Sunteți pe pagina 1din 34

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH

7(25,$ *5$)85,/25
 '58085, '( 9$/2$5( 237,0 3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GH PDL MRV Y 



D 6 VH J VHDVF GUXPXO GH YDORDUH PLQLP GH OD YkUIXO Y OD YkUIXO Y  E 6 VH YHULILFH GDF JUDIXO DUH FLUFXLWH F ([LVW GUXP GH YDORDUH PD[LP " 'DF GD FDUH HVWH YDORDUHD DFHVWXLD" 3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GH PDL MRV Y  Y  Y D E F G

    Y

 Y

    Y

6 VH J VHDVF GUXPXO GH YDORDUH PLQLP GH OD YkUIXO Y OD YkUIXO Y  6 VH YHULILFH GDF JUDIXO DUH FLUFXLWH ([LVW GUXP GH YDORDUH PD[LP " 'DF GD FDUH HVWH YDORDUHD DFHVWXLD" 5H]ROYD L SXQFWXO D FX DOJRULWPXO OXL )RUG VLPSOLILFDW DSRL FX DOJRULWPXO OXL 'LMNVWUD L FRPSDUD LOH GXS HIRUWXO GH FDOFXO H $FHHDL vQWUHEDUH GH OD SXQFWXO G  GDF YDORDUHD DUFXOXL Y Y DU IL  L D DUFXOXL Y Y DU IL  





 



 



3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GH PDL MRV


7HRULD JUDIXULORU

 

Y 

 Y

3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GH PDL MRV



D E F G

6 VH J VHDVF GUXPXO GH YDORDUH PLQLP GH OD YkUIXO Y OD YkUIXO Y  6 VH YHULILFH GDF JUDIXO DUH FLUFXLWH ([LVW GUXP GH YDORDUH PD[LP " 'DF GD FDUH HVWH YDORDUHD DFHVWXLD" 5H]ROYD L SXQFWXO D FX DOJRULWPXO OXL )RUG JHQHUDOL]DW DSRL FX DOJRULWPXO OXL %HOOPDQ L FRPSDUD LOH GXS HIRUWXO GH FDOFXO

 

  Y



 Y 

D E F G

6 VH J VHDVF GUXPXO GH YDORDUH PLQLP GH OD YkUIXO Y OD YkUIXO Y  6 VH YHULILFH GDF JUDIXO DUH FLUFXLWH ([LVW GUXP GH YDORDUH PD[LP " 'DF GD FDUH HVWH YDORDUHD DFHVWXLD" 5H]ROYD L SXQFWXO D FX DOJRULWPXO OXL )RUG VLPSOLILFDW DSRL FX DOJRULWPXO OXL %HOOPDQ L FRPSDUD LOH GXS HIRUWXO GH FDOFXO

 Y

 



 



 Y

 Y

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH 3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GH PDL MRV

 



 

 Y

 

3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO QHRULHQWDW GH PDL MRV   

D V VH VFULH PDWULFHD JUDIXOXL RULHQWDW FRUHVSXQ] WRU E 6 VH J VHDVF vQ DFHVWD GUXPXO GH YDORDUH PLQLP GH OD YkUIXO Y OD YkUIXO Y IRORVLQG DOJRULWPXO OXL %HOOPDQ DSRL DO OXL )RUG JHQHUDOL]DW F ([LVW GUXP GH YDORDUH PD[LP vQWUH Y L Y " 'DF GD FDUH HVWH YDORDUHD DFHVWXLD" 





  Y

 Y

 Y

 

     Y



D E F G

6 VH J VHDVF GUXPXO GH YDORDUH PLQLP GH OD YkUIXO Y OD YkUIXO Y  6 VH YHULILFH GDF JUDIXO DUH FLUFXLWH ([LVW GUXP GH YDORDUH PD[LP " 'DF GD FDUH HVWH YDORDUHD DFHVWXLD" 5H]ROYD L SXQFWXO D FX DOJRULWPXO OXL )RUG JHQHUDOL]DW DSRL FX DOJRULWPXO OXL 'LMNVWUD L FRPSDUD LOH GXS HIRUWXO GH FDOFXO

 

 Y



 

 Y  Y



 Y

3UREOHPD  2 ILUP LQGXVWULDO DUH OD GLVSR]L LH PDL PXOWH YDULDQWH WHKQRORJLFH GH SUHOXFUDUH D XQXL SURGXV 9DULDQWHOH VXQW UHGDWH SULQ VXFFHVLXQHD XQRU DUFH DGLDFHQWH FDUH UHSUH]LQW ID]HOH GH SUHOXFUDUH D SURGXVXOXL QRGXULOH JUDIXOXL UHSUH]HQWkQG VWDGLL GH SUHOXFUDUH )LHF UHL ID]H GH SUHOXFUDUH vL FRUHVSXQGH XQ FRVW SDU LDO GH SUHOXFUDUH FRQGXFHUHD ILUPHL XUPkQG V DOHDJ YDULDQWD FDUH SHUPLWH RE LQHUHD FRVWXOXL PLQLP SULQ FDUH VH SRDWH DMXQJH GH OD PDWHULD SULP 03 OD SURGXVXO ILQLW ) 

7HRULD JUDIXULORU


03

    

 6

6 



 )

3UREOHPD  2 vQWUHSULQGHUH DUH OD GLVSR]L LH PDL PXOWH YDULDQWH WHKQRORJLFH GH SUHOXFUDUH D XQXL SURGXV Q WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV VXQW GDWH FRVWXULOH SDU LDOH GH SUHOXFUDUH SHQWUX RSHUD LL H[WUDVH GLQ HYLGHQ HOH vQWUHSULQGHULL 6 ILLQG VWDGLLOH GH SUHOXFUDUH DOH SURGXVXOXL
  

&RQGXFHUHD ILUPHL GRUHWH V DOHDJ YDULDQWD FDUH SHUPLWH RE LQHUHD FRVWXOXL PLQLP SULQ FDUH VH SRDWH DMXQJH GH OD PDWHULD SULP 6 OD SURGXVXO ILQLW 6  3UREOHPD  2 ILUP GH PHVDJHULH RIHU VHUYLFLL GH WUDQVSRUW OD  FHQWUH GH OLYUDUH 3RVLELOLW LOH GH WUDQVSRUW SUHFXP L FRVWXULOH DIHUHQWH DX IRVW UHSUH]HQWDWH vQ JUDIXO GH PDL MRV  &
 

 

6 VH J VHDVF FHOH PDL LHIWLQH WUDVHH GH OD ILUP OD FHOH  FHQWUH GH OLYUDUH 

&

&

&

 

&

&



 





&



 



 

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

6          

6          

&



6          

6          

6          

6          

6          

6          

6          

6          



&



&

 

 &

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH 3UREOHPD  3LDWUD QHFHVDU FRQVWUXLULL XQXL EDUDM HVWH DGXV GH OD R FDULHU DIODW OD PDUH GLVWDQ  QWUH FDULHU L ORFXO GH DPSODVDUH DO EDUDMXOXL H[LVW PDL PXOWH YDULDQWH GH WUDVHX XUPkQG VWUXFWXUD UH HOHL QD LRQDOH GH WUDQVSRUW UHSUH]HQWDW vQ JUDIXO GH PDL MRV

 &  

3HQWUX ILHFDUH UXW VH FXQRDWH FRVWXO WUDQVSRUWXOXL D  WRQH vQ VXWH PLL OHL DFHVWD GHSLQ]kQG GH WLSXO WUDQVSRUWXOXL FDOH IHUDW  RVHD HWF  FDOLWDWHD GUXPXOXL OXQJLPHD DFHVWXLD HWF 6 VH GHWHUPLQH WUDVHXO GH OD FDULHUD & OD EDUDMXO % FDUH YD DVLJXUD FRVWXO PLQLP DO WUDQVSRUWXOXL 3UREOHPD  8Q MXF WRU WUHEXLH V DMXQJ GH OD LQWUDUHD , OD LHLUHD ( D XQHL V OL D F UHL SDGHOH HVWH DFRSHULW FX GDOH ILHFDUH GDO F OFDW DGXFkQGXL DFHVWXLD FkWLJXO vQVFULV SH DFHDVWD Q FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH MXF WRUXO SRDWH WUHFH GH OD R GDO GRDU OD XQD GLQ FHOH WUHL GDOH vQYHFLQDWH OD VWkQJD V VH DIOH WUDVHXO FDUH DU DGXFH FkWLJXO PD[LP   ,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (  

'DF YDORULOH WUHFXWH SH GDOH DU UHSUH]HQWD SLHUGHUL DOH MXF WRUXOXL FDUH DU IL WUDVHXO RSWLP" 'DF OD ILHFDUH WUHFHUH MXF WRUXO DU SXWHD WUHFH OD RULFDUH GLQ FHOH  GDOH vQYHFLQDWH FDUH DU IL WUDVHXO GH YDORDUH PLQLP GH OD LQWUDUH OD LHLUH vQ DFHVW FD]" 3UREOHPD  )RORVLQG XQ PHUV DO WUHQXULORU V VH J VHDVF WUDVHXO SH FDUH VH DMXQJH FHO PDL UHSHGH GH OD &RQVWDQ D OD 6DWX 0DUH L RUD OD FDUH SXWHP DMXQJH GDF QH DIO P vQ &RQVWDQ D OD RUD  $FHHDL FHULQ GH OD 6XFHDYD OD 7LPLRDUD 7UDVHXO HVWH DFHODL L vQ VHQV LQYHUV" 'DU GDF GRULP DFHDVWD DIOkQGXQH vQ JDUD GH SRUQLUH OD RUD  GLPLQHD D"

























 



 

 









  

  

%  /

7HRULD JUDIXULORU  $5%25, '( 9$/2$5( 237,0 3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GH PDL MRV [

D $IOD L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PLQLP DSOLFkQG DOJRULWPXO OXL .UXVNDO E * VL L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PD[LP IRORVLQG DOJRULWPXO OXL 6ROOLQ 3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GH PDL MRV

D &kWH DUFH DUH XQ DUERUH SDU LDO DO DFHVWXL JUDI" E $IOD L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PLQLP DSOLFkQG YDULDQWD DOJRULWPXOXL OXL .UXVNDO F * VL L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PD[LP IRORVLQG DOJRULWPXO OXL 6ROOLQ



 

 [

 [   [

 [ 

 

 [  [

 [

 [

  [ 

 [   [

 

 

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH 3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GLQ ILJXUD XUP WRDUH [

 

[ 

    

 

D &kWH DUFH DUH XQ DUERUH SDU LDO DO DFHVWXL JUDI" E $IOD L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PLQLP DSOLFkQG DOJRULWPXO OXL 6ROOLQ F * VL L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PD[LP IRORVLQG DOJRULWPXO OXL .UXVNDO 3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GLQ ILJXUD XUP WRDUH

 [

  [

D &kWH DUFH DUH XQ DUERUH SDU LDO DO DFHVWXL JUDI" E $IOD L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PLQLP DSOLFkQG DOJRULWPXO OXL 6ROOLQ F * VL L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PD[LP IRORVLQG YDULDQWD DOJRULWPXOXL OXL .UXVNDO 

[ 

  [

7HRULD JUDIXULORU 3UREOHPD  6H G JUDIXO GLQ ILJXUD XUP WRDUH [

 [

 

D &kWH DUFH DUH XQ DUERUH SDU LDO DO DFHVWXL JUDI" E $IOD L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PLQLP DSOLFkQG DOJRULWPXO OXL .UXVNDO F * VL L DUERUHOH GH YDORDUH PD[LP IRORVLQG YDULDQWD DOJRULWPXOXL OXL .UXVNDO 3UREOHPD  2 FHQWUDO HOHFWULF ' XUPHD] V DOLPHQWH]H  SXQFWH GH FRQVXP &  &  &  &  &  ([LVW PDL PXOWH SRVLELOLW L GH D SURLHFWD UH HDXD GH GLVWULEXLUH 6WXGLLOH HIHFWXDWH LDX SURSXV FDOFXODUHD FRVWXULORU LPSOLFDWH vQ FRQVWUXLUHD GLIHULWHORU SRU LXQL DOH UH HOHL DFHVWHD ILLQG VLQWHWL]DWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

' & & & & &


'      

&      

&      

&      

&      

&      

6H GRUHWH DOHJHUHD DFHOXL SURLHFW GH FRQVWUXLUH DO UH HOHL SULQ FDUH V VH DVLJXUH DOLPHQWDUHD WXWXURU SXQFWHORU GH FRQVXP L VXPD FKHOWXLHOLORU FX FRQVWUXLUHD UH HOHL V ILH PLQLPH 3UREOHPD  2 vQWUHSULQGHUH KRUWLFRO GHFLGH V VH H[WLQG SULQ FRQVWUXLUHD D  VHUH GHVWLQDWH OHJXPHORU WLPSXULL Q DFHVWH FRQGL LL YD IL QHYRLH L GH R UH HD GH WHUPRILFDUH GHVWLQDW DFHVWRUD ([LVWkQG PDL PXOWH SRVLELOLW L GH FRQHFWDUH D DFHVWRUD OD SXQFWXO WHUPLF 7 VD I FXW XQ 

 

 [

 [

 

VWXGLX vQ XUPD F UXLD VDX DQDOL]DW WRDWH SRVLELOLW LOH GH FRQHFWDUH FDOFXOkQGXVH FRVWXULOH DIHUHQWH vQ PLOLRDQH OHL ILHF UHL FRQHFW UL SRVLELOH WRDWH DFHVWHD ILLQG WUHFXWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH

7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

7         

6         

6         

6         

6         

6         

6         

6         

6         

6H FHUH V VH VWDELOHDVF FHD PDL HFRQRPLF UH HD FDUH V DVLJXUH vQF O]LUHD FHORU RSW VHUH GH OD SXQFWXO GH DOLPHQWDUH 3UREOHPD  'H OD R VWD LH GH SRPSDUH $ WUHEXLH DOLPHQWDWH  SXQFWH GH FRQVXP % & ' ( ) * + $QDOL]kQGXVH VLWXD LD FRQFUHW GLQ WHUHQ D FHORU  SXQFWH GH FRQVXP L D VWD LHL GH SRPSDUH VDX VWDELOLW XUP WRDUHOH SRVLELOLW L GH OHJDUH FX FRQGXFWH D SXQFWHORU GH FRQVXP L D VWD LHL GH SRPSDUH L FRVWXULOH DIHUHQWH %   '   $  + 

 & 

  ) 

6 VH GHWHUPLQH DFHD YDULDQW GH DOLPHQWDUH D SXQFWHORU GH FRQVXP FDUH FRUHVSXQGH XQXL FRVW PLQLP 3UREOHPD  &RQGXFHUHD SULP ULHL XQHL ORFDOLW L GRUHWH FD vQ FD]XO XQHL VLWXD LL GH FUL] LQXQGD LL F GHUL PDVLYH GH ] SDG  FXWUHPXU HWF  V GLVSXQ GH XQ SODQ GH GHEORFDUH FkW PDL UDSLG D F LORU GH DFFHV vQWUH SXQFWHOH LPSRUWDQWH DOH RUDXOXL VSLWDOH SRPSLHUL JDU  DHURSRUW HWF FDUH V DVLJXUH DFFHVXO vQWUH RULFDUH GLQWUH DFHVWH SXQFWH Q JUDIXO GH PDL MRV VXQW UHSUH]HQWDWH SXQFWHOH LPSRUWDQWH DOH RUDXOXL UH HDXD GH GUXPXUL GLQ ORFDOLWDWH L GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH RELHFWLYHOH SULQFLSDOH 

7HRULD JUDIXULORU %  &    '  +     $  ,      )    (  *  .

3UREOHPD  QWUXQ MXGH VD OXDW GHFL]LD PRGHUQL] ULL XQRUD GLQ GUXPXULOH QD LRQDOH DVWIHO vQFkW V H[LVWH vQ ILQDO FHO SX LQ XQ WUDVHX IRUPDW GLQ GUXPXUL PRGHUQL]DWH vQWUH RULFDUH GLQWUH FHOH  ORFDOLW L FX SHVWH  GH ORFXLWRUL DOH MXGH XOXL Q JUDIXO GH PDL MRV VXQW UHSUH]HQWDWH FHOH  ORFDOLW L WRDWH GUXPXULOH FDUH H[LVW vQWUH DFHVWHD L FRVWXULOH vQ PLOLDUGH OHL QHFHVDUH PRGHUQL] ULL ILHF UXLD FDOFXODWH vQ XUPD XQXL VWXGLX vQ WHUHQ %  &     +  '    *   *       (  *

 *

6H GRUHWH J VLUHD YDULDQWHL GH PRGHUQL]DUH GH FRVW PLQLP 3UREOHPD  'HD OXQJXO WLPSXOXL GHSDUWDPHQWHOH XQHL ILUPH DX IRVW GRWDWH VXFFHVLY FX FDOFXODWRDUH IRUPkQGXVH PDL PXOWH JUXSXUL GH OXFUX JUXSDWH vQ UH HOH ORFDOH 3HQWUX D P UL YLWH]D GH WUDQVPLWHUH D GDWHORU L LQIRUPD LLORU FRQGXFHUHD ILUPHL GHFLGH FRQHFWDUHD WXWXURU DFHVWRUD vQWUR UH HD JOREDO FDUH V DVLJXUH OHJ WXUD vQWUH RULFDUH GRX FDOFXODWRDUH GLQ vQWUHDJD ILUP  Q XUPD XQXL VWXGLX DO DPSODVDPHQWXOXL ILHF UHL UH HOH ORFDOH D SRVLELOLW LORU GH FRQHFWDUH L D PRGDOLW LORU GH FRQHFWDUH DX UH]XOWDW PDL PXOWH YDULDQWH SRVLELOH L FRVWXULOH ILHF UHLD vQ PLOLRDQH OHL  WRDWH ILLQG VLQWHWL]DWH vQ JUDIXO GH PDL MRV 6 VH J VHDVF YDULDQWD FHD PDL LHIWLQ GH FRQHFWDUH %       *   $ +     /  0    )    , 

 &

(    

'

 



 1

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH  &83/$-( 0$;,0( '( 9$/2$5( 237,0 3UREOHPD  DVH ORFDOLW L /  /  /  /  /  / VXQW DSURYL]LRQDWH GH DVH GHSR]LWH '  '  '  '  '  ' DOH XQHL vQWUHSULQGHUL FRPHUFLDOH GH VWDW &RVWXULOH vQ PLL OHLNP GH OD ILHFDUH ORFDOLWDWH OD ILHFDUH GHSR]LW VXQW WUHFXWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

WLLQG F DSURYL]LRQDUHD XQHL ORFDOLW L VH IDFH GH F WUH XQ VLQJXU GHSR]LW V VH GHWHUPLQH UHSDUWL LD GHSR]LWHORU SH ORFDOLW L DVWIHO vQFkW FRVWXO WRWDO GH WUDQVSRUW V ILH PLQLP 3UREOHPD  Q FLQFL KDOH +  +  +  +  + DOH XQHL vQWUHSULQGHUL VH IDEULF  SURGXVH 3  3  3  3  3  Q IXQF LH GH FDSDFLW LOH WHKQLFH DOH ILHF UHL KDOH SUH XO OD GHVIDFHUH DO ILHF UXL SURGXV GLIHU GH OD R KDO OD DOWD FRQIRUP WDEHOXOXL GH PDL MRV

'DF XQ SURGXV QX SRDWH IL IDEULFDW vQWUR KDO vQ F VX D FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH VD WUHFXW SUH XO GH YkQ]DUH f 6 VH HIHFWXH]H UHSDUWL]DUHD IDEULF ULL FHORU  SURGXVH SH FHOH  KDOH DVWIHO vQFkW SUH XO WRWDO OD GHVIDFHUH V ILH PD[LP 3UREOHPD  6H G WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV      D PLQLP E PD[LP                                   

([WUDJH L FLQFL QXPHUH VLWXDWH SH OLQLL L FRORDQH GLIHULWH DVWIHO vQFkW VXPD ORU V ILH



+ + + + +

/ / / / / /

'      

'      

'      

'      

'      

'      

3     f

3   f  

3 f    

3  f   

3    f 

7HRULD JUDIXULORU 3UREOHPD  0LQLVWHUXO PXQFLL WULPLWH OXQDU XQ DQXPLW QXP U GH LQVSHFWRUL GLQ %XFXUHWL OD VHGLLOH GLQ UHHGLQ HOH GH MXGH SHQWUX HYDOXDUHD DFWLYLW LL GLQ ILHFDUH MXGH LQVSHFWDW Q OXQD PDL VD GHFLV LQVSHFWDUHD D  MXGH H XUPkQGXVH V VH GHFLG FDUH GLQ FHL  LQVSHFWRUL GLVSRQLELOL YRU IL WULPLL vQ WHUHQ L FH MXGH vL YD IL UHSDUWL]DW ILHF UXLD 3HQWUX ILHFDUH LQVSHFWRU PLQLVWHUXO YD VXSRUWD XQ FRVW FDUH GHSLQGH GH GXUDWD GHSODV ULL L GH SUHJ WLUHD L VDODULXO OXQDU DO ILHF UXL LQVSHFWRU 7RDWH DFHVWH FRVWXUL vQ PLOLRDQH OHL DX IRVW VLQWHWL]DWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV vQ FDUH OLQLLOH FRUHVSXQG LQVSHFWRULORU GLVSRQLELOL LDU FRORDQHOH MXGH HORU FH YRU IL LQVSHFWDWH

6 VH J VHDVF YDULDQWD GH UHSDUWL LH FDUH QHFHVLW XQ FRVW PLQLP 3UREOHPD  8Q PDQDJHU GRUHWH V UHSDUWL]H]H  HFKLSH GH PXQFLWRUL (  (  (  (  (  ( OD  OXFU UL /  /  /  /  /  /  3H ED]D H[SHULHQ HL DQWHULRDUH VH SRDWH HVWLPD WLPSXO QHFHVDU ILHF UHL HFKLSH FD V WHUPLQH ILHFDUH OXFUDUH DFHWL WLPSL vQ ]LOH ILLQG WUHFX L vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

6H GRUHWH DFHD UHSDUWL LH D HFKLSHORU SH OXFU UL FDUH V GXF OD R VXP PLQLP D GXUDWHORU GH H[HFX LH 3UREOHPD  6 VH UHSDUWL]H]H OXFU ULOH /  /  /  / OD PXQFLWRULL /  /  /  / DVWIHO vQFkW WLPSXO WRWDO GH H[HFX LH V ILH PLQLP GXUDWHOH GH H[HFX LH DOH ILHF UHL OXFU UL GH F WUH ILHFDUH PXQFLWRU ILLQG WUHFXWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

/ / / /

0    

0    

0    

0    



/ / / / / /

(      

(      

(      

(      

(      

(      

, , , , , , , ,

       

       

       

       

       

       

       

3UREOHPD  6 VH UHSDUWL]H]H  RSHUDWRUL OD  PDLQL FXQRVFkQGXVH PDWULFHD WLPSLORU GH OXFUX vQ RUH  GDW PDL MRV DVWIHO vQFkW VXPD WLPSLORU GH H[HFX LH V ILH PLQLP  'DF XQ RSHUDWRU QX SRDWH OXFUD OD R PDLQ VH WUHFH OLQLH

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH

3UREOHPD  )LUPD $XWRUHS SURGXFH SLHVH GH VFKLPE SHQWUX DXWRPRELOH (D D DFKL]L LRQDW  PDLQL QRL XQ VWUXQJ R IUH]  R UDERWH]  R PDLQ GH J XULW L R PDLQ GH OHIXLW &RPSDUWLPHQWXO GH RUJDQL]DUH D SURGXF LHL L D PXQFLL D LGHQWLILFDW  ORFXUL vQ FDUH SRDWH IL DPSODVDW RULFDUH GLQ FHOH  PDLQL 3LHVHOH SH FDUH OH YRU SUHOXFUD DFHVWH PDLQL SURYLQ GH OD SXQFWH GH SURGXF LH DOH ILUPHL $FHVWH SXQFWH GH SURGXF LH VH DIO OD GLVWDQ H GLIHULWH ID GH FHOH FLQFL ORFXUL GH DPSODVDUH DOH QRLORU PDLQL 3HQWUX FUHWHUHD SURGXFWLYLW LL PXQFLL GLUHFWRUXO GH SURGXF LH GRUHWH FD DPSODVDUHD QRLORU PDLQL V VH IDF DVWIHO vQFkW FRVWXO WRWDO GH WUDQVSRUW DO SLHVHORU OD FHOH  PDLQL V ILH PLQLP Q WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV VXQW GDWH GLVWDQ HOH vQ PHWUL GH OD SXQFWHOH GH SURGXF LH OD ORFXULOH GH DPSODVDPHQW SURSXVH SHQWUX LQVWDODUHD QRLORU PDLQL FRVWXULOH ILLQG SURSRU LRQDOH FX GLVWDQ HOH GH WUDQVSRUW

)UH]D 0DLQD GH J XULW 0DLQD GH OHIXLW 5DERWH]D 6WUXQJXO

3UREOHPD  6RFLHWDWHD FRPHUFLDO 9(521,&$ 6$ UHDOL]HD] SURGXVH GH PDURFKLQ ULH 3HQWUX D FUHWH SURGXFWLYLWDWHD DVH GLQ VDODULD LL V L DX IRVW WULPLL V XUPH]H FXUVXUL GH SROLFDOLILFDUH SHQWUX  WLSXUL GH OXFU UL GLQ GRPHQLXO SLHO ULHL Q XUPD WHVW ULL ILHF UXL PXQFLWRU OD ILHFDUH WLS GH OXFUDUH VD FRQVWDWDW F SURGXFWLYLWDWHD PXQFLL ORU HVWH GLIHULW vQ UDSRUW FX ILHFDUH WLS GH OXFUDUH WLPSLL QHFHVDUL ILHF UXL PXQFLWRU SHQWUX UHDOL]DUHD ILHF UXL WLS GH OXFUDUH ILLQG GD L vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

HIXO VHF LH GRUHWH V UHSDUWL]H]H ILHF UXL PXQFLWRU FkWH R OXFUDUH DVWIHO vQFkW WLPSXO WRWDO GH SUHOXFUDUH V ILH PLQLP

/ / / / / /

2 2 2 2 2

0     

0     

0     

0     

0     

/     

/     

/     

/     

/     

0      

0      

0      

0      

0      

0      



3UREOHPD  2 ILUP GLVSXQH GH  DSDUDWH SHQWUX MRFXUL PHFDQLFH GH WLSXUL GLIHULWH SH FDUH OH YD vQFKLULD SULQ FRQWUDFWH FX GXUDWD GH  OXQL 3HQWUX WULPHVWUXO , DO DQXOXL D SULPLW  FHUHUL &XQRVFkQGXVH YDORULOH FKLULLORU vQ PLOLRDQH OHL RIHULWH GH ILHFDUH VROLFLWDQW SHQWUX ILHFDUH DSDUDW GDWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV V VH J VHDVF FDUH FHUHUL YRU IL DOHVH L FXP YRU IL GLVWULEXLWH DSDUDWHOH DFHVWRUD DVWIHO vQFkW ILUPD V RE LQ R VXP D FKLULLORU PD[LP 

7HRULD JUDIXULORU

3UREOHPD  2 LQVWLWX LH DUH  ORFXUL YDFDQWH SHQWUX FDUH DQJDMHD]  VDODULD L 6H SXQH SUREOHPD XQGH V ILH UHSDUWL]DW ILHFDUH GLQ DFHWLD LQkQGXVH VHDPD GH SUHIHULQ HOH ORU L GH IDSWXO F XQLL VXQW FDOLILFD L SHQWUX PDL PXOW GHFkW XQXO GLQ SRVWXULOH YDFDQWH DVWIHO vQFkW FKHOWXLHOLOH WRWDOH FX FHL  VDODULD L VDODULL UHEXWXUL SUHJ WLUH VXSOLPHQWDU HWF V ILH PLQLPH Q WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV DX IRVW WUHFXWH SHQWUX ILHFDUH VDODULDW SRVWXULOH SH FDUH SRDWH OXFUD L FKHOWXLHOLOH PHGLL RUDUH vQ PLL OHL SULOHMXLWH GH DFWLYLWDWHD ILHF UXLD

3UREOHPD  6 VH J VHDVF SHQWUX ILHFDUH GLQ JUDIXULOH ELSDUWLWH FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH WDEHOHORU GH PDL MRV FXSODMXO PD[LP GH YDORDUH PLQLP L FXSODMXO PD[LP GH YDORDUH PD[LP  D                                                   E                                      F                                        

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

$ $ $ $ $ $

&      

&      

&      

&      

&      

&      

&      

&      

3 3                

3 3 3                        

3 3 3                        

       

           



&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH J K                         

   

       

            M

     N

    

    

    

    

      O

                                         

     

           

    

    

    

    

    

           

3UREOHPD  QWUR vQWUHSULQGHUH YRU WUHEXL UHSDUWL]D L  PXQFLWRUL OD  ORFXUL GH PXQF  vQ XUPD XQXL VWXGLX FXQRVFkQGXVH SRVLELOLW LOH GH UHSDUWL]DUH L FRVWXULOH GH vQWUH LQHUH SHQWUX ILHFDUH PXQFLWRU L ORF GH PXQF vQ PLL SH ]L  GDWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

/ / / / /                                        

/ /                

/        

* VL L YDULDQWD GH UHSDUWL]DUH FDUH GXFH OD FRVWXO WRWDO GH vQWUH LQHUH PLQLP



7HRULD JUDIXULORU  '58085, , &,5&8,7( +$0,/721,(1( 3UREOHPD  6 VH GHWHUPLQH GUXPXULOH L FLUFXLWHOH KDPLOWRQLHQH GLQ JUDIXULOH GH PDL MRV IRORVLQG D QPXO LUHD ODWLQ E $OJRULWPXO OXL )RXONHV , D [

,,,

,9

[ [ [

[ 

[ [

,,

[ [

[ [

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH 9

9,

9,,,



[ [

9,,

[ [

[ [

[ [



;,,

[ [

;,

 

,;

7HRULD JUDIXULORU [ [ [

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH ;,,, D [

;,9

;9



7HRULD JUDIXULORU 3UREOHPD  $SOLFkQG DOJRULWPXO OXL &KHQ SHQWUX ILHFDUH JUDI GH PDL MRV V VH U VSXQG OD XUP WRDUHOH vQWUHE UL D *UDIXO DGPLWH VDX QX FLUFXLWH" E 'DF JUDIXO QX DGPLWH FLUFXLWH H[LVW VDX QX XQ GUXP KDPLOWRQLDQ vQ JUDI" F 'DF JUDIXO QX DUH FLUFXLWH L DGPLWH GUXP KDPLOWRQLDQ FDUH HVWH DFHVWD" D [

3UREOHPD  $SOLFkQG RULFDUH GLQ DOJRULWPLL FXQRVFX L V VH J VHDVF vQ JUDIXULOH GH PDL MRV D E F G $


'UXPXO KDPLOWRQLDQ GH YDORDUH PLQLP 'UXPXO KDPLOWRQLDQ GH YDORDUH PD[LP &LUFXLWXO KDPLOWRQLDQ GH YDORDUH PLQLP &LUFXLWXO KDPLOWRQLDQ GH YDORDUH PD[LP
      



% [

[


 

 

[ [

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH 3UREOHPD  3HQWUX FRQVWUXLUHD XQHL UH HOH GH WHOHIHULFH WUHEXLH HIHFWXDWH P VXU WRUL SH vQ O LPLOH GLQ MXUXO XQHL ORFDOLW L PRQWDQH 'HRDUHFH GHSODVDUHD WRSRJUDILORU UHVSRQVDELOL FX P VXU WRULOH L D DSDUDWXULL QHFHVDUH QHFHVLW FKHOWXLHOL PDUL L P VXUL VSHFLDOH GH SURWHF LH D LQVWUXPHQWHORU HVWH LPSRUWDQW FD WUDVHXO V ILH SDUFXUV vQ FHO PDL VFXUW WLPS SRVLELO &XQRVFkQGXVH WUDVHHOH SRVLELOH vQWUH SXQFWHOH vQ FDUH VH YRU IDFH P VXU WRUL VDX HVWLPDW WLPSLL QHFHVDUL vQ RUH SDUFXUJHULL ILHF UXLD DFHWLD ILLQG WUHFX L vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

6 VH J VHDVF SXQFWXO GH SOHFDUH L RUGLQHD GH WUHFHUH SULQ WRDWH SXQFWHOH FDUH QHFHVLW FHO PDL VFXUW WLPS GH SDUFXUJHUH 3UREOHPD  2 IDPLOLH GRUHWH FD vQ YDFDQ V HIHFWXH]H XQ FLUFXLW WXULVWLF FDUH V WUHDF SULQ  RUDH 3HQWUX DFHDVWD YD IRORVL VHUYLFLLOH XQHL FRPSDQLL DYLDWLFH FDUH RIHU R UHGXFHUH GH  SH ELOHW LQkQG FRQW F vQ SHULRDGD UHVSHFWLY DYLRDQHOH FRPSDQLHL HIHFWXHD] WUDQVSRUWXUL GH SDVDJHUL UHJXODWH GRDU SH DQXPLWH UXWH GLQWUH FHOH  RUDH WUHFXWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

V VH DIOH GDF H[LVW XQ FLUFXLW FDUH V IRORVHDVF GRDU DYLRDQHOH FRPSDQLHL UHVSHFWLYH L GDF GD FDUH HVWH DFHVWD 3UREOHPD  2 vQWUHSULQGHUH GLVSXQH GH XQ DJUHJDW SH FDUH IDEULF vQ ILHFDUH OXQ FLQFL WLSXUL GH SURGXVH 3  3  3  3  3  $JUHJDWXO SRDWH IDEULFD OD XQ PRPHQW GDW XQ VLQJXU WLS GH SURGXV LDU SHQWUX WUHFHUHD GH OD IDEULFDUHD XQXL WLS OD DOWXO VXQW QHFHVDUH RSHUD LL GH SUHJ WLUH L UHJODUH FDUH QHFHVLW WLPSL W L FRVWXUL F GHSHQGHQWH GH WUHFHUHD UHVSHFWLY 3 o 3  GDWH vQ WDEHOHOH GH PDL MRV D WLPSL

E FRVWXUL



3 3 3 3 3

3     

3     

3     

3     

3     

3 3 3 3 3

3     

3 3 3               

"

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3

3      

3      

3      

3      

3 3            

3    

3    

3      

3     

3    

3     

3     

"

"

3     

Q FH RUGLQH DU WUHEXL V ILH IDEULFDWH FHOH  SURGXVH SHQWUX FD

7HRULD JUDIXULORU

D VXPD WLPSLORU GH SUHJ WLUH UHJODUH V ILH PLQLPH E VXPD FKHOWXLHOLORU GH SUHJ WLUH UHJODUH V ILH PLQLPH F VXPD WLPSLORU GH SUHJ WLUH UHJODUH V ILH PLQLPH GDF vQ ILHFDUH OXQ VH YD SURGXFH vQ DFHHDL RUGLQH G VXPD FKHOWXLHOLORU GH SUHJ WLUH UHJODUH V ILH PLQLPH GDF vQ ILHFDUH OXQ VH YD SURGXFH vQ DFHHDL RUGLQH 3UREOHPD  2 vQWUHSULQGHUH GLVSXQH GH R OLQLH GH IDEULFD LH SH FDUH H[HFXW vQ ILHFDUH OXQ DVH WLSXUL GH SURGXVH 3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3  3H OLQLD GH IDEULFD LH VH SRDWH H[HFXWD OD XQ PRPHQW GDW XQ VLQJXU WLS GH SURGXV LDU SHQWUX WUHFHUHD GH OD IDEULFDUHD XQXL WLS OD DOWXO VXQW QHFHVDUH RSHUD LL GH SUHJ WLUH L UHJODUH FDUH QHFHVLW FRVWXULOH F GHSHQGHQWH GH WUHFHUHD UHVSHFWLY 3 o 3  GDWH vQ WDEHOHOH GH PDL MRV

D VXPD FKHOWXLHOLORU GH SUHJ WLUH UHJODUH V ILH PLQLPH E VXPD FKHOWXLHOLORU GH SUHJ WLUH UHJODUH V ILH PLQLPH GDF vQ ILHFDUH OXQ VH YD SURGXFH vQ DFHHDL RUGLQH 3UREOHPD  $FHOHDL vQWUHEDUH GH OD SUREOHPD  SHQWUX R vQWUHSULQGHUH FDUH SURGXFH  WLSXUL GH SURGXVH SH R LQVWDOD LH D F UHL SUHJ WLUH SHQWUX WUHFHUHD GH OD IDEULFDUHD XQXL WLS GH SURGXV OD DOWXO SUHVXSXQH XQ WLPS W GH VWD LRQDUH GDW vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV VFRSXO ILLQG PLQLPL]DUHD WLPSXOXL vQ FDUH LQVWDOD LD QX IXQF LRQHD] 
"

3UREOHPD  )DEULFDUHD XQXL SURGXV SUHVXSXQH HIHFWXDUHD D  RSHUD LL GH SUHOXFUDUH DFHVWH RSHUD LL SXWkQG IL HIHFWXDWH GRDU vQ DQXPLWH VXFFHVLXQL vQWUH GRX SUHOXFU UL 3 L 3 ILLQG QHFHVDU XQ DQXPLW WLPS W GH SUHJ WLUH L WUDQVSRUWDUH D SLHVHL vQWUH LQVWDOD LLOH SH FDUH VH H[HFXW DFHVWHD )LLQG GD L DFHWL WLPSL vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV V VH J VHDVF DFHD VXFFHVLXQH FDUH QHFHVLW WLPSXO WRWDO PLQLP GH WUHFHUH vQWUH SUHOXFU UL 
"  "

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3        

3        

3        

3 3                

3 3                

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3       

3       

3       

3       

3       

3       

"

"

3        

3       

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH


 

3UREOHPD  )LQLVDUHD XQHL SLHVH SUHVXSXQH HIHFWXDUHD D  RSHUD LL GH SUHOXFUDUH SH  PDLQL $FHVWH RSHUD LL VH SRW HIHFWXDWH GRDU vQ DQXPLWH VXFFHVLXQL vQWUH GRX RSHUD LL 3 L 3 ILLQG QHFHVDU XQ DQXPLW WLPS W GH GHPRQWDUH  WUDQVSRUW  PRQWDUH Q WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV DX IRVW HVWLPD L DFHWL WLPSL SH ED]D REVHUYD LLORU I FXWH GHD OXQJXO XQHL OXQL

&RQGXFHUHD vQWUHSULQGHULL GRUHWH SHQWUX FUHWHUHD SURGXFWLYLW LL FD RUGLQHD RSHUD LLORU V ILH DOHDV vQ DD IHO vQFkW WLPSXO LQWHUPHGLDU RSHUD LLORU V ILH PLQLP 3UREOHPD  2 PDLQ D XQHL ILUPH GH FROHFWDUH D GHHXULORU WUHEXLH V IDF FROHFWDUHD GH OD  SXQFWH GLQWUXQ RUD &XQRVFkQGXVH GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH DFHVWHD GDWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV V VH J VHDVF WUDVHXO GH OXQJLPH PLQLP FH WUHFH SH OD WRDWH SXQFWHOH GH FROHFWDUH

3UREOHPD  2 PDLQD D SRWHL WUHEXLH V GLVWULEXLH FRUHVSRQGHQ D GH OD DHURSRUW OD FHOH  RILFLL SRWDOH GLQWUR ORFDOLWDWH &XQRVFkQGXVH GLVWULEX LD DFHVWRUD L GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH HOH GDWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV V VH DIOH WUDVHXO FDUH DVLJXU GLVWULEXLUHD FRUHVSRQGHQ HL vQ WLPS PLQLP 

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

3        

"

"



3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3          

3          

3          

3          

3          

3          

3          

3          

3 3                    

7HRULD JUDIXULORU
 

3UREOHPD  8Q GLVWULEXLWRU DSURYL]LRQHD] vQ ILHFDUH ]L  PDJD]LQH GH OD GHSR]LWXO FHQWUDO DO ILUPHL &XQRVFkQGXVH GLVWDQ HOH GLQWUH DFHVWHD GDWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV V VH J VHDVF WUDVHXO GH GXUDW PLQLP 

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3       

3       

3       

3       

3       

3       

3       





3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

3          

3          

3          

3          

3          

3          

3          

3          

3 3                    

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH

 5( (/( '( 75$163257


3UREOHPD  QWUR ORFDOLWDWH GH WUDQ]LW H[LVW 3 'LQ FDX]D GHVHORU DJORPHU UL GH WUDILF SULP WUDILF PD[LP vQ RUD VRVHVF  PDLQL SH RU LHLUHD 0  SULQ 1 L  SULQ 3 &DSDFLW LHLUL DX IRVW FHQWUDOL]DWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV $ % 0   1   GRX F L GH LQWUDUH QRWDWH $ L % L WUHL LHLUL 0 1 L ULD D I FXW XQ VWXGLX GLQ FDUH D UHLHLW F vQ RUHOH GH OD LQWUDUHD $ L  OD % L S U VHVF RUDXO  SULQ LOH RVHOHORU PDLQL SH RU FDUH OHDJ LQWU ULOH GH 3  

6 VH J VHDVF QXP UXO PD[LP GH PDLQL FDUH SRW WUDQ]LWD SULQ ORFDOLWDWH vQWUR RU L FH VROX LL GH DVLJXUDUH D QHFHVDUXOXL SRW IL GDWH 3UREOHPD  6 VH J VHDVF IOX[XULOH PLQLPH L PD[LPH vQWUH QRGXULOH V L W GLQ UH HOHOH GH WUDQVSRUW GH PDL MRV DSRL V VH LQGLFH W LHWXUD PLQLP FRUHVSXQ] WRDUH IOX[XOXL PD[LP  V 

 [

 V 

 V 

 







'

&







[
$



 [





   [

'

&

 



[
$



 [ 


[



 

 

   [











W 

7HRULD JUDIXULORU G  V  [   [

    [ [  

 

W 



 [

H   

H  V









  

I  V













 



   W

 

 





 



 Y

  

 W

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH J  V Y    Y


 

  Y 

K  V  

 

 Y

3UREOHPD  DQWLHUHOH GH FRQVWUXF LL 6  6  6  6 VH SRW DSURYL]LRQD FX FLPHQW GH OD  FHQWUH &  &  &  &  &  Q WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV DX IRVW WUHFXWH GLVSRQLELOXO ILHF UXL FHQWUX &  M  QHFHVDUXO ILHF UXL DQWLHU 6  L  L SRVLELOLW LOH GH WUDQVSRUW vQ W vQWUH FHQWUH L DQWLHUH

& & & & & 1HFHVDU


6      

6      

6      

6      

'LVSRQLELO     

6 VH RUJDQL]H]H vQ DD IHO H[SHGLHULOH vQFkW V VH VDWLVIDF FHUHULOH FHORU  DQWLHUH 3UREOHPD  2 IDEULF GLVSXQH GH  DWHOLHUH FDUH $ $ $ $ $ 'LVSRQLELO VXQW DSURYL]LRQDWH ]LOQLF GH OD  PDJD]LL 0       0       $SURYL]LRQDUHD VH SRDWH IDFH GRDU vQ DQXPLWH OLPLWH 0       FXQRVFXWH FDQWLW LOH PD[LPH FDUH SRW IL DGXVH GH OD 0       ILHFDUH PDJD]LH OD DWHOLHUH ILLQG GDWH vQ WDEHOXO DO WXUDW 1HFHVDU      6H GRUHWH RUJDQL]DUHD DSURYL]LRQ ULL GH DD QDWXU vQFkW V VH DVLJXUH QHFHVDUXO ILHF UXL DWHOLHU LQkQG FRQW GH FDQWLW LOH OLPLWDWH GLQ ILHFDUH GHSR]LW L GH SRVLELOLW LOH GH WUDQVSRUW GDWH vQ WDEHO 
) & & $ % % # $ &

"

  

   Y  W

W  Y

7HRULD JUDIXULORU 3UREOHPD  6 VH J VHDVF SODQXO GH DSURYL]LRQDUH ]LOQLF SULQ FDUH V VH WUDQVSRUWH FDQWLWDWHD PD[LP GLQ QHFHVDUXO WRWDO DO FHORU WUHL X]LQH SUHOXFU WRDUH GLQ FDGUXO XQHL vQWUHSULQGHUL GH OD FHOH  FHQWUH GH H[SORDWDUH H[LVWHQWH 3HQWUX DFHDVWD DX IRVW H[WUDVH GLQ GRFXPHQWD LLOH H[LVWHQWH XUP WRDUHOH GDWH D FDSDFLW LOH ]LOQLFH GH H[WUDF LH DOH XWLODMHORU ILHF UHL H[SORDW UL  UHVSHFWLY  VXWH WRQH E QHFHVDUXO ]LOQLF SHQWUX SUHOXFUDUH DO ILHF UHL X]LQH   UHVSHFWLY  VXWH WRQH F FDSDFLW LOH ]LOQLFH PD[LPH DOH PLMORDFHORU GH WUDQVSRUW GLQWUH FHQWUHOH GH H[SORDWDUH L X]LQH GDWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV 8 8 8 (    (    3UREOHPD  PEXWHOLHUHD VWLFOHORU GH VXF DOH XQHL ILUPH VH IDFH FX SDWUX DSDUDWH VSHFLDOH WUDQVSRUWXO LQJUHGLHQWHORU I FkQGXVH GH OD  SXQFWH GH GLVWULEX LH &XQRVFkQGXVH FDSDFLW LOH PD[LPH GH vPEXWHOLHUH DOH DSDUDWHORU SRVLELOLW LOH PD[LPH GH DSURYL]LRQDUH FX LQJUHGLHQWH DOH SXQFWHORU GH GLVWULEX LH L FDSDFLWDWHD PD[LP D ILHF UHL UXWH GH WUDQVSRUW GLQWUH DFHVWHD GDWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV V VH RUJDQL]H]H GLVWULEX LD vQ DD IHO vQFkW V VH RE LQ FDQWLWDWHD PD[LP GH EXWHOLL FX VXF 3XQFWH vPEXWHOLHUH 3RVLELOLW L % % %
3XQFWH GLVWULEX LH

&DSDFLW L PD[LPH

3 3 3

   

   

   

PD[LPH GH DSURYL]LRQDUH

3UREOHPD  3HQWUX D IL vQF O]LW  DSD GH OD XQ DJHQW WHUPLF HVWH WUHFXW GH OD SXQFWXO GH FROHFWDUH , OD SXQFWXO GH LHLUH ( VSUH EHQHILFLDUL SULQWUXQ VLVWHP GH FRQGXFWH UHSUH]HQWDW vQ JUDIXO GH PDL MRV FDUH WUHF SULQ PDL PXOWH FD]DQH & VXSXVH VXUVHL FDORULFH &XQRVFkQGXVH GHELWHOH PD[LPH VXSRUWDWH GH FRQGXFWH WUHFXWH SH ILHFDUH DUF V VH RUJDQL]H]H WUDQVSRUWXO DSHL GH DD QDWXU SULQ DFHVWHD vQFkW V VH RE LQ GHELWXO PD[LP SRVLELO OD SXQFWXO ( SHQWUX GLVWULEX LD OD EHQHILFLDUL

 ,

 

&

 

&  

 

&

&

3UREOHPD  ,ULJDUHD D WUHL WHUHQXUL 7  7 L 7 VH IDFH FX DSD GLQ WUHL ED]LQH %  %  % SULQWUR UH HD GH FDQDOH &XQRVFkQGXVH FDSDFLW LOH PD[LPH DOH ED]LQHORU HJDOH FX   UHVSHFWLY  P  QHFHVDUXO ILHF UXL WHUHQ HJDO FX   UHVSHFWLY  P ]L L GHELWHOH FDQDOHORU vQ P ]L GDWH vQ WDEHOXO  GH PDL MRV V VH GHWHUPLQH D FDQWLWDWHD PD[LP FDUH SRDWH IL WUDQVSRUWDW OD WHUHQXUL 

&

&

  



&

 (



&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH

E 'DF SRDWH IL DVLJXUDW vQWUHJXO QHFHVDU L GDF QX FX FkW F &kW GLQ QHFHVDUXO ILHF UXL WHUHQ SRDWH IL DFRSHULW G &DUH HVWH FHD PDL LHIWLQ YDULDQW GH O UJLUH D FDQDOHORU SULQ FDUH V VH DVLJXUH QHFHVDUXO WXWXURU WHUHQXULORU GDF FRVWXULOH vQ PLOLRDQH QHFHVDUH P ULULL ILHF UXL FDQDO FX XQ GHELW GH  P ]L VXQW WUHFXWH vQ WDEHOXO "

7DEHOXO 

7DEHOXO 

3UREOHPD  3HQWUX FRQVWUXLUHD XQXL SDVDM VXEWHUDQ vQWUR ]RQ IRDUWH DJORPHUDW  HVWH QHFHVDU HYDFXDUHD FkW PDL UDSLG D S PkQWXOXL GLVORFDW vQ FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH F LOH GH DFFHV OD DFHVWD VXQW IRDUWH vQJXVWH 3HQWUX R FLUFXOD LH UDSLG VD OXDW GHFL]LD FD ILHFDUH FDOH GH DFFHV OD ORFXO FRQVWUXF LH V ILH IRORVLW RUL QXPDL SHQWUX LQWUDUH RUL QXPDL SHQWUX LHLUH DOHJkQGXVH vQ DFHVW VHQV GRX LQWU UL L WUHL LHLUL 'LQ REVHUYD LLOH HIHFWXDWH SH SDUFXUVXO OXFUXOXL VD REVHUYDW F  GDF QX VH IDFH R RUJDQL]DUH D SOHF ULORU L YHQLULORU VH FUHHD] EORF UL DOH XQRU F L GH DFFHV vQ FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH FHOHODOWH VXQW SX LQ IRORVLWH 'H DVHPHQHD vQ XUPD VWXGLHULL VLWXD LHL GH SH WHUHQ VD DIODW SHQWUX ILHFDUH LQWUDUH L LHLUH QXP UXO PHGLX GH PDLQL FDUH SRW WUHFH SH RU  SULQ DFHVWHD 'LQ FDX]D IRUPHL DQWLHUXOXL QXP UXO GH PDLQL FDUH SRDWH WUHFH GH OD ILHFDUH LQWUDUH OD ILHFDUH LHLUH GHSLQGH GH SHUHFKHD LQWUDUH LHLUH FRQVLGHUDW  DFHVWHD ILLQG GDWH vQ WDEHOXO GH PDL MRV

PDLQLRU

, ,

(   

(   

(   

PDLQLRU

 

6 VH RUJDQL]H]H GH DD QDWXU GLUHF LRQDUHD PDLQLORU GH OD DQWLHU VSUH LHLUL L DSRL VSUH LQWU UL DVWIHO vQFkW V VH SRDW IRORVL XQ QXP U PD[LP GH PDLQL I U D DS UHD EORFDMH



1HFHVDU

% % %

7    

7    

7    

&DSDFLW L

  

% % %

7   

7   

7   

7HRULD JUDIXULORU

*(67,81($ 672&85,/25
3UREOHPD  2 DXWRVHUYLUH DUH R FHUHUH DQXDO  ]LOH GH  W ]DK U &RVWXO GH ODQVDUH DO XQHL FRPHQ]L HVWH GH  OHL LDU FRVWXO GH VWRFDM SH ]L SHQWUX R WRQ GH ]DK U HVWH  OHL Q LSRWH]D F VH DGPLWH R YkQ]DUH XQLIRUP  F DSURYL]LRQDUHD VH IDFH vQ FDQWLW L HJDOH OD LQWHUYDOH HJDOH L F QX VH SHUPLWH OLSVD ]DK UXOXL GLQ PDJD]LQ V VH GHWHUPLQH D E F G YROXPXO RSWLP DO XQHL FRPHQ]L QXP UXO RSWLP GH DSURYL]LRQ UL LQWHUYDOHOH RSWLPH GLQWUH GRX DSURYL]LRQ UL FRVWXO PLQLP SRVLELO FX DSURYL]LRQDUHD

3UREOHPD  /D XQ PDJD]LQ VH HVWLPHD] F FHUHUHD OXQDU  ]LOH SHQWUX R DQXPLW PDUI HVWH GH  .J &RVWXO ]LOQLF GH VWRFDM SHQWUX  NJ GLQ PDUID UHVSHFWLY HVWH GH  OHL FRVWXO GH ODQVDUH DO XQHL FRPHQ]L HVWH GH  OHL LDU FRVWXO GH SHQDOL]DUH HVWH GH  OHL SH ]L SHQWUX ILHFDUH NJ OLSV  Q LSRWH]D F VH DGPLWH R YkQ]DUH XQLIRUP  DSURYL]LRQDUHD VH IDFH vQ FDQWLW L HJDOH OD LQWHUYDOH HJDOH V VH GHWHUPLQH D E F G H I J K YROXPXO RSWLP DO XQHL FRPHQ]L VWRFXO PD[LP RSWLP GLQ GHSR]LW QXP UXO RSWLP GH DSURYL]LRQ UL LQWHUYDOHOH RSWLPH GLQWUH GRX DSURYL]LRQ UL vQ FkW WLPS VH HSXL]HD] PDUID DGXV OD R DSURYL]LRQDUH GDF OD XQ PRPHQW GDW vQ PDJD]LQ DYHP  NJ PDUI  GXS FkW WLPS VH YD HSXL]D DFHDVWD FkWH ]LOH SH OXQ QX DYHP PDUI vQ GHSR]LW FRVWXO PLQLP SRVLELO FX DSURYL]LRQDUHD

3UREOHPD  Q YHGHUHD XQRU VWXGLL GH PDUNHWLQJ R DJHQ LH FXPS U XQ FDOFXODWRU HOHFWURQLF &DOFXODWRUXO HVWH GRWDW FX DQXPLWH FLUFXLWH LQWHJUDWH FDUH WUHEXLH VFKLPEDWH vQ FD] GH GHIHFWDUH 6H WLH F DFHVW WLS GH FLUFXLWH FRPDQGDWH RGDW FX FDOFXODWRUXO FRVW  OHL EXFDWD LDU FX FRPDQG VSHFLDO FRVW  OHL EXFDWD 'DWHOH VWDWLVWLFH DUDW XUP WRDUHD FHUHUH GH FLUFXLWH &LUFXLWH vQORFXLWH [  1XP UXO GH FDOFXODWRDUH  FX [ FLUFXLWH vQORFXLWH        

Q LSRWH]D FRVWXOXL GH VWRFDM QHJOLMDELO vQ FRPSDUD LH FX FHOHODOWH FRVWXUL V VH GHWHUPLQH VWRFXO RSWLP GH FLUFXLWH LQWHJUDWH FRPDQGDWH RGDW FX FDOFXODWRUXO SUHFXP L FRVWXO PLQLP SRVLELO 3UREOHPD  6H WLH F XQ DQXPLW SURGXV DUH R FHUHUH OXQDU DOHDWRDUH GDW vQ WDEHOXO &HUHUHD [ vQ WRQH 3UREDELOLWDWHD S [        

Q LSRWH]D F VH DGPLW FKHOWXLHOL GH VWRFDM SH ]L SHQWUX R WRQ GH  OHL L F OLSVD GH VWRF HVWH SHQDOL]DW FX  SH ]L SHQWUX R WRQ OLSV  V VH GHWHUPLQH VWRFXO RSWLP L FRVWXO PLQLP SRVLELO GH VWRFDUH 

3UREOHPD  2 vQWUHSULQGHUH GH LPSRUW H[SRUW HIHFWXHD] DSURYL]LRQDUHD FX GLIHULWH DUWLFROH vQ WRDWH VHPHVWUHOH &RVWXO GH VWRFDUH DO XQXL DUWLFRO HVWH GH OHL LDU OLSVD XQXL DUWLFRO GXFH OD R SLHUGHUH GH  OHL &HUHUHD ]LOQLF HVWH R YDULDELO DOHDWRDUH FX GLVWULEX LD 6 VH J VHDVF FDQWLWDWHD RSWLP FDUH WUHEXLH V VH DIOH ]LOQLF OD vQFHSXWXO ]LOHL vQ GHSR]LW 3UREOHPD  'LQ GDWH VWDWLVWLFH VH FXQRDWH F FHUHUHD GH IUXFWH OD R XQLWDWH SH R SHULRDG GH  OXQL HVWH R YDULDELO DOHDWRDUH FX GLVWULEX LD FHUHUHD U vQ WRQH  S U        U           S U          

&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH

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kQG V VH GHWHUPLQH DFHOH LQWHUYDOH L FDQWLW L FDUH SULQ DSOLFDUH vQ SUDFWLF  YRU GXFH OD XQ FRVW PLQLP DO vQWUHJLL DSURYL]LRQ UL )LUPD vL SURSXQH GH DVHPHQHD V YDG GDF DFFHSWDUHD XQRU SHULRDGH FX OLSV GH VWRF vQ FDUH VH WLH F SHQDOL] ULOH VXQW vQ PHGLH GH  OHLWRQ OLSV ]L GXFH OD HFRQRPLL GH FRVW VXILFLHQWH SHQWUX D DFRSHUL HYHQWXDOHOH DPHQ]L VDX SLHUGHUL GH FOLHQ L GDWRUDWH vQWkU]LHULORU vQ HIHFWXDUHD OXFU ULORU HVWLPDWH OD  OHL 3UREOHPD  2 vQWUHSULQGHUH vL SURSXQH V VWDELOHDVF VWRFXO RSWLP GH OD vQFHSXWXO ILHF UHL V SW PkQL GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE GH XQ DQXPLW WLS SHQWUX FDUH SH ED]D XQRU vQUHJLVWU UL VWDWLVWLFH DQWHULRDUH VH FXQRDWH F FHUHUHD V SW PkQDO GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE HVWH R YDULDELO DOHDWRDUH FX XUP WRDUHD UHSDUWL LH
1XP UXO GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE VROLFLWDWH

SUREDELOLWDWHD

      

&XQRVFkQGXVH FRVWXO GH VWRFDUH GH  OHLSLHV V SW PkQ L FRVWXO GH SHQDOL]DUH FRUHVSXQ] WRU OLSVHL GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE GH  OHLSLHV OLSV  V VH J VHDVF YDULDQWD FH DVLJXU FRVWXO PHGLX WRWDO PLQLP 3UREOHPD  6WRFDUHD XQHL SLHVH GH PDUH FRQVXPD LH  XQLW LDQ DUH XQ FRVW JOREDO GH VWRFDUH F  OHLXQLWDWH ]L 6 VH GHWHUPLQH P ULPHD ORWXOXL HFRQRPLF DO XQHL FRPHQ]L Q L SHULRDGD GH UHDSURYL]LRQDUH 7 GDF FKHOWXLHOLOH IL[H DOH ODQV ULL XQHL FRPHQ]L VXQW F  OHL vQ FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH VH GRUHWH RE LQHUHD FHOHL PDL LHIWLQH YDULDQWH 6 VH VWXGLH]H SUREOHPD vQ GRX FD]XUL  'DF QX VH DGPLWH UXSWXU GH VWRF  'DF VH DGPLWH UXSWXU GH VWRF vQ FRQGL LLOH XQRU SHQDOL] UL XQLWDUH GH  OHL SH ]L SHQWUX R XQLWDWH OLSV  
 1  0

3UREOHPD  8Q DWHOLHU GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE SHQWUX DXWRPRELOH SULPHWH R FRPDQG GH OD R X]LQ GH DXWRPRELOH GH  WDEORXUL GH ERUG SH FDUH WUHEXLH V OH OLYUH]H WLPS GH XQ DQ 6 VH GHWHUPLQH ULWPXO FX FDUH WUHEXLH V L DSURYL]LRQH]H VWRFXO GDF QX VH DGPLW vQWkU]LHUL vQ OLYUDUHD SLHVHORU L FHUHUHD X]LQHL GH DXWRPRELOH DUH XQ ULWP FRQVWDQW 6H FXQRVF  FRVWXO XQLWDU GH VWRFDUH F  OHL]L XQLWDWH GH SURGXV  FRVWXO GH ODQVDUH DO XQHL FRPHQ]L F  OHL 6 VH VWXGLH]H L FD]XO vQ FDUH VDU DGPLWH vQWkU]LHUL FX SHQDOL] UL XQLWDUH F F 
0 2 1 0

7HRULD JUDIXULORU

3UREOHPD  2 vQWUHSULQGHUH DUH XQ ULWP GH SURGXF LH GH  SLHVH]L L L FRPHUFLDOL]HD] SURGXF LD SH R SLD SH FDUH VH FXQRDWH GLQ SHULRDGHOH SUHFHGHQWH F FHUHUHD HVWH DSUR[LPDWLY FRQVWDQW  FX R PHGLH HJDO FX  SLHVH]L 3URGXF LD vQ H[FHV VH GHSR]LWHD] FX XQ FRVW GH VWRFDUH XQLWDU GH  OHLSLHV ]L LDU FKHOWXLHOLOH RFD]LRQDWH GH R RSULUH UHSRUQLUH D SURGXF LHL VXQW GH  OHL 3HQWUX VLPSOLILFDUHD RUJDQL] ULL SURGXF LHL VH GHFLGH FD LQWHUYDOHOH GH SURGXF LH L VWD LRQDUH V ILH WRW WLPSXO DFHOHDL FD] vQ FDUH VH FHUH J VLUHD DFHORU LQWHUYDOH FDUH YRU DVLJXUD RUJDQL]DUHD SURGXF LHL FX XQ FRVW PLQLP vQ GRX YDULDQWH  GDF QX VH DGPLW SHULRDGH GH QHVDWLVIDFHUH D FHUHULL  GDF VH DGPLW DVWIHO GH SHULRDGH FX SLHUGHUL HVWLPDWH GH  OHL]L SLHV OLSV  3UREOHPD  2 vQWUHSULQGHUH LQGXVWULDO WUHEXLH V VH DSURYL]LRQH]H FX SLHVH GH VFKLPE 6WRFDUHD vQ vQWUHSULQGHUH D XQHL DVWIHO GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE FRVW  OHL]L LDU vQ FD]XO vQ FDUH GLQ FDX]D OLSVHL XQHL SLHVH GH DFHVW WLS SURGXF LD DU IL RSULW  SLHUGHULOH DU IL GH  OHL ]L SLHV OLSV  'LQ REVHUYD LLOH DQWHULRDUH VD REVHUYDW F FHUHUHD GH DVWIHO GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE HVWH R YDULDELO DOHDWRDUH FX IXQF LD GH SUREDELOLWDWH
1XP UXO GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE VROLFLWDWH

SUREDELOLWDWHD

 



  

 

6H FHUH V VH GHWHUPLQH QLYHOXO RSWLP DO VWRFXOXL ]LOQLF GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE DVWIHO vQFkW FRVWXO WRWDO PHGLX ]LOQLF DO VWRF ULL SLHVHORU L DO vQWUHUXSHULL SURFHVXOXL GH SURGXF LH GDWRUDW OLSVHL GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE V ILH PLQLP 3UREOHPD  $FHOHDL FHULQ H GH OD SUREOHPD  GDF IXQF LD GH SUREDELOLWDWH DU IL
1XP UXO GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE VROLFLWDWH

3UREOHPD  2 X]LQ FRQVXP DQXDO  WRQH WDEO ]LQFDW SH ED]D XQXL SODQ GH OXFUX FRQVWDQW DSURYL]LRQkQGXVH FX DFHDVWD OD LQWHUYDOH HJDOH GH WLPS PXOWLSOLL vQWUHJL GH ]LOH L vQ FDQWLW L HJDOH &XQRVFkQGXVH FRVWXO XQLWDU GH GHSR]LWDUH DO XQHL WRQH GH WDEO WLPS GH R ]L HJDO FX  OHL L IDSWXO F RUJDQL]DUHD XQHL DSURYL]LRQ UL QHFHVLW FKHOWXLHOL vQ YDORDUH GH  OHL VH FHUH  Q FD]XO F QX SRW IL DFFHSWDWH SHULRDGH GH vQWUHUXSHUH D SURGXF LHL FD XUPDUH D OLSVHL WDEOHL ]LQFDWH V VH J VHDVF  D FDQWLWDWHD RSWLP FDUH WUHEXLH DGXV OD ILHFDUH DSURYL]LRQDUH E SHULRDGD RSWLP GH UHDSURYL]LRQDUH F FKHOWXLHOLOH WRWDOH PLQLPH QHFHVDUH vQ DFHVW FD] 

LDU FRVWXULOH XQLWDUH GH VWRFDUH L SLHUGHULOH DU IL F OHLSLHV OLSV ]L

SUREDELOLWDWHD

      

 OHLSLHV ]L UHVSHFWLY F



&XOHJHUH GH SUREOHPH GH FHUFHW UL RSHUD LRQDOH

 Q FD]XO F SRW IL DFFHSWDWH SHULRDGH GH vQWUHUXSHUH D SURGXF LHL FD XUPDUH D OLSVHL WDEOHL ]LQFDWH FX DFFHSWDUHD XQRU SLHUGHUL XQLWDUH GH  OHLNJ ]L V VH J VHDVF  D FDQWLWDWHD RSWLP FDUH WUHEXLH DGXV OD ILHFDUH DSURYL]LRQDUH E SHULRDGD RSWLP GH UHDSURYL]LRQDUH F GXUDWD WRWDO D SHULRDGHORU GH VWD LRQDUH D SURGXF LHL G FKHOWXLHOLOH WRWDOH PLQLPH QHFHVDUH vQ DFHVW FD]

3UREOHPD  &RQGXFHUHD XQHL ILUPH GRUHWH RSWLPL]DUHD DFWLYLW LL GH DSURYL]LRQDUH VWXGLLQG vQ DFHVW VHQV PDL PXOWH YDULDQWH GH H[WLQGHUH D GHSR]LWXOXL GH FRQVHUYDUH D P UILL GLQ DFHVWD VDX GH DQJDMDUH D XQXLD VDX PDL PXO L PDJD]LRQHUL UH]XOWkQG VLWXD LD GH PDL MRV
9DULDQWD

$ % & ' ( )

&RVWXO DSOLF ULL YDULDQWHLDQ

     

&RVWXO XQLWDU GH VWRFDUH RE LQXW

     

&XQRVFkQGXVH F DSURYL]LRQDUHD GHSR]LWXOXL VH IDFH OD LQWHUYDOH HJDOH vQ FDQWLW L HJDOH FX R FDQWLWDWH DQXDO GH  DUWLFROH FKHOWXLHOLOH RFD]LRQDWH GH R DSURYL]LRQDUH ILLQG GH  OHL L VH DGPLWH UXSWXUD GH VWRF vQ FRQGL LLOH XQHL SHQDOL] UL XQLWDUH GH  OHL]L DUWLFRO V VH J VHDVF DFHD YDULDQW FDUH YD GXFH OD FRVWXO WRWDO DQXDO FX vQWUHDJD DSURYL]LRQDUH PLQLP 3UREOHPD  8Q GHSR]LW GH F UEXQL WUHEXLH V DSURYL]LRQH]H  WHUPRFHQWUDOH DQXDO FX  WRQH 'LQ REVHUYD LLOH DQWHULRDUH VD REVHUYDW F FKHOWXLHOLOH FX VWRFDUHD P UILL VXQW GH  OHL SH OXQ OD R vQF UFDUH PHGLH GH  D FDSDFLW LL WRWDOH GH  WRQH D GHSR]LWXOXL LDU FKHOWXLHOLOH RFD]LRQDWH GH ODQVDUHD XQHL DF LXQL GH vQF UFDUH D GHSR]LWXOXL VXQW GH  OHL V VH J VHDVF PRGDOLWDWHD GH DSURYL]LRQDUH D GHSR]LWXOXL OD LQWHUYDOH HJDOH vQ PXOWLSOL vQWUHJL GH ]LOH FX FDQWLW L HJDOH FDUH DU GXFH OD XQ FRVW WRWDO PLQLP 3UREOHPD  Q ILHFDUH V SW PkQ  vQ PDJD]LD XQXL DWHOLHU VH UHvPSURVS WHD] FDQWLWDWHD GH SLHVH GH VFKLPE QHFHVDUH IXQF LRQ ULL XWLODMHORU GLQ DWHOLHU 6 VH VWDELOHDVF SHQWUX R SLHV GH VFKLPE GDW FDQWLWDWHD GH SLHVH FDUH DU WUHEXL VWDELOLW V VH DIOH OD vQFHSXWXO ILHF UHL V SW PkQL vQ GHSR]LW GDF VH FXQRDWH F GHSR]LWDUHD DFHVWRUD VH IDFH FX R FKHOWXLDO GH F OHL]LSLHV LDU vQ FD]XO HSXL] ULL VWRFXOXL SHQWUX ILHFDUH SLHV OLSV DU DS UHD SLHUGHUL GH F OHL]L DVWIHO vQFkW FRVWXO WRWDO V ILH PLQLP 'LQ REVHUYD LLOH DQWHULRDUH D UH]XOWDW F QXP UXO GH SLHVH QHFHVDUH V SW PkQDO HVWH R YDULDELO DOHDWRDUH FX UHSDUWL LD   >@ >@ >@ >@ >@ >@ !          &DUH DU IL FDQWLWDWHD RSWLP OD vQFHSXWXO ILHF UHL SHULRDGH GDF LQWHUYDOXO GH DSURYL]LRQDUH DU IL GH  V SW PkQL" 'DU GH  VDX " $FHHDL vQWUHEDUH GDF VDU IDFH OD  VDX  ]LOH &XP SDUH V GHSLQG  GLQ GDWHOH RE LQXWH FRVWXO WRWDO GH OXQJLPHD SHULRDGHL IL[H GH UHDSURYL]LRQDUH" U

3UREOHPD  6 VH GHWHUPLQH YDORDUHD PHGLH D FKHOWXLHOLORU vQ LSRWH]D F FHUHUHD HVWH DOHDWRDUH FX IXQF LD GH UHSDUWL LH U

            FX R SLHUGHUH vQ FD]XO VXUSOXVXOXL GH VWRF GH  OHLSLHV L FX R SHQDOL]DUH GH  OHLSLHV OLSV  

7HRULD JUDIXULORU 3UREOHPD  8Q GHSR]LW VWRFKHD] SURGXVH GH ODUJ FRQVXP FX XQ FRVW GH VWRFDUH F  OHLDUWLFROV SW PkQ  /LSVD XQXL DUWLFRO GXFH OD R SLHUGHUH GH DUWLFROV SW PkQ  6 VH J VHDVF FDQWLWDWHD RSWLP FX FDUH WUHEXLH DSURYL]LRQDW GHSR]LWXO OD vQFHSXWXO ILHF UHL V SW PkQL DVWIHO vQFkW V VH RE LQ XQ FRVW JOREDO PLQLP 2EVHUYD LLOH DQWHULRDUH DX DU WDW F FHUHUHD HVWH R YDULDELO DOHDWRDUH D F UHL UHSDUWL LH XUPHD] OHJHD OXL 3RLVVRQ
H U
3 4 5

S U

6 VH J VHDVF  GH DVHPHQHD P ULPLOH FHUHULL FDUH SRW IL QHJOLMDWH I U D PRGLILFD UH]XOWDWXO 3UREOHPD  &RVWXO XQLWDU DO VWRF ULL XQHL SLHVH vQWUXQ GHSR]LW GHSLQGH GH FDQWLWDWHD  SHQWUX Q d  OHLDUWLFRO]L FRVWXO ODQV ULL XQHL FRPHQ]L ILLQG F VWRFDW DVWIHO F  SHQWUX Q !   vQ FRQGL LLOH XQHL FHUHUL DQXDOH GH  GH DUWLFROH 'DF DSURYL]LRQDUHD VH IDFH OD LQWHUYDOH HJDOH FX FDQWLW L HJDOH V VH J VHDVF LQWHUYDOXO GH UHDSURYL]LRQDUH L FDQWLWDWHD DGXV FDUH YRU GXFH OD XQ FRVW JOREDO PLQLP vQ GRX YDULDQWH  'DF QX VH DGPLWH UXSWXU GH VWRF  'DF VH DGPLWH OD R SHQDOL]DUH XQLWDU GH  OHLDUWLFRO]L 'H DVHPHQHD V VH U VSXQG OD vQWUHE ULOH GH PDL VXV GDF DSURYL]LRQDUHD QX VH SRDWH IDFH GHFkW OD LQWHUYDOH H[SULPDWH vQ QXPHUH vQWUHJL GH ]LOH
1 0