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Hydrogen sulfide

Systematic name[hide] Hydrogen sulfide[1] Other names[hide] Dihydrogen monosulfide Dihydrogen sulfide Sewer gas Stink damp Sulfane Sulfurated hydrogen Sulfureted hydrogen Sulfuretted hydrogen Sulfur hydride Hydrosulfuric acid

Identifiers CAS number PubChem ChemSpider UNII EC number UN number KEGG 7783-06-4 402 391 YY9FVM7NSN 231-977-3 1053 C00283

MeSH ChEBI ChEMBL RTECS number Beilstein Reference Gmelin Reference 3DMet Jmol-3D images

Hydrogen+sulfide CHEBI:16136 CHEMBL1200739 MX1225000 3535004 303 B01206 Image 1 SMILES

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InChI
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Properties Molecular formula Molar mass Appearance Odor Density Melting point Boiling point Solubility in water Vapor pressure Acidity (pKa) Basicity (pKb) Refractive index (nD) H2S 34.08 g mol1 Colorless gas faint rotten egg 1.363 g dm-3 -82 C, 191 K, -116 F -60 C, 213 K, -76 F 4 g dm-3 (at 20 C) 1740 kPa (at 21 C) 7.0[2] 6.95 1.000644 (0 C)[3]

Structure Molecular shape Dipole moment Bent 0.97 D Thermochemistry Std enthalpy of formation fHo298 Standard molar entropy S
o 298

21 kJmol1[4]

206 Jmol1K1[4] 1.003 J K-1 g-1 Hazards

Specific heat capacity, C

EU Index EU classification R-phrases S-phrases

016-001-00-4

F+

T+

R12, R26, R50 (S1/2), S9, S16, S36, S38, S45, S61

NFPA 704

4 4 0
207 C (closed cup) 232 C 4.346% Related compounds

Flash point Autoignition temperature Explosive limits

Related hydrogen chalcogenides

Water Hydrogen selenide Hydrogen telluride

Hydrogen polonide Hydrogen disulfide Sulfanyl Related compounds Phosphine (verify) (what is: / ?) Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 C, 100 kPa) Infobox references

Hydrogen sulfide (British English: hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. It often results from the bacterial breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and sewers; this process is commonly known as anaerobic digestion. It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, and some well waters. The human body produces small amounts of H2S and uses it as a signaling molecule.

Contents
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1 Properties 2 Production 3 Occurrence 4 Uses o 4.1 Production of thioorganic compounds o 4.2 Alkali metal sulfides o 4.3 Analytical chemistry o 4.4 Precursor to metal sulfides o 4.5 Miscellaneous applications 5 Removal from fuel gases o 5.1 Reaction with iron oxide o 5.2 Hydrodesulfurization 6 Safety o 6.1 Toxicity o 6.2 Suicides 7 Function in the body 8 Induced hypothermia and suspended animation 9 Participant in the sulfur cycle 10 Mass extinctions 11 See also 12 References 13 Additional resources

14 External links

[edit] Properties
Hydrogen sulfide is slightly heavier than air; a mixture of H2S and air is explosive. Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen burn with a blue flame to form sulfur dioxide (SO2) and water. In general, hydrogen sulfide acts as a reducing agent. At high temperature or in the presence of catalysts, sulfur dioxide can be made to react with hydrogen sulfide to form elemental sulfur and water. This is exploited in the Claus process, the main way to convert hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. Hydrogen sulfide is slightly soluble in water and acts as a weak acid, giving the hydrosulfide ion HS (pKa = 6.9 in 0.01-0.1 mol/litre solutions at 18 C). A solution of hydrogen sulfide in water, known as sulfhydric acid or hydrosulfuric acid, is initially clear but over time turns cloudy. This is due to the slow reaction of hydrogen sulfide with the oxygen dissolved in water, yielding elemental sulfur, which precipitates out. The sulfide dianion S2 exists only in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions; it is exceptionally basic with a pKa > 14. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with metal ions to form metal sulfides, which may be considered the salts of hydrogen sulfide. Some ores are sulfides. Metal sulfides often have a dark color. Lead(II) acetate paper is used to detect hydrogen sulfide because it turns grey in the presence of the gas as lead(II) sulfide is produced. Reacting metal sulfides with strong acid liberates hydrogen sulfide. If gaseous hydrogen sulfide is put into contact with concentrated nitric acid, it explodes. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with alcohols to form thiols.

[edit] Production
Hydrogen sulfide is most commonly obtained by its separation from sour gas, which is natural gas with high content of H2S. It can also be produced by reacting hydrogen gas with molten elemental sulfur at about 450 C. Hydrocarbons can replace hydrogen in this process.[5] Sulfate-reducing (resp. sulfur-reducing) bacteria generate usable energy under low-oxygen conditions by using sulfates (resp. elemental sulfur) to oxidize organic compounds or hydrogen; this produces hydrogen sulfide as a waste product. The standard lab preparation is to react ferrous sulfide (FeS) with a strong acid in a Kipp generator. FeS + 2 HCl FeCl2 + H2S A less well-known and more convenient alternative is