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Chapter 22 Objectives

What is the history of evolutionary thought?

What theories were developed before Darwin? Who was Charles Darwin and what lead him to write the Origin of Species?

How does natural selection work? What were the observations and inferences that Darwin developed?

What evidence do we have that evolution has occurred?

What is the controversy surrounding evolution and why does it exist?

What is part of evolution and what is not part of evolution? Chapter 22 Pre-requisites Basic understanding of evolution

Should have covered this a little in 1107

Ability to think scientifically

Intro science courses should have started this as well Evolution Central theme of biology Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution

Explains lifes diversity, shared characteristics (unity), and adaptation Evolutionary Thought 1.14, 22.2 Plato & Aristotle

Scala naturae

Natural theology


Acceptance of change

Catastrophism vs. uniformitarianism

Carolus Linnaeus Taxonomy

Binomial nomenclature Evolutionary Thought 22.4


Inheritance of acquired characteristics Charles Darwin 22.5

Species can change Species are adapted to their environments Use and disuse

Voyage of HMS Beagle 1831-1836 Surveyed South America

Darwin traveled throughout S. America South American Fauna 22.6

Results of Darwins Voyage

Life on Earth isnt static

Immutability is wrong

The Earth has changed in many ways Changes tend to be relatively gradual

Species are not the same everywhere in the world

Given this, how are species changing and why? Adaptation Species seem to be well-suited to their environmentsbut

The environment is changing

What mechanism allows a species to change?

Could this be a mechanism for producing new species? On the Origin of Species Published in 1859

Originally developed in the 1840s

Why the delay?

Produced the first reasonable mechanism to explain how adaptation occurred. On the Origin of Species 22.7-.8 Descent with modification

Species derive from a common ancestor Groups subordinate to groups

Natural selection

NOT survival of the fittest Natural Selection 22.10, .11

Mechanism for evolution

Observation 1 Individuals vary and variation is often heritable

Observation 2 Overproduction of offspring due to limited resources

Inference 1 There is a struggle for existence where success in the environment is not random

Inference 2

Favorable characteristics will accumulate in the population over time Selection Key Points

Selection acts on individuals but individuals do not evolve, populations do Variation must be heritable for selection to act on it Selection does not create the variation, it just selects it

There is no foresight/planning to selection Any trait must be beneficial (or at least neutral) to be retained

Therefore, selection is not expected (or required) to produce perfection

What is selected depends on the specific environment you are examining

How does it work? Selection at Work 22.9, .12 Evolutionary Mechanisms

Selection is about more than just survival

Is selection the only mechanism?


What are others? Mutation Genetic drift Gene flow (sometimes called migration) Mating behavior

The end result of evolution is the sum of these mechanisms Evidences for Evolution

What types of information can support the ideas of evolutionary biology?

Biogeography Direct observations 22.13

Direct observations Homology Fossils

Soapberry bug beaks Direct observations 22.14 Drug-resistant bacteria Homology 22.15, .16

Based on similarity between organisms What is similar? Developmental evidence

Molecular evidence Homology 22.17 Evolutionary trees

Vestigial structures

Evolutionary history can sometimes cause unexpected results Convergent evolution 22.18 Analogous traits & homoplastic traits* Fossils 22.15, .16

Can provide evidence or test hypotheses Biogeography 22.5,25.14

Endemic species Evolution The Controversy What it is:

Life changes in response to its environment Life comes from pre-existing life

What it is not: Origin of life Humans from monkeys Beginning of the universe

There are hypotheses that deal with these topics, but they are not required for evolution Evolution The Controversy

Cumulative vs. non-cumulative selection

Tornado in a junkyard 747 Evolution The Controversy Is evolution just a theory or is it a fact What is a theory?

Many scientific ideas are both a fact and a theory Evolution The Controversy

It is NOT a guess or a hunch (hypothesis) Explains a large number of observations Has a very broad scope Supported by a large body of evidence Gravity is just as much of a theory as evolution

Does it occur?


What course did evolution take? Factual and theoretical

What mechanism does it use? Factual and theoretical

Is evolution a theory in crisis

Do we get to vote in science? Evolution The Controversy Beware of science done through press conferences and websites