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ADVERBUL Determina un verb in sensul lui concret, de baza Determina un adjectiv

Ex: He runs quickly because he is extremely quick. In general adverbul este terminat in ly, dar nu tot ce are ly este adverb. De regula se formeaza din adjectiv + ly. Modificari ortografice: 1) daca adjectivul se termina in e, acesta se pastreaza ely Ex: nice nicely Exceptii: due duly (datorat) true truly whole wholly
2) daca adjectivul se termina in le, se transforma e in y/ ly

Ex: capable capably


3) daca adjectivul se termina in ll, se adauga doar lly

Ex: full fully


4) daca adjectivul se termina in ic, se adauga ally

Ex: automatic automatically


5) daca adjectivul se termina in y, indiferent daca este precedat de vocala sau de consoana,

se transforma in i si se adauga ily Ex: pretty prettily gay gaily Exceptii: shy shyly wry wryly coy coyly (sfios) 6) adjectivul good face adverbul well ! ca sa verific L-urile unui adverb, il desfac in adjectiv + ly Ex: usually = usual + ly bitterly = bitter + ly awfully = awful + ly Adverbe care au 2 forme cu acelasi inteles (oricare din ele este corect) 1. bright = brightly 2. sound = soundly 3. fair = fairly 4. tight = tightly (sunt echivalente) 5. dear = dearly 6. dead = deadly 7. cheap = cheaply Ex: The sun shines bright / brightly. ! forma in ly se va prefera totusi cand adverbul determina un adjectiv Ex: He is deadly tired. (si nu he is dead tired). Adverbul cheap se va folosi in loc de cheaply doar pentru a caracteriza activitati comerciale (to buy, to sell, to get) Ex: She bought it cheap. dar We traveled cheaply.

Adverbe cu 2 forme cu 2 intelesuri diferite clean = complet cleanly = intr-o maniera curata clear = exact clearly = intr-o maniera clara close = apropiat closely = indeaproape deep = adanc deeply = profund direct = direct directly = imediat due = spre (la busola) duly = punctual Ex: They went due South.

easy = usor Ex: Take it easy! easily = intr-o maniera lejera free = gratis freely = pe sleau, deschis full = complet fully = pe scara larga, intr-o maniera extinsa hard = greu hardly = de-abia, cu greu, aproape deloc high = sus highly = foarte just = tocmai justly = asa cum se cuvine late = tarziu lately = in ultima vreme large = extins largely = pe scara larga most = majoritatea mostly = cu precadere near = langa nearly = aproape ca pretty = foarte prettily = intr-o maniera draguta right = exact rightly = cu precizie, clar sharp = fix sharply = intr-o maniera taioasa short = brusc shortly = imediat

Adverbe si adjective cu aceeasi forma si inteles fast far early alike alone past solo straight next little outside ! daca adjectivul se termina in ly, el devine adverb prin contructia in a + adj + manner Ex: He is a friendly person. adj He speaks to me in a friendly way / manner. adv

coward = las (substantiv) cowardly = las (adjectiv) in a cowardly manner = cu lasitate (adverb) Gradele de comparatie Se construiesc astfel: 1) daca adjectivul si adverbul au aceeasi forma, se comporta ca un adjectiv scurt (gradele se fac cu er si est) Ex: I run fast / not so fast as / as fast as / faster than / the fastest of all / very fast 2) daca adverbul se obtine din adjectiv + ly, face gradele de comparatie ca un adjectiv lung (cu more si the most) Ex: He runs quickly / less quickly than / as quickly as / more quickly than / the most quickly of all / very quickly Comparatia regulata well better the best badly worse the worst much more the most far farther the farthest further the furthest near nearer the next little less the least late later the last

Adverbe de timp ago se foloseste cand raportarea se face fata de un moment prezent Ex: I saw her one hour ago. ! daca raportarea se face fata de un moment trecut, in loc de ago se pune before Ex: I told her that I had met her one hour before. for arata durata unei actiuni fara a prezenta momentul de inceput si sfarsit al actiunii. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului perfect continuu. Ex: I havent met her for two years. ! se poate intalni si cu timpul trecut Ex: I was a student for two years (Im no longer a student). ! pentru perioade lungi de timp (for ages, for centuries) ! nu se pune for dupa verbele: to last to take to wait to spend to stay Ex: Ive been waiting ten minutes, (si nu Ive been waiting for ten minutes). It lasts five seconds, (si nu it lasts for five seconds). since arata inceputul perioadei fara a preciza durata si momentul final. Este specific prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului continuu. Ex: I havent met her since Monday. Locutiuni adverbiale subst + after + subst day after day year after year month after month during urmat intotdeauna de substantiv. A nu se confunda cu while (in timp ce), care presupune actiuni paralele. During poate fi inlocuit cu in daca se refera la perioade de timp Ex: during my life = in my life from to poate fi inlocuit cu till, dar niciodata cu until, pentru ca until nu presupune cunoasterea momentului de sfarsit al actiunii Ex: I work until I die. (nu stiu cand) I get up at 8 oclock and work till 10 oclock. ! until nu poate fi cuprins in expresia from to in loc de to

Adverbul de mod fairly foarte, dar nu extraordinar Ex: Your story is fairly interesting. Fairly se cupleaza intotdeauna cu adjectivul la gradul pozitiv. quite este mai puternic decat fairly. Se foloseste cand vreau sa fac o apreciere favorabila. Ex: This car is quite cheap. ! cand se refera la adjective sau adverbe care nu au grade de comparatie, quite capata sensul de absolut, complet, de-a dreptul. Ex: Your dress is quite unique. rather se foloseste cand am de facut o apreciere nefavorabila si sensul este = foarte, neasteptat de. Se foloseste numai cu caracteristici negative. Ex: This car is rather expensive. Poate fi precedat si urmat de articolul a Ex: This is a rather difficult exercise. This is rather a difficult exercise. pretty foarte (familiar, intre prieteni) Ex: Im pretty tired. very Este cel mai cunoscut si se cupleaza cu orice (pozitiv, comparativ sau superlativ) Ex: I do my very best. He is very much faster than I am. much / a lot = se cupleaza cu comparativul Ex: He is much faster than I am. by far = se cupleaza cu superlativul Ex: He is by far the fastest of all. too se cupleaza cu pozitivul Ex: He is too fast. enough se cupleaza cu pozitivul, dar se aseaza dupa el Ex: He is fast enough for a champion. so se cupleaza Ex: - cu much, many, little, few + substantiv - cu adjectiv / adverb la pozitiv It is so difficult. I have so many friends / so much money. There is so little time left. - substantiv numarabil la sg precedat de a - de constructia adjectiv + substantiv la pl He is such a man. They are such interesting persons.

such urmat de Ex: