || I cook with gas. Ec-c`-Ec-lc-C^-`-qc,
cc, to recover, to survive || How long will it be before she can recover
from her illness? B-U-PN-`c-cc-R_-Oc-^P-C-WN-NCc,
cc-@ spring || In spring plants begin to grow. cc-@]-Oc-c--aE--]C-U,
cc-N`, leisure || What do you do in your leisure time?
mN-lc-cc-N`-T]-Tc-c-F-ZC-qN,
~, solid, hard || Ice is solid. N_-P-~,
~-TP, stability, firmness || Social stability is important for economic
prosperity. -WCc-~-TP-^E-T-N-NR`-]q_-$R%-:1J=-`-UWP-P-C`-G,
Y-3R, strong, tough || The plastic bag was not very strong.
c-]nC-C-BC-U-N-d-FE-Y-3R-ZC-U-_N,

~-WN, hardness || The hardness of the wood made carving difficult.


aE-C-~-WN-lc-aE--o<-N@]-U_-TKE-,
~E-`U, side-street || The taxi went down the side-street.
TCc-CKE-Ec-]B_-~E-`U-NN-Pc-cE-,
~P-U, bean || He put one bean in a tea cup. Bc-H-S_-n-PE-O-~P-U-CFC-]SEc,
~T, bridle; shallow, thin || Please put the bridle on the horse. -`-~T-PR_-nc, This ice is too thin to walk on. N_-~T-Rc-.J:A-MC-+-]u-U-MT,
~T-UMC thickness || The thickness of the snow is about half a meter on
the plain. TN-ME-MC-C-B-T]-~T-UMC-`-d-`U-c-CFC-^N,
~T-UN], rein || Pull the horses right rein if you want the horse to go
right. mN-lc--B-C^c-pCc-c-CF-P-~T-UN]-C^c-U-]MP,
~T-U, thin, shallow || There was a thin layer of snow over everything
this morning. 8R$?-0<-NEc-R-MUc-FN-l-E-O-B-T-~T-U-ZC-GCc,
~, (T~, T~c, ~c,) to scrimp, to save || He saved enough money to buy a
car. Bc-Ec-]B_-GE-GE-ZC-I-T_-_-U-]NE-T-T~c,
~E-, (T~E-, T~Ec, ~Ec,) to send; to mail; to stretch; to prolong ||
Please send this box of food to my mother. \-U-U-]N-E]-e-U-`-~Ec,
When will you mail your letters? mN-lc-^-C-PU-WN-T~E--^P, He
1

1
2

341

stretched out his arms to embrace his daughter.

Bc-`C-R-1<-T~E?-Pc-

<%-$A-T-U-RE-, I want to stretch out my hand and take that deliciouslooking red apple. Ec-`C-R-2YA%?-Pc-ZU-UNC-G-T]-A-b-NU_-T-N-=J/-]NN,
4
How can I prolong my life? Ec-<%-$A-W-~C-H-_-T~E-MT,

~E-T`, cotton || This shirt is made of cotton. W-`P-]N-~E-T`-nc-T\c,


~E-U, sister || I have one sister. E-`-~E-U-CFC-^N,
~N, the universe, the world; politics; length; possible || The universe
has many planets. ~N-]N-P--_-UE-T-^N, He grew tired of politics and
retired. B-~N-`-cP-E-c-Pc-`c-]m_-qc, What is the length of this
wall? nE-]N]-~N-`-H-VU-^N, Is it possible for you to help me move to
my new apartment tomorrow? cE-IP-mN-lc-E-BE-T-Cc_-T]-PE-O-_-_-T__Cc-qN-~N-NU,
~N-E-, to govern, to rule || He will rule the country beginning next
month. -eJ?-U_-Bc-`-BT-N]-~N-E--_N,
~N-uc-BE-, parliament, congress || Congress is now in session.
~N-uc-BE-Cc-N--WCc-]O-]WC-CP-^N,
~N-Hc, policy, strategy || What is the best policy to solve this problem?
CPN-NP-]N-MC-CFN-R_-~N-Hc-Gc-T\E-T-P-F-ZC-^P,
~N-NP, politics || He was involved in politics for all his adult life.
Bc-B]-`E-W-N_-U-~N-NP-MC-L-T@`,
~N-NP-R, politician || He has been a politician for twenty years.
`-E-I-b]-_E-`-B-~N-NP-R-qc,
~N-R, the universe, possibility || The universe has no limits.
~N-R-`-Cc-UM]-UN,
~N-NTE-, political power, political authority || Political power in that
1

country is shared by several groups.

`-BT-N]-~N-NTE-/A-WCc-R-]Cc-_-N-qN,
~N-WT, regent || After the death of the king he was named regent.
`-T-r-EP-`c-]Nc-c, B-~N-WT-L-Tc,
~N-]XP, administration || Who is in charge of your companys
administration? mN-W]-AE-\]-~N-]XP-`-cc-]CP-B_-qN,
~N-]XP-U-, administrative personnel || Several administrative personnel
retired from my company last year.

~N-]XP-U--]Cc-P-PE-E-W]-AE-\-Pc-`c-]m_-qc,
342

~N-]XP-c-B`, administrative district || A county is an administrative


district. E-P-~N-]XP-c-B`-ZC-^P,
~N-C[E-, government || The government issues new regulations.
~N-C[E-Cc-C-~`-Cc_-T-ZC-TCc-`-qN,
~N-`Cc, system of government || What system of government does your
country have? mN-W]-`-BT-lc-~N-`Cc-F-ZC-]XP,
~P-N, silk yarn || The silk yarn felt soft. ~P-N-l-_C-q-]HU,
~P-R, monster || The folktale had a monster with nine heads.
NUEc-tN-CKU-N-OR.-.-~P-R-UC-OD-^N,
~P-]T, silkworm || The silkworm eats mulberry leaves.
~P-]Tc-N_-aE-C-`-U-\,
~T, shady side || The shady side is cooler than the sunny side.
~T-P-IP-`c-]mCc,
~-U, sister-in-law || My sister-in-law is from Sichuan.
E]-~-U-P-\-tP-Pc-^E-T-^P,
~E-, (T~E-, T~Ec, ~Ec,) to protect, to keep, to defend, to safeguard || I
protect my family from harm. Ec-<%-$A-mU-WE-CPN-]W-`c-~E-,
~E-_, satellite || The satellite is now orbiting the earth.
N--~E-_-N-c]-C-`-T_-Pc-]B_-28A/-;R.,
~E-T, protection || The Buddhas protection has kept me in good
health. cEc-c-lc-~E-T-qc-3,<-E]-`c-R-TN-T_-CPc, Protecting a
country is an armys duty. `-BT-~E-*R2-LJ.-o-P-NUC-U]-`c-]CP-^P,
~E-T-UBP, protector || My father is my protector.
E]-e-S-P-E]-~E-T-UBP-^P,
~E-U, guardian deity || What is your familys guardian deity?
mN-WE-C-~E-U-P-F-ZC-^P,
~E-NUC guard, defending troop || The palace guard drove off the attack.
S-{E-~E-NUC-Cc-W_-`-TCc,
~E-]XP, preservation || The preservation of traditional culture is
important. ~`-P-n-_C-CPc-~E-]XP-qN-o-C`-G,
~P-U, mild, gentle || A gentle horse ran across the grassland.
-~P-U-ZC--ME-TN-Pc-TCc,
~Tc, fissure, crack || A long crack ran across the ice.
N_-`-~Tc-B-_E-U-ZC-qE-,
343

~, (T~, T~c, ~c,) to blend together, to combine, mix together || Please


blend this butter with the milk tea. U_-]N-]-H:A-/%-~c, Water
combined with dirt makes mud. G-NE-c-$*A?-2YJ?-5K-:.U-^P,
~C (T~C T~Cc, ~Cc,) to burn; roast || I burned the last of our coal
yesterday. B-cE-Ec-E-W]--c`-]z-U-^Ec-c-T~Cc, I will roast some
mutton for supper. Ec-NCE-WCc-`-`C-a-_-T~C--^P,
~N, to love; to have desire for || I loved my expensive ring and Im
sad that I had to sell it. E-<%-$A-UXT-Nsc--GP-`-@-&%-~N-0?, N-TVE-NCc-qETc-E]-^N-cUc-, I desired her, but she did not desire me. E-B-U-`-~NlE-B-U-E-`-U-~N,
~N-R, desire, love || The love that I have for my children could not be
greater. Ec-_E-C-qc-R-`-TFEc-R]-~N-R-N-`c-G-~`-UN,
~`, (T~`, T~`, ~`,) to save, to keep || I am going to save my money in
the bank. Ec-<%-$A-_-U-OE`-BE-O-T~`-c-^N,
~, (T~, T~c, ~c,) to warm up || Lets warm up the mutton for supper.
NCE-\c-?-`C-a-N-~c,
~-BE-, house with a heatable sleeping platform || That house with a
heatable sleeping platform belongs to my father. ~-BE-.J-E]-e-S-`-.2%-,
~C-T, saving life || Saving the little girls life made him a hero.
T-U-N]-~C-TTc-Rc-B-NR]-T-ZC-L-TN,
~C-tUc, death sentence, capital punishment || What crimes deserve
capital punishment? Ic-R-F-ZC-`-~C-tUc-CFN-]c,
~C-CFN, killing || Killing creatures should be avoided. -]u]-~C-CFN-o%%-]c,
~C-GCc, animal, creature || That animal also has a life.
~C-GCc-N-`]E-W-~C-FC-^N,
~C-GN, capital punishment, death sentence || The judge gave him the
death sentence for his crimes. Z`--Tc-B]-Ic-R-`-~C-GN-TFN,
~C-IP, danger to life || This old bridge is a danger to life.
\U-R-E-T-]N-/A-~C-IP-G,
~C-CKE-, to sacrifice life || The soldier sacrificed his life for his country.
NUC-U-Nc-_E-C-`-BT-l-NP-O-~C-TKE-,
~C-UN, inanimate, not living, lifeless || A rock is inanimate.
-P-~C-UN-^P,
1

344

~C-a_, to die, to lose ones life || He died in battle.


NUC-]tC-C-tN-B]-~C-a_,
~E-, (T~E-, T~Ec, ~Ec,) to straighten out; to explain || Straighten out
this crooked wire. Cc-N-]mC-R-N-~Ec, He explained the gist of the
document. Bc-^C-G-N]-C[E-T~Ec,
~P, (T~P, T~P, ~P,) to tolerate, to stand, to bear || I cant tolerate this
pain. Ec-P-\C-]N-T~P-U-MT,
~`-P, tradition, custom || That particular custom is very important.
~`-P-mN-R_-FP-N-d-FE-C`-G,
~`-E-, old custom || The old custom of visiting everyone during the
Lunar New Year is gradually dying. `Cc-E-`-Cc_-n-Tc-c-U-_-_-`]WUc-]x-qN-R]-~`-E-N-_U-TZP-IUc-TZP-^N,
~`-CKN-UBP, originator, creator, founder || Sakyamuni is the founder of
Buddhism. bl-U-P-P-PE-TP-Gc-`Cc-l-~`-CKN-UBP-^P,
~`-]qN, founding of custom\tradition || The founding of custom is
related to social reality. `Cc-~`-]qN-R-P--WCc-l-NP-NEc-NE-]{`,
~`-]XP, preservation of custom, to maintain tradition || The old people
try to maintain tradition in our village. U-P-R-Uc-lc-E-W]--T]-~`-fA%]XP-,2?-qN,
~`-^C regulation note || I misplaced the regulation note.
Ec-~`-^C-N-CE-`-TZC-R-TN,
~`-`Cc, custom, folkway || The annual horserace is a folkway.
`-_]--C-P-~`-`Cc-aC-_N,
, easy || Learning English is not easy. NqP-^C-T-R-P--U-UP,
-U, easy || Its easy to lie down but it is not always easy to get up.
I`--P--U-^P-lE-U`-`c-`Ec--P--U-UP,
N-O, for the purpose of, for, in order to || Put some salt in your food in
1

order to make it taste better.

\-U-H-ZU-O-CKE-T]-N-O-\-U]-PE-O-mN-lc--B-]C]-SEc,
N-pP, later, afterward, since now, in the future || Afterward Ill never
smoke again. N-pP, Ec-M-UC-^E-T_-CKP-Pc-U-]MP,
_, again, once more || Dont do that again. q-T-N-_-O-U-`c-aC
c-U, anything knitted || This sweater was knitted. T`--]N-P-c-U-^P,
2a2-L,lesson || He learned no lesson from his failure.
345

SU-B-=c-B-`-2a2-q-&A-;%-U-MT,
, (T, Tc, c,) to deceive; to entice, to lure || He tried to deceive
me. Bc-E-T-MTc-qc, I enticed the dog to come to me with a piece of
raw meat. Ec-a-P-R-ZC-Cc-m-E]-CZCc-`-^E-T_-Tc,
, (T, Tc, c,) to weave, to knit; to braid, to plait || My mother will
knit a sweater for me. E]-e-Uc-E-`-T`--ZC-T--_N, My sister will
braid her hair tonight. N-NCE-E]-~E-Uc-<%-$A--T--_N,
-T, plaited basket with a strap || This plaited basket with a strap was
made by my grandmother. -T-N-E]--Uc-2aJ?-R-^P,
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to come, to arrive || What time will you come to
the meeting? mN-WCc-]O-`-PU-WN-TT--^P,
C (TC TCc, Cc,) to dig; to turn over; to return || Lets dig the
potatoes tomorrow. cE-IP-ZC-BC-Cc-_Cc, He turned over everything
on the floor to find the book. Bc-ME-C-NEc-R-MUc-FN-TCc-Pc-NR-G-N-TV`,
Please return the things you borrowed from me. mN-lc-E]-`C-Pc-C^_T]-NEc-R-p_-Cc-_Cc-[,
E-, (TE-, TEc, Ec,) to beg, to appeal, to solicit || The old woman
begged money from everyone. P-U-Nc-U-WE-U]-`C-Pc-_-U-TEc,
E-U, solicitation, begging || Begging is not allowed here.
]N-Pc-E-U-qN-O-U-]HC
E-3R-2, beggar || The beggar wore tattered clothing.
E-3R-2-Nc-CP-R-`-T-ZC-nP,
N, (TN, TN, N,) to be adulterated || The gold has been adulterated
with copper. Cc_-N-\Ec-lc-TN,
P, (TP, TP, P,) to revenge; to patch || I will take revenge for the
wrong that you did to me. mN-lc-E-`-Z-CPC-qc-R-N_-Ec-`P-R-TP--^P, I
asked a tailor to patch the hole in my trousers. Ec-WU-T-T-`-E]-E-UE-C-BE-T-TP-O-TFC
T, (TT, TTc, Tc,) to learn, to study || I want to learn Tibetan,
Chinese, and English. Ec-TN-^C-NE--^C NqP-^C-$?3-T-]NN,
T-BE-, classroom || This classroom has twenty desks.
T-BE-]N]-PE-FC-V-I-b-^N,
T-tN, teaching, lecturing || Teaching all day makes me tired.
IP-CE-T_-T-tN-qN-R-Nc-E-ME-GN-O-]HC
1

346

T-, school || Our village has a new school. E-W]-T-`-T--Cc_-T-ZC-^N,


T--GP-U, university, college || Central Nationalities University is in
Beijing. sE-NqE-U-_Cc-T--GP-U-N-R-FP-.-^N,
T--T, student || Are you a student or teacher?
mN-P-T--T-ZC-^P-PU-NC-P-ZC-^P,
T-uCc, classmate || After graduation I married my classmate.
T-UM_-pP-c, E-<%-$A-T-uCc->A$-NE-CIP-C-qc,
T-GE-, primary school || Which primary school do your children attend?
mN-l-qc-R-Uc-T-GE-CE-]uU-TZP-^N,
T-CI_, study, practice of learning || Why do your children have the
study of English in middle school?

mN-l-qc-R-Uc-lc-F]-p_-T-]{E-Pc-NqP-^C-T-E-qN,
T-NT, textbook || Please put the textbook on my desk.
T-NT-E]-FC-V]-E-O-ZC
T-P, school age || How many school age children are there in your
village? mN-l--T-P-T-P-_P-R]-qc-R-$-5S.-^N,
T-NRP, teacher || Although my teacher had never been to a public
school, he knew written Tibetan very well. E]-T-NRP-.3%?-24$?T--8A$-`-CKP-Pc-]u-U-rE-_E-, Bc-TN-^C-T\E-T-ZC-ac,

aR2-.0R/-(J/-3R,professor || He became a professor of Tibetan language


and literature about ten years ago. `-TF]-P-`-B-TN-GA-N-;A$NE-U-_C-C-aR2-.0R/-(J/-3R-8A$-+-I<, He is a professor of Tibetan history
at Tibet University in Lhasa. B-P--c-<-CZ-GCc-R]-TN-Ec-T--GP-U]-TN-

l-`-c-l-T-NRP-ZC-^P,
T-NRP-GP-3R-.%R?, full professor || He became a full professor last year.
P-PE-B-T-NRP-GP-U-.%R?->AC-L-n_,
T-zC student, pupil || Where does that student live? T-zC-N-CE-.-N,
T-]{E-, middle school || She graduated from primary school but did not
go to middle school. B-U-T-GE-Pc-UM_-pP-lE-T-]{E-`-U-cE-,
T-E-, study, learning || I want my children to study hard and learn a
lot. Ec-E]-qc-R-Uc-lc-T-E-`-d_-TP-qc-K-ac-q-UE-T-E-]NN,
T-U, student || I had to punish a naughty student this morning. .J-<A%-}-SREc-T-U-y-G`-ZC-`-GN-R-CFN-NCc-qE-,
T-WP, lesson || Did you prepare your lesson before class?
347

T-tN-l-P-`-mN-lc-T-WP-u-C-qc-cU,
T-CZ, teaching material || What kind of teaching material are you using
to teach English? mN-lc-NqP-^C-tN-R_-T-CZ-_Cc-CE-ZC-T@`-TZP-^N,
T-^P, tuition, school fee || How much is primary school tuition this
year? N-`_-T-GE-C-T-^P-C-WN-_N,
T-`, school age || Several school age children in my village dont go to
school. E-W]--T]-T-`-_P-R]-qc-R-]C]-T--`-]u-lP-UN,
T-Cc, education || I want all my children to have an education. Ec-<%-$Aqc-R-WE-U-`-T-Cc-]MT-o-L%-P-]NN,
T-Cc-_C-R, pedagogy, education || Pedagogy is concerned with teaching
methodology. T-Cc-_C-R-P-T-tN-qN-pCc-`-]{`,
CcE-uc, secret talk || I overheard their secret talk.
B-W]-CcE-uc-E]--T_-MP,
CcE-CKU, confidential talk, secret || I need to have a confidential talk
with you. Ec-mN-`-CcE-CKU-ZC-TaN-NCc,
CcE-NP, secret matter || Its a secret matter that I cant discuss.
]N-P-Ec-TaN-U-IP-R]-CcE-NP-ZC-^P,
CcE-T, secret signal || What secret signal did you give?
mN-lc-CcE-T-F-ZC-TKE-,
CcE-N, adulterous sexual relationship || Did you ever have an
adulterous sexual relationship? mN-lc-CcE-N-qc-rE-EU,
CcE-N-#%-, toilet || Where is the toilet? CcE-N-#%-CE-P-^N,
CcE-]zP, secret message || I received your secret message.
E-`-mN-l-CcE-]zP-]q_,
CcE-T, secret, clandestine || Please tell me just one secret that you have.
mN-`-^N-R]-CcE-T-CFC-E-`-aN-NE-, They held a clandestine meeting last
night. 3.%-.$R%-#R-5S?-$?%-2:A-PR?-5S$?->A$-2#?,

CcE-UE-, pseudonym, pen name || I wrote this novel using a pen name.
Ec-CcE-UE-N-Pc-E-CKU-]N-TUc,
CcE-U`, secret discussion || The secret discussion was held at night.
NCE-U_-CcE-U`-qc,
CcE-r`, spy; detective || The spy was caught and executed. CcE-r`T\E-Pc-~C-Ec, The detective worked in secret on a criminal case.
CcE-r`-nc-CcE-T]--Pc-PC-Ic-aC-`-NoN,
1

348

CcE-`U, secret road || There is a secret road that leads over the
mountain. CcE-`U-ZC-_-N-`-]MP-^N,
CcT, (TcT, TcTc, cTc,) to add, to insert, to supplement || Can you insert
this sentence in your essay?

mN-lc-WC-E-]N-mN-l-TUc-Gc-l-PE-O-CcT-MT-TU,
CcT-tN, make-up class || The make-up class was held in the evening.
NCE-U_-CcT-tN-qc,
CcT-NE`, indemnity || She was paid a large indemnity.
B-U_-CcT-NE`-GP-R-]H`,
CcT-P, addendum, supplement; subsidy || Ill add the additional
information as an addendum. Ec-Z_-qE-C-T-]zP-CcT-P-qN--^P, He
gets a salary subsidy because he lives in a high altitude area. Bc-c-UCUM-c-P-q-T-`c-TZP-^N-Rc-B-`--SCc-l-CcT-P-MT,
CcT-E-, supplemental study || I suggest that you read this book as
supplemental study. Ec-mN-`-NR-G-]N-CcT-E-C-W`-O-C-R_-UWUc-_-qN,
Cc_, new || I bought a new house. Ec-BE-Cc_-ZC-Ic,
Cc_-c, new-born || The new-born baby cried loudly.
Cc_-c-l-U-$-N-N-UMP-Rc-Ec,
Cc_-P, building, establishing || The building of the new village school
took six months. -T]-T--Cc_-T-Cc_-P-qN-R_--T-xC-]C_,
Cc_-]CN-R, reporter || He is a newspaper reporter.
B-P-5$?-0<-Cc_-]CN-R-ZC-^P,
Cc_-]n_, news || Did you watch the television news last night?
UNE-NCE-mN-lc-TP-]zP-Cc_-]n_-`-Tc-cU,
Cc_-]n_-BE-, news agency, press service || The newspaper publishes
1

reports from only one news agency.

WCc-R_-Nc-Cc_-]n_-BE-CFC-B-P]-P-[-]CN,
Cc_-]n_-]CN-UBP, reporter, newsman || She is a newspaper translator
and reporter. B-U-P-Cc_-]n_-`--T-NE-Cc_-]n_-]CN-UBP-ZC-^P,
Cc_-TFc, innovation, transformation || The automobile is an important
innovation in transportation.

Ec-]B_-P-]uU-]u`-^-qN-MC-C-Cc_-TFc-C`-GP-ZC-^P,
Cc_-T, revolution || The revolution began in 1832.
CFC-E-TN-T-cU-F-?R-$*A?-=R-`-Cc_-T]-]C-TUc,
349

Cc_-T-T, revolutionary || He became a revolutionary when he was a


teenager. B-P-GE-ZC-^P-Oc-Pc-Cc_-T-T-ZC-L-n_,
Cc_-CKN, creation, founding || The creation of the television has brought
enjoyment to many people. TP-]zP-Cc_-CKN-qc-R-Nc-U-UE-T-`--T-T`,
Cc_-O, newly, anew || This chair is newly painted.
o2-2~J?-b2-Cc-]N-`-Cc_-O-WP--Tc,
Cc_-T, new; fresh || Be careful, the blackboard has wet new paint on
it. cUc-GE-nc, -cU-E-O-WP-Cc_-T-Tc-^N, I only like fresh butter in
my tea. E-H]-PE-O-U_-Cc_-T-B-P-]SP-R_-NC],
Cc_-T, adult young man || The adult young man doesnt have much of a
beard. Cc_-T-N-`--_-UE-T-UN,
Cc_-`, plowing up new land || Plowing up new land is difficult but
important. -ZE-Cc_-`-qN--P-N@]-WCc-G-_E-NCc-C`-G,
Cc_-]XCc, newly established || That magazine is newly established.
Oc-NT-N-P-Cc_-]XCc-qc-R-_N,
Cc_-T\, creating, inventing || Inventing takes a creative mind.
Cc_-T\-qN-R-`-Cc_-CKN-l--PR?-w/-NCc,
Cc`, clear, bright || The moon is very bright tonight. N-NCE--T-d-FE-Cc`,
Cc`-TCc, statement, proclamation || I thought his statement didnt
make much sense. Ec-Tc-P-B]-Cc`-TCc-N-`-CPc-`Cc-F-^E-UN,
Cc`-G, familiarity || Im impressed with his familiarity with Tibetan folk
customs. B-TN-l-NUEc-~`-,.-Cc`-G-^N-R-Nc-E-`-TC-GCc-\T-U-TZC
Cc`-G-FP, familiar || He is familiar with that situation so ask him, not
me. CPc-TT-N]-E-Pc-B-P-Cc`-G-FP-ZC-^P-Rc, B-`-xc-NE-, E-`-U-]x,
Cc`-]NTc, reminding || Thank you for reminding me to lock the
door. mN-lc-E-`--CKP--Cc`-]NTc-qc-R_-MCc--G,
Cc`-T, clear || The sky was clear and the air was fresh.
CPU-E-P-Cc`-T-^P-ZE-UB]-NTCc-P-Ec-U-^P,
Cc`-qN, consonant || How many consonants does English have?
NqP-^C-`-Cc`-qN-O-^N,
Cc`-]qN, classification || How much do you know about the
classification of literature into various genres? U-_C-U-P%?-.LJ-2:A_-Pc-mN-lc-F-VU-ac,
Cc`-TaN, explanation, clarification || His explanation of the problem
1

350

Bc-CPN-NP-`-Cc`-TaN-qc-R-N-d-FE-SP,
CcC (TcC TcCc, cCc,) to shake || I want to shake your hand.
Ec-mN-l-`C-R-CcC-P-]NN,
CcE-, meadow, lawn || The yaks grazed in the meadow.
pCc-lc-/J:-CcE-Pc--\c,
Cc`, (Tc`, Tc`, Cc`,) to split, to divide || I cant divide this mutton
equally. Ec-`C-a-]x-UIU-O-Cc`-U-MT,
CcC-NE`, money bribe || The leader was punished for taking money
bribes. ]C-tN-Nc-CcC-NE`-Ec-R_-GN-R-TFN,
CcE-, (CcE-, CcEc, CcEc,) to speak, to talk, to tell, to say || What did she
tell you? B-Uc-mN-`-F-ZC-CcEc,
CcE-Gc, religious sermon || The religious sermon lasted for one hour.
(-WN-CFC-`-CcE-Gc-CPE-,
CcE-TLc, quotation; excerpt; anthology || Im now memorizing one
famous quotation every day. Ec-N--IP-uEc-`-CcE-TLc-uCc-FP-ZC--`_-nP-^N, In our literature class we are reading one excerpt from
was helpful.

famous Western writers each day. E-W]-U-_C-T-tN-l-Tc-c, E-Wc-IP-__-QT-

pCc-U-R-R-uCc-FP-n-CcE-TLc-CFC-C-TZP-^N,3Yesterday I bought an

anthology of Tibetan scholars articles.

B-?E-, Ec-TN-UBc-R]-U-_C-CcE-

TLc-aC-Ic,
CcE-]zP, letter, message || Did you send her a message?
mN-lc-B-U-`-CcE-]zP-TKE-EU,
CcE-]TU, complete literary work || These three volumes make a
complete literary work of his writings.

TU-R-CcU-R-]Nc-B]-CcE-]TU-B-WE-ZC-uT,
CcE-U, writing, work || We wont publish your work because it isnt
written very well. mN-l-CcE-U-{c-R-N-]x-U-T\E-Tc-E-Wc-NR-P-U-qN,
CcE-_T, religious text, religious classic, scripture || The young monks
first studied a religious text. TVP-R-`-CZP-Nc-MC-U_-CcE-_T-`-T-E-qc,
CcE-TaN, talk, speech || The audience warmly applauded his speech.
IP-UBP-Uc-lc-B]-CcE-TaN-`--cUc-]B`-T:A-%%-M`-U-TTc,
CcU, three || I have three brothers. E-`-P-CcU-^N,
CcU-G, a third || I want about a third of that large piece of bread.
E-`-d-`U-C-_-N]-cU-G]-CFC-NCc,
351

CcU-R, third || The third paragraph from the bottom has an error.
]C-Pc-Tc-P-NP-WP-CcU-R<-P_-]GC-FC-^N,
CcU-R, all three || All three of my yaks died yesterday.
B-cE-E]-C^C-CcU-R-a-cE-,
Cc_-x, smell of something burning || The smell of something burning
filled the kitchen. H-BE-PE-O-Cc_-xc-mT,
Ccc-R, stomach, belly || My stomach aches. E]-Dcc-R-P,
Cc, (Cc, Ccc, Ccc,) to split, to divide || He splits the firewood with an
axe. Bc--_-ZC-Cc-m-U-Ccc,
CcC (CcC TcCc, CcCc,) to be tilted, to slant, to incline || The old
building slowly began to slant and finally fell over.

MC-BE-E-T-N-N`-Uc-TcCc-Pc-UHC-UM_-TTc,
CcE-, break, intermission || We took a five minute break after meeting
for two hours. E-Wc-(-WN-CIc-`-WCc-]O-]WCc-c-_-U--`-T_-CcE-qc,
CcN, (CcN, TcN, TcN,) to card (wool, cotton, etc.) || Ill card wool for an
hour tomorrow morning. cE-IP-8R$?-0_-Ec-G-WN-CFC-`-T`-CcN--^P,
CcN-]u`, explanation, interpretation || His explanation was clear and I
agree with him. Bc-CcN-]u`-qc-R-Cc`-ZE-E-N-`-]MN,
CcT, stallion || When the stallion neighed the other horses stopped
grazing and looked up.

-CcT-]W_-T-P, -CZP-Rc--\-UWUc-TZC-Pc-UC-Nnc,
Cc_, gold || Gold is expensive. Cc_-P-CE-G,
Cc_-t, golden throne || The Living Buddha sat on a golden throne.
`--Cc_-t-`-T[Cc,
Cc_-UC_, goldsmith || The goldsmith makes gold rings.
Cc_-UC_-nc-Cc_-n-UXT-Nsc-E-,
Cc_-OE`, gold and silver || Her jewelry is made of gold and silver.
B-U]-P-G-P-Cc_-NE`-nc-TEc,
Cc_-I, goldfish || The goldfish swam in the clean water.
Cc_-I-G-CVE-U-N]-PE-P-`,
Cc_-{c, writing in gold || These Tibetan characters are written in gold.
TN-^C-]N-NC-P-Cc_-{c-^P,
Cc_-aC gold leaf || The Buddha image was covered with gold leaf.
cEc-c-l--`-Cc_-aC-Cc-aP,
352

Cc, (Cc, Ccc, Ccc,)

to heal; 2to feed, to nourish, to raise || 1I hope the

P-Rc-E]-PN-Cc-MT-R_-Ec-_-T-qN, I want to raise my


child so she will be strong and healthy. Ec-_E-C-qc-R-Cc-]NN, N-_-qc-P,
B-U-`c-Tc-c-aE-TN-ME-^E--_N,
Cc-E-, rearing, bringing up || Rearing their grandchildren is something
my parents enjoy. W-T-W-U-Cc-E-qN-o-P-E]-e-Uc-qN-]NN-R-ZC-^P,
Cc-MTc, remedy; method of rearing || Traditional Tibetan Medicine
has a good remedy for liver disease. ~`-P-n-TN-P-`-UGP-PN-Cc-MTcT\E-T-ZC-^N, Methods of rearing children differ from one culture to
another. _C-CPc-U-]x-T-`-qc-R-Cc-MTc-lE-U-]x-T-^N,
Cc-`, breeding, raising || Sheep raising is what he does for a living.
`C-Cc-`-qN-R-P-Bc-]W-P-qN-`Cc-^P,
Cc-T-_C-R, science of medicine || He studied the science of medicine in
college and then he became a doctor. Bc-T-E-.-Cc-T-_C-R-`-T-E-qc3,<-P-R-ZC-L-n_,
Cc-_C-R, physician || I am a physician and I work in a hospital.
E-P-Cc-_C-R-ZC-^P-`-P-BE-.-q-T-CI_,
CcC (TcC TcCc, CcCc,) to save up, to accumulate || How long did it
2

doctor can heal me.

take you to save up one thousand yuan?

mN-lc-_-U-E-CFC-CcC-R_-Oc-^P-C-WN-]C_,
CcC-]HC saving, accumulating, stockpiling || Saving money has always
been hard for him. B-`-UWP-P-_-U-I_-CcC-qN-o-P-R_-N@]-U-_N,
CcE-, (CcE-, CcE-, CcEc,) to keep secret, to conceal || Dont try to keep
secret what you feel about me.

mN-lc-E-`-TcU-W`-F-ZC-TFEc-;R.-R-N-U-CcE-,
CcP, (CcP, CcP, CcP,) to listen || I want to listen to your song.
Ec-mN-l--NqEc-`-CcP-]NN,
CcP, to be alive, to live, to survive || Im happy to be alive.
E-_E-CcP-MT-R_-NC]--,
CcP-IUc-P-R, vivid, lively || He tells vivid stories.
Bc-CcP-IUc-P-R:A-CKU-N-:(.,
CcP-R, alive || Im so sick that Im barely alive. E-`-P-W--U-ZC-qE-Pc-.-vCcP-R_-`c-R-VU-^P,
CcP-WN, survival rate || What was the survival rate of livestock after the
353

snow disaster?

BEc-P-qE-c, pCc-\C-C-CcP-WN-P-F-VU-^P,

CcP-bCc, vigor, vitality || He walks with great vigor.


B-CcP-bCc-GP-R-ZC-Cc-TN,
CcU-aE-, pine tree || That pine tree is short but very old. CcU-aE-N-P-.3:<%-`-UE-T-]C_,
Cc_, drill, awl || The drill bit into the wood. Cc_-nc-aE-SCc,
$?R<-:2A$?-0,|| He chiseled a hole in a boulder to hide his treasures in.
#R?-1-2R%-8A$-$A-!J%-.-<%-*A.-GA-/R<-&?-?:A-2-$-8A$-1A$?-L%-,

Cc`, to have; to tell; to eat; to drink || He wants to have some tea.


Bc-H-Cc`-]NN, I will tell you about it tomorrow. cE-IP-Ec-mN-=-N]-_P-O-Cc`, Please eat some bread. C-_-]C]-Cc`, Please drink some
tea. H-Cc`,
Cc`-P, banquet, feast (h) || Ill be happy to attend the banquet at your
home tomorrow night. cE-IP-NCE-U_-E-mN-WE-C-Cc`-P-`-[Cc-R_-,
Cc`-]NTc, prayer || He said a very long prayer.
Bc-Cc`-]NTc-_E-U-ZC-TKTc,
Cc`-T, prayer, plea || His plea was that he would be allowed to live.
B]-Cc`-T-P-Bc-]W-TZc-qN-MT--N-^P,
Cc`-WCc, meal (h) || Did you have a meal this morning?
8R$?-0<-mN-lc-Cc`-WCc-TZc-cU,
TcE-UGN, religious ceremony of burning incense || Tomorrow evening
1

there will be a big religious ceremony of burning incense at the


monastery.

cE-IP-NCE-U_-NCP-R-<-TcE-UGN-GP-R-qN--_N,

TcU-nc-U-mT, unthinkable, incomprehensible || His knowledge is


incomprehensible. B]-ac-q-P-TcU-nc-U-mT,
TcU-EP, evil thought || I dont think she ever had an evil thought in her
life. Ec-B-U-`-W-CE-T_-]R-EP-ZC-c-^N-0<-U-]NN,
TcU-]G_, opinion, idea || In your opinion what do you think I should do?
mN-l-TcU-]G_-_-P, mN-lc-Ec-F-ZC-`c-P-]c-TcU,
TcU-CKP, meditation || His meditation in a cave lasted two years.
B-{C-SC-Pc-TcU-CKP-`-`-CIc-T[Cc,
TcU-NP, desire, goal, wish || What is your strongest desire?
mN-l-TcU-NP-Gc-GP-R-P-F-ZC-^P,
TcU-]OP, hope, expectation || It is my hope that you will study well.
354

mN-lc-T-E-T\E-T-qN--P-E]-<J-2-^P,
(|R?-?-L-2:A-3)$-:V?-,.-)2?3-3/R-8A2-+-$+R%-2, to think over || Please think
over your decision before you do anything more.

mN-lc-q-T-F-^E-U-`c-CE-_E-C-MC-CFN-,.-=-2?3-3/R-8A2-+-$+R%-.$R?,
TcU-R, thought, idea; mind || My thought was that it would be nice to
go for a picnic today. E]-TcU-R_-N-_E--CcE-`-cE-P-d-FE-T\E-2<-~3, That
mathematician has a fine analytical mind. c-_C-UBc-R-N-`-Nq-ZT-lTcU-$8A$?-/?-0-T\E-T-ZC-^N,
TcU-R]-E`-`, mental labor || After an hour of mental labor he took a
short nap. (-WN-CFC-`-TcU-R]-E`-`-qc-c-B-U`-`-I`,
TcU-R]-]O-ac, ideology || Different societies have different ideologies.
-WCc-U-]x-T-`-TcU-R]-]O-ac-lE-U-]x-T-^N,
TcU-pCc, inclination, attitude || My inclination is to agree with you.
E]-TcU-pCc-P-mN-NE-UMP-R-^P,
TcU-, thought, idea || Years ago I had the thought that we might
eventually marry. `-]C]-P-E-`-E-W-UM]-U_-CIP-C-qN-~N-R]-TcU--c,
TcU--T, thinker || He is a deep thinker. B-P-TcU--T-U-R-ZC-^P,
2?3-]R?-K$-0, thoughtful, oversensitive || He is a thoughtful writer. #R-/A1

2?3-]R?-K$-0:A-lR3-0-0R-8A$-;A/,

TcU-_, scheme, intention || Your intention is evil. mN-l-TcU-_-P-EP-R-^P,


TcU-W`, opinion, impression, feelings || I have a good opinion about her.
B-U]-MC-`-E-`-TcU-W`-T\E-T-ZC-^N, I have several different feelings
about this book. NR-G-]N]-MC-Pc-E-`-]G_-W`-U-]x-T-]C]-^N, What is your
feeling about what she said? B-Uc-{.-(-TaN-R:A-,.-mN-`-2?3-5=-F-ZC^N,
TcU-WN, estimation, speculation || My estimation is that it will take one
day to finish this job. E]-TcU-WN-`-q-T-]N-]uT-R_-IP-CFC-]C_--_N,
TcU-CZCc, thinking, consideration || Consideration of this problem for
two weeks has not brought a solution.

C\]-]B_-CIc-_E-CPN-NP-]N-`-TcU-CZCc-qc-R-=c-MC-CFN-qN-MTc-aC-U-`P,
TcU-TZP-O, on purpose, deliberately || He deliberately pushed my book
off my desk. Bc-TcU-TZP-O-E]-NR-G-FC-V]-E-Pc-ME-`-NN, He very
deliberately caused her much trouble. Bc-B-U-`-2?3-28A/-.-C-T`-GPR-T`,
355

TcU-ac, understanding, conscious || She is an understanding person.


B-U-P-U-TcU-ac-aC-^P,
Tc`, cool || The weather today is cool. N-_E-C-PU--P-Tc`,
Tc`-COCc, parasol, umbrella || The sun was so hot that she used a
parasol while herding. I-U-d-FE-W-Tc, B-Uc-pCc-]W-Tc-Tc`-COCc-N,
Tc`-U, cool || The cool breeze made me feel better.
E-Tc`-U-Nc-E]-W_-T-H-`Cc-c-TKE-,
Tc`-C^T, fan || I had to use a fan to make myself feel comfortable.
Ec-Tc`-C^T-T@`-K-_E-=?-H-TN_-CKE-NCc-qE-,
Tc`-E-, cool air, breeze || A breeze blew through my bedroom window.
Tc`-E-ZC-E]-U`-BE-C-]-BE-TN-Pc-C^Cc,
Tc, (Tc, Tcc, cc,) to receive, to welcome || Id be happy to receive you
and your friend tomorrow afternoon.

E-cE-IP-p-x_-mN-NE-mN-l-uCc-R-Tc-T_-,
Tc-T, welcome, receiving || His warm welcome made us all feel
comfortable. B]--cUc-]B`-T]-Tc-T-Nc-E-W]-E-T-TN-U_-TKE-,
Tc_-T, breeze || Its so hot, I wish there was a breeze now.
WN-R-G-Tc, Ec-N--Tc_-T-ZC-$;$-o-L%-P-]NN,
TcN-FP, lucky || You are a lucky man to have a warm, loving family.
mN-`-xN-N-]XUc-R]-mU-WE-ZC-^N-Rc-U-TcN-FP-ZC-_N,
TcN-PUc, good fortune || I hope you always have good fortune.
Ec-mN-`-g$-+-TcN-PUc-N_-T]-P-]OP-[,
T~-WCc, thrift || She knows how to practice thrift and thats why her
family has a lot of money today.

B-Uc-T~-WCc-H-_-qN-NCc-R-ac, N]-P-nc-B-U-WE-`-N--_-U-UE-T-^N,
YJ, (2YJ, 2YJc,) to get mixed || The feed was mixed with salt. C\P-.J:A-/%-D#-2YJ?-;R.,

TN-P, contamination, impurity || Contamination of drinking water is a


serious problem. TLE-G]-TN-P-P-CPN-NP-WTc-GP-ZC-^P,
TT-q, instruction; experience || Two hours of instruction tired us all.
Oc-WN-CIc-_E-C-TT-q-Nc-E-W-WE-U-ME-GN-O-TFC What was your
experience living abroad for a year? mN-p-`-Pc-`-CFC-`-TN-Pc-TT-qF-ZC-MT,
1

356

d-C to know, to understand || I understand what you mean.


Ec-mN-l-PE-NP-d-C
d-FE-, very || She speaks English very well. B-Uc-NqP-N-d-FE-T\E-T-ZC-MT,
d-P-dP-P, muddleheaded || After an hour of class I feel tired and
muddleheaded. (-WN-CFC-<A%-C-T-tN-l-c-?, E-ME-GN-/?-d-P-dP-P-ZC-L-n_,
@-<-@R-<J, careless, sloppy || It was careless of me to have left my keys in
the lock of my apartment door. %-/A-3A-@-<-@R-<J-8A$-;A/-0?-<%-HA3-IA-|R-9:A/%-.-wJ-3A$-2*<-L%-,The managers criticism of her sloppy work is
justified. TNC-CI_-Tc-B-U]-@-<-@R-<J:A-=?-!-=-P-TN-qc-R<-$/?-=$?-w/,

d-`U, more or less, roughly, approximately || I have approximately one


hundred yaks. E-`-d-`U-C^C-E-CFC-^N,
d-`c, to be amazed, to be surprised || He was surprised when we said
that we did not agree with him. E-Wc-E-W-B-`-U-]MN-R-`T-R-P, B-d-`c,
d-`c-R, surprising, amazing || She has an amazing singing voice.
B-U-`-N-d-`c-R-ZC-^N,
dN, to be astonished, to be dazed || I was dazed by the frightening
sound. -]HCc-R-Nc-E-dN-O-TFC
dN-lc, quickly || Come here quickly! ]N-_-dN-lc-aC
dT-G, laughter || Her laughter sounded like small bells ringing.
B-U]-dT-G-N-C^_-x`-uCc-R-NE-]x,
dU-]m_, rapacity, taking away by avarice || His rapacity was such that
he robbed even old men and women.

B]-dU-]m_-n-TcU-R-G-Pc-Bc-M-P-P-P-`]E-]zC-TFU-qN,
dU-R, ambition, greed, avarice || His ambition was to become rich and
famous. B]-dU-R-P-Tc-]q_-UE-uCc-c--N-^P,
dU-]X`, invasion || The enemys invasion was unsuccessful.
Nu-Tc-dU-]X`-qc-R_-TcU-NP-U-]uT,
357

dU-\c, embezzlement, misappropriation || He was found guilty of


embezzlement and sent to prison.

B-`-dU-\c-qc-R]-PC-Ic-^N-R-ac-Pc-TVP-`-TFC
dU-cUc, ambition; scheming || He has more ambition than ability.
B-`-_E-C-Qc-bCc-`c-T`-T]-dU-cUc-aC-^N, His scheming did not bring
him success. B]-dU-cUc-Nc-B-`-`-B-`P-O-U-TFC
d_, to widen, to flare || The yak flared its nostrils and bellowed.
C^C-Cc--d_-Pc-]_-N-]MP,
d_-MC diligence || Diligence brings reward. d_-MC-`-]{c-T-P,
d_-MC-Cc, diligently || You must study English diligently in order to
make progress. NqP-^C-CE-]S`-O-]u-T_, mN-lc-d_-MC-Cc-E-NCc,
d_-R, energetic, diligent || She is an energetic child.
B-U-P-qc-R-d_-R-ZC-^P,
d_-TP, diligence || Diligence is the opposite of laziness.
d_-TP-P-`-`]-C-pCc-^P,
d-TC difference || The difference between 9.9 and 10.0 is very small. 9.9
NE-10.0 T_-n-d-TC-P-d-FE-GE-,
d_-, lunar month || How many days does a lunar month have?
d_--$&A$-`-IP-$-5S.-^N,
C-C selecting the best || Selecting the best soldiers to fight in the front
lines is important to winning the battle. NUC-]tC-`c-`-B-:MT-R_-UWPP, C^`-E-<-]MT-]XE-qN-3#/-NUC-U-C-C-qN--P-C`-G,
Cc-R, rough || He uses rough language when he speaks.
Bc-`T-Oc-N-G-Cc-R-T@`,
`-`, tattered || I wear tattered clothes when I do field work.
Ec-c-PU-n-q-T-`c-Tc--T-`-`-nP,
`-T, whole, entire || Did you eat that whole piece of mutton? mN-lc-`Ca-`-T-N-\c-cU, I cant eat a whole sheep. Ec-`C-a-#R$-ZA=-T-ZC-\-U-MT,
`-R, tattered || He owned only one tattered shirt.
B-`-W-`P-`-R-ZC-`c-UN,
E-R, rigid || He has rigid ideas. B-`--T-E-R-^N,
ZR-ZA:A-,R2-,%-&/, person with a masters degree || He has a masters degree
from Beijing University. B-P-R-FP-T--GP-U:A-ZR-ZA:A-,R2-,%-;R.,
, god || What is the name of that god? -N]-UWP-`-F-ZC-\_,
1

358

-BE-, temple || Its a small but beautiful temple.


-BE-N-P-GE-_E-UXc-C-P-R-ZC-_N,
-E-, fable, myth || Do you know the myth of the earths creation?
mN-lc-]HC-P-GCc-`Cc-_-n--E-N-ac-cU,
-, doctor || That doctor practices Traditional Tibetan Medicine.
--Nc-~`-P-TN-P-`-=$-=J/-LJ.,
-UN--T, atheism || His creed is atheism. B]-NN-R-P--UN--T-^P,
-U, goddess || The painting was of a beautiful goddess.
U-WP-_-U-N-P-^N-O-]E-T]--U-ZC-^P,
-^`, Heaven || When I die I want to go to Heaven. E-a-eJ--^`-`-]u-]NN,
-T\, maker of statues || He is a maker of statues. B-P--T\-ZC-^P,
-c, Lhasa || Lhasa is in Central Tibet. -c-P-TN-Ec-?-^N,
C more than, surpassing || I have more than twenty yuan.
E-`-_-U-I-b-C-^N,
C-uEc, remainder (in division) || Twenty divided by six has a
remainder of two. I-b-xC-$A?-TCc-5K-C-uEc-CIc-^P,
C-L, furthermore, in particular, especially || I like him and, in
particular, I like you. E-B-`-NC], E-mN-`-C-L-NC],
C-]z, remnant, remainder || There is not even a remnant of the temple
that was once here. P-GN-]N-_-^N-R]-NCP-R-N]-C-]z-VU-ZC-lE-`c-UN,
C-U, leftover, remainder || How much money do you have leftover?
mN-`-_-U-C-U-&A-43-^N,
C-VU, a little over, a little more || I have a little more than one hundred
yuan in my pocket. E]-BC-U]-PE-O-_-U-T-C-VU-ZC-^N,
C-_, remainder || The remainder of the food is for you.
\c-C-]N-mN-l-^P,
Cc-R, wind || A strong wind blew last night. UNE-NCE-_%-S$-0R-ZC-C^Cc,
E-E-T, distinct, obvious || The answer is obvious. xc-`P-P-3%R/-$?=-.R.-0RZC-_N,
N, adulterant || This gold contains an adulterant. Cc_-]N-`-N-FC-]xc,
N-FP, diluted, adulterated || This is diluted milk. ]N-P-]-U-N-FP-^P,
N-UN, pure || This is pure milk with no water added.
]N-P-G-TP-3J.-R]-]-U-N-UN-FC-_N,
P-c, innate || Fear is an innate human feeling.
359

C-E-P-U]-P-c-l-W_-T-ZC-^P,
P-O, together, with || May I go with you to the shop?
E-mN-NE-P-O-WE-BE-O-]u-GC-CU,
P-R, patch || My mother put this patch on my trousers.
E]-e-Uc-E]-E-U-E-`-P-R-]N-TT,
P-WCc, council, association || Our village council has only male
members. E-W]--T]-`c-]XP-P-WCc-l-U--P-c-R-a-C-^P,
P-]XUc, gathering; joint || Our annual village gathering will be this
afternoon. E-W]--T]-`-_]-P-]XUc-N-N-_E-p-x_-T--_N, We were
successful after a joint effort. P-]XUc-l-]TN-R-`-TP-Pc-E-W_-`-B-MT,
U, boot, shoe || This boot is made of leather. U-]N-P-@-Tc-T\c,
U-C shoelace, bootstrap || My shoelace broke. E]-U-C-GN-cE-,
U-UM`, shoe sole || My shoe sole has a hole in it.
E]-U-UM`-P-BE-T-ZC-^N,
c, yard, enclosure || We have some flowers planted in our yard.
E-W]-c-P-U-KC-]C]-2+2-^N,
1

z?-<, courtyard || Please close the door to the courtyard when you
leave. mN-_E-]u-Tc-z?-<:A--T,

, joint || It is difficult to disconnect sheeps joints. `C-C--]u`-N@],


-WCc, joint || My knee joint aches. E]-Rc-U]--WCc-P,
-`C part, piece || This part of the machine is broken.
]z`-Gc-l--`C-]N-GC
C-R, abundant; loose || We had an abundant harvest. E-W-`-`-KC-C-RqE-, The pack was so loose it fell off the yak. Nc-R-N-C-R-^P-Rc-C^CT-Pc-E-,
C-U, prose || His prose all has a Tibetan setting.
B]-C-U-5%-3<-TN-GA-:5S-2:A-#R<-;$-w/,
C-C loose || Ive lost weight so these trousers feel loose around my
waist. E]-`c-a-[N-Pc-E-U-]N-NC-E]-No-UC-Pc-C-C-LJ.,
E-, to fall || If I fall will you catch me? C`-K-E-E-5K-mN-lc-E-]XP--^P-PU,
Dont fall down when you go down the stairs. mN-c-Cc-`c-]TT-TcU_-E-O-U-]HC
P-uT, naturally formed || The hole in that rock is believed to be
naturally formed. {E-Ec-N]-BE-T-N-P-P-uT-FC-^P-R_-U,
1

360

P-R, mountain; steady || There was a forest fire on the mountain. PR-N]-E-PCc-W`-U-`-a_, He drove at a steady speed of fifty kilometers
per hour down the dirt road. Bc-c-`U-E-(-WN-__--`--TF]-UnCc-WNTP-]HCc-ZC-Cc-Ec-]B_-T_-Pc-cE-,
P-GCc, stable, steady || He has a stable character.
B-`-P-GCc-l-Cac-@-ZC-^N,
_-`P, diligence || I admire her diligence in study.
B-Uc-T-E-`-_-`P-qN-R_-Ec-^N-P-qN,
, south || Its warmer in the south than in the north.
-pCc-l-PU--qE-pCc-`c-x,
-N, southern direction, south || The temple is south of here.
NCP-R-N-]N-C]-zR-o.-.-^N,
-QT, southwest || Yunnan is in Southwest China. ^P-PP-P-sE-C]--QT-P-^N,
--E-, Antarctica || It is very cold in Antarctica.
--E-O-PU--d-FE-]mCc,
-qE-, north-south || The fence ran in a north-south direction.
Cc-x-N--qE-C-pCc-c-]MP,
-U, south, southern || The south village has Monguor residents.
-T--U-N-P-d_-_Cc--U-^N,
-a_, southeast || The lake is southeast of here. UW-N-]N-C]-><-zR:A-?-/-^N,
C-C seething, boiling || The pot of water was boiling.
G-NU-B`-Pc-C-C-qN,
N, to relax, to release || When I feel tense, I try to relax.
E]-^N-cUc-]tCc-Oc, Ec-^N-cUc-N-MTc-qN,
N-]HCc, calmness || The calmness of the ocean in the evening helps me
feel calm. UWP-U]--UW]-zA%-]HCc-lc-E-`-zR.-]HCc-l-W_-T-P,
zR.-]HCc, peaceful, placid || She looked at him with placid eyes.
B-U]-zR.-]HCc-l-UC-\E-Cc-B-`-Tc,
N-R, loose, at ease || He felt at ease while giving his speech.
Bc-CKU-TaN-qN-Oc-cUc-N-R_-TN,
]-]zN-MC southern latitude || Hainan Province lies in a southern
latitude. d]-PP-ZE-GP-P-]-]zN-MC-E-P-^N,
1

361

e-B, paternal uncle || My paternal uncle is a businessman.


E]-e-B-P-WE-T-ZC-^P,
e-_, U.S. dollar || Ive never seen a U.S. dollar.
Ec-e-_-CFC-lE-_C-U-rE-,
e-F, elder sister || My elder sister just graduated from university.
E]-e-F-T--GP-U-Pc-UM_-pP-U-MC-^P,
e-H, elder brother || My elder brother lives over there. E]-e-H-1-C-P-N,
e-P-U-P, exactly the same, completely alike || Those two brothers are
exactly the same. P--CIc-@-2v?-5S.-=-e-P-U-P-_N,
e-P, aunt || My aunt is a doctor. E]-e-P-P-P-R-ZC-^P,
e-S, father || Where is your father now? mN-l-e-S-N--CE-.-^N,
e-p, grandmother || My grandmother lives in Gansu.
E]-e-p-N--@P-c]-P-^N,
e-T, adult man; brother || Hes not a child, hes an adult man. B-P-qc-RZC-U-_N, B-P-e-T-ZC-_N, My brother is a farmer. E]-e-T-P-ZE-T-ZC-^P,
e-U, mother || My mothers birthday was yesterday.
E]-e-U]-c-_-P-B-cE-^P,
e-U-_-B, America || America has fifty states. e-U-_-B-`-#=--TF-^N,
e-ZE-, maternal uncle || My maternal uncle was the most honored guest
at my wedding. E]-CIP-P-MC-e-ZE-P-T-TA_-G-ac-MT-R]-UuP-R-^P,
e-_C liquor || This liquor tastes sweet. e-_C-]N]-{-T-UE_,
e-`P, response, answer || When can we expect your response?
mN-lc-E-W-`-e-`P-.?-PU-WN-_-MT,
e-`Cc, Living Buddha || The Living Buddha studied in Lhasa.
e-`Cc-Nc--c-Pc-T-CI_-qc,
e-~, sister-in-law || My sister-in-law is a good cook.
E]-e-~-P-H-U-T\E-T-ZC-^P,
e-Cc_-FP, changeable || His changeable character is difficult for his
1

362

friends and family to tolerate.

uCc-R-NE-mU-U-i3?-`-UWP-P, B]-Cac-@-e-Cc_-FP-N-T\N-N@],
eC-WU, beard || Even though Im forty years old I dont have a beard.
E-`-TZ-TF-`P-lE-E-`-eC-WU-UN,
eE-@ number, numeral || Six is a number. xC-P-eE-@-ZC-^P,
eE-uEc, number || What bus number must we take now?
N--E-W--N-Ec-]B_-eE-uEc-O-T-`-]OC-NCc,
eE-CIc-R, number two, second || Im the second oldest child in my
family. E-P-EN-WE-C-qc-R-eE-CIc-R-^P,
eE-Cc, number || Thirteen is an unlucky number for many Westerners.
QT-pCc-R-UE-T-`-UWP-P-TF-CcU-P-eE-Cc-B-U-x-T-ZC-^P,
eE-NE-R, champion, first || He is a champion runner.
B-P-TE-C-UBP-eE-NE-R-^P,
eU-zC pocket || What have you got in your pocket?
mN-l-eU-zC-C-PE-.-F-ZC-^N,
e_-]NU, cement, concrete || I walked along the concrete sidewalk.
E-e_-]NU-n-E-`U-NN-Pc-cE-,
e_-`c, construction; building || The construction of the new building
will require one year. MC-BE-Cc_-T]-e_-`c-`-`-CFC-NCc--_N,
e-WCc, insistence, persistence || At his insistence, I agreed to come.
Bc-e-WCc-qc-0?-Ec-^E--Bc-Ec,
e-^P, committee member || When did you become a personnel
committee member? mN-U-NP-e-^P-`-PU-WN-n_,
eE-Cc, chair, seat || This chair is made of wood. eE-Cc-]N-aE-`c-T\c,

363

English-Tibetan

________________________________________________

ZC FC aC || A boy fell down and cried this morning. 8R$?0<-qc-R-ZC-ME-`-]n`-Pc-Ec,


a bottle of | NU-T-CE-, || I want a bottle of beer.
E-`--GE-NU-T-CE-NCc,
a cup of | S_-CE-, || I want a cup of tea. Ec-H-S_-CE-]ME-]NN,
a few | ]C], || Only a few students study hard. T-U-]C]-B-Pc-E-TP-qN,
a glass of | S_-CE-, || He wants a glass of water. Bc-G-S_-CE-]ME-]NN,
a little | JE-E, || I want a little sugar. E-`-@-_-JE-E-NCc,
a lot of | UE-T, || He has a lot of money. B-`-_-U-UE-T-^N,
a piece of | `T-U-ZC || Please give me a piece of beef.
E-`-Uc-a-`T-U-ZC-qP-NE-,
a slice of | `T-U-ZC || He ate a slice of bread with butter.
Bc-U_-NE-TTc-Pc-C-_-`T-U-ZC-\c,
able | MT-R, ]HP-ME-P-R, || She was not able to go home. B-U-^`-`u-U-MT, The able man easily found a good job.]HP-ME-P-R]-c-R-Ncc--Uc-q-T-ZC-N,
about | _-Pc, MC-Pc, VU, d-`U, || He knows a lot about history. Bc-`c-l-_-Pc-UE-T-ac, I will be away for about ten days.
E-IP-U-TF-VU-`-KA_-U-^E-,
a|

364

E-, CI], || The picture is above your head.


]x-R_-N-mN-l-CI]-P-^N,
accept | NE-`P-qN-R, || I accept the invitation to have dinner with them.
Ec-B-W-NE-UIU-O-\-U-T\]-]-UuP-]TN-NE-O-Ec,
accident | GC-, || There was an accident on the road yesterday.
B-?E--`U-E-.-GC--ZC-qE-,
accuse | *R/-:6$?-0, || Dont accuse him of cheating. Bc-UC-_-qc-R<-*R/:6$?-3-LJ.,
across | T`-T, TN-R, || Be careful when you walk across the road.
mN-lc--`U-:UJ.-.-T`-Oc-cUc-GE-qc,
act | -N-]XP-R, ]tT-WP, || She knows how to act like a queen. B-Uc-`U-NE-]x-T]--N-]XP-ac, I fell asleep during the plays third act. N-U]]tT-WP-CcU-R]-Tc-c-E-CIN-cE-,
actor | ]tT-P-R, || The actor had a big part in the play.
c-C_-n-PE-O-]tT-P-R-N-`-E-TP-C`-GP-P,
add | P, || Please add these numbers. uEc-@-]N-NC-P,
address | N-CPc, -TN, || Please give me your new address. mN-l-NPc-Cc_-T-E-`-qP-NE-, His address made all the students happy. B]-N-lc-T-U-^Ec-Cc-NC]-_-TFC
admit | Bc-`P-qN-R, || She had to admit she didnt know how to cook.
B-Uc-C^-`-qN-U-ac-R-Bc-U-`P-MTc-UN-_N,
advise | TcU-]G_, B-K, || I like to advise students on their careers.
T-U-W]-UOP-`U-E-Pc-E-TcU-]G_-]NP-R_-NC],
airplane (airplane) | CPU-u, || I like to travel by airplane. E-CPU-u-`-TNc-^`-_-qN-R_-NC],
affect | aP-bCc, || The weather affected his mood.
B]-EE-N-`-CPU-Cac-l-aP-bCc-MTc,
afraid | C-R, || We are afraid of our teacher. E-W-NC-P-`-C
after | c-Pc, C[C-Pc, || After he left I went to sleep. B-cE-c, E-I`-T_-cE-,
afternoon | p-x, || We have class in the afternoon p-x_-E-W-`-T-tN-^N,
again | ^E-T_, || Please say the new words again.
M-N-Cc_-T-NC-^E-T_-aN,
against | TP-R, BP-R, ]C`-T, || The ladder leaned against the wall.
c-nE-`-TP,
above |

365

mN-l-P-WN-O-^P, My body began to


age quickly after I reached the age of forty. `-TZ-TF-`-TN-c-E]-`c-Rc-R-UnCc,
agency | AE-\, `c-BEc, || Did you buy the ticket at the travel agency?
mN-lc-^`-_-AE-\-Pc-R-c-e-Ic,
aggression | TVP-]X`, || Aggression is a very strong emotion.
TVP-]X`-qN-R-P-TcU-_-xC-R-ZC-^P,
ago | P, || My birthday was one week ago.
E]-c-_-P-C\]-]B_-CFC-C-P-^P,
agree | ]MN-R, || I agree with my mother that I should finish my
education. E]-e-Uc-E-`-T-Cc-UM`-pP-R-ZC-MT-]c-]NN-R-`-E-_E-]MN,
agriculture | ZE-`c, || Agriculture is the main business in the rural
areas. ZE-`c-P-uE-W]-=?-<A$?-CV-T-^P,
ah | ], || Ah yes, that is correct. ], _N, N-]uC-C,
aid | _Cc, uCc, _Cc-qN-R, || She came to his aid when he was sick.
B-P-T]-Tc-c, B-U-B]-uCc-?-qP,
aim | NUCc-^`, || It is my aim to become a doctor.
P-R-ZC-qN-o-P-E]-NUCc-^`-^P,
air | UB]-NTCc, || The air is cold. UB]-NTCc-]mCc,
airport | CPU-u-ME-, || The airport is a busy place during the summer.
Nq_-B_, CPU-u-ME-P-{`-]WT-G-T]-c-G-ZC-^P,
alive | CcP, CcP-R, || If they are breathing, they are still alive.
C`-K-B-Wc-NTCc-]qP-T-qN-28A/-;R.-5K, B-W-N-_E-CcP-^N-R-_N,
all | ^Ec, WE-U, || I played basketball all afternoon. p-x-^Ec-c-%?-E-lJ.R-=R-c, All of you are Chinese. mN-W-WE-U-sE-C-T-_N,
all day | IP-CE-T_, || I studied all day yesterday.
B-?E-IP-CE-T_-Ec-T-E-qc,
all night | ZC-CE-T, UWP-CE-T, || I slept all night. E-ZC-CE-T_-I`,
all right | GC || All right, you can come with us.
GC-C mN-E-W-NE-UIU-O-]u-GC
all the time | PU-^E-, C-L, || I try to speak English all the time.
Ec-PU-^E-NqP-N-TaN-&A-MTc-qN,
almost | `N, S`-G_, || I almost missed the train. E-U-]B_-n-c-`-U-GN-`Nqc, Almost all of you can read and write Tibetan well. S`-G_-mN-Wage |

P-WN, c-R, ||

What is your age?

366

WE-Uc-TN-^C-]{-C-T\E-T-qN-MT,
alone | CFC-R, B_-E-, || I was alone all of last week.
C\]-]B_-P-U-^Ec-?-E-CFC-R-^P,
along | ]uCc-R, UIU-O, ]NN-R, || Please sing along with me. E-NE-]uCc-Pc-NqEc-`Ec,
already | \P-R, || I already finished my homework. Ec-`c-q-{c-W_-\P,
also | lE-, ]E-, ^E-, || She also knew how to speak English.
B-Uc-lE-NqP-N--ac,
although | ^P-P]E-, ]P-lE-, || Although he was short, he was very strong.
B-C\Cc-R-ME-P]E-`c-Tc-c-^N,
always | PU-^E-, P-R_, || I always like to eat ice cream.
E-P-R_-]-T\c-GT-cT-\-T_-NC],
am | ^P, || I am Tibetan. E-TN-R-^P,
amend | ;R-2Y%-LJ.-0, T\-TFc-qN-R, || You must make amends if you
want to say you are sorry for what you did. C`-K-mN-_E-C-N-R-`-]nN-Rc-5K, mN-lc-Ec-R_-O-;R-2Y%-qN-NCc, He wanted to amend the contract.
Bc-CP--N-=-T\-TFc-qN-]NN,
America | e-U-_-B, || America is a country. e-U-_-B-P-`-BT-FC-^P,
American | e-U-_-B-T, || My teacher is an American.
E]-NC-P-P-e-U-_-B-T-ZC-^P,
ammunition | ]CN-c, || They lost the war because they ran out of
ammunition. B-W]-]CN-c-\N-Rc, NUC-]tC-`-SU-B-MTc,
among | PE-Pc, tN-O, || From among all the flowers, the blue ones were
the most beautiful. U-KC-WE-U]-PE-Pc, U-KC-P-R-N-P-Gc-^C-R-_N,
amount | WN, ]T_-uEc, || She told me to buy a large amount of sugar.
B-Uc-E-`-@-_-]T_-GP-I--TaN,
ancient | CP]-_Tc, || Ancient culture is an interesting topic for study.
CP]-_Tc-l-_C-CPc-P-ZT-]HC-q-^`-UW_-T-ZC-_N,
and | NE-, || Bill and Mary are Canadian. R]-NE-U]-_c-P-F-P-K]-U-^P,
anger | BE-t, || Anger can destroy friendships.
BE-tc-UX]-T-`-CK_-TC-CKE-~N,
animal | ~C-GCc, || There was a dead animal by the road.
`U-]uU-.-~C-GCc-a-T-ZC-^N,
anniversary | `-]B_, || They had a party for their tenth wedding
1

367

B-W-CIP-C-Pc-`-]B_-TF-T-`P-R_, B-Wc-Cc`-P-TaUc,
announce | mT-C-qN-R, || They will announce the results of the test
tomorrow. B-Wc-cE-IP-Cc-]{c-mT-C-qN--_N,
another | CZP-ZC || Please have another piece of bread.
C-_-`T-U-CZP-ZC-\,
answer | `P, P-WC `P-]NTc-R, || What is the answer to this question?
x-T-]N]-`P-F-ZC-_N, I cant answer that question. Ec-x-T-N-`-`P-]NTc-UMT,
any | F-^E-, CE-^E-, || I dont have any money. E-`-_-U-CE-^E-UN,
anybody | c, || Does anybody want to go to the store with me?
c-E-NE-UIU-O-WE-BE-O-]u-T_-]NN,
anything | F-ZC CE-^E-, || Do you want to eat anything more?
mN-lc-F-ZC-UE-O-T\]-]NN,
apologize | NCEc-NC-[-T, || She didnt want to apologize for her mistake.
B-Uc-<%-$A-P_-]GC-`-NCEc-NC-[-U-]NN,
appeal | BUc-Pc-`P-R, CLC-Ca_-qN-R, _-[, || Please appeal to your
mother for permission to go with me. mN-lc-e-U]-BUc-Pc-Ec-Pc-E-NEIU-O-]u-GC-R]-CPE-T-`Ec, My appeal fell on deaf ears. E]-_-[-P-]P-R]--Gc-TaN-_N,
appear | UEP-R, || The sun did not appear from behind the clouds.
I-U-P-SC-Pc-3%R/-3-L%-,
apply | N-R, || Please apply what you have learned. mN-lc-F-TTc-R-N-,
appoint | T-T, || I will appoint him to be the class monitor.
Ec-B-]XP-]-]C-T-`-T--^P,
approve | ]MN-R, GC-UGP-]CN-R, || Who needs to approve this request for
paper supplies? aC-T:A-T@`-N-`-cc-GC-UGP-]CN-NCc,
April | --TZ-T, || April is in spring. --TZ-T-P-NoN-@-^P,
are | ^P, _N, || Are you American? mN-W-P-e-U-_-B-T-^P-PU, We are
Chinese. E-W-P-sE-C-T-^P,
area | ^`-u, c-G, || The grasslands cover a very large area.
-ME-Cc-^`-u-GP-R-ZC-\P,
argue | N-R, || Dont argue with your teacher. mN-l-NC-P-NE-U-N,
arm | NRE-T, || Your right arm is stronger than your left arm.
mN-l-NRE-T-C^c-U-P-NRE-T-C^P-U-`c-U,
anniversary.

368

UWP-G, NRE-T, || They took up arms against the enemy. B-Wc-UWPG-MCc-Pc-Nu-T_-]MT, He broke both his arms when he fell out of the
tree. B-E-T-E-=?-3<-E-/?-NRE-T-CIc-@-TFCc,
army | NUC-U, || The army was very tired after fighting the battle.
NUC-]tC-TT-c, NUC-U-W-d-FE-ME-GN,
around | UM]-_-Pc, I-]B_-Pc, || Please walk around the playground.
`-E-_-T]-UM]-_-Pc-]GU-]GU-qc,
arrest | ]XP-T\E-qN-R, ]XP-T\E-, || He said to the policeman, Dont
arrest me, I didnt do anything wrong. Bc-IP-C-R-`E-]XP-T\E-U-qN,
c-U-]uC-R-CFC-lE-U-`cZc-TaN, After his arrest he was put in prison.
]XP-T\E-qc-c, B-=-24S/-:)$-L?,
arrive | MP, ]q_, || What time will your mother arrive at the bus station?
mN-l-U-P-Ec-]B_-c-WCc-?-PU-WN-]q_-~N,
art | -`, || He wanted to study art in school. Bc-T--<--`-E-]NN,
as | ]x, Tc-c, || He looked as if he was sick. B-Tc-WN-`-P-TZP-^N-R-]x,
He fell as he was walking down the street. B-~E-`U-NN-Pc-]u-Tc-ME-`]n`,
ash | M`-T, || There is a lot of ash in the stove. Cc-MT-.-M`-T-UE-T-^N,
ask | x-T-]SP, ]x-T, || Ask me a question. E-`-x-T-ZC-SEc,
asleep | CIN, || I was asleep when she telephoned.
B-Uc-B-R_-C-Oc-E-CIN-^N,
assist | _Cc-qN-R, || He was asked to assist the teacher in class.
B-`-T-tN-{2?-?-NC-P-`-_Cc-qN-]-_-T-TKP,
at | E-Pc, MC-Pc, || I usually eat lunch at 12:30 p.m.
Ec-P-R_-p-x]-Oc-WN-12NE-_-U30E-DE-\c-\,
at a bad time | Oc-U-`Cc-R]-Tc-c, || Im sorry, you have come at a bad
time. NCEc-R-U-WU, mN-Oc-U-`Cc-R-ZC-`-MP,
at a good time | Tc-T\E-T-ZC-`, Oc-`Cc-R-ZC-`, || Lets meet later at a
good time for both of us. eJ?-?-EN-CIc-`-Oc-Tc-T\E-T-^N-Oc-UH`,
at first | MC-U_, || At first please speak to me in simple English.
MC-U_-E-`-NqP-N-C--Uc-B-T-qc,
at home | ^`-P, mU-P, || I am at home today. N-_E-E-mU-.-^N,
at last | UM]-U_, || At last I was able to speak English well.
UM]-U_-Ec-NqP-{.-`Cc-R--ac-cE-,
arms | 1

369

UWP-U_, || I sleep at night. UWP-U_-E-U`-`-I`,


at once | ]z`-O, || Do you want to leave at once? mN-]z`-O-#-nc-e-]NN,
at the beginning | NE-MC || At the beginning, I thought learning English
was difficult. NE-MC-Ec-NqP-^C-T-o-P-N@]-U-ZC-^P-R_-]NN,
at the end of | UHC-L, UM]-U_, || At the end of class, the students were
almost sleeping. T-tN-l-UHC-L, T-U-W-S`-G_-CIN-]OC
at the moment | Tc-N_, Tc-]N-`, || I dont want to eat at the moment
at night |

but I probably will later.

Tc-]N-`-Ec-F-^E-\-U-]NN, ]P-lE-FE-]C_-5K-Ec-T\]-P-tCc-tCc-UN,
at this time | PU-WN-]N-`, || At this time of the month I usually get paid.
/3-o/--_]-PU-WN-]N-`-E-`--SCc-_,
at times | UWUc-UWUc-c, || He is very funny at times.
UWUc-UWUc-c-B-U-P-d-FE-TC-{-T-ZC-^P,
at work | `c-@-`c-R, || I was at work yesterday. B-?E-Ec-`c-@-`c,
attack | CVc, `, W_-`, || Wolves like to attack sheep when they are
hungry. E-@-Cc-Oc-`C-`-`, The enemys surprise attack was not
successful. Nu-Tc-C-L-W_-`-qc-R-`-`-B-U-MT,
attempt | -T@N, qN-c, || The assassins attempt on the presidents
life was thwarted. VP-MP-C-CcN-qN-R]--T@N-SU-Ic-c-TKE-, She wont
attempt to tell him the whole story. B-Uc-NP-MUc-FN-B-`-TaN-c-3A-LJ.,
attend | [Cc, || Will you attend the party tomorrow night? ?%-*A/-NCE-U_mN--WCc-`-[Cc--e-^P,
August | -T-TN-R, || August is our hottest month.
-T-TN-R-P-E-W]-Gc-x-T]--T-^P,
automobile | Ec-]B_, || He hopes to purchase an automobile next year.
Bc-cE-`_-Ec-]B_-ZC-I-o:A-<J-2-2&%?-;R.,
autonomous | _E-E-, || Yulshul Autonomous Prefecture is in southern
Qinghai Province. ^`-b`-_E-E-B`-P-UW-P-ZE-GP-n--pCc-?-^N,
autumn | P-@ || In autumn tree leaves turn yellow.
P-@_, E-`-c_-T_-]n_,
awake | W_, CIN-cN-R, || He wasnt awake when I arrived.
E-MP-Oc, B-CIN-=?-cN-UN,
award | NC]-Cc, NC]-Cc-CPE-T, || She got a special award for being a
good student. B-U-/A-T-U-T\E-T-ZC-^P-Rc-NC]-Cc-mN-R_-T-ZC-MT, We
1

370

will award the best students with cash gifts this afternoon.

N-_E-p-x_-E-Wc-T-U-Gc-29%-T-`-_-U]-q-NC]-CPE--^P,
qc-R, qc-R-`-T-T, || My baby is two months old.
E]-qc-R--T-CIc-`P-^N, Im now an adult so dont baby me.
N--E-U-N_-U-ZC-L-IP-^N-Rc-E-qc-R-`-U-T,
back | p_, T, T-pCc, || At six oclock, go back home.
(-WN-xC-C-E-, p_-^`-`-cEc, My back is painful. E]-T-P-C
He kept a lot of empty boxes in the back of his shop. Bc-<%-$A-WE-BEC-T-pCc-?-U-T-E-T-UE-T-I_-^N,
bad | EP-R, U-T\E-, || He is a bad student. B-P-T-U-EP-R-ZC-^P, Her
English is bad. B-U]-NqP-^C-$A-(-5.-U-T\E-,
bag | BC-U, || My bag is blue. E]-BC-U-P-R-^P,
ball | E-`, || We lost our ball. E-Wc-E-W]-E-`-T_,
balloon | NTCc-E-, || They gave her a balloon as a gift.
B-Wc-B-U-`-`Cc-c-c-NTCc-E-ZC-qP,
bank | NE`-BE-, ]uU, || We need to go to the bank to get some money.
E-W-NE`-BE-O-_-U-]C]-`P-R_-]u-NCc, We planted trees along the river
bank this morning. 8R$?-0<-E-Wc-G-]uU-O-E-T-TVCc,
barley | Pc, || I like bread made of barley. E-Pc-KJ-`c-29R?-R]-C-_-`-NC],
base | Cc-T, E-CZ, || The statue rested on a base made of wood.
]TC--N-aE-C-Cc-T-ZC-C-E-O-]nEc,
basket | -T, || Put the grass in the basket. -T:A-PE-O--GCc,
basketball | r%-lJ.-%R-=R, || That new basketball costs more than I can
afford. r%-lJ.-%R-=R-Cc_-T-N]-CE-N@]-xCc-0c-Ec-I-U-MT,
bathroom | tc-BE-, N-BE-, || Where is the bathroom? N-BE-CE-.-^N,
battle | NUC-]tC || The stronger army usually wins the battle.
NUC-NRE-Tc-GP-P-R_-NUC-]tC-`c-`,
beach | UW-]uU, || Its always nice to spend the day at the beach.
UW-]uU-Pc-IP-.J<-#R.-o-d-FE-N,
beat | :I<-#$ E-, CIC || That disco music has a strong beat. Kc-c-B-_`NqEc-N-`-:I<-#$-S$-R-P, He was very angry so he beat the horse. B]WC-R-(J/-0R-\c-Pc--`-TEc,
beautiful | UXc-U, ^C-R, || Those are very beautiful flowers.
baby | 1

371

N-NC-P-U-KC-d-FE-^C-R-_N,
beauty | UXc-C || Beauty is a common topic of poets.
UXc-C-P-P-EC-C-TN-q-mT-G-T-ZC-_N,
because | P-nc, || I dont want to go outside because it is
raining. G_-T-]TT-TZP-^N-R]-P-nc, E--p-_`-`-]u-U-]NN,
become | ]n_, || His shirt will become gray when it becomes old.
B]-W-`P-E-P?--UNC-L-]n_--_N,
bed | U`-t, || The bed is not new. U`-t-N-Cc_-T-UP,
bedroom | U`-BE-, || My bedroom is this room. E]-U`-BE-BE-T-]N-^P,
beef | Uc-a || They bought a lot of beef at the market.
B-Wc-WE-_-Pc-Uc-a-UE-T-Ic,
beer | Y-GE-, || This is a bottle of beer. ]N-P-Y-GE-a`-NU-CE-^P,
before | P-GN, P-`, UOP-Pc, || Where did you study before you came
here? mN-]N-C_-U-^E-T]-P-`, mN-lc-CE-.-T-E-qc-R-^P, He asked the
young women to come and dance before him. Bc-Cc_-U-N-`-W_-]E-PcB]-UOP-Pc-{-]GU-]-_-T-TKP,
beg | E-, || She needed to beg for money. B-Uc-_-U-E-NCc-qE-,
begin | ]C-U, || Please begin reading now. N-C-]C-U-NE-,
behind | C-P, T, || Who is that behind you? mN-l-T-pCc-l-CP-c-_N,
believe | ^N-Gc-R, U-R, || I believe that tomorrow it will snow.
cE-IP-BEc-]TT--^P-R_-E-^N-Gc,
bell | x`-T, C^_-x`, || Our class is over when the bell rings.
x`-T-uCc-Oc-E-W]-T-tN-W_-T-^P,
belong | CKCc, NTE-, || That cow does not belong to that family.
T-U-CP-mU-WE-N-`-U-CKCc,
best | UGC _T, Gc-T\E-T, || This is the best meat Ive ever tasted
]N-P-Ec-\c-R]-a-Gc-T\E-T-^P,
betray | T-]C`-qN-R, E-`C-R, || It is not good to betray a friend.
uCc-R-`-T-]C`-qN-0-U-T\E-,
better | T\E-, UGC `Cc, || Her English was better than his.
B-U]-NqP-^C-B-`c-T\E-,
between | T_, || I want to sit between those two girls.
E-T-U-N-W]-T_-.-#R.-]NN,
bicycle | Cc-, || This is my brothers bicycle. ]N-P-E]-P-^]-Cc--^P,
1

372

G, GP-R, || The big black yak ran across the grassland.


C^C-_C-_C-GP-R-N--ME-E-Pc-TCc,
bike | Cc-, Cc-_-ZP-R, || Is your bike red? mN-l-Cc--NU_-T-e-^P,
Lets bike to town and buy some groceries. Cc-_-ZP-Pc-uE-T`-O\c-_Cc-I-T_-]u,
bill | ]u-uP, GN-M-]{-T, || You had better pay your telephone bill.
mN-lc-_T-^P-P-B-R_-n-]u-uP-_-NCc, Please bill me for what I owe you
and Ill pay you tomorrow. Ec-mN-`-NU-GN-^N-R]-GN-M-ZC-zc-NE-cE-IP-EcmN-`-NU-]H`,
bird | q, ]NT-GCc, || The bird is in the sky. q-N-3#:-NqEc-?-]S_,
birthday | c-_, || We are going to celebrate her birthday tomorrow.
cE-IP-E-Wc-B-U]-c-_-`-NC]-P-gJ/-:VJ=-LJ.-o-;A/,
bitter | _-B, C-W-T, || That fruit tastes bitter. c`-KC-N]-_-B, Being poor,
big |

hungry, and homeless is a bitter experience. NT`-ZE-Tsc-R, HA3-3J.-0-/A-C-

W-T]-IUc-rE-ZC-_N,

PC-R, _C-_C || That yak is not black. C^C-N-_C-_C-U-_N,


blackboard | -cU, || Write this word on the blackboard.
M-N-]N--cU-E-`-zc,
blame | P-]CP, %/-#$-.NA-2, || When blame was assigned, he was held
responsible and punished. P-]CP-`-Ec-NC-qc-R-P, B-`-]CP-\C-Pc-GN-RTFN, There was no one to blame for the accident. GC--N]-MC-Pc-c`]E-%/-#$-.NA-3A-<%-,
bleed | tC-T[_-T, || If you cut yourself you will bleed.
C`-K-mN-lc-_E-`-u-CVCc-qc-5K-tC-T[_-Ec,
blind | `E-T, U-ac-R, || My grandmother is blind. E]--U-P-`E-T-^P, He
was blind to all his wifes faults. Bc-<%-$A-GE-U]-P-WE-U-U-ac,
bloat | , || If you eat too many apples your stomach will become
bloated. C`-K-mN-lc-A-b-\c-xCc-5K-BC-R--~N,
block | hR-lA$ ]CC || The cement block fell from the roof and narrowly
missed hitting her in the head. BE-N-l-A<-:.3-hR-lA$-&A$-E-Pc-B-U]-UC`-SC-=-#.-L?, Dont block the entrance to the school. T-]-`U-B-U]CC
blood | tC || Blood is red. tC-P-NU_-T-^P,
blouse | N-Cc, || I dont have a yellow blouse. E-`-N-Cc-c_-T-ZC-UN,
black |

373

C^C-MEc, C^C || With a single blow of his big hammer he


killed the yak. Bc-M-T-GP-R-C^C-MEc-CFC-Cc-C^C-TcN, The wind blows
hard on top of the mountain. _-lJ-<-E-xC-L-C^C
blue | P-R, cUc-U-x-T, || The sky is blue today. N-_E-CPU-P-R-_N, I feel
blue when the weather is cloudy. PU--]MTc-.?-E]-cUc-U-x,
boat | u-GE-, || The boat is on the lake. u-GE-UW-MC-P-^N,
body | `c-R, || His body felt cold in the wind. E-PE-Pc-B]-`c-R-uE-,
bone | _c-R, || The necklace is made out of yak bone.
-P-N-C^C-C-_c-R-`c-T\c,
book | NR-G, || Where is your book? mN-l-NR-G-CE-.-^N,
bookseller | NR-G-]WE-UBP, || Ask the bookseller how much this book
costs. NR-G-]WE-UBP-N-`-NR-G-]N]-_P-CE-xc-NE-,
bookshop | NR-]WE-BE-, || Do you want to buy a book at the bookshop?
NR-]WE-BE-N-`c-mN-lc-NR-G-ZC-I-e-]NN,
border | `-UWUc, || There are always police at the border.
`-UWUc-?-PU-P-*J/-gR$-U--^N,
born | c, || The calf was born last night. T]-N-UNE-NCE-24?-0-;A/,
borrow | C^_, || May I borrow some money from you?
Ec-mN-l-`C-Pc-_-U-]C]-C^_-P-GC-CU,
both | CIc-@ || We both want to go to the movies.
EN-CIc-@-C-TP-`-T-T_-NC],
bottle | a`-NU, || This bottle is small. a`-NU-]N-GE-,
bottom | ZTc, || The coin sank to the bottom of the well.
.R%-4K-N-NE-ZTc-?-]MUc,
box | U, || The box has some chalk. U-N]-PE-c-C-]C]-^N,
boy | Z-`, || The boy is not tall. Z-`-N-C\Cc-U-_E-,
brain | N-R, || He had a brain disease and died.
B-`-N-R]-PN-FC-qE-Pc-W-`c-]Nc,
brave | E-!R2?-FP, Tc-R-FP, || He is a very brave man.
B-U-E-!R2?-FP-ZC-_N,
bread | C-_, || I eat bread for breakfast. Ec-PEc-H-`-C-_-\c,
break | T_-CcE-, CFC-R, || Halfway through class we take a break. TtN-l-T_-`-MP-R-P, E-Wc-T_-CcE-qN, Dont break my radio. E]--N-]B_-`U-CFC
blow | 1

374

-H,
T-BE-.-Ec-8R$?-H-TLE-,
breathe | NTCc-T, || I could hear the horses breathing heavily.
Ec--T-Nc-NTCc-T-]WE-qN-TZP-R-C-MT,
bridge | \U-R, || Many men worked to build that bridge.
c-R-UE-Tc-\U-R-N-TP-R_-`c-@-`c,
brief | UN_-Tc, || His speech was quite brief.
B]-CKU-TaN-P-d-FE-UN_-Tc-_N,
bright | Cc`-T, || The light was so bright that I had to shut my eyes.
C-Cc`-xCc-Pc-Ec-UC-$*A?-TVU-NCc-qE-,
bring | ]m_, || What are you going to bring to the party?
mN-lc--WCc-?-F-ZC-]m_-c-^N,
broadcast | E-TCc, CKE-T, || Lets listen to the radio broadcast
tonight. N-NCE-E-Wc-E-]zP-E-TCc-`-IP-R_-q, The television will
broadcast a soccer game tonight at eight oclock. N-NCE-(-WN-TN-,R$TP-]zP-E-E-N--`]-]uP-T_-ZC-CKE--_N,
broken | GC || The bottle is broken. a`-NU-N-GC-cE-,
broom | pCc-U, || Our classroom has a broom. E-W]-T-BE-.-pCc-U-ZC-^N,
brother | P-^, || He is my brother. B-P-E]-P-^-^P,
build | TP, `c, || It is not easy to build a house. BE-T-ZC-`c--P--U-U-_N,
building | BE-TCc, || I saw a very tall building in town.
uE-T`-.-Ec-BE-TCc-d-FE-UMP-R-ZC-UME-,
built | `c, || My father built a nice house for our family.
E]-e-Sc-mU-U-`-BE-T-^C-R-ZC-`c,
bull | E-, || The bull was standing alone in the field. E-N-ZE-PE-.-$&A$-0<breakfast | 8R$? || I eat breakfast in my classroom.

=%?-:.$

UN], || That gun only has one bullet in it.


T]-N]-PE-UN]-CFC-`c-UN,
burn | ]WC || The paper quickly began to burn.
aC-T-N-UnCc-Uc-]WC-]C-TUc,
burst | -T_, || The sunlight burst through the clouds after the rainstorm.
G_-ZN-l-c-?-I-]N-P-CcT-`c--T_-.-]G_,
bury | , ]HC || We had to bury the dog after it died.
m-a-c-E-Wc-c-]C-`-]HC-NCc-qE-,
bullet |

375

-N-Ec-]B_, || Will you ride the bus to town?


mN--N-Ec-]B_-`-TN-Pc-uE-T`-`-]u--^P-PU,
bus station | Ec-]B_-c-WCc, || I will buy my bus ticket at the bus
station. Ec-Ec-]B_-c-WCc-Pc-Ec-]B_-n-R-c-I--^P,
business | WE-, || He went to town to do some business.
B-uE-T`-O-WE-_-C-R_-cE,
busy | {`, ]WT, || They are very busy working in the field at harvest
time. P-T]-Tc-c-B-W-ZE-?:A-!J%-`c-`-{`,
but | ]P-lE-, || You can come with us but you dont have to.
mN-E-W-NE-UIU-O-]u-GC-3R., ]P-lE-Ec-R_-O-]u-NCc-0-3J.,
butter | U_, || Please put more butter in my tea. E:A-H-PE-`-U_-UE-O-SEc,
buy | I, || I will buy a book. Ec-NR-G-ZC-I--^P,
by | `Cc-`, ]uU-P, || She stands by the door. B-U--]uU-.-`Ec-^N,
by the way | Z_-O-TaN--`, || By the way, I forgot to tell you about class
yesterday. Z_-O-TaN--`-Ec-B-?E-C-T-tN-{R<-mN-`->RN--TN-cE-,
bye | TN-U, || Bye, see you this afternoon, my daughter said as she left
for school. %:A-2-3R-aR2-9<-:PR-{2?-2>.-o<-TN-U, N-_E-p-x_-MC
bus |

@-_-C-_, || I like cake. E-@-_-C-_-`-NC],


calf | T], || The calf was very hungry. T]-N-d-FE-Cc,
call | ]TN, B-R_-CKE-, || Lets make a call on our teacher
this Sunday afternoon. ,J%?-:.A:A-$9:-IP-U]-p-x_-E-W-<%$A-NC-P-`-]WUc-]x-qN-R_-]u, I will call you on the phone
tonight. N-NCE-Ec-mN-`-B-R_-CKE-,
calm | E-]HCc, || The lake was calm after the storm.
E-]WT-C^Cc-c, UW-U-E-]HCc-c-n_,
camera | R_-Gc, || I want to take a picture with my new camera.
E]-R_-Gc-Cc_-T-T@`-Pc-R_-`P-]NN,
can | Cc-sP, MT, GC ~N, || I opened the can of beans with my knife.
Ec-uc-~P-U]-Cc-sP-n-B-pc, I can speak English. Ec-NqP-N--MT, Can
you come to my home now? mN-N--E]-mU-`-^E-P-GC-CU,
Canada | F-P-K, || Canada is near America. F-P-K-P-e-U-_-B-NE-I,
cancel | UN-R_-CKE-T, || They had to cancel class because the teacher was
ill. NC-P-P-TZP-^N-Rc, B-Wc-T-tN-UN-R_-CKE-NCc-qE-,
cake |

376

P-PN, || Cancer is a serious illness. P-PN-P-PN-CZ-WTc-GP-ZC-^P,


cannon | U-Cc, || The cannon was pointed at the enemy.
U-Cc-Nu-pCc-?-CKN,
car | Ec-]B_-GE-T, || That car cost a lot of money.
Ec-]B_-GE-T-N-`-_-U-UE-T-_-NCc,
care | -C ]W-E-qN-R, || I will always be grateful for the care you
showed me when I was your student. T-U:A-Oc-?-mN-lc-E-`--C-qc-R_%?-/3-;%-SA/-.-2?3?-;R., We need to care for the sheep. E-Wc-`C-]WE-qN-NCc,
careful | cUc-GE-, || Be careful when you cross the road. C[E-`U-:UJ.-.T`-Oc-cUc-GE-qc,
carefully | cUc-GE-Cc, || We carefully walked along the narrow path.
E-Wc-cUc-GE-Cc-`U-N-NN-Pc-cE-,
carrot | `-c_, || Carrots grow under the ground. c-]C-Pc-`-c_-,
carry | ]B_, || Can you carry this bag? mN-lc-BC-U-]N-]B_-e-MT,
case | N, TcUc-Pc, || That is a very big case he is carrying. Bc-]B_-^NR-N-P-N-d-FE-GP-R-ZC-_N, I want to tell you why I didnt come to your
party, in case you didnt know. mN-lc-E-mN-l--WCc-`-F]-p_-U-^E-T-acUN-TcUc-Pc-Ec-mN-`-TaN-]NN-R-^P,
cat | q-`, || The cat ate some bread. q-`-Nc-C-_-\c,
catch | T\E-, ]XP-R, || The boy didnt catch the ball. Z-`-Nc-E-`-=$-+-U-\P,
cattle | T-E-, || There are many cattle grazing on the grassland.
T-E-UE-Tc--ME-.--\-TZP-^N,
cause | E-P, `, T`, || What is the cause of your illness? mN-l-ECZ]-E-P-P-F-ZC-^P, I hope I didnt cause you any trouble. Ec-mN-`C-CE-^E-T`-UN-0<-]NN,
celebrate | P-]{`-[, || Lets celebrate your birthday.
%-5S?-mN-l-c-_-`-P-]{`-[,
center | -T, || The store is located in the center of town.
UXN-BE-N-uE-T`-n--T-P-^N,
ceremony | UXN-, || They want to have a big wedding ceremony.
B-Wc-CIP-P-n-UXN--GP-R-ZC-N-]NN,
certainly | B-MC || I can certainly speak Tibetan.
Ec-TN-N-TaN-MT-R-B-MC-^P,
cancer |

377

eE-Cc-]N-GC-]OC
Who will chair this afternoons meeting. N-_E-p-x]-WCc-]O-`-cc-NTUXN-qN--_N,
chairman | CNP-CV, s]-Z, || He wants to become chairman of the
committee. B-e-^P-P-BE-C-CNP-CV-LJ.-]NN,
champion | eE-NE-R, || If she works hard she will be a champion
chair | 1
2

eE-Cc, NT-UXN-qN-R, ||
2

This chair is broken.

basketball player.

C`-K-B-Uc-]TN-2lR/-L?-5K, B-U-r%-lJ.-%R-=R-N-UBP-eE-NE-R_-]n_-MT,
chance | Tc, C-Tc, || By chance, I met an old classmate this
afternoon when I went to town. N-_E-p-x_-Tc-]uC-Pc, E-uE-`-]u-TcT-uCc-E-T-ZC-`-]zN, Im sorry I didnt have a chance to call you.
NCEc-R-U-WU, Ec-mN-`-B-R_-CKE-T]-C-Tc-U-qE-,
change | _-U]-]z-U, T-T, || Please give me change for this money.
_-U-]N]-]z-U-p_-E-`-N-FC Please wait for me while I change my
clothes. Ec-CP-R-T-{2?-E-`-FE-VU-Cc,
charge , CE-CFN-R, || What is that hotels per night room charge?
UuP-BE-N]-BE--ZC-CFC-`-C-WN-_N, The shopkeeper charges too much
for these apples. WE-Tc-A-b-]N-NC-`-CE-CFN-o-G-cE-,
chase | c-]NN, c-]NN-R, || After a long car chase the policemen
caught the bank robbers. IP-C-Rc-^P-_E-`-c-]NN-qc-3,<-NE`-BE-HCP-N-T\E-, The dog chases the cat. mc-q-`<-c-]NN-qc,
cheap | CE-, || The cake is cheap. 9?-,.-]N-CE-,
cheat | UC-_, || Students should not cheat on their tests.
T-Uc-Cc-N-Tc-b-2v-qN-U-_Cc,
check | OE`-N-]XP-aC ZT-Ta_-qN-R, || May I pay for these items with a
check? Ec-NE`-N-]XP-aC-Cc-NEc-R-]N-NC-Ic-P-GC-CU, I will need to
check on their progress. Ec-B-W]-CE-]S`-IA-$/?-5=-`-ZT-Ta_-qN-NCc,
cheer | --nc, bCc-P-R, E_-N-R, || Dont be sad. Cheer up! cUc-U-T_---nc, The girls cheered on their friends, encouraging them to
finish the race. T-U-Wc-uCc-R-Uc-`-E_-N-Pc-Cc-`-]uP-T_-UHC-Cc]-`-U-qc,
chemicals | c-]n_, || The atmosphere is full of many different
chemicals. Ec-BUc-GP-U-OR.-c-]n_-$-UE-:.?-^N,
chicken | q-a || Chicken is easy to cook. q-a-]WN-,
1

378

Ec--NRP-`-]xNCc, The chief reason I dont want go is that Im tired. E-]u-U-]NN-R]-UWP-CV-T-P-E-ME-GN-^N-R-N-^P,


child | qc-R, || The child is learning English. qc-Rc-NqP-^C-E-TZP-^N,
children | qc-R-W, || Children are in the room. qc-R-W-BE-T]-PE-.-^N,
China | sE-C, || China has many nationalities. sE-C-`-U-_Cc-UE-T-^N,
Chinese | sE-C-T, -N, || Most people who live in China speak Chinese.
sE-$R]-U-UE-ac-lc--N-,
choose | TNU, || She will choose a nice dress to wear today.
N-_E-B-Uc--T-^C-R-8A$-TNUc-Pc-CP--_N,
church | Gc-BE-, || Some people like to go to church to pray.
U-`-`-Gc-BE-O-cE-Pc-Cc`-]NTc-qN-R_-NC],
cinema | C-TP-BE-, || All my friends want to go to the cinema to see a
film. E]-uCc-R-WE-Uc-C-TP-BE-O-cE-Pc-C-TP-`-T-T_-]NN,
circle _-_, _, _-T-C-R, || All join hands and make a circle around
the tree. WE-Uc-`C-R-`-Pc-E-T-`-_-TT, Lets circle the holy
mountain this summer. N-`]-Nq_-B_-CPc-UGC-_-T-`-_-T-C-R_-]u,
citizen | -NUEc, || He is a helpful man and a good citizen.
B-P-U-C-GN-FC-NE--NUEc-T\E-T-ZC-^P,
city | uE-m_, || The city is many miles away from here. ]N-Pc-uE-m_-N:A2<-`--`-]C]-^N,
civilian | NUEc-c_, || Before he was a soldier, now he is a civilian.
P-GN-B-P-NUC-U-ZC-^P-R-NE-N--B-NUEc-c_-ZC-^P,
clash | ]C`-G-^N-R, || From the look on their faces, it seems their ideas
clash. B-W]-E-UNC-`-Tc-P, B-W]--T-`-]C`-G-^N-R-]x,
class | T-tN, u`-_U || When do we have our Chinese class? E-W]--^CC-T-tN-PU-WN-^P, What social class do you belong to? mN--WCc-l-u`_U-CE-`-CKCc,
classmate | T-uCc, || She saw her classmate on the way to school.
T-_-]u-T]-`U-B_, B-U-T-uCc-`-MC
classroom | T-BE-, || Where is our classroom? E-W]-T-BE-CE-.-^N,
clean | CVE-U, CVE--qN-R, || The classroom is not clean.
T-BE-CVE-U-U-_N, Please clean the classroom. T-BE-`-CVE--qc,
cleanest | Gc-CVE-U, || This is the cleanest school I have ever seen.
chief | 1

NRP-R, CV-T, ||
2

Ill need to ask the village chief.

379

]N-P-Ec-UME-T]-T-:A-P?-?-Gc-CVE-U-^P,
cleanse | Ts, || Its a good idea to cleanse a wound with fresh water.
G-CVE-Uc--B-Ts-T-P--T@N-T\E-T-ZC-_N,
clear | CVE-U, C^]-NC-R, CN-TN_-qN-R, || On a clear day you can see far.
C^]-NC-R]-IP-U_-mN-lc-E-_E-UME-MT, Lets clear away all the dishes
from the table. VC-V]-E-C-_-U-NC-CN-TN_-L,
clever | _C-R-FP, _C-R-, || She was very clever at math.
B-U-c-_C-C-MC-Pc-_C-R-@-&%-,
climb | ]C-T, ]C, || The long climb up the steep mountain path
exhausted me. ^P-_E-_-C\_-`-]C?-T-Nc-E-ME-GN-O-TFC The goats like to
climb steep cliffs. _-U-C^E-C\_-`-]C-2<-NC],
clock | (-5S.-:#R<-=R, || The clock in our classroom is broken.
E-W]-T-BE-PE-C-(-5S.-:#R<-=R-GC-^N,
close | CKP, C T, *J-2<, || Close the door. -T, Dont sit so close to
1

me. %-.%-:.A-:S:A-*J-?<-3-#R.,

TT, || I closed the window. Ec-]-BE-TT,


cloth | _c, || She sewed the dress from a piece of cloth.
B-Uc-_c-OU-T-ZC-Cc-CP-R-T\c,
clothes | CP-R, || Where are your clothes? mN-l-CP-R-CE-?-^N,
cloud | P, || There is not one cloud in the sky.
PU-UB]-P-P-q]-UC-VU-^E-UN,
cloudy | P-]MTc, || Before it rains it is usually cloudy.
G_-T-U-TTc-CE-, PU-UB]-`-P-R_-P-]MTc,
coal | -c`, || They burn coal to keep the office warm. B-Wc--c`-2?Pc-C[E-T-BE-xc-c-TFC
coast | UW-]uU, M_-O-]u`-T, || Someday I will go swimming on the
coast of France. IP-ZC-`-E-q-_P-c]-UW-]uU-O-cE-Pc-G-`-qN--^P, When
closed |

we reach the top of the hill, our driver will turn off the engine and

E-W-<A-|%-.-aJ2?-5K, E-W]-B-`-Tc-`-qN-]z`-]B_n-B-2o2-Pc-_%?-:#R<-M_-O-]u`-T_-]HC
coat | N-, bP, || My coat is too small. E]-N--GE-xCc, Lets put a
new coat of paint on the walls. nE-Ec-`--bP-Cc_-T-L$-0<-L,
coffee | B-q, || Coffee without sugar tastes bitter. @-_-UN-5K-B-q]-_-T,
cold | uE-U, GU-R, || I dont like cold winter weather. E-NDP-B]-PU--uE-Uthen we will coast down.
1

380

`-U-NC], He is taking medicine for his bad cold. Bc-B]-GU-R-N-U-`-P]ME-TZP-^N,


collect | T, `P, || That man has come to collect the taxes.
c-R-N-t`-`P-R_-MP,
color | B-UNC || What color is your coat? mN-l-N-]-B-UNC-/A-F-ZC-^P,
come | ^E-, aC || Please come here. ]N-`-aC
come in | PE-`-aC PE-`-^E-, || Please come in. PE-`-aC
come over | ^E-, MP, || I want my friend to come over to my house
tonight. N-NCE-Ec-E]-uCc-R-W-EN-WE-`-^E-o-L%-P-]NN,
comedy | 28.-$., || I like to listen to comedy programs on the radio.
E-E-TCc-=?-28.-$.-`-WP-`-IP-R_-NC],
common | P-P, || Colds are a common illness in the winter.
NDP-B_-GU-R-P-P-P-n-PN-FC-^P,
company | AE-\, || Many people work for that electric company.
U-UE-Tc-C-]NP-AE-\-N-`-q-T-`c-TZP-^N,
compete | ]uP, N, || He doesnt like to compete with his friends.
Bc-_E-C-uCc-R-NE-]uP-lR.-LJ.-U-]NN,
computer | C-N, || Computers help people do many kinds of work.
C-N-lc-U-`-q-T--UE-CI_-T]-,.-UMP-P-_,
concern | ]NE-C cUc-B_, || She showed her concern by coming by for a
visit. B-U-]WUc-]x-LJ.-.-:R%?-Pc-B-Uc-cUc-B_-qN-R-TP,
condition | G-P, CPc-TT, || That truck is in very bad condition.
]uU-]u`-Ec-]B_-N-d-FE-,2?-C-0R-:.$
conductor | 0-?J-:5S%-3#/-ZTc-[-T, || You will need to ask the conductor
for a ticket. mN-lc-0-?J-:5S%-3#/-ZTc-[-T-`c-0-?J-FC-`P-NCc,
conflict | ]C`-P, || The war was started by a small conflict.
NUC-]tC-N-P-]C`-P-GE-E-ZC-`c-2a%?,
congratulate | P-]{`-[-T, || We must congratulate him on his new job.
E-Wc-B-`-q-T-Cc_-T-MT-L%-R_-Ec-R_-O-P-]{`-[-NCc,
connect | UMN-R, || Can you connect these telephone wires to this pole?
mN-lc-B-R_-n-N-=3-]N-NC-C-E-]N]-E-UMN-MT-TU,
consider | CZCc-R, || She hopes to be considered for the teaching
position. B-Uc-<%-*A.-.$J-c/-IA-=?-$/?-.J<-:R?-0:A-3A-=-2?3-$8A$?-LJ.-o-L%2

/-:.R.,

381

^N, ]Oc-R, || This bowl contains fruit.


N@_-^`-]N]-PE-O-c`-KC-^N,
continent | E-GP, || One has to travel from one continent to another by
boat. U-CFC-u-GE-`-TN-Pc-E-GP-CFC-Pc-CZP-ZC-`-]u`-T[N-qN-NCc,
continue | P-]mEc-qN-R, U-UMN, || She wants to continue studying
English. B-Uc-NqP-^C-$A-T-E-P-]mEc-qN-]NN,
control | CFP-R, || The young teacher could not control the students. /$8R/-NC-P-Nc-T-U-Uc-CFP-U-MT,
convention | WCc-]O, || A lot of business people will be at the
convention. WCc-]O]-E-WE-T-UE-T-[Cc--_N,
cook | \c-C^-T, qP-U, qP-R, H-U, || I like to cook for my friends. Ec-_E-CuCc-R-Uc-`-\c-C^-T_-NC], My father is a cook in a restaurant. E]-e-SP-\-BE-ZC-C-qP-R-^P,
cool | 2?A=-0R, *3?-#$-0R, ]mC-R, || Summer in Xining is cool, not hot.
\-`E-.-Nq_-.?-2?A=-0R-=?-W-T-UP, That is a very cool haircut you have.
contain |

HR.-GA-0-28<-eJ?-GA-i3-0-.J-/A-@-&%-*3?-#$-0R-:.$ 3She cant eat the food


until it cools off. B-Uc-\c-]mC-<J$-T_-O-\-U-Qc,
copy | 1R_, 20<-2>?-o$-0,|| 1The handwritten copy of the manuscript

U-p-{c-U-]N-P-d-FE-E-T-_N, Please copy this document


for me. E-`-^C-G-]N-0<-2>?->A$-o$-_Cc,
correct | ]uC-R, NC-TFc-qN-R, [-NC-qN-R,|| Your answer is correct. mN-l`P-]uC How long will it take you to correct your students
homework? mN-lc-T-U]-`c-q-[-NC-qN-R_-.?-;/-C-WN-]C_--_N,
cost | _P-CE-a_-T, || How much do these apples cost?
A-b-]N-NC-`-_P-CE-&A-VU-a_,
cotton | ~E-T`, || Where can we buy some cotton clothes? E-Wc-~E-T`-=?29R?-0:A-CP-R-CE-.-I-MT-,
could | MT, || Could you buy something for me?
mN-lc-E-`-NEc-R-8A$-I-MT-TU,
count | T, || Please count the students in the classroom.
T-BE-PE-C-T-U:A-#-P%?-T-_Cc,
country | `-BT, || China is a very large country.
sE-C-P-`-BT-GP-R-ZC-^P,
county | E-, || This building belongs to the county administration.
2

was very old.


1

382

MC-BE-]N-E-~N-C[E-`-CKCc,
courtyard | c-_,, || There are many pear trees growing in the
courtyard. c-_]-PE-O-`-E-UE-T-c-^N,
cover | B-`T, ]CTc-R, C^C-R, || The old well cover needs to be replaced.
tP-R]-B-`T-E-T-N-T-NCc, Be sure to cover the top of the water bucket.
G-\U-n-B-Ec-R_-O-NCT-NCc,
cow | T-U, || I learned how to milk a cow when I was a child.
Ec-qc-R]-Oc-Pc-T-U-H-_-TZ--TTc-R-^P,
crash | CNE-MC-C-R, || Ten people died in the train crash.
U-]B_-CNE-MC-TT-R-`c-U-TF-uEc,
creature | ~C-GCc, ]u-T, || Every living thing is a wonderful creature.
~C-w/-WE-U-P-YR$-($?-mN-UW_-_N,
credit | ^N-P-NE`-TP, MT-ME-, ^N-P, || I cant pay now so can you give
me some credit? Ec-N--_P-N-U-MT-Rc, mN-lc-E-`-^N-P-NE`-TP-]C]-CPEGC-CU, He deserves a lot of credit for the success of that project. UuEc-N-`Cc-]uT-^E-T_-B-`-^N-P-GP-R-qN-GC
crime | PC-Ic, || That boy got involved in a life of crime.
Z-`-N-`-CZP-~C-TFN-R]-PC-Ic-MTc,
criminal | Ic-FP, || The criminal went to jail. Ic-FP-N-TVP-]HC-qc,
criticize | P-TN-qN-R, || She didnt like being criticized for the way she
did her work. CZP-nc-_E-IN-l-q-T-T-Ec-`-P-TN-qN-R_-B-U-U-NC],
crops | `-KC || There are many different kinds of crops growing in the
field. ZE-PE-O-`-KC-$-3%-c-^N,
cross | -uU, TN-R, `-T, || The cross is a sacred symbol for
Christians. -uU-P-^-ac-Gc-`Cc-R_-UWP-P-UWP-U-UGC-n_-ZC-^P, The
new road will cross my fields. C[E-`U-Cc_-T-N-E]-ZE-?:A-MC-TN--_N,
crowd | ]O-]X, U-WCc, ]WE-T, || There was a big crowd standing outside
the cinema. C-TP-BE-C-p-_`-O-U-WCc-(J/-0R-8A$-^N, If everyone crowds
into the bus, we will be uncomfortable. C`-K-U-WE-U--N-Ec-]B_-!J%:5%-#-2o2-5K, E-W-TN-U-^E--U-_N,
cruel | T-U, E--UN-R, || He said some very cruel words to his sister
when he was angry. B-BE-t-`Ec-Oc-B]-~E-U-`-WC-d-FE-T-U-TaN, I love
my father because he was never cruel to me. E]-e-Sc-E-`-E--]XPRc, E-<%-$A-e-S-`-NC],
1

383

CF_-T, || Make sure the potatoes dont crush the tomatoes in the
bag. BC-U]-PE-C-ZC-BC-Cc-Z-dE--CF_-O-U-]HC
cry | E-T, E-N, || Please dont be sad and cry. ^N--Pc-U-E-, Her loud
cry of fear was heard far away. B-U]-C-NEEc-l-E-N-GP-R-N-E-_E-Pc-Mc,
culture | _C-CPc, || The way people live is different in every culture.
_C-CPc-_-_-`-U]-]W-T-_`-Ec-U-]x-T-^N,
cup | H-S_, || What color is this cup? H-S_-]N]-B-UNC-F-_N,
cure | Cc-MTc, Cc-T, || The doctors were working hard to find a cure
for the disease. P-R-Uc-lc-]TN-R-GP-Rc-PN-]N:A-Cc-MTc-aC-]W`-lP-^N,
This medicine will cure your disease. P-]Nc-mN-l-PN-Cc-MT,
current | NE`-`_, -T, G-P, || That newspaper always reports the
current news. WCc-R_-N]-E-NE`-`_-MN-l-Cc_-]n_-P-R_-]CN-lP-^N, He
got a severe shock from the strong electrical current. C-C--T-TVP-RNc-B-dP-KE-E_-TKE-, The strong ocean current pulled the boat away
from the shore. -UW]-G-P-S$-Rc-u-T-ECc-`c-xN,
custom | CUc-~`, || Drinking butter tea is a Tibetan custom.
NsC-H-]ME--P-TN-U]-CUc-~`-ZC-_N,
cut | TFN-R, || He cut down the tree with an axe. Bc--_c-E-T-N-TFN,
crush |
1

e-S, || My dad is thirty-four. E]-e-S-`-c-TZ-^P,


dam | _Cc, _Cc-lc-G-T`-T, || They are building a big
dam on the river. B-Wc-G-T-N-`-_Cc-GP-R-ZC-C-TZP-^N, We
dad |

will dam up the river here in order to make a big lake.

UW]-GP-R-ZC-T`-T_-E-Wc-]N-<-_Cc-C--^P,
damage | CK_-TC CK_-TC-qN-R, || How much damage did the
drought cause to the crops this year? N-`_-MP-Rc-`-KC-`-CK_-TC-F-]xT`-qE-, The floods will damage the crops. G-`C-Cc-`-KC-`-CK_-TCqN-Ec,
dance | ZTc-{, ZTc-{-]tT-R, || Many young people dont like
traditional dances, instead they prefer modern dances. P-CZP-UE-T-~`P-n-ZTc-{-`-U-NC]-T_-NE-_Tc-l-ZTc-{-]GU-R_-NC], I learned how to
dance when I was a child. Ec-qc-R]-Oc-Pc-ZTc-{-]tT--Ec-R-^P,
danger | IP-B, || It looks like there is danger up ahead on the road.
1

384

`U-n-UOP-pCc-P-IP-B-ZC-^N-R-]x,
dangerous | IP-B-FP, || The mountain path is dangerous.
_-]C]-`U-zP-N-IP-B-G,
dark | UP-R, Z-EP, || At night it gets so dark outside. UWP-U_-p-_`-O-UP-RC-R-]MTc, He gave her a dark angry look. Bc-B-U-`-BE-t]-U-]n_-ZEP-ZC-TP,
date | IP, Wc-uEc, Oc-GN-qN-R, Oc-GN, || What is your birth date? mN-lc-_-n-Wc-uEc-PU-^P, I dont want my daughter to date that young
man. Ec-<%-$A-T-Uc-Cc_-T-N-NE-Oc-GN-qN-o-L%-P-U-]NN, My son has a date
tonight with his sweetheart. E]-T-`-N-NCE-B]-E-C-U-NE-MC-]-Oc-GN-FC^N,
daughter | T-U, || My daughter is fourteen. E]-T-U-`-TF-TZ-^P,
day | IP, C\], || What day is today? N-_E-C\]-O-T-_N,
day-time | IP-U, || I go to school in the day-time.
IP-U_-E-_E-T-_-]u-CP-^N,
dead | a-T, || We saw a dead animal on the side of the road.
E-Wc-`U-]uU-O-~C-GCc-a-T-ZC-UME-,
deaf | ]P-R, || After his long illness he became deaf.
B-_E-^P-_E-P-T]-c-c--]P-R_-n_,
deal | I-WE-, I-WE-qN-R, || Buying the land for that price was a good
deal. c-ZE-N-_P-CE-N-]xc-I-T-P-I-WE-UPC-R-ZC-_N, I only deal in new
goods, not in used goods. Ec-WE-c-Cc_-T-B-P-I-WE-qN-R-`c-WE-c-E-T-IWE-U-qN,
dear | UX]-T, || My dear wife is a teacher. E]-UX]-T]-GE-U-P-NC-P-ZC-^P,
debate | N-R, N-R-qN-R, || The smartest children won the school
debate. -_C-Gc--T]-qc-R-Uc-`-T-]-N-\J%-tN-`-B-MT, I will debate
this question with you whenever you like. x-T-]N]-MC-Pc-mN-lc-PU-N]NN-W-Ec-mN-NE-N--^P,
December | --TF-CIc-R, || Christmas is in December.
^-b]-c-_-P---TF-CIc-R]-PE-^P,
decide | MC-CFN-R, || She decided to go to town in the afternoon.
B-Uc-p-x_-uE-T`-O-]u--MC-TFN,
declare | mT-TCc, || He declared that the school would open next week.
Bc-C\]-]B_-c-U<-T-]--]qN--;A/-0-mT-TCc-qc,
1

385

CKE-\T-R, || The river is deep and wide. G-T-N-CKE-\T-FE-ZE-G,


defeat | C-R, SU-B-_-T, || To not study defeats the purpose of going to
school. T-E-U-qN-R-P-T-_-]u-T]-NUCc-^`-`c-C My father always
defeats me when we play card games. e-S-NE-EN-CIc-lc-KC-c-c-P-e-ScE-`-P-R_-SU-B-_,
defend | ~E-T, ]CC-R, || He had to defend the sheep from the wolves.
Bc-E-@-T@C--`C-~E-NCc-qE-,
degree | ]XP-^C L], || I hope to get a degree from college someday.
Ec-PU-ZC-`-T--GP-U]-]XP-^C-FC-`P-MT-R_-_-T-]XP, My temperature is
one degree higher than it was yesterday. E]-W-uE-B-?E-`c-L]-CFC-CcUM,
delay | Oc-]nE-, ]C_-]nE-qN-R, || How long will the delay be? Oc-]nE-FVU-qN--_N, The snowstorm delayed the shipment of goods to the
town. CEc-P-Nc-NEc-R-uE-T`-O-T`-2<-]C_-]nE-qc,
delicious | ZU-R, || The food is delicious. \c-]N-ZU-R-_N,
demand | NCc-UB, _-T-]NP-R, || There is a great demand for meat in the
market. WE-_]-PE-O-a-d-FE-NCc-UB-G, I demand that you stop calling
me bad names! mN-lc-E-`-UWE-UE-Cc-U-]TN-R_-Ec-_-T-]NP,
deny | ]CC-R, Bc-U-`P-R, || He didnt want to deny his children an
education. Bc-_E-C-T-`-T-Cc-]MT--N-]CC-U-]NN,
depend | TP-R, B-P-^N-R, || The family depends on their cow for
milk. ON-mU-]N]-]-U-B-W]-T-U-`-TP,
desert | q-ME-, || It doesnt rain much in the desert. q-ME-O-G_-T-GP-R-U-]TT,
desk | UOP-FC || Put the book on the desk. NR-G-UOP-FC-E-O-ZC
destroy | TC-R, || By mistake he destroyed some important papers.
B]-P_-]X`-nc-U-^C-C`-GP-]C]-TCc,
details | ZT-U, || Please give details about the accident.
GC--N]-CPc-W`-ZT-U-TN-_Cc,
develop | CE-]S`, H-c-c-CKE-T, || They need to develop plans to build the
school. B-Wc-T--]XCc-]-]G_-CZ-:,?-52-+-CKE-NCc,
diagram | .0J-<A?, .0J-<A?-?-]CN-R, || It is helpful to draw a diagram
before building a house. BE-T-U-TCc-R]-P-O-.0J-<A?-2!R.-/-29%-, I will
diagram the data so it is easier to understand. C-T-`P-o--U_-CKE-GN-OEc-NoN-CZ]-^C-G-.0J-<A?-?-]CN--^P,
deep |

386

E-U`, || The dialogue in the play was interesting. c-C_-OR.-GAE-U`-N_--IUc-P,


diary | IP-M, || I write in my diary every morning.
IP-<J:A--x_-Ec-IP-M-]{-TZP-^N,
did | `c-WC-C-zN, || When did you graduate? mN-_E-PU-UM_-pP-R-^P,
die | a-T, || Every year some people die of old age in that village.
`-__--T-N]-U-]C]-_-=R-c-Pc-a-TZP-^N,
difference | mN-R_, || Whats the difference between Tibetan and
English? TN-^C-NE-NqP-^C-T_-n-mN-R_-F-^P,
different | U-]x-T, || Tibetan and English are different languages.
TN-^C-NE-NqP-^C-P-N-_Cc-U-]x-T-CIc-^P,
difficult | N@]-T, || Learning a new language is difficult.
N-_Cc-Cc_-T-E--N@],
dig | -T, || They had to dig a ditch for the water.
B-Wc-G-^-GN-O--ZC--NCc-qE-,
dinner | \c-MP, || We eat dinner at six oclock every night.
IP-<J<-NCE-U]-(-WN-xC-E-E-Wc-\c-MP-\,
dire | B-W-NCc-CLCc, || There is a dire need for a hospital in that town.
uE-T`-N_-P-BE-ZC-NCc-R-B-W-NCc-CLCc-c-n_-]OC
direct | MN-@_, T_-T, || He gave a very direct answer to my question.
Bc-E]-x-T_-`P-d-FE-MN-@_-T-ZC-TKT-qE-, In the future please direct all
your questions to me. eJ?-?-mN-l-x-T-WE-U-E-`-_,
direction | pCc, || People come from every direction to the festival.
KR$?-28A-353?-2o.-/?-:R%?-0:A-3A-i3?-Oc-P-`-z$?,
dirty | TVC-R, U-CVE-T, N-R, || Her clothes are very dirty. B-U]-CP-Rd-FE-TVC Dont dirty your hands cleaning the car. Ec-]B_-Tsc-PcmN-l-`C-R-N-O-U-]HC
disappear | ^`-T, U-E-T_-n_-T, || A rainbow disappears after a short
time. ^N-VU-]C_-c-]H]-WP-U-E-T_-n_,
disease | PN, || Many animals died from a disease.
~C-GCc-UE-T-PN-FC-Cc-B-NC
dismiss | pCc-c-]M_-T, ]u`-T, || The students will be dismissed from
class one hour later. (-WN-CFC-C-c-c-T-U-Uc-T-tN-`c-]u`--_N,
dispute | N-CZ, N-R, || The dispute was about who owned the horse.
dialogue |

387

N-CZ-P--N-c-`-NTE-UP-N-_N, I wont dispute what you said because I


agree with you. E-mN-lc-TaN-R-`-]MN-Rc-Ec-mN-NE-N-R-U-qN,
distance | T_-MC nN-R, || My village is a long distance from town. -T-NuE-T`-NE-T_-MC-_E-, Because I dont like him I have chosen to
distance myself from him. E-B-`-U-NC]-Tc-Ec-B-NE-o%-nN--MC-TFN,
distant | MC-_E-T, || The town is so distant that we cant walk to it in one
day. uE-T`-N-P-MC-_E-Tc-E-W-E-ME-`-IP-CFC-Cc-U-MP,
dive | G-]X`-C-R, || The boy didnt know how to dive into the river.
qc-R-Nc-G-]X`-C-U-ac,
divide | TC-T, || The dormitory is divided into two sections.
I`-BE-BC-CIc-c-TCc-^N,
do | q-WC-C-zN, `c, qN, || Do you like English? mN-_E-NqP-^C-`-NC]-]U,
do my homework | E]-`c-q-]{, || I do my homework in the evening.
Ec-NCE-U_-E]-`c-q-]{,
do not | NCC-WC || Do not answer the telephone. B-R_-`-e-`P-U-_,
do sports | `-E-qN-R, || Im too busy studying to do sports this year. .=R-E-_E-T-E-`-{`-T-G-xCc-0c-`-E-qN-U-MT,
do the shopping | I-G-C-R, || I will do the shopping today.
N-_E-Ec-I-G-C--^P,
do the washing | CP-R-]t-T, || When will you do the washing?
mN-lc-CP-R-PU-WN-]t--^P,
doctor | P-R, P-TFc-qN-R, || Im sick so Ill go see the doctor. E-_E-PTc-P-R_-2!JP-NCc, I cant doctor you because Im not a physician. EP-R-ZC-UP-Rc-Ec-mN-`-P-TFc-qN-U-MT,
document | ^C-G, || The document stated that they could open the
school next year. ^C-G]-PE-O-B-Wc-`-c-U_-T--N--]qN-GC-R-TCc-]OC
dog | m, || The dog was black. m-N-PC-R-_N,
dollar | e-_, || The mother gave her son a dollar to spend at the store.
e-Uc-T-`-WE-BE-.-T@`-]-e-_-CFC-qP,
dont | q-WC-C-NCC-, || Dont come home late. ^`-O-`C-R-U-]p,
door | , || Open the door. -pc-aC
doorbell | |R:A-x`-GE-, || Please ring the doorbell. |R:A-x`-GE-Ns`-_Cc,
down | U_, M_, || I saw my friend walking down the road.
Ec-<%-$A-uCc-R-C[E-`U-,<-.-]u-T-UME-,
2

388

U-^C _Cc-]{-qN-R, || The draft of your book needs a lot of


work. mN-l-NR-G]-U-^C-`-[-NC-UE-T-qN-NCc, Can you draft a report of
the project? mN-lc-T\-P-N]-P-[-_Cc-]{-qN-MT-TU,
draw | _-U-]{-T, || Did you draw this picture? _-U-]N-mN-lc-{c-cU,
dream | -`U, , || She told me about the dream she had last night.
B-Uc-UNE-NCE-c-R]--`U-N-E-`-TaN, I dream about you all the time.
E]--`U-O-P-R_-mN-,
dress | CP-R, CP, || Her new dress was not expensive. B-U]-CP-R-Cc_-TN]-_P-CE-U-UM, I like to dress in nice clothing before I go to parties. E-WCc-`-:PR-.?-CP-R-^C-R-CP-R_-NC],
drink | TLE-G, ]ME-T, || What is your favorite drink? mN-Gc-NC]-T]-TLE-GP-F-ZC-^P, He doesnt like to drink tea. B-H-]ME-_-U-NC],
drive | Ec-]B_-_-T, ]NN-R, || I like to go for drives in the countryside.
E-uE-CcT-L-Ec-]B_-_-/?-]u-2<-NC], The shepherd drives the sheep
to the grassland every morning. IP-<J:A--x_-`C-c-`C-Uc--ME-O-]NN,
driver | B-`-T, || Tell the bus driver to stop over there.
-N-Ec-]B_-n-B-`-T-`-S-C-Pc-#R.-_Cc-Zc-aN-NE-,
drown | G_-]MU-R, || If you dont know how to swim you can drown.
C`-K-mN-G-`-`-U-ac-P-G_-]MU--_N,
drugs | P, || Doctors use drugs to fight infections.
P-Rc-P-N-N-PN-]C-T-P-]CC-qN-,
dry | U-R, U-R, || These clothes are not dry, they are wet. CP-R-]N-NCU-R-UP, ]N-NC-P-R-^P, Please dry your hair. mN-l--U-O-GCc,
duck | EE-T, || There were many ducks swimming in the lake.
UW-PE-O-EE-T-UE-T-`-lP-^N,
dumpling (boiled stuffed dumpling) | UC-UC || How do you cook
dumplings? mN-lc-UC-UC-H-_-TV,
during | Tc-c, || They all work hard during harvest time.
P-N-l-Tc-c-B-W-WE-Uc-d_-TP-nc-`c-@-qN,
dust | c-`, c-`-CN-TN_-qN-R, || There is so much dust on the road.
C[E-`U-E-c-`-UE-T-^N, Ill dust the furniture so you please sweep
the floor. Ec-F-`C-E-C-c-`-CN-TN_-qN, mN-lc-ME-pCc,
duty | `c-]CP, || It was her duty to watch the school children.
T-]-qc-R-Uc-`--E-qN--P-B-U]-`c-]CP-_N,
draft | 1

389

_-_, || Each student had to write a paper.


T-U-_-_c-Ec-R_-O-U-^C-_-]{-NCc,
ear | , -ac, || She cut her ear when she fell down.
B-U-ME-O-]n`-Tc--$>R$-;-$&A$-c, He has a very good ear
for music. _`-NqEc-,.-.-B-=--ac-T\E-T-^N,
early | -U, || He gets up early everyday. IP-<J:A-8R$?-0--U_-B-U`-`c-`Ec-,
earn | B-MT-R, || They earn a lot of money for their work.
B-W_-q-T-`c-B-UE-T-MT,
earth | c]-C-`, c, || The earth is round. c]-C-`-P-U-R-^P, He plowed
the earth with a wooden plow. Bc-aE-Ca`-nc-c-TCc,
earthquake | c-]D`, || The earthquake killed many animals and people.
c-]D`-OR.-3A-.%-|R-9R$-3%-0R->A,
ease | ]XU-E-UN-R, N-R, || She danced with a special grace and ease.
B-Uc-C-IUc-P-ZE-]XU-E-UN-R]-EE-ZTc-{-]tT,
easily | `c--U]-EE-, || He was able to learn English easily.
Bc-`c--U]-EE-NqP-^C-E-MT-cE-,
east | a_-pCc, || The school is located east of the village center.
T--P--T]-Nl`-n-a_-pCc-c-CPc-^N,
easy | -U, || It is not easy to learn English. NqP-^C-E--P-`c--U-ZC-UP,
eat | \, || The family likes to eat together. HA3-5%-.J-WE-\-U-UIU-O-\-T_-NC],
economy | NR`-]q_, || The economy has a big influence on the life of
the people. NR`-]q_-nc-U-UE-C-]W-T_-bCc-P-GP-R-_,
edge | UM], || Dont walk so close to the edge of the cliff. {C-$9<-.J:A3,:-.%-.J-]x]-I-c-`-U-]u,
edible root | u-U, || Rice, sugar, yak butter, and edible roots cooked
together are delicious. ]{c-NE-, @-_, ]{-U_, u-U-2&?-UIU-O-TVc-R-d-FE-ZU,
educate | T-Cc-CKE-T, || Books are helpful when educating students.
NR-G-P-T-U-Uc-`-T-Cc-CKE-T_-SP,
effect | SP-Qc, qN-`c, || The increase in rain had a positive effect on crop
growth. G_-G-H-UE-O-]u-T-N-`-KC-:5<-=R%?-:L%-2<-SP-Qc-T\E-T-^N,
effort | TP-]uc, ]TN-R, || A lot of effort is required for learning a
language. N-_Cc-aC-E-T_-]TN-TP-GP-R-qN-NCc,
egg | -E-, || The chicken laid only one egg last week.
each |

390

C\]-]B_-P-U_-q-Uc--E-CFC-`c-U-TKE-,
eight | TN, || He works eight hours every day.
IP-__-(-WN-TN-`-Bc-q-T-T-NCc,
eighteen | TF-TN, || She graduated from school when she was eighteen
years old. B-U-`-TF-TN-E-T--Pc-UM_-pP,
eighth | MEc-TN-R, eE-TN-R, || This was the eighth time he tried. :.A-/A#R?-5S.-v-,J%?-2o.-0<-L?-0-.J-;AA/,

TN-F, || My grandmother is eighty years old.


E]--U-P-`-TN-F-^P,
either | ^E-P, CE-^E-, ^E-UP, || He either wants to get a job or go to
school. Bc-^E-UP-q-T-ZC-:5S=-2]U-^E-UP-T-_-:PA3-]NN,
elect | TNU-R, ]NUc-R, CNU-R, || When will we elect the class monitor?
E-Wc-T-]-]C-CV-PU-CNU--^P,
electricity | C || Electricity can help improve living conditions.
C-Cc-]W-T]-G-P-^_-MP-^E-T_-NC-UWP-T0/,
element | uT-G, || Rain, snow, and wind are all elements of weather.
G_-T-NE-, B-T, E-TFc-P-CPU-Cac-l-uT-G-^P,
elephant | E-GP, || An elephant is a large animal.
E-GP-P-~C-GCc-GP-R-ZC-^P,
eleven | TF-CFC || She begins to prepare lunch at eleven oclock.
(-WN-TF-CFC-E-B-Uc-DE-\c-u-C-qc,
embassy | C[E-WT-BE-, || They went to the embassy to get a visa.
B-W-C[E-WT-BE-O-]Mc-UGP-]CN-R_-cE-,
emotion | W_-T, || Hate, greed, and envy are powerful emotions.
BE-t-NE-, TT-cUc, zC-NC-TFc-P-bCc-S$-0R:A-W_-T-^P,
employ | -T, || The factory employs many people. T\--Nc-U-UE-T-,
empty | E-T, || The house was empty after they moved away.
B-W-CPc-_-T]-c-c-BE-T-N-E-T_-`c,
end | UHC UHC-T-T, || Did you read the book all the way to the end?
mN-lc-NR-G-N-UC-Pc-UHC-T_-TCc-cU, He will end the meeting in
exactly one hour. (-WN-CFC-KC-KC-C-eJ?-?-Bc-WCc-]O]-UHC-T--_N,
enemy | Nu-T, || The army fought against the enemy.
NUC-Uc-Nu-T-NE-]MT-]XE-qc,
energy | `c-Tc, || The boys on the basketball team have a lot of
eighty |

391

-`-_-BC-C-Z-`-Uc-`-`c-Tc-GP-R-P,
enforce | `C-T_-qN-R, || The police enforce the laws.
IP-C-Rc-tUc-`Cc-`C-T_-qN,
engine | `-qN-]z`-]B_, || The truck had a problem with its engine.
]uU-]u`-Ec-]B_-N]-`-qN-]z`-]B_-`-P-a_,
engineer | T\-T@N-R, || My father is an engineer. E]-e-S-P-T\-T@N-R-ZC-^P,
English | NqP-^C || I enjoy learning English. E-_E-NqP-^C-E-T_-,
Englishman | NqP-H-T, || An Englishman came to visit our school
yesterday. B-cE-NqP-H-T-ZC-E-W]-T-_--_-O-]Ec,
Englishmen | NqP-H-T, || There arent any Englishmen in my town.
E-W]-uE-T`-O-NqP-H-T-CFC-lE-UN,
enjoy | -T, NC]-T, || She will enjoy buying a new dress.
B-U-CP-R-Cc_-T-ZC-I-T_---_N,
enjoy yourself | _E-IN---qN-R, || I hope you will enjoy yourself at the
party. mN-lc--WCc-]N]-E---qN-R_-Ec-_-T-]XP,
enough | ]NE-R, || He didnt get enough food to eat. B-`-\-U-]NE-R-UN,
enter | PE-O-]X`-T, || They can enter the building through the front door.
B-W-UOP--TN-Pc-MC-BE-O-]X`-MT,
environment | B_-^C || The people work hard to protect the
environment. U-NUEc-lc-]TN-R-GP-Rc-B_-^C-~E-T-qN,
equal | ]x-UIU, || The students all shared the cleaning job equally.
T-U-Uc-lc-]x-UIU-|R?-CVE-:A-q-T-TTc,
equipment | ^-qN, || We need to repair the telephone equipment.
E-Wc-B-R_-^-qN-N-ZC-Cc-qN-NCc,
escape | q`-T, ]{-T, M_-T, || The wifes escape from her cruel husbands
control is a familiar theme in novels. GE-U-B-U]-m-C-CLU-R]--`c-q`-T-PTUc-E-]C]-CFC-UWEc-l-TN-q-ZC-_N, The mouse couldnt escape
from the hawks claws. q-T-N-C-C-_-U-`c-M_-U-MT,
especially | C-L, c-c, || I especially like the color blue.
E-_E-c-c-B-NC-P-R-`-NC],
establish | ]XCc-R, || They want to establish a market on that corner.
B-W-`-Cc-UWUc-N_-WE-_-ZC-]XCc-]NN-^N,
even | M-P, || I dont even know how to drive a car.
Ec-M-P-Ec-]B_-GE-T-H-_-T_-]E-U-ac,
energy. r%-lJ.-

392

c-~c, NCE-U, || She often cooks a meal in the evening.


B-Uc-NCE-U_-P-R_-\-U-C^-`-qN,
event | q-T, NP-GP, || The Spring Festival (Lunar New Year celebration)
is a big event for the whole village. `-Cc_-P--T-^Ec-`-UWP-P-NP-GP-ZC_N,
ever | CKP-Pc, PU-^E-, || She doesnt ever want to leave home.
B-U-PU-^E-mU-NE-]{`-]NN-U-qE-,
every | _-_, || Every day something new happens.
I-U-_-__-CPc-W`-Cc_-T-_-]qE-TZP-^N,
everyone | U-_-_, U-MUc-FN, || Everyone in the village celebrates Tibetan
New Year. -T]-U-MUc-FN-lc-TN-l-`-Cc_-`-P-]{`-[-TZP-^N,
everything | NEc-R-_-_, NEc-R-MUc-FN, || Everything got wet in the rain.
NEc-R-MUc-FN-G_-Gc-TP,
everywhere | CPc-c-c, pCc-c-c, || The sheep were scattered everywhere
on the grassland. `C-Uc--ME-C-pCc-c-c_-mT,
evidence | TNP-NRE-, || There was little evidence that he stole the money.
Bc-_-U-Tc-R_-TNP-NRE-F-^E-UN,
evil | C-R, EP-R, || There is a big difference between good and evil.
NC-C-$*A?-!:A-T_-O-mN-R_-GP-R-^N,
exact | CNE-WN-^N-R, Ec-FP, E-U, || What is your exact age? mN-l-`-E-U-P-$5S.-^P,
examine | TC-NoN, || The doctor wants to examine the patient.
P-Rc-PN-R-N_-TC-NoN-qN-]NN,
example | NR-TN, || Can you give me an example of how to use that
word? mN-lc-E-`-UE-WC-N-H-_-T@`-T]-NR-TN-FC-TZC-P-GC-CU,
excellent | S`-O-qE-T, || She got an excellent job at the university.
B-Uc-T--GP-U-N-<-q-T-S`-O-qE-T-ZC-N,
except | U-CKCc, || Except for the youngest son, the whole family went
to town. mU-WE-N]-T-M-GE-U-CKCc-WE-U-uE-T`-O-cE-,
exchange | T-_c, T-T, || The exchange of gifts between old friends
took only a few minutes. uCc-R-E-T]-T_-`Cc-c-T-_c-L?-R-N-_-U-]C]`c-U-]C_, Can you exchange this pot for a different one? mN-lc--E]N-CZP-ZC-`-T-GC-CU,
excite | ^N-rc-R, || The film was very exciting. C-TP-N-^N-rc-R<-LJ.-0evening |

393

ZC-_N,

BC-]HC-c, !-;%?-$+R%-2, .$R%?-.$-8-2, || She didnt have any


excuse for not doing her homework. B-Uc-`c-q-U-{c-R_-BC-]HC-c-F-^EUN, If you are late again the teacher wont excuse you. C`-K-mN-c-c`c-5K, NC-P-nc-mN-`-!-;%?-$+R%-U-~N, Excuse me! Thats my coat,

excuse | 1

not yours, one woman said to another when they were about leave.

2.-3J.-$*A?-|R<-:PR-{2?-$&A$-$A?-$8/->R?-.J-=-2>.-o<-.$R%?-.$-8,.J-/A%:A-KA-H-;A/-0-=?-HR.-GA-3A/,
execute | 1`C-T_-LJ.-0, 2YR$-OA3?-$&R.-0,|| 1They now have enough
money to execute their plan.

]NE-Ec-aC-^N,

B-W_-N--B-W]-]G_-CZ-`C-T_-qN-R]-_-U-

They are going to execute the criminal tomorrow. ?%-

*A/-#R-5S?-*J?-&/-=-YR$-OA3?-$&R.-o-<J.,
exercise | 1=?-l=-E-T_, 2=?-l=-E-T_-qN-R, || 1Playing basketball is
good exercise. r%-lJ.--`--T-P-=?-l=-E-T_-^C-R-ZC-_N, 2After I
exercise I feel tired. =?-l=-E-T_-qc-c, E-ME-GN,

^N-R, CPc-R, || The school didnt exist before 1978.


-`1978 `]-P-O-T--N-UN,
expand | -H-G_-CKE-T, || We want to expand the farming area.
E-Wc-c-ZE-C--H-G_-CKE-]NN,
expect | _-C || He expects to attend the university in the fall.
Bc-P-B_-T--GP-U<-[Cc-]-_-C-qN-^N,
expel | p_-SN-R, || Several students were expelled from school last year.
P-PE-T--Pc-T-U-]C]-p_-SN,
experiment | WN-, || In science class we do experiments.
WP-_C-C-T-tN-{2?-?-E-Wc-WN--qN-lP-^N,
expert | GN-`c-UBc-R, || They had to call an expert to help with the
problem. B-Wc-GN-`c-UBc-R-ZC-CNP-xEc-K-CPN-NP-c`-_Cc-qN-NCc-qE-,
explain | ]u`-TaN-qN-R, || Can you explain your answer to the question?
mN-lc-mN-l-xc-`P-`-]u`-TaN-qN-MT-TU,
explode | Cc-R, || The bomb made a loud noise when it exploded.
]CN-c-N-Cc-0-/--GP-R-uCc,
explore | ]W`-ZT, || They explored the area and found gold.
B-Wc-CPc-N_-]W`-ZT-qc-0-=?-Cc_-N,
export | p_-]xP, p_-]xP-qN-R, || Wool is an important export product.
exist |

394

T`-P-p_-]xP-MP-c-C`-GP-ZC-^P, Next year our country will export


more than it imports. cE-`_, E-W]-`-BT-lc-PE-]xP-`c-p_-]xP-UE-T-qN-_N,
express | UnCc-R, NUCc-Tc`, mN-R_-T, || We decided to take the express
bus rather than the slow one. E-Wc--N-Ec-]B_-N`-U-`c--N-Ec-]B_UnCc-R-N_-#R.--MC-TFN, My express purpose for visiting you is how
you are.Ec-mN-`-]WUc-]x-qN-R]-NUCc-Tc`-n-NUCc-^`-P-mN-TN-U-^P-UP`-T--N-^P,
extend | H-_E-O-CKE-T, || The visitors chose to extend their time in the
countryside. ]u`-T-Uc-lc-uE-CcT-L-#R.-0:A-Oc-;/-H-_E-O-CKE-]-MC-TFN,
extra | ]S_-U, C-U, || I will buy some extra clothes for the journey.
Ec-Ec--qN-R_-nP-Gc-C-U-]C]-I--^P,
extreme | aP-L, d-FE-, || It is extremely hot during the summer.
Nq_-B-W-T-d-FE-G,
eye (right eye, left eye) | UC || The doctor examined both her right eye
and her left eye. P-Rc-B-U]-UC-C^c-C^P-CIc-`-2g$-.J.-qc,
eye exercises | UC-C-E-T_, || The teacher suggested she do some eye
2

exercises to help improve her eyesight.

NC-P-nc-B-U_-UC-C-E-T_-qc-Pc-UC-aN-H-T\E-O-CKE-]--T@N-TKP,
E-, CNE-, B-E, B-CKN-R, || The young girl has a beautiful
face. T-U-GE-GE-N-P-E-^C-FC-_N, I lost face when I was publicly
reprimanded. E-`--TCc-c-B-E-TKE-Pc-E]-B-E-a_-O-TFC The
face | 1

teacher punished the disobedient student by making her face

NC-P-nc-T-U-y-G`-N-`--cU-KR$?-?-_U-TF]-_E-B-CKN-O-TFC-Pc-GN-R-TFN,
fact | NP-NEc, || It is important to separate fact from fiction.
NP-NEc-C-T\-`c-NC_--C`-G,
factory | T\- || Many people work at the factory.
U-UE-Tc-T\--N-<-q-T-T-TZP-^N,
fail | Cc-U-]zN-R, || If she doesnt study hard she will fail in school.
C`-K-Uc-T-E-^C-R-U-qc-5K-B-Uc-T--<-Cc-]zN--U-_N,
fair | xE-Uc, C\-T, N@_-UNEc-GCc-R, || We dont think that rule is very
the blackboard for ten minutes.

395

E-Wc-C-tUc-N-xE-Uc-aC-_N-U-]NN, She easily gets sunburn


because she has a fair complexion. B-U:A-B-%R-N@_-UNEc-(J-2?-I-Uc-]WC-,
fall | P-@ E-T, ]TT-R, || The leaves on the trees turn color every fall.
P-@-_-__-E-`]-UNC-]n_, Snow falls every winter. NDP-B-_-__-BEc]TT,
fall off | E-T, ]uT-R, || One needs to be a good rider to not fall off a
horse. U-ZC--`c-U-E-T]--U-T\E-T-ZC-^P-NCc, Our factorys
2

fair.
1

production will fall off if we dont buy some new


machines.

_N,

C`-K-E-Wc-]z`-Gc-Cc_-T-:$:-U-Ic-5K, E-W]-T\-]-MP-WN-]uT--

]TT-R, E-T, ZP-B-Pc-a_-T, || Snowflakes fall out of the sky.


CPU-Pc-B-T]-]NT-U-U_-]TT, We will fall out of favor with our teacher
if we dont do better on the next examination. C`-K-,J%?-eJ?-3:A-o$?$8A:A-!J%-)J-=J$?-?-3-;R%-5K,E-W-NC-P-n-ZP-B-Pc-a_--_N,
false | P, || Please answer if the question is true or false.
x-T-]N-`-TNP-P-^P-3A/-n-`P-]NTc-_Cc,
family | mU-WE-, || She has a very large family. B-U-`-mU-WE-GP-R-ZC-^N,
family tree | mU-N, || A picture of the family tree hung on the wall.
nE-Ec-c-mU-N-l-]x-R_-ZC-T@`-]OC
famous | UE-uCc-FP, || Michael Jackson is a famous singer.
U-a`-H-B-cE-P--T-UE-uCc-FP-ZC-^P,
far | MC-_E-, || The village is far from here. -T-N-?-]N-Pc-MC-_E-,
farm | c-ZE-, -]NTc-qN-R, || The farmer grows barley and vegetables
on the farm. ZE-Rc-c-ZE-E-O-Pc-NE-WN-U-]NTc, He wants to farm those
two fields but I think they are too rocky. Bc-ZE-]N-CIc-`--]NTc-qN]NN-UN, :R/-G%-Ec-ZE-.J-CIc--c-^P-xCc-]NN,
farmer | ZE-R, || The farmer works very long hours every day. *A/-<J<ZE-Rc-Oc-WN-_E-T_-`c-@-`c-TZP-^N,
farther | N-`c-lE-MC-_E-T, || The market is farther from town than I
thought. uE-T`-Pc-WE-_:A-2<-IA-=3-,$-/A-E]-TcU-WN-`c-MC-_E-,
farthest | MC-Gc-_E-T, || The other side of the county is the farthest he
has ever traveled. E-C--U-CZP-N-P-B-_E-]u-rE-T]-c-G-Gc-MC-_E-T-_N,
fast | UnCc-R, || The young children run fast to catch the bus to town.
`-GE-qc-R-Uc-UnCc-R_-TCc-K-uE-T`-O-]u-T]--N-Ec-]B_-n-c-GN-R_fall out of | 1

396

qc,
fat | WP-R, || That yak is fat, not thin. C^C-N-WP-R-^P-R-`c-_N-R-U-_N,
father | e-S, || The son was looking for his father at the market.
Tc-WE-_-_-B]-e-S-]W`-nP-]OC
favorite (favorite) | NC]-T, NC]-pCc, || Red is my favorite color.
NU_-T-P-E-_E-Gc-NC]-T]-B-NC-^P,
fear | ]HCc-R, C-R, || My biggest fear during class is that the teacher
will ask me a question and I wont be able to answer correctly. TtN-E-E]-]HCc-R-Gc-GP-R-P-NC-P-nc-E-`-x-T-]SEc-2<-Ec-xc-`P-^E-NC-]NTcU-MT-R-N-^P, I fear walking on the dark road at night. E-_E-NCE-U]-UPPC-C-`U-.-]u-T_-C
feast | NC]-P, Cc`-P, || At New Years we always have a feast.
`-Cc_-`-E-Wc-P-R_-Cc`-P-TaU,
feather | q-, || The feather floated in the air. q--E-`-TN,
February | --CIc-R, || March follows February.
--CIc-R]-c-c---CcU-R-^P,
feed | C\P-Gc, N-R, || Is there enough feed for the cattle this winter?
N-`]-NDP-B_-P_-`-C\P-Gc-]NE-Ec-aC-^N-NU, What will you feed the
children? mN-lc-qc-R-`-F-ZC-N--^P,
feel | W_-T, || How do you feel today? N-_E-mN-l-W_-T-F-]x-]OC
feel worried | cUc-t`-qN-R, || I feel worried before examinations.
Ec-Cc-3-]%?-P-O-cUc-t`-qN,
female | U, || My class has twenty-six female students and twenty-one
1

male students. %:A-:6B/-9:A-/%-.-aR2-U$-3R-*A->-l-28A-.%-aR2-U$-1R-*A->-l-

$&A$-;R.,

WP-R, CaP-R, || Fertile land is good for growing crops.


c-ZE-CaP-R-P-`-KC--T_-T\E-,
few | JE-E-, || There are few lakes in this area. CPc-]N_-U5K:-JE-E-`c-UN, I
have a few toys. E-`-N-N-JE-E-ZC-`c-UN,
field | ZE-, ,%-,|| The horses grazed out in the field. -Wc-ZE-PE-.-`-KC\c, Our school has no sports field. %-5S:C-aR2-9-=-=?-l=-,%-3J.,
fierce | ]HCc-c-_E-T, TVP-R, || The fierce dogs scared the robbers away.
m-TVP-Rc-HC-R-Uc-0$-;J<-2J<-L?-/?-VR?-?-2&$
fifteen | TF-, || Fifteen days ago I went home.
fertile |

397

IP-TF-]-P-O-E-_E-^`-O-pP-R-^P,
fifth | -T, eE--T, || This is the fifth day of the New Year.
N-_E-P-`-Cc_-n-Wc--T-^P,
fifty | -TF, || He was sick for fifty days. IP--TF]-_E-`-B-P-T-_N,
fight | ]tC-N, E-_c-qN-R, || The drunk men got into a fight. T\-T-N]tC-N-.-5., I dont want to fight you because you are my
friend. mN-P-E]-uCc-R-^P-Rc, E?-mN-NE-E-_c-qN-U-]NN,
fill | ]CE-T_-qN-R, CcT-R, || We should fill that hole in the road.
E-Wc-BE-T-N-CcT-NCc,
film | P-aC-]u`-U, TP-ST, || Do you have any film for your camera?
mN-`-R_-Gc-l-P-aC-]u`-U-^N-NU, I want to film the traditional dance
in my village this summer. N-`]-Nq_-B_, Ec-E-W]--T]-~`-P-n-]GU-TP]zP-`-ST-]NN,
final | UHC || At the end of the year the teacher gives a final exam.
`-UHC-L-NC-P-nc-Cc-Ec,
find | N-R, || I cant find one of my shoes. Ec-E]-U-^-CFC-U-N,
find out | N-CFN-R, || How can we find out who was here yesterday?
B-cE-]N_-c-^N-R-E-Wc-H-_-N-CFN-qN-MT-TU,
fine | ^C-R, T\E-T, GN-R, GN-R-CFN-R, || Im feeling fine today. N-_E-E]-W_T-T\E-T-_N, I didnt have enough money to pay the fine. E-`-GN-R-No:A-NE`-]NE-R-UN, Our teacher will fine us if we dont come to class
on time. E-W-Oc-MC-L-T-tN-`-U-^E-5K-E-W]-NC-P-nc-E-W-`-GN-R-CFN--_N,
finish | W_-T, UHC-Cc-R, || Did you ever finish reading that book?
mN-lc-NR-G-N-C-W_-_U,
fire | U, || Quick, bring some water to put out the fire.
_U, G-m_-aC-`-U-cN-FC
firm | AE-\, ~-T, UtCc-R, || The business firm lost money last year. P-PEWE-CI_-AE-\]-U--GC The firm potatoes are the freshest ones. ZC-BCUtCc-R-NC-P-Gc-Cc_-T-^P,
first | NE-R, || He wanted to be first in line at the store.
Bc-<%-*A.-/A-WE-BE-O-u`-TCc-R]-P?-?-eE-NE-R-^P-P-]NN,
fish | I, I-]XP-R, || There are big fish in the lake. UW-PE-O-I-GP-R-^N, I
dont like to fish but my father does. E-I-]XP-R_-U-NC], ]P-lE-E]-e-SNC],
1

398

, || There are five fingers on each hand. `C-R-_-`-UXT-U--_-^N,


fix | 8A$-Cc-qN-R, || Do you know how to fix the radio?
mN-lc--N-]z`-]B_-N-H-_-8A$-Cc-qN-NCc-R-ac-cU,
flag | N_-G, `C-T-P-R, || The flag was flapping in the wind. N_-G-E-CcTN, If our car has a mechanical problem while we are traveling we
can flag down another car and ask for help. C`-K-E-W]-Ec-]B_-`-GCP-qE-5K-E-Wc-Ec-]B_-CZP-ZC-`-`C-T-TP-Pc-_Cc-qN-O-TFC-P-GC
flee | {c-q`, || The people had to flee from the overflowing river.
U-UE-G-`C-`-{c-q`-U-qN-@-UN-qE-,
float | C^E-T, || Wood floats on water. G]-E-O-aE-C^E-,
flood | G-`C T-R, || The flood destroyed the crops last season.
Oc-WCc-P-U]-{2?-?-G-`C-Cc-`-KC-TTc, If the dam breaks the
reservoirs water will flood the countryside. C`-K-_Cc-a_-5K, G-UXN-lGc-uE-CcT-TT--_N,
floor | ME-, UM`, || Dont put the clothes on the floor. nP-Gc-ME-O-U-]HC
flow | T[_-P, || The rivers flow is less than last year because of this
years severe drought. N-`]-MP-R-WTc-GP-;A/-0:A-NTE-Cc, G-T]-T[_-P-P-PE`c-H-GE-`-cE-, The river flows swiftly in the springtime. NoN-@_-G-TT[_-o/-r_,
flower | U-KC TZN-R, || The poppy is a beautiful flower. -UP-U-KC-P-UKC-^C-R-ZC-_N, This plant will soon flower. -aE-]N]-U-KC-U-]C_-T_TZN--_N,
fluid | Ca_-B, || There is very little fluid in the bottle. NU-T]-PE-O-Ca_-BK`-VU-`c-UN,
fly | ~P-]T, _-T, ]S_-T, T_-T, || My mother is so religious that she
wont even kill a fly. E]-e-U-NN-R-G-Pc-M-P-~P-]T-ZC-;A/-lE-U-CcN, He
wanted to learn how to fly a plane. Bc-CPU-u-H-_-T_--E-]NN,
fog | C-R, || The truck had to go very slow because of the fog.
C-R]-P-nc-]uU-]u`-Ec-]B_-N-N`-U_-U-N-@-UN-qE-,
follow |T-`-]{Ec-R, c-Cc-R, || The calf followed its mother
everywhere. T]-N-e-U]-T-`-CE-c_-]{Ec,
food | \-U, || We go to the market to buy food. E-W-WE-__-cE-Pc-\-U-I,
fool | P-R, UC-_-CKE-T, || The clown acted like a fool. e-V-_-Nc-P-RZC-]tT-P-qc, Dont try to fool me with your silly answers. mN-lcfive |

399

`P-NCN-{-T-Nc-E-`-UC-_-U-CKE-,
foot | ZTc, E-T, || The shoes were at the foot of the bed. U`-t]-ZTc-?U-^N, The horse stepped on his foot. -N?-B]-E-T]-E-O-Tc,
football | E-N--`, || We like to play football with our friends.
E-W-uCc-R-Uc-NE-UIU-O-E-N--`--T_-NC],
for | _E-`, || We played outside for a few hours. E-W-p-_-(-WN-]C]-`-c,
force | TVP-aN, TVP-`-qN-R, || The policemen were criticized for using
unnecessary force to subdue the criminal. IP-C-Rc-Ic-FP-GU-`-]TTcR_-NCc-UN-l-TVP-aN-T@`-T_-CZP-nc-P-TN-qc, She had to force him to
do the dishes. B-Uc-B-`-TVP-`-qc-K-\c-C^-_-]HC-NCc-qE-,
foreign | p-E-, || Traveling to foreign places is interesting.
p-E-O-^`-_-qN-R-P-d-FE-NC]-E-N-R-ZC-_N,
forget | TN-R, || Dont forget to do your homework.
mN-lc-_E-C-`c-q-]{--TN-O-U-]HC
forgive | T\N-U-qN-R, || She could forgive him if he said he was sorry.
C`-K-Bc-NCEc-NC-[c-5K-B-Uc-B-`-T\N-U-qN-MT,
form | ]XCc-R, _]-UC || He wants to form a new academic
organization. Bc-ZT-]HC-5S$?-0Cc_-T-ZC-]XCc-]NN, To get the job the
form must be filled out. q-T-N-]MT-MT-R]-GN-O-_]-UC-N-Ec-R_-O-TE-NCc,
former | P-U, -U, || The former chief lived in that house. ]C-tN-P-UN-BE-T-N]-PE-O-TN-R-_N, I agree with your former point but not your
latter point. E-mN-l--T--U-`-]MN-0-=?--T-p-U-`-U-]MN,
forward | UOP-O, || The car moved forward slowly.
Ec-]B_-GE-T-N-C-`_-UOP-O-N,
four | TZ, || There are four people in the bus. -N-Ec-]B_-PE-O-U-TZ-^N,
fourth | TZ-T, || On her fourth birthday she was very happy.
B-U-<%-$A-,J%?-28A-2:A-c-_-E-d-FE-NC]-T-qE-,
free | _E-NTE-^P-R, _P-U-NCc-R, || People do not like to be controlled by
others, they like to be free. U-Uc-lc-_E-NTE-]NN-R-`c-CZP-n-WN-]XP-MTcU-]NN, The newspaper is free. WCc-R_-N_-_P-U-NCc,
freeze | ]mC-R, || If the apples are left outside they will freeze.
C`-K-A-b-Uc-p-_-TZC-5K-]mC--_N,
French | q-_P-c]-N, || Do you know how to speak French?
mN-lc-q-_P-c]-N-TaN-ac-cU,
1

400

Cc_-T, xP-R, || The milk is fresh from the cow.


]-U-N-P-T-U]-]-U-$?<-2-^P,
Friday | C\]-R-cEc, || Friday is the last school day in the week.
C\]-R-cEc-P-C\]-]B_-CFC-OR.-T--]WCc-R]-IP-c-U-^P,
fridge (refrigerator, ice-box) | ]mC-U, || They were happy with their
new fridge. B-W-<%-$A-]mC-U-Cc_-T_-^N-WU-^N,
fried | T~Cc-U, T~Cc,|| Fried mutton makes a good meal. `C-a-T~CcU-P-\c-d-FE-ZU-R-ZC-^P, I fried this bread yesterday. B-?E-Ec-C-_-]NT~Cc,
friend | uCc-R, || I want to bring my friend to the party.
Ec-<%-$A-uCc-R--WCc-E-O-]tN-]NN,
friendly | UX]-UMP-P-R, || Those people are so friendly.
U-]N-W-UX]-UMP-P-R-ZC-_N,
frighten | C-E-T, ]HCc-`-T, C-R, || Dont let the fierce dog frighten
you. m-TVP-R-N-`-U-C
frisbee | ]S_-_, || Toss me the frisbee! ]S_-_-N-E-`-C^C-NE-,
from | Pc, `c, || I went from Lhasa to Lanzhou last year by bus.
P-PE-E-_E--N-Ec-]B_-`-TN-.J--c-Pc-`P-u-`-cE-,
front | UOP, || There were many trees in front of the house.
BE-T]-UOP-O-E-T-UE-T-^N,
fruit | c`-KC || We went to pick fruit from the trees last week.
C\]-]B_-P-U_-E-W-c`-E-=?-c`-KC-]MC-R_-cE-,
fry | U-O-TV-T, T-T, || She doesnt like to fry food.
B-U-\-U-U-O-TV-T_-U-NC],
fuel | U, || Be sure to buy some fuel for the car.
Ec-]B_-GE-T_-U-I--TN-U-_E-,
full | CE-T, || This bus is too full. -N-Ec-]B_-]N-Uc-2!%-:.$
fun | 3R-3R, || After school we like to have fun.
T--u`-c-E-W-3R-3R-LJ.-0<-.$:,
funeral | O_-c, ]Nc-UGN, || They were all very quiet on the way to the
funeral. :.?-3(R.-.-]u-T]-`U-O-#R-5S-#-<R$-$J<-2#.,
furious | BE-t-`Ec-R, || His father was furious when he learned his son
missed school. B]-e-Sc-T-T-_-U-cE-T-Mc-Pc-BE-t-GP-R-`Ec,
future | U-]Ec-R, || In the future we will have two schools in this village.
fresh |

401

U-]Ec-R_--T-]N-<-E-W_-T--CIc-^N--_N,

]NCc-R, ]MT-R, || The doctor told her to gain weight.


P-Rc-B-U-`-`c-R]-N-WN-]NCc-NCc-\_,

gain |

N-3R, || They played a new game in the schoolyard.


B-Wc-T-]-_-T]-PE-N-3R-Cc_-T-ZC-c,
garden | U-KC-_-T, || Shall we plant some flowers in the garden?
E-Wc-U-KC-_-T]-PE-O-U-KC-:6$?-AJ,
gas | U, ||The car stopped running when it ran out of gas.
Ec-]B_-GE-T-N-U-\N-Pc-2*R.-353?-28$
gate | , || Be sure to close the gate behind you. (_E-C-T-L-)
-CKP--U-TN-nc,
gather |N-R, _T-R,, || They left early to go gather the sheep.
B-W--U-Pc-`C-_T-R_-cE-,
general | ^Ec-mT, NUC-, || The general idea about going to school is
to get an education. T-_-]u-T]-^Ec-mT-l-NUCc-^`-P-T-Cc-ZC-]MT--N^P, He recently was promoted to the rank of general. I-`U-B-NUC-]C-CPc-`-%<,
gentle | N`-U, ]HU-R, || She gave the horse a gentle pat.
Bc-]-UHE-`-]HU-Rc-q`-q`-qc,
get | ]TN-R, `P-R, I-T, || Can you get me some things from the store?
mN-lc-E-`-WE-BE-Pc-NEc-R-]C]-I-MT-TU,
get down | U_-]TT-R, || She told the child to get down from the roof.
B-Uc-qc-R-N-BE-T]-N-Pc-U_-]TT-L-TFC
get dressed | CP-R-nP-R, || We have to get dressed and go to school.
Ec-CP-R-nP-Pc-T-_-]u-NCc,
get home | mU-O-]q_-T, || I hope I will get home before it gets dark.
Ec-UP-U-_T-R]-P-O-<%-*A.-mU-O-]q_-]-_-T-qN-lP-^N,
get on | PE-O-N-R, || They are hoping to get on the bus to Xining.
B-Wc-\-`E-O-]u-T]--N-Ec-]B_-PE-O-N-]-_-T-qN-TZP-^N,
get ready for | u-C || He had to get ready for the evening party.
Bc-NCE-WCc-`-u-C-qN-NCc-qE-,

game |

402

-CP, || Lets get ready to go to lunch.


E-Wc-DE-\c-\-T_-]u-]--CP-q,
get to | NCc-R, || Do you think we will get to go to town today?
mN-lc-Tc-P-E-W-uE-T`-O-N-_E-]u-NCc-cU,
get up | 3=-=?-`Ec-R, || We get up early everyday to go to school.
*A/-<J:A-8R$?-0-}-3R<-E-W-3=-=?-`Ec-K-T-_-]u,
get warm | xP-R-qN-R, || Lets go inside the house and get warm.
E-W-BE-T]-PE-?R%-/?-=?-SR?-?-:)$
gift | `Cc-c, || She wanted to bring her friend a nice gift.
B-Uc-_E-C-uCc-R-`-`Cc-c-^C-R-ZC-]m_-]NN,
girl | T-U, || There is only one girl in our class. E-W]-]XP-_-T-U-CFC-`c-UN,
give | P-R, CPE-T, || Maybe someone will give us some money.
U-ZC-Cc-E-W_-_-U-]C]-P-^E-~N,
give . . . the message | EC-]zP-CKE-T, || Be sure to give her the message.
B-U_-EC-]zP-CKE--BC-MC-nc,
glass | a`, a`-S_, || He broke the glass window pane by accident. BcTc-U-`Cc-R_-a`-n-]-BE-TFCc, I would like to have a glass of hot
water. Ec-G-WP-N-a`-S_-CE-]ME-]NN,
go | ]u, || Dont go there. N_-U-]u,
go for a walk | ]GU-]GU-`-]u-T, || We like to go for a walk after lunch.
E-W-DE-\c-l-c-Pc-]GU-]GU-`-]u-T_-NC],
go for supper | NCE-\c-\-T_-]u-T, || Do you want to go for supper at that
restaurant? mN-_E-\-BE-N_-NCE-\c-\-T_-]u-]NN-NU,
go home | mU-O-`C-R, || He didnt want to go home right away.
B-_E-`U-cE-mU-O-`C-U-]NN,
go on | U-UMN, || She was so tired that she didnt think she could go on
working. B-U-ME-GN-xCc-Rc-U-UMN-O-E-ME-`-]u-MT-R_-U-TcUc,
go shopping | I-G-C-R_-]u-T, || I want to go shopping with my mother.
E-<%-$A-e-U-NE-UIU-O-I-G-C-L-]u-]NN,
go skating | ]mCc-bN-N-R, || We could go skating if the lake is frozen.
C`-K-UW-`-N_-GCc-5K-E-W-]mCc-bN-N-R_-]u-GC
go to bed | I`-T, || I told my sister to go to bed at eight oclock.
Ec-~E-U_-(-WN-TN-R]-E-I`-NCc-Zc-TaN,
go to class | T-tN-`-[Cc-R, || We have to go to class now.
get ready to |

403

N--E-W-Ec-R_-O-T-tN-`-[Cc-NCc,
go to the classroom | T-BE-O-]u-T, || After lunch we go to the
classroom. DE-\c-l-c-Pc-E-W-T-BE-O-]u,
goal | NUCc-^`, || If we work hard we will achieve our goals.
C`-K-E-Wc-]TN-R-qc-5K-E-W]-NUCc-^`-]uT-Ec-^P,
god | , || He did not know the name of the god in his villages temple.
Bc-B-W]--T]--BE-PE-C--N]-UE-UWP-U-ac,
gold | Cc_, || There is a lot of gold in Qinghai. UW-P-O-Cc_-UE-T-^N,
good | T\E-T, ^C-R, || She did a good job on her school paper.
B-Uc-T-]-.?-.J2-!J%-.-U-^C-=J$?-R-ZC-%J=-L%-,
Good idea! | MTc-UBc, MTc-^C-R, || Good idea! Lets go to the party now.
N-MTc-^C-R-ZC-_N, E-W-N---WCc-`-]u,
goodbye | TN-U-qc, || Goodbye. See you tomorrow.
TN-U-qc, cE-IP-UH`-^E-,
goodness | T\E-T, CPU-P-U, || She is so kind and full of goodness.
B-U-P-Cac-N-T\E-`-CZP-cUc-G, My goodness! That is a very big
problem. CPU-P-U, N-P-CPN-NP-d-FE-GP-R-ZC-_N,
goods | WE-\E-, || We had better return these goods to the shelves.
E-Wc-WE-\E-]N-W-p_-Cc-T-`-N-P-T\E-,
govern | NTE-_-T, || It takes many people to govern a nation.
`-BT-FC-NTE-_-qN-R_-U-UE-T-NCc,
government | ~N-C[E-, || The Chinese government is a large
organization. sE-C]-~N-C[E-P-C-]XCc-GP-R-ZC-_N,
grade | _-uEc, _U-R, `-_U, || What grade did you get on the test? mNlc-Cc-_-F-VU-Ec, My daughter is in Grade Two in primary
school. E]-T-U-P-T-GE-C-T-_U-CIc-R-^P,
grain | ]{-_Cc, || There are many piles of grain in the yard.
_-T]-PE-O-]{-Ec-UE-T-^N,
grand | C`-GP, || The store opening was a grand event.
-UE-WE-BE-C--pc-R-P-36.-|R-(J/-0R-ZC-_N,
granddaughter | W-U, || My mother loves her granddaughter very
much. E]e-U-B-U]-W-U-`-d-FE-ZP,
grandfather | -T, || My grandfather lives in our house.
E]--T-E-W]-mU-O-TN-^N,
1

404

grandma (grandmother, granny, gran) |

-U, || My grandma is eighty

E]--U-`-TN-F-^P,
grandparents |-T-NE--U, || Will your grandparents come to visit us?
mN-l--T-NE--U-CIc-E-W_-T-T_-]E--_N-NU,
grandson | W-T, || He was an obedient grandson. B-P-W-T-B-`P-UBP-ZC-_N,
grant | <R$?-.%=, <J-2-{R%-2, || I got a grant that will allow me to do
research on Tibetan folk songs for one year. E-`-TN-l-NUEc--`-CFC-<A%ZT-]HC-qN-R<-<R$?-.%=-MT, Perhaps he could grant three wishes. Bc-_T-CcU-{R%-lE-~N,
grass | , || The horses are eating the grass. -Uc-lc--\-TZP-]OC
grassland | -ME-, || Mgolog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture has much
grassland. UC-`C-L--ME-;%?-0R-^N,
great | NC], `Cc, || Its great to see you again.
mN-NE-^E-T_-]zN-R-aP-L-`Cc,
Great idea! | MTc-UBc-_N, || Great idea! I wish I had thought of that.
N-MTc-UBc-_N, Ec-N--U-Pc-xP-P-F-U-_E-,
green | E-B, || The trees turn green in the spring.
NoN-@_-E-T-Uc-E-B_-I<,
gray | -T, || The sky has been gray all day. IP-CE-T_-PU-UB]-:,A2?,
grind | ]MC-R, || We use this machine to grind the flour.
E-Wc-]z`-Gc-]N-N-N-p-]MC-R-^P,
ground | ME-, TEc-U, || The apples all dropped on the ground. A-b-MUcFN-ME-`-E-, I added some ground spices to the soup. Ec-B-T]-PE-O-{-PTEc-U-TKT,
group | WCc, _, || The group of students went out to play.
T-U-_-N-p-_--T_-cE-,
grow | ]NTc-R, || We grow many different kinds of vegetables.
E-Wc-WN-U-_Cc-UE-T-]NTc,
guarantee | BC-MC || This letter guarantees that the equipment will be
replaced if it breaks. ^-Gc-N_-GC-P-qE-5K-T--^P-R-^-C-]Nc-BC-MC-qN,
guard | ~E-NUC ~E-T, || The guard stood all night outside the building.
~E-NUC-N-UWP-CE-T_-BE-T]-p-_-`Ec, Dont be afraid because several
policemen are guarding your apartment. IP-C-R-]Cc-mN-l-aC-WE-~ETZP-^N-Rc-C-U-NCc,
years old.

405

Ec-UN-`-E-_-BC-C-NUC-U, Ec-UN-`-E-|| She showed me a


picture of a big black guerrilla in the jungle. B-Uc-E-`-PCc-CcT-L-N-R]Ec-UN-`-E-_-BC-C-NUC-U-=?-2R%?-G-ZE->-3.R$-PC-R-ZC-C-]x-R_-TP, He
was a guerrilla fighter during the last war. ,J%?-}R/-3:A-.3$-:O$-OR.-B-PEc-UN-`-E-C-]MT-U-T-ZC-^P,
guess | WN-NRC NRC-R, || Your guess is correct. mN-l-WN-NRC-]uC I cant
guess the answer to that question. Ec-x-T-N]-`P-NRC-U-MT,
guide | -aP-R, tN-R, || He wants to become a tour guide after he
finishes school. B-T--Pc-UM_-pP-c-^`-_--aP-R-ZC-qN-]NN, My
friend can guide you because he speaks three languages. E]-uCc-RcN-_Cc-CcU--Tc-Bc-mN-tN-MT,
guilty | Ic-R-^N-R, || The court found that he was guilty of a crime.
tUc-BE-Cc-B-`-tUc-]C`-n-Ic-R-^N-R-Cc,
gun | U-UN], U-UN]-]SP-R, || He doesnt know how to clean a gun.
Bc-U-UN]-H-_-$4%-S$-qN-o-U-ac, The criminal threatened to gun
down his hostages unless his demands were met. Ic-FP-nc-<%-$A]NN-R-3-TEc-5K-Bc-U-CK]-`-U-UN]-C--^P-R]-]HCc-`,
guerrilla | 1

d, || Ha! he laughed out loud. d Zc-B?-@2-(-.A<-<J<2o2,


hair | || She has such long and thick hair.
B-U_--_E-ZE-UMC-R-ZC-^N,
half | pN-@ W`-T, || Please cut the bread in half. C-_-N-pN-@_-CLT-NE-,
half an hour | (-WN-pN-@ || After half an hour I will go home.
(-WN-pN-@]-c-?-E-_E-^`-O-=R$--^P,
halt | N, || Halt! said the policeman to the thief running away.
N, IP-C-Rc-]{-TZP-R]-P-U_-N-_-TaN,
hand | _Cc-_U, `C-R, || If you cant do it by yourself, please tell me
and Ill give you a hand. C`-K-mN-_E-Cc-T-U-MT-5K, E-`-aN-NE-Ec-mN-`_Cc-q, The mother held the childs hand as they crossed the street.
-`U-T`-Tc-e-Uc-qc-R]-`C-R_-]Hc,
handbag | `C-BC || She put her money in her handbag.
ha |

406

B-Uc-<%-$A-_-U-`C-BC-PE-O-TFC
hang | ]C`-T, {J-#R3-0,|| We hang out the laundry when the sun is
shining. I-U-a_-T-P-E-Wc-CP-R-Uc-I-U_-, They will hang the criminal
1

tomorrow. ?%-*A/-#R-5S?-*J?-&/-.J:A-{J-2#3?-/?-$?R.-o-<J.,

]qE-T, || We all stood around waiting for something to happen.


E-W-WE-U-UM]-_-`Ec-K-$/?-5=-F-]qE-`-C-/?-TN,
happily | NC]-T]EE-, || The two sisters talked together happily. $&J/-$&%CIc-lc-NC]-T]-EE-UIU-O-B-T-qc,
happy | NC]-T, || I was happy to see my father coming down the street.
Ec-_E-C-e-S--~E-Pc-W_-MP-28A/-R-UME-Tc-NC]-3R-*J?,
happy birthday | c-_-`-Ts-ac-TN-`Cc-[, || We all sang Happy
Birthday at her birthday party. B-U]-c-_-n--WCc-E-Pc-E-W-WE-Uc
c-_-`-Ts-ac-TN-`Cc-[-Zc-R]--NqEc-Ec,
Happy New Year! | `-Cc_-T\E-, CPU-`-Cc_-T_-Ts-ac-TN-`Cc-[, ||
happen |

Everyone yelled, Happy New Year! when the clock struck

PU-DE-C-FE-T-uCc-R-NE-(2?-&A$-U-Uc-lc- `-Cc_-T\E-
Zc-]_-TT,
harbor | u-B, || There were many boats in the harbor. u-B-_-u-UE-T-^N,
hard | ]TN-R-GP-R, ~-U, UtCc-R, || She worked very hard at her studies.
B-Uc-T-E-`-]TN-R-GP-R-qc, Rocks are a hard material. {C--P-NEc-R-~-UZC-_N,
hard-working | ]TN-TP-FP, || They were all hard-working students.
B-W-WE-U-T-U-]TN-TP-FP-]T]-ZC-_N,
harm | CPN-]W, CPN-`-T, || Ill take care of you and make sure that
you dont come to harm. Ec-mN-`-CFc-E-q--^P-R-NE-mN-`-CPN-]W-U]qE-T]E-BC-MC-q, He was careful not to harm the animals. Bc-~C-GCc`-CPN-U-`-T_-cUc-GE-qc,
harvest | `-KC-C-MP-]TT, P-N-R, || The wheat harvest was bigger this
year than last year. N-`]-u]-MP-]TT-P-PE-`c-G, All the villagers help to
harvest the crops. -U-^Ec-lc-P-N-_Cc-qN,
has | ^N, || He has two children. B-`-qc-R-CIc-^N,
hat | -U, || Dont forget to wear your hat. mN-l--U-nP--U-TN,
hate | Z-E-, U-]NN-R, E-T, || Hate is the opposite of love. Z-E-PT-cUc-l-C--^P, I hate to see that child cry. Ec-qc-R-N-E-28A/-0-UMEmidnight.

407

U-]NN,
have | ^N, || Do you have any money? mN-`-_-U-^N-NU,
have a cup of tea | H-S_-T-CE-]ME-T, || Lets go and have a cup of tea.
E-W-?R%-Pc-H-S_-T-CE-]ME-2<-L,
have a good time | N-R-qN-R, --qN-R, || I think we will have a good
time on our journey. Ec-Tc-P-E-W]-Ec--`-.?-N-R-8A$-^E--_N,
have a look | -T, || We went to have a look at the mountains.
E-W-cE-Pc-_-`--_-qc-R-^P,
have a rest | E`-Cc-qN-R, || They stopped for a while to have a rest.
B-W-^N-VU-`-TN-N-E`-Cc-qc,
have a swim | G-`-T, || It was so hot that they decided to have a swim.
W-T-d-FE-G-Tc-B-Wc-G-`-`-]u--MC-TFN,
have breakfast | ZCc-\c-\-T, || Its important to have a good breakfast.
ZCc-\c-T\E-T-ZC-\--P-C`-G,
have lunch | DE-\c-\-T, || Where shall we have lunch?
DE-\c-`-E-Wc-F-ZC-T\]-]U,
have supper | NCE-\c-\-T, || Id like to have supper soon.
Ec-r_-O-NCE-\c-\-]NN,
have to | Ec-R_-O, || Do we have to go home now?
N--E-W-^`-=-Ec-R_-O-]u-NCc-cU,
he | B, || He didnt want to go. B-]u-U-]NN,
hed | Bc, || Hed always drink too much at parties.
Bc--WCc-E-PU-^E-e-_C-TLE-xCc-]u,
head | UC, || That horse has a big head. -N_-UC-GP-R-ZC-^N,
headquarters | -mT-`c-BEc, || That brick building is the police
headquarters. S-C]-c-SC-C-MC-BE-N-P--TN]--mT-`c-BEc-^P,
health | TN-ME-, `c-BUc, || Eating good food will improve your health.
\-U-T\E-T-\c-5K-=?-0R:C-TN-ME-H-`Cc-c-:PR
healthy | TN-ME-FP, || Getting enough exercise makes a healthy body.
E-T_-]NE-Ec-aC-qc-5K-`c-R-TN-ME-]E-,
hear | C-T, Mc-R, || Speak louder, I cant hear you.
N-UMP-Rc-aN-NE-Ec-mN-lc-TaN-R-C-U-MT,
heard | C-T, Mc-R, || I never heard what happened to them.
B-W_-F-qE-T-Ec-CKP-Pc-C-U-qE-,
408

E-, || He has some problem with his heart. B]-E-`-P-ZC-]OC


heat | W-T, || The heat in the summer feels good. Nq_-B]-W-T-P-TN-E-G,
heavy | N-R, || The load was too heavy for the donkey.
B`-N-TE-T-`-N-xCc-cE-,
helicopter | nP-]S_-CPU-u, || You dont see many helicopters in Xining.
\-`E-Pc-mN-lc-nP-]S_-CPU-u-UE-T-UME-U-MT,
hell | Nr`-T, || Some people believe hell is on earth.
U-`-`c-c]-C-`]-E-Nr`-T-^N-R_-^N-Gc-qN,
hello | e-_Cc, || Hello! How are you? e-_Cc, mN-TN-U,
help | _Cc-_U, _Cc-_U-qN-R, || I appreciate your help.
mN-l-_Cc-_U-`-MCc--G, We always like to help our teacher after
school. T-tN-l-c-c-E-W-P-R_-NC-P-`-_Cc-_U-qN-R_-NC],
her | B-U], || She didnt want to give her sister the book.
B-Uc-B-U]-~E-U_-NR-G-N-_-U-]NN,
here | ]N, || You are welcome here. mN-W-$/?-]N_-1J2?-0_-NC]-Tc-[,
hero | NR]-T, || Many boys want to become heroes.
T-UE-T-`-NR]-T-qN-]NN-^N,
hers | B-U], || She didnt know if the book was hers or her brothers.
B-Uc-NR-G-N-B-U]-^P-PU-U]-Q-T]-^P-R-U-ac,
herself | U-_E-IN, || She wanted to bake the bread all by herself.
B-U-$&A$-0?-C-_-T~C-]NN-c,
hey | d, || Hey! What are you doing over there?
d, mN-lc-N-P-F-ZC-qN-TZP-^N-NU,
hi | e-_Cc, || Hi! Nice to see you. e-_Cc, mN-NE-]zN-R_-NC]-T-qE-,
hide | CT-R, E-, || The child liked to hide behind the trees.
qc-R-N-E-T]-T-L-E-T_-NC],
high | UM-T, || That mountain is very high. _-T-N-d-FE-UM,
highland barley | Pc, || Highland barley is a common crop in this area.
Pc-P-c-G-]N]-P-]qUc-l-]{-_Cc-aC-_N,
hijack | TVP-tN, TVP-nc-tN-R, || The airplane hijack attempt occurred
when the plane was over the Atlantic Ocean. CPU-u-QT--UW-GP-R:A-2<$%-.-TVP-tN-qN-c-qc, The thieves hijacked the bus. HC-P-nc--NEc-]B_-N-TVP-nc-tN,
hill | N]-]T_, || That is only a small hill over there.
heart |

409

S-C]-N-P-N]-]T_-GE-GE-ZC-_N,
him | B, || Did you give the letter to him? mN-lc-^-C-N-B-`-e-qP,
himself | B-_E-IN, B-CFC-R, || He went to the festival by himself.
B-CFC-R_-Oc-GP-`-cE-,
his | B], || His hat was made out of fox skin. B]--U-P-Y-RCc-`c-T\c-R-_N,
history | `-c, || She didnt know the history of her village.
B-Uc-<%-$A--T]-`-c-{R<-U-ac,
hit | TE-T, || I told him not to hit his brother. Ec-B_-_E-C-Q-T-`-U-TE-Zc-`T,
hmm | ]P, || Hmm, I wonder how much this costs?
]P, ]N]-_P-CE-C-WN-^P,
hold | T\E-T, ]XP-R, || Would you like to hold the baby for a while?
mN-lc-qc-R-^N-VU-`-:6B/-e-]NN,
hole | BE-T, || The fox jumped into the hole. Y-U-N-BE-T]-PE-O-UGEc,
holiday | 2<-$?J%-, || During the winter we have a holiday from school.
NDP-B_-E-W_-T-:A-2<-$?J%-ZC-_,
holy | qP-Tc-FP, || We often go to visit the holy mountain.
E-W-Oc-P-z-<A-N_-UH`-T_-]u,
home | mU, || Do you think your brother is at home?
mN-lc-mN-l-S-T-mU-O-^N-R_-cUc-cU,
hometown | S-^`, || She always likes to go visit her hometown.
B-U-Oc-P-_E-C-S-^`-`--_-O-]u-T_-NC],
homework | `c-q, mU-E-, || The good students do their homework.
T-U-T\E-Tc-<%-$A-`c-q-]{,
honest | Cac-xE-, C[E-xE-, || She was an honest girl.
B-U-P-T-U-C[E-xE-ZC-_N,
honor| T-]HC || They wanted to honor their grandparents wishes.
B-Wc--T-NE--U-CIc-l-_-]OP-`-T-]HC-qN-]NN,
hope | _-T, _-T-]XP-R, || His biggest hope is that he will be able to
graduate from college and then get a good job. B]-_-T-Gc-GP-R-P-B-T-GP-U-Pc-UM_-pP-FE-N-Pc-q-T-T\E-T-ZC-N-MT--N-^P, We hope they dont
get caught in the rain. E-Wc-B-W-G_-T]-PE-O-U-`c-R]-_-T-]XP,
horrible | WTc-G-T, ^-E-T, || There was a horrible accident on the road.
-`U-E-O-NP-P-^-E-T-ZC-qE-]OC
horse | , || I like to ride my horse. E-_E-C--`-ZP-]NN,
1

410

P-BE-, || We had to take him to the hospital when he was sick.


B-P-Oc-E-Wc-B-P-BE-O-U-`-@-UN-qE-,
hostile | Z-E-FP, Z-E-]XP-R], || The people were hostile to the strangers.
UE-WCc-lc-U-c-UN-`-Z-E-]XP,
hostilities | Nu_-]XP-n-TcU-R, || Before a war there are usually some
smaller hostilities among people. NUC-]tC-U-qE-T]-P-O-U-NUEc-l-OR.-.Oc-P-Nu_-]XP-n-TcU-R-zP-VU-^N,
hot | W-U, || The soup is too hot to eat. B-T-d-FE-W-U-^P-Rc-]ME-N@],
hotel | UuP-BE-, || They just finished building a new hotel in town.
B-Wc-uE-T`-O-UuP-BE-ZC-TCc-Pc-]uT-U-MC-^P,
hour | Oc-WN, || I will be back in one hour.
E-_E-(-WN-CFC-C-eJ?-?-p_-`C-Ec-^P,
house | BE-T, || Would you like to come to our house for dinner?
mN-_E-E-W]-mU-O-NCE-\c-\-T_-]E-]NN-NU,
housework | mU-`c, || My sister doesnt do much housework.
E]-~E-Uc-mU-`c-UE-T-U-`c,
how | F-]x, H-_, || How long will it take to get there? CPc-N_-]q_-T_Oc-;/-F-]x-ZC-NCc, I dont know how you did it but Im glad you
did. mN-lc-NP-N-H-_-`c-R:A-{R<-Ec-U-ac-UN, ]P-lE-mN-lc-NP-TTc-\P-R-`E-NC]--c,
How are you? | mN-TN-U, || How are you? Im fine and you?
mN-TN-U, E-TN-U-^P, mN-TN-U-^P-PU,
how many | O, || How many brothers do you have? mN-`-P-O-^N,
how much | O, || How much money do you have? mN-`-_-U-O-^N,
how often | Oc-P-O, P-O-MEc-O-U, || How often do you go to the market?
mN-Oc-P-O-tU-__-]u-]U,
How old are you? | mN-_E-`-O-^P, || How old are you? Im ten years old.
mN-_E-`-O-^P, E-_E-`-TF-^P,
however | ]P-lE-, CE-_-lE-, || I dont know if its possible, however, you
can try. Ec-N-NR-U-NR-U-ac-UN, ]P-lE-mN-lc-WN--qN-GC
huge | GP-R, || I saw a huge animal on the mountain.
Ec-_-E-Pc-~C-GCc-GP-R-ZC-UME-,
human | U]-_Cc, || The people said the strange creature didnt look
human. U-Uc-lc-~C-GCc-G-UN-N-U]-_Cc-NE-U-UWEc-\_,
hospital |

411

TC-{-T, || He has an excellent sense of humor.


B-`-TC-{-T]-Cac-N-mN-UW_-ZC-^N,
hundred | T, || We learned how to count to a hundred in English class.
E-Wc-NqP-^C-C-T-tN-tN-eE-C-T-T_-T--Ec,
hunger | Cc, U-C || No one should die from hunger. 3A-?-;%-U-Cc-a-U-_E-,
hungry | Cc-R, || The child was crying because she was hungry.
T-U-N-Cc-Pc-E-TZP-^N,
hunt | P-R, _-Cc-P-R, || During the hunt one hunter accidentally shot
another hunter. _-Cc-P-Tc, P-R-ZC-Cc-Tc-U-]uC-R_-P-R-CZP-ZC-=-3J3.:-1R$-0<-L?, The older boys left to hunt wild animals. qc-R-G-T-Uc_-Cc-P-R_-cE-,
hurry | ]WT-G, r_-U_-]u-T, || Im not in a hurry so take your time. ]WTG-U-`Ec-R_-_E-E-nc, We had to hurry or be late for school. E-W-r_-U_]u-NCc, N-UP-T-]-c-c-`c-]u,
hurt | cUc-C c-R, c-P-SC-R, || It has taken me a long time to get
over the hurt you caused me. E-mN-lc-T`-T:A-cUc-C-`c-M_-T_-Oc-^P_E-T-]C_, Be careful. Dont hurt yourself using that hammer. C\TC\T-nc, -_c-_E-IN-c-c-U-]HC
husband | m-C || She was happy to find a nice husband.
m-C-T\E-T-ZC-N-L%-2<-B-U-NC]-0R-L%-,
humor |

E-, || I dont know when I will be home again.


Ec-<%-*A.-mU-O-p_-PU-=R$-U-ac,
ice | GT-_U, N_, || Do you think the water has turned to ice yet?
mN-lc-G-N<-N_-]GCc-^N-e-]NN,
idea | MTc, || It would be a good idea if you wore warm clothes.
mN-lc-CP-R-xP-R-nP-P-MTc-`Cc-R-ZC-^P,
if | C`-K, || If she knew him she would tell me.
C`-K-B-Uc-B-%R-ac-5K, B-Uc-E-`-.J:A-{R<-TaN-Ec-^P,
ill | P-T, P-W, || My grandmother was very ill last year.
P-PE-E]--U-d-FE-P-qE-,
illegal | tUc-]C`, || He didnt want to do anything illegal.
Bc-tUc-]C`-n-q-T-F-^E-TT-U-]NN,
imagine | TcU-WN-qN-R, NRC-R, ^N-WN-qN-R, || Can you imagine what a bird
I|

412

]NT-GCc-lc-F-ZC-UME-T-mN-lc-^N-WN-qN-MT-TU,
immediate | `U-cE-, || Mother said to come home immediately.
e-Uc-`U-cE-mU-O-aC-\_,
import | PE-]xP, || Our country needs to import certain goods.
E-W]-`-BT-lc-WE-\C-Ec-FP-ZC-PE-]xP-qN-NCc,
important | C`-GP, C`-G, || It is very important to go to school.
T-_-]u--P-d-FE-C`-G,
improve | CE-]S`, H-`Cc-c-CKE-T, || They bought the machines to
sees?

improve farming methods.

B-Wc-c-PU-qN-MTc-H-`Cc-c-CKE-T_-]z`-Gc-Cc_-T-ZC-Ic,
in | PE-, || In two years I will finish school.
`-CIc-l-eJ?-?-E-_E-T-UM_-pP--^P,
in bed | I`-c]-PE-, || She was so sick that she stayed in bed all day.
B-U-`-P-W-N-U-SC-^N-Rc-IP-CE-T_-I`,
in Chinese | -^C-Cc, || That book is written in Chinese.
NR-G-N--^C-Cc-TUc,
in English | NqP-^C-Cc, || Do you know how to write a letter in English?
mN-lc-NqP-^C-Cc-]zP-^C-]{-ac-cU,
in front of | UOP-O, || I waited for him in front of the school.
E-_E-T-]-UOP-O-B-`-TCc-R-^P,
in line | u`-O, || We had to stand in line at the cinema.
E-W-c-C_-BE-O-:6=-T_-Ec-R_-O-u`-C-NCc-qE-,
in luck | Tc-]uC-R, || I think we are in luck. Here comes the bus.
Ec-E-W-Tc-]uC-cE-cUc, ]N-_--N-Ec-]B_-MP-qE-,
in the classroom | T-BE-PE-O, || The teacher is usually in the classroom.
NC-P-PU-P-T-BE-O-^N,
in the desk | UOP-FC-C-PE-O, || She likes to keep her pencils in the desk.
B-U-_E-C-Z-C-Uc-UOP-FC-PE-O-]HC-R_-NC],
in the end | UHC-UM_, || In the end he agreed it was a good idea.
UHC-UM_-N-P-MTc-Hc-`Cc-R-ZC-^P-R_-B-]MN-R-qE-,
in the kitchen | C^c-BE-PE-, || It is very warm in the kitchen.
C^c-BE-PE-d-FE-x,
in the toilet | N-BE-, || Hes in the toilet now. N--B-N-BE-PE-O-^N,
in Tibetan | TN-N-lc, || We can all say that in Tibetan.
413

E-W-WE-Uc-N-TN-N-lc-TaN-ac,
in trouble | C-x, || I hope they dont get in trouble for being late again.
B-W-^E-T_-Tc-]p-Pc-C-U-rE-T_-Ec-_-T-qN,
incident | NP-P, || The newspaper reported the incident in great detail.
WCc-R_-E-NP-P-N-c-R_-T@N-]OC
incite | E-T, NsC-aE-]SP-R, || It was said that those boys incited a riot.
TaN-R-_-P-qc-R-N-Wc-\E-G-ZC-TEc,
include | ]Oc-R, || She wanted to be included in planning the party.
B-U--WCc-]G_-]CN-qN-R]-P?-?-[Cc-]NN,
increase | ]S_-T, H-UM_-CKE-T, || Im worried about my recent weight
increase. N-ZC-E?-<%-$A-=?-0R:C-N-WN-]S_-T-`-Ec-cUc-B_-qN, They might
have to increase the price of meat soon. B-Wc-U-]nE-T_-a-CE-H-UM_-CKENCc-P-~N,
independent | _E-UC-MP-R, _E-TVP-FP, || She is an independent woman.
B-U-P-_E-UC-MP-R]-TN-UN-FC-^P,
industry | T\-`c, || The tobacco industry makes money from selling
cigarettes. M-UC-T\-`c-lc-M-UC-TVEc-K-B-T\E-=R/,
inflation | NE`-`_-]uU-M`-a_-T, || Inflation can lower the value of
money. NE`-`_-]uU-M`-a_-5K-NE`-`]-]X]-ME-U_-($-Ec,
influence | bCc-P, || The leaders have a great influence over the
country. ]C-tN-Uc-lc-`-BT-;R%?-`-bCc-P-GP-R-`,
inform | TCc-R, T-TKE-T, || The radio program didnt inform the people
about the storm in time. E-TCc-`-WP-PE-O-U-Uc-`-xC-G_-n-T-Oc-MC-LU-TKE-,
injure | c-R, || I injured my foot when I fell the other day.
E-IP-ZC-ME-`-]n`-K-_E-C-E-T-c,
innocent | Z-E-NC-R, || She looks so innocent in that pretty dress.
B-Uc-CP-R-^C-R-N-nP-5K-Z-E-NC-R-]OC
insane | c-R, || That man screaming over there is insane.
S-C_-]_-C-TZP-R]-U-N-c-]OC
insect | ~P-]T, || I thought I saw an insect under the bed.
Ec-U`-t]-]C-L-~P-]T-ZC-^N-R-UME-qE-,
inside | PE-O, || Shall we go inside the house? E-W-BE-T]-PE-O-]u--^P-PU,
inside | PE-O, || They wanted to keep the puppy inside the house.
1

414

B-Wc-m-zC-N-BE-T]-PE-O-]HC-]NN,
inspect | ZT-Ta_, || The police came to inspect the building.
IP-C-R-Uc-BE-T-N_-ZT-Ta_-qN-R_-]Ec,
instead | `c, || Instead of meat he wanted to eat vegetables.
Bc-a-`c-WN-U-\-T_-]NN,
instrument | _`-Gc, || Do you know how to play a musical instrument?
mN-lc-_`-Gc-aC-Ns`-ac-cU,
insult | NU]-]TTc, NU]-]TTc-qN-R, || His insult made me angry. B]-NU]]TTc-lc-E-BE-t-`Ec-c-TFC He didnt want to insult anyone. Bc-c-`]ENU]-]TTc-qN-U-]NN,
intelligent | ]R-PR?-w/-0, || The scholar is very intelligent. UBc-R-N-/A-]R-PR?1

GA?-K$

xC-R, || The heat in the summertime is intense. Nq_-B]-5-$.$-(J,


interest | N-@ -E-, || What percent interest does the bank pay on
one-year deposits? NE`-BE-Nc-`-CFC-^P-n-NE`-CcC-`-N-@-T-G]-&A-43_, Do you have any interest in studying English? mN-`-NqP-^C-ET]--E-^N-NU,
interesting | -E-P-R, || I find traveling to other places is interesting.
Ec-CPc-CZP-O-Ec--qN-R-P--E-P-R-ZC-^P-R-ac,
interfere | M-CKCc, T_-GN-CKE-T, || His mother wanted to interfere in their
neighbors business. B]-e-Uc-B-W]-mU-UWc-l-NP-NC-`-M-CKCc-qN-]NN,
international | `-], || They waited at the airport for the international
flight to arrive. B-W-CPU-u-]TT-ME-O-`-]-CPU-u-]q_-T_-TCc,
intervene | T_-]OU, || The teacher had to intervene in the fight between
two boys. NC-P-nc-qc-R-N-CIc-l-]XE-_c-`-T_-]OU-qN-NCc-qE-,
into | PE-O, || It was difficult getting into the sleeping bag.
I`-BC-L-]X`--P-N@]-U-ZC-_N,
invade | TVP-]X`-qN-R, || The enemy was going to invade in the morning.
-x_-Nu-Tc-TVP-]X`-qN-c-qc,
invent | Cc_-CKN-qN-R, || China invented paper. sE-Cc-aC-T-Cc_-CKN-qc,
invest | U-NE`-CKE-T, || If you put your money in the bank they will
invest it for you. C`-K-mN-lc-mN-l-_-U-NE`-BE-O-TF`-5K, B-Wc-mN-l-WT-qcPc-U-NE`-CKE--_N,
investigate | ZT-Ta_-qN-R,, || The police needed to investigate the crime.
intense |

415

IP-C-Rc-Ic-FP-N_-ZT-Ta_-qN-NCc-qE-,
invite | CNP-[-qN-R, || I will invite her to my home for dinner.
Ec-B-U-E]-mU-O-\-U-\-T_-CNP-[-qN--^P,
involve | [Cc-R, M-T, || Its better not to involve too many people in the
problem. CPN-NP-]N]-PE-O-U-[Cc-UBP-UE-xCc-P-T\E--UN,
iron | Cc, || The hammer is made out of iron. M-T-N-P-Cc-`c-T\c,
is bad for | CPN-G, || Smoking is bad for you.
M-UC-]MP-0-.J-mN-GA-=?-0R:C-2.J-,%-=-CPN-G,
is different from | mN-R_-P-R, || Frying food is different from baking.
U-\c-NE-\-U-T~Cc-U-CIc-`-mN-R_-^N,
is good at | `-T\E-T, || He is good at English. B-NqP-^C-`-T\E-,
is good for | `-SP-R, || Exercise is good for you.
=?-l=-E-T_-P-HR.-GA-`c-SE-`-SP,
is out | UHC-Cc-R, W_-T, || School is out for the summer after one
month. T---T-CFC-C-c-c-UHC-Cc-]u, The shop is out of salt.
WE-BE-Nc-NEc-R-TVEc-W_,
island | E-zP, || Have you ever been on a desert island?
mN-_E-q-U]-E-zP-ZC-L-]u-rE-EU,
issue | CPc-W`, q-T, NR_, || The newspaper reports on many issues.
WCc-R_-E-KR$?-3%-0R:C-CPc-W`-T@N-]OC When will the publishing
house issue their next book? R_-P-BE-Cc-,J%?-eJ?-3:A-NR-G-PU-WN-NR_-_N,
It doesnt matter. | P-UN-R, || It doesnt matter how long you stay.
mN-_E-^P-F-VU-TN-lE-P-UN,
its | N-P, N-P, || Its your turn to do the dishes. (N-P)-_-U-]tN-_c-mN-^P,
jail | TVP-BE-, TVP-BE-O-]HC-R, || The mother was sad to hear
that her son was going to jail. T-TVP-BE-O-]u-NCc-R:A-{R<-Mc-Rc-eU]-cUc-d-FE-, The police will jail you if you commit a crime.
C`-K-mN-lc-PC-Ic-TcCc-5K-IP-C-BE-Cc-mN-=-TVP-]HC-LJ.-%J?,
January | --NE-T, || January is a cold month in this area.
c-]N-_---NE-T-P--T-uE-U-ZC-^P,
Japanese | ]H_-RP-N, || Are you learning how to speak Japanese?
mN-lc-]H_-RP-N-E-TZP-^N-NU,
jewel | _P-R-G, || She kept a precious jewel in a box.
1

416

B-Uc-U-GE-ZC-C-PE-`-_P-R-G--GP-ZC-I_,
job | q-T, || He hopes to get a good job after school.
Bc-T-UM_-pP-c-q-T-`Cc-R-ZC-N-R_-_-C-qN,
join | [Cc-R, || She will join the army someday.
B-U-PU-ZC-NUC-`-[Cc--_N,
joint | UMN-UWUc, UIU-]{`-n, || The joint in the water pipe is broken.
G-C-C-UMN-UWUc-N-Cc-\P, Our joint effort resulted in success. E-W]UIU-]{`-n-`-T-`-`-B-MT,
joke | A-_, !-<J-lJ-2,|| He always likes to tell a good joke. B-P-R_-A-_-_-NC], Please, dont joke with me! %-=-!-<J-3-lJ-<R$?,
judge | TC-UBP, Z`--T, T_-a-CFN-R, || The teacher is a very good
judge of character. NC-P-N-P-Cac-@-TC-UBP-T\E-T-ZC-^P, Dont judge
people until you know them well. mN-lc-U-$8/-`-G-c-T\E-T-3-`P-T_-OT_-a-U-CFN,
July | --TOP-R, || July is a month during the summer.
--TOP-R-P-Nq_-B]--T-ZC-^P,
jump | UGE-T, ||The children like to jump into the river.
qc-R-Uc-G]-PE-UGE-_-NC],
June | --xC-R, || June is a lovely month for looking at flowers.
--xC-R-P-U-KC-`-C\Cc-R]--T-N-R-ZC-_N,
jungle | PCc-T, || There is no jungle in Qinghai. UW-P-O-PCc-T-UN,
jury | ]x-CFN-`c-_Cc-WCc-R, || The jury decided that the man was guilty.
]x-CFN-`c-_Cc-WCc-Rc-U-N_-Ic-R-^N-R_-MC-CFN-qc,
just | KC-KC || The bus arrived just in time. -N-Ec-]B_-Oc-,R$-+-]q_,
1

N-R, I_-CcC-qN-R, || Keep quiet! Mother is


sleeping. B-_C-C_-N, e-U-I`-^N, How much of the money
do you want to keep for yourself? mN-lc-_E-`-_-U-&A-43-I_CcC-qN-]NN,
keep busy | {`-T]-EE-N-R, || My father always likes to
keep busy. E]-e-S-PU-o/-{`-T]-EE-N-_-NC],
keep healthy | `c-R-TN-T_-N-R, || You must eat good food if you want to
keep healthy. C`-K-mN-lc-<%-$A-`c-R-TN-T_-N-TcU-5K-\-U-T\E-T-T\]-NCc,
kick | ]z-^c-C-R, C-C-C[-T, ||The horse kicked me in the leg.
keep | 1

417

-Nc-E]-T-MC-`-]z-^c-TT,
kidnap | TVP-tN, T-tN-qN-R, || It is illegal to kidnap anyone.
U-T-tN-qN-R-P-tUc-]C`-^P,
kill | CcN-R, Ta]-T, || They kill chickens and sheep for the market.
B-Wc-q-NE-`C-Tac-K-WE-__-CKE-,
kilo (kilogram) | -, || Ill buy a kilo of oranges.
Ec-W-`-U---CFC-I--^P,
kilometer | -`, || We walked one kilometer to his home.
E-W-B-WE-`--`-CFC-C-`U-`-cE-,
kind | T-cUc-FP, _Cc, || My teacher is kind. E]-NC-P-P-T-cUc-FP-ZC^P, What kind of husband do you want? mN-lc-m-C-_Cc-CE-ZC-]NN,
kinds of crops | ]{-_Cc--WCc, || I grow all kinds of crops.
Ec-]{-_Cc--WCc-]NTc,
kiss | ], || Mother gave me a kiss when I left home. %-HA3-.%-#-V=-{2?e-Uc-%-=-:R-8A$-L?,
kite | aC-q, || The kite flew into the sky. aC-q-PU-UB_-]S_-cE-,
knife | u, || My knife is long. E]-u-P-_E-,
know | ac, || I dont know English very well.
Ec-NqP-^C-d-FE-^C-R-ZC-U-ac,
1

WN--BE-, || Scientists do their work in a


laboratory. WP-_C-R-i3c-GA?-WN--BE-O-<%-$A-q-T-T,
labor | E`-`-qN-R, E`-`, || I labor every day under harsh
working conditions. IP-__-Ec-CPc-TT-C-R-Pc-E`-`-qN-NCc,
Building a road requires hard labor. o-`U-ZC-`c-0<-E`-`BC-R-qN-NCc,
lack | U-]NE-T, || For lack of money she had to wear old shoes.
_-U-U-]NE-T]-P-nc-B-Uc-U-E-T-U-nP-MTc-UN-qE-,
ladder | c, || I will climb a ladder to reach the roof top.
E-_E-c-`-]XCc-K-BE-T]-N-O-]u--^P,
lake | UW, || Qinghai Lake is very large. UW-P-R-d-FE-o-G,
lama | -U, || The lama prays in the temple. -Uc--BE-PE-O-Cc`-T-]NTc,
lamb | `-D, || The baby lamb was brought into the tent.
`-D-N-]-PE-O-m_-^E-,
laboratory |
1

418

c-ZE-, ]TT-R, || How much land does your family have? mN-WE-`c-ZE-&A-VU-^N, Our airplane was forced to land in the ocean. E-W]-CPUu--UW]-PE-O-]TT-NCc-qE-,
language | N, N-_Cc, || We are learning to speak the English language
in school. E-Wc-T-_-NqP-N-TaN--E-TZP-^N,
large | GP-R, TEc-GP-R, || She is a large woman. B-U-P-TN-UN-=?-2R%?-GP-R-&/ZC-_N,
last | UHC || Im always last in line. E-PU-^E-u`-UHC-^P,
last month | -P-U, || Last month was my birthday.
E]-c-_-P--P-U]-PE-^P,
last time | MEc-P-U, || The last time I saw you, you were ill.
Ec-MEc-P-U_-mN-3,R%-Tc-mN-_E-P-TZP-^N,
last week | C\]-]B_-P-U, || I saw that movie last week.
C\]-]B_-P-U]-PE-Ec-C-TP-N_-Tc,
last year | P-PE-, || Last year I studied French.
P-PE-Ec-q-_P-c]-^-C-Ec-R-^P,
late | c-c-`c-R, || Dont be late for class! T-tN-l-c-`-`c-c-U-]HC
land | 1

later | eJ?-/?,KA-3, || I dont want to leave the party now, I want to leave

.-v-%-3R-5S$?-=?-KA<-:2.-3A-:.R.-0?-&%-43-:$R<-eJ?-:PR-o-;A/,

later.

c-c_, || Later on lets go to your home. c-c_-E-W-mN-WE-O-]u,


laugh | TZN-CN, NCN-R, || When I hear his laugh I also laugh. Ec-mN-l.$R.-1-Mc-5K, E-^E-NCN-:PR When I laugh I am happy. E-_E-NCN-Tc, _E?J3?-N-R-<J.,
laugh at | BE-NCN-qN-R, || When you fell we laughed at you.
mN-_E-ME-`-]n`-0-/-E-Wc-mN-`-BE-NCN-L?-R-^P,
laugh with | UIU-O-TCN-R, || When you tell a joke, we laugh with you.
mN-lc-A-_--Tc-E-W-mN-NE-UIU-O-TCN-R-^P,
launch | UEC-CKE-qN-R, CKE-T, || When they are finished building the ship
they must launch it. B-Wc-u-N-`c-W_-T-NE-G-`-CKE-NCc,
law | tUc-`Cc, || The court system upholds the law.
tUc-BE-C-]XCc-lc-tUc-`Cc-~E-E-qN,
lead | UXT-tN, tN-R, || I will follow your lead. Ec-mN-l-UXT-tN-`-IP--^P,
You can lead a horse to water, but you cant make it drink. mN-lc-ZC-G-B_-tN-MT-UN, ]P-lE-mN-lc-g-.J<-TVP-nc-G-]ME-T_-]HC-U-MT,
later on |
1

419

]XC a_, || The windows in our classroom leak when it rains.


G_-T-]TT-Tc-E-W]-T-BE-C-]-BE-Pc-G-]XC
learn | T-R, || Will you learn Tibetan next year?
mN-lc-`-c-U_-TN-^C-T--^P-PU,
learned | Mc-R-FP, TTc-R, || He is a very learned monk. B-P--Td-FE-Mc-o-FP-ZC-_N, He learned almost nothing. Bc-S`-G_->J?-LF-^E-U