Sunteți pe pagina 1din 22

Verbul, in orice limba, este partea de vorbire care exprima de regula actiunea, dar poate exprima si starea sau

existenta. In limba engleza, verbele pot fi impartite in doua mari categorii:


VERBE AUXILIARE (NEPREDICATIVE) VERBE PRINCIPALE (PREDICATIVE)

1. VERBE AUXILIARE
Sunt verbe necesare la formarea structurilor gramaticale. In limba romana, acestea se numesc verbe nepredicative, si anume, nu au inteles de sine statator si nu pot forma singure un predicat verbal, ci impreuna cu alte cuvinte. Aceste verbe pot fi impartite in 2 grupe principale: verbe auxiliare primare si verbe auxiliare modale.

1.1 Verbe auxiliare primare:


to be (a fi), to do (a face) si to have (a avea) Aceste verbe pot fi atat auxiliare, cat si principale. Ca verbe auxiliare le regasim in urmatoarele structuri: TO BE - ajuta la formarea timpului prezent continuu: He is watching TV. (El se uita la televizor.) - ajuta la formarea diatezei pasive: These poems are written by famous poets. (Aceste poezii sunt scrise de poeti renumiti.) TO HAVE - ajuta la formarea timpurilor trecute: I have played guitar yesterday. (Am cantat la chitara ieri.) TO DO - ajuta la alcatuirea formei negative a verbelor: I do not speak French. (Nu vorbesc franceza.) - ajuta la alcatuirea formei interogative a verbelor: Do you listen to classic music? (Asculti muzica clasica?) - pentru a accentua anumite remarci: I do wish to play volleyball with you. (Chiar imi doresc sa joc volei cu tine.) - ajuta anumite verbe principale in unele constructii: He writes faster than she does. (El scrie mai repede decat ea.)

1.2 Verbe auxiliare modale:


can/could, may/might, will/would, shall/should, must, ought to Aceste verbe sunt utilizate pentru a schimba intelesul initial al unui verb principal. Verbele modale auxiliare exprima necesitatea sau probabilitatea. Exemple: I can't speak Japanese. (Nu stiu sa vorbesc japoneza.) Mihai may eat the whole pie. (Mihai poate manca toata placinta.) Would you like to join me? (Ai vrea sa ma insotesti?) We should run faster. (Ar trebui sa alergam mai repede.) He must go to the dentist. (Trebuie sa mearga la dentist.) You ought to stop smoking. (Ar trebui sa renunti la fumat.)

2. VERBE PRINCIPALE
In aceasta categorie intra majoritatea verbelor. In limba romana, acestea se numesc verbe predicative, care au inteles de sine statator si pot forma singure un predicat verbal cand se afla la un mod personal. La randul lor, pot fi impartite in doua grupe: verbe tranzitive si verbe intranzitive.

2.1. Verbe tranzitive


Sunt verbe de actiune si care sunt urmate de un complement direct, mai exact un obiect la care sa faca referire. Exemple: Iulian painted a beautiful flower on the blackboard. Iulian a pictat o floare minunata pe table. painted - verb tranzitiv; a flower - obiect direct I always eat an apple after dinner. Intotdeauna mananc un mar dupa cina. eat - verb tranzitiv; an apple - obiect direct He washes the dishes. El spala vasele. washes - verb tranzitiv; the dishes - obiect direct

2.2. Verbe intranzitive


Sunt verbe care nu pot avea un complement direct. Exemple:

Daniel arrived at 5 o'clock. Daniel a ajuns la ora 5. Mary goes to school. Maria merge la scoala. She wants an apple. Ea vrea un mar. ATENTIE: In limba engleza exista verbe care pot fi atat tranzitive, cat si intranzitive in functie de cum sunt folosite: Exemple: She often speaks on the phone. (vb intranzitiv) Ea vorbeste des la telefon. She speaks Chinese. (vb tranzitiv) Ea vorbeste Chineza. Glass breaks. (vb intranzitiv) Sticla se sparge. It breaks my heart. (vb tranzitiv) Mi se rupe inima. I always eat before I go to school. (vb intranzitiv) Intodeauna mananc inainte sa merg la scoala. I eat cereals in the morning. (vb tranzitiv) Mananc cereale dimineata.

La indicativ prezent, verbele primesc un "-s" numai la persoana a III-a singular, celelalte ramanand neschimbate. Pentru verbele cu terminatia in "-ch", "-sh", "-ss", "-x" - la persoana a III-a singular, acestea primesc terminatia "-es". Exemple: to teach - teaches (a preda), to reach - reaches (a ajunge), to kiss - kisses (a saruta), to fix - fixes (a repara), to mix - mixes (a amesteca), to finish - finishes (a termina), to diminish - diminishes (a diminua), to distinguish - distinguishes (a deosebi), to launch - launches (a lansa), to miss - misses (a lipsi), to dress - dresses (a se imbraca) Verbele cu terminatia in "-y" precedate de o consoana, la persoana a III-a singular, il vor modifica pe "y" in "i" si vor primi terminatia "-es" Exemple: to cry - cries (a plange), to try - tries (a incerca), to fly - flies (a zbura), to dry - dries (a se usca) Verbele cu terminatia in "-o" primesc terminatia "-es" la persoana a III-a singular.

Exemple: to do - does (a face), to undo - undoes (a anula), to go - goes (a merge) ATENTIE: Cu exceptia verbelor auxiliare "TO BE" si "TO HAVE", toate verbele din limba engleza se conjuga la formele simple interogative si negative cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar "TO DO".

Verbele principale (predicative) se mai impart in alte 2 grupe: verbe regulate si verbe neregulate.

Verbe regulate
Cele mai multe verbe in limba engleza sunt regulate. Ele se conjuga astfel: Indicativ prezent - Forma afirmativa I ask You ask He / She / It asks We ask You ask They ask Indicativ prezent - Forma negativa I do not ask You do not ask He / She / It does not ask We do not ask You do not ask They do not ask Indicativ prezent - Forma interogativa Do I ask? / Don't I ask? Do you ask? / Don't you ask? Does he / she / it ask? / Doesn?t he ask? Do we ask? / Don't we ask? Do you ask? / Don't you ask? Do they ask? / Don't they ask?

Verbe neregulate
Verbele neregulate in limba engleza sunt acele verbe care nu se supun regulilor generale de conjugare. In limba engleza, orice verb are 3 forme; forma intai este intotdeauna infinitivul, si la verbele regulate si la cele neregulate. Pentru verbele regulate formele 2 si 3 se obtin usor din forma intai prin adaugarea unui "ed". Pentru verbele neregulate formele 2 si 3 pot fi foarte diferite de forma 1 si necesita a fi

invatate. Ai mai jos niste exemple de verbe neregulate si formele lor. to fall - fell - fallen (a cadea) to be - was - been (a fi ) to bring - brought - brought (a aduce) to eat - ate - eaten (a manca) to do - did - done (a face)

Conjugarea verbului "TO BE"


Forma afirmativa: I am (I'm) - Eu sunt You are (You're) - Tu esti He is (He's) - El este She is (She's) - Ea este It is (It's) - El/Ea este We are (We're) - Noi suntem You are (You're) - Voi sunteti They are (They're) - Ei/Ele sunt Forma interogativa: Am I? - Sunt eu? Are you? - Esti tu? Is he? - Este el? Is she? - Este ea? Is it? - Este el/ea? Are we? - Suntem noi? Are you? - Sunteti voi? Are they? - Sunt ei/ele? Forma negativa: I am not (I'm not) - Eu nu sunt You are not (You aren't) - Tu nu esti He is not (He isn't) - El nu este She is not (She isn't) - Ea nu este It is not (It isn't) - El/Ea nu este We are not (We aren't) - Noi nu suntem You are not (You aren't) - Voi nu sunteti They are not (They aren't) - Ei/Ele nu sunt

Conjugarea verbului "TO HAVE"


Forma afirmativa: I have (I've) - Eu am You have (You've) - Tu ai He has (He's) - El are She has (She's) - Ea are

It has (It's) - El/Ea are We have (We've) - Noi avem You have (You've) - Voi aveti They have (They've) - Ei/Ele au Forma interogativa: Have I? - Am eu? Have you? - Ai tu? Has he? - Are el? Has she? - Are ea? Has it? - Are el/ea? Have we? - Avem noi? Have you? - Aveti voi? Have they? - Au ei/ele? Forma negativa: I have not (I haven't) - Eu nu am You have not (You haven't) - Tu nu ai He has not (He hasn't) - El nu are She has not (She hasn't) - Ea nu are It has not (It hasn't) - El/Ea nu are We have not (We haven't) - Noi nu avem You have not (You haven't) - Voi nu aveti They have not (They haven't) - Ei/Ele nu au

MODURILE VERBALE
Modul indicativ Este folosit pentru a face o afirmatie sau pentru a adresa o intrebare. Modul imperativ Este folosit pentru a da instructiuni, ordine, sugestii. Majoritatea propozitiilor imperative au ca subiect pronumele "you", deci subiectul la persoana a doua singular sau plural. Exemple: Get out of here! Iesi afara de aici! Go to the market! Mergi la piata! Modul subjonctiv Este folosit in propozitii subordonate pentru a exprima urmatoarele:

o dorinta: I wish you were here. Mi-as dori sa fii aici.

fraze conditionale care incep cu "if": If we were more efficient, we'd finished our homework on time. Daca am fi fost mai eficienti, ne-am fi terminat tema la timp. fraze introduse prin "as if" sau "as though": He acted as if he were guilty. A reactionat ca si cum ar fi fost vinovat. fraze introduse prin "that": I asked that she be present at the trial. Am solicitat ca ea sa fie prezenta la proces.

Despre modurile verbelor vom vorbi pe larg in lectia 23 a acestui curs.

Exercitii
1. Completeaza spatiile goale cu forma corecta a verbului TO BE: a) Forma afirmativa I _____ in the classroom. He ____ in the garden. They ____ in the house. b) Forma negativa You _____ in the office. She _____ in the bathroom. We _____ in the restaurant. Pronumele sunt cuvinte care desemneaza o persoana sau inlocuiesc un substantiv, referindu-se la o fiinta, idee, obiect sau o actiune despre care s-a mentionat anterior sau care este cunoscuta de catre interlocutor. Dupa continut si functie, pronumele pot fi: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Personale Reflexive si de intarire Demonstrative Nehotarate Relative Interogative Reciproce

1. Pronumele personal

Cazul Nominativ (cu functie de subiect): I (eu) You (tu, dumneata, dumneavoastra) He (el) She (ea) It (el, ea - neutru, pentru nume de obiecte, lucruri, animale) We (noi)

You (voi, dumneavoastra) They (ei, ele, dumnealor) Exemple: I am a big girl. (Eu sunt o fata mare.) He lives near the school. (El locuieste langa scoala.) We like chocolate very much. (Noua ne place ciocolata foarte mult.) Do you like football? (Tie iti place fotbalul?)

Cazul Genitiv (cu functie de nume predicativ): Mine (al meu, a mea) Yours (al tau, a ta) His (a lui) Hers (a ei) Its (a lui, a ei - neutru) Ours (al nostru, a noastra) Yours (al vostru, a voastra) Theirs ( a lor) Exemple: This book is mine. (Aceasta carte este a mea.) Yours is on the shelf. (A ta este pe raft.) It is John's shirt. It is his. (Este camasa lui John. Este a lui.) That dress is Mary's. It is hers. (Acea rochie este a lui Mary. Este a ei.) I made that pie for my friends. It is theirs. (Am gatit acea placinta pentru prietenii mei. Este a lor.)

Cazul Dativ (cu functie de complement indirect): (to) me (mie, imi, mi) (to) you (tie, iti, ti) (to) him (lui, ii, i) (to) her (ei, ii, i) (to) it (lui, ei - neutru) (to) us (noua, ne, ni) (to) you (voua, va, v) (to) them (lor, le) Exemple: He gave me a very nice present. (Mi-a dat un cadou foarte dragut.) I sent you a letter last week. (Ti-am trimis o scrisoare saptamana trecuta.) Give us some water, please! (Da-ne niste apa, te rog!) They presented you a very interesting plan. (V-au prezentat un plan foarte interesant.) I lent them some money. (Le-am imprumutat niste bani.)

Cazul Acuzativ (cu functie de complement direct)

Me (pe mine, ma, m) You (pe tine, te) Him (pe el, il, l) Her (pe ea, o) It (pe el, il, l, pe ea, o - neutru) Us (pe noi, ne) You (pe voi, va, v) Them (pe ei, ii, i, pe ele, le) Exemple: My mother saw me in the garden. (Mama mea m-a vazut in gradina.) I watched her on the TV. Am vazut-o la televizor. Did you see them? (I-ai vazut?) Andreea will meet us in the front of the theatre. (Andreea ne va intalni in fata teatrului.) After reading the exercise, Ana resolve it in five minutes. (Dupa ce a citit exercitiul, Ana la rezolvat in 5 minute.)

2. Pronumele reflexiv si de intarire


Pronumele reflexive sunt cuvinte care insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana. Pronumele de intarire sunt identice ca forma cu cele reflexive si insotesc substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia, a le scoate in evidenta. myself (ma, insumi, insami) yourself (te, insuti, insati) himself (se, insusi) herself (se, insesi) itself (se, insusi, insasi (neutru) ourselves (ne, insine, insene) yourselves (va, insiva, inseva themselves (se, insisi, insesi) Exemple: I wanted to write it myself. (Am vrut sa o scriu singur.) (Am vrut sa o scriu eu insami).) He himself doesn't know the answer. (El insusi nu cunoaste raspunsul.) The light will turn off itself after ten minutes. (Lumina se va stinge singura dupa zece minute.) They bought the house themselves. (Ei si-au cumparat casa singuri.) (Ei insisi si-au cumparat casa) You yourselves ate all the steak. (Voi insiva ati mancat toata friptura.)

3. Pronumele demonstrativ

Pronumele demonstrativ este pronumele care inlocuieste numele unui obiect si il deosebeste de alte obiecte de acelai fel aratand aproprierea, departarea (in spatiu sau timp) sau identitatea obiectului cu sine insui sau cu alt obiect. this (acesta, aceasta, asta, asta) that (acela, aceea, ala, aia) these (acestea, acestia, astia, astea) those (acelea, aceia, aia, alea) Exemple: This is my brother. (Acesta este fratele meu.) Those are his parents. (Aceia sunt parintii lui.) These are delicious. (Acestea sunt delicioase.) Did you buy that? {Tu ai cumparat aia?) I've never seen this. (Nu am mai vazut asta niciodata.)

4. Pronumele nehotarat
Pronumele nehotarat sau nedefinit inlocuieste un substantiv fara a da indicatii precise legate de obiectul denumit de acesta. Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate. Rezulta astfel urmatoarele pronume: anyone (oricare) anybody (oricine) anything (orice) someone (cineva) somebody (cineva) something (ceva) everyone (oricare, toata lumea) everybody (toata lumea) everything (totul) No poate forma pronume nehotarate impreuna cu -one, -body: nobody, no-one ATENTIE: Pronumele nehotarate anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one trebuie folosite cu un verb la singular. Alte exemple de pronume nehotarate: enough, few, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every, each, any, either, neither, none, some. Exemple: I want something from you. (Vreau ceva de la tine.) She didn't find anything in the fridge. (Nu a gasit nimic in frigider.) There was no-one in the room. (Nu era nimeni in camera.) Few will be chosen. (Putini vor fi alesi.) Something tells me that you are wrong. (Ceva imi spune ca gresesti.)

I gave him enough to go and buy a car. (I-am dat destul sa plece si sa cumpere o masina.) Somebody knocked at the door. (Cineva a batut la usa.) Is there anybody in this house? (Este cineva in aceasta casa?)

5. Pronumele relativ
Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau un inlocuitor substantival mentionat anterior si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte, oferind mai multe detalii despre substantivul respectiv. who (care) whom/who (pe care) whose (al (a, ai, ale) carui, careia, carora) what (ce, ceea ce which (care, pe care (pt. lucruri, obiecte ...) that (care) whoever (oricine, oricare) Exemple: My brother, who is a doctor, lives in Bucharest. (Fratele meu, care este doctor, locuieste in Bucuresti.) Tom, whose car was stolen, bought another one last week. (Tom, a carui masina a fost furata, a cumparat alta saptamana trecuta.) I found a dog that was lost. (Am gasit un caine care se pierduse.) I didn't like what I saw. (Nu mi-a placut ce am vazut.) I picked all the leaves which fell. (Am cules toate frunzele care au cazut.) The coach will select whomever he pleases. (Antrenorul il va alege pe oricine va dori.) He said whatever had in mind. (A spus orice avea in minte.) Whoever crosses the line first will win the race. (Oricine va trece primul linia va castiga cursa.)

6. Pronumele interogativ
Pronumele interogative sunt cuvinte care introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte. who? (cine?) whom? who? (pe cine?) whose? (al (a, ai, ale) cui?) what? (care?, pe care, ce?) which? (pe care dintre? care dintre) Exemple: Whom did you see last Sunday? (Pe cine ai vazut duminica trecuta?) Whose shoes are those? (Ai cui sunt pantofii aceia?) What are you doing? (Ce faci?)

Which do you like more? (Care iti place mai mult?) I don't remember to whom I gave my blouse. (Nu imi aduc aminte cui i-am dat bluza.) I already told him what I know about it. (I-am spus deja ceea ce stiam despre asta.)

7. Pronumele reciproc
Pronumele reciproce se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre fiinte, idei si lucruri. Au urmatoarele forme: each other (unul altuia, reciproc) one another (unul pe altul, unul pe celalalt) Exemple: They gave each other maps. (Ei si-au dat unul altuia harti.) My friend and I borrowed each other's ideas. (Prietena mea si cu mine ne-am imprumutat una alteia ideile.) The scientists often use one another's equipment. (Oamenii de stiinta isi folosesc des unul altuia echipamentul.)

Exercitii
1. Completeaza propozitiile urmatoare cu forma corecta a pronumelui reflexiv: a) I enjoyed _____ at the party b) My father didn't buy the book for _____ c) The dog cut _____ while running in the street. d) Help _____ to some fruit, John and Mary. e) We saw _____ in the snow. 2. Completeaza propozitiile de mai jos cu forma corecta a pronumelui posesiv: a) This is my cat. It is _______ b) That is his lamp. It is _______ c) These are our maps. They are _______ d) Those are their shoes. They are _______ e) This is her shirt. It is _______ 3. Completeaza corect spatiile goale cu unul dintre pronumele din paranteze: a) I saw Mr. Thompson _____ is John's father. (that, who, which) b) _____ did you meet last week, John or Steve? (which, who, whose) c) Puffy, _____ is a big cat, is very lazy. (which, who, whose) d) _____ are you doing? (whom, what, that) e) _____ is going with you at the theatre? (who, that, whom)

4. Completeaza cu pronumele personal corect. Atentie la cuvintele din paranteze: Exemplu: _____ is reading the newspaper. (My father) Raspuns: He is reading the newspaper. El citeste ziarul.

Numeralul cardinal
1 - one 2 - two 3 - three 4 - four 5 - five 6 - six 7 - seven 8 - eight 9 - nine 10 - ten 11 - eleven 12 - twelve 13 - thirteen 14 - fourteen 15 - fifteen 16 - sixteen 17 - seventeen 18 - eighteen 19 - nineteen 20 - twenty 21 - twenty-one 22 - twenty-two 23 - twenty-three 24 - twenty-four ....... 30 - thirty 31 - thirty-one 32 - thirty-two 33 - thirty-three 34 - thirty-four 40 - forty 50 - fifty 60 - sixty 70 - seventy 80 - eighty 90 - ninety 100 - one hundred 200 - two hundred 1,000 - one thousand 10,000 - ten thousand

153 - one hundred and fifty-three 198 - one hundred and ninety-eight 203 - two hundred and three 405 - four hundred and five 1,000,000 - one million 12,000,000 - twelve million 13,632,521 - thirteen million six hundred thirty-two thousand five hundred and twenty-one ATENTIE:

se foloseste cratima intre numeralul zecilor si cel al unitatilor Exemple: 21 - twenty-one; 99 - ninety-nine se pune virgula dupa fiecare grup care indica miile Exemplu: 1,222,351 mentionarea conjunctiei and este obligatorie inaintea grupului zecilor si unitatea finala Exemplu: 2,532 - two thousand five hundred and thirty-two cifrele zecimale se citesc astfel: 2.4832 - two point four eight three two

Numeralul ordinal

Mod de formare: Prin adaugarea terminatiei "th" la numeralul cardinal corespunzator. Exceptii: one - first (1st) two - second (2nd) three - third (3rd) five si nine, la care se suprima -e final, fifth (5th) si ninth (9th) zecile la care -y final se transforma in -ie, forty - fortieth (40th) the first (primul) 16th the sixteenth (al saisprezecelea) the second (al doilea) 17th the seventeenth (al saptesprezecelea) the third (al treilea) 18th the eighteenth (al optsprezecelea) the fourth (al patrulea) 19th the nineteenth (al nouasprezecelea) the fifth (al cincilea) 20th the twentieth (al douazecilea) the sixth (al saselea) 21st the twenty-first (al douazeci si the seventh (al saptelea) 22nd unulea) the eighth (al optulea) 23rd the twenty-second (al douazeci si the ninth (al noualea) ....... doilea) the tenth (al zecelea) 30th the twenty-third (al douazeci si the eleventh (al unsprezecelea) 40th treilea) the twelfth (al doisprezecelea) ....... ....... the thirteenth (al treisprezecelea) 100th the thirtieth (al treizecilea) the fourteenth (al patrusprezecelea) 101th the fortieth (al patruzecilea) the fifteenth (al cincisprezecelea) 1,000th ....... the hundredth (al o sutalea) the hundred and first (al o suta unulea) the thousandth (al o mielea)

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th

Data in limba engleza


In limba engleza pentru exprimarea datei se foloseste numeralul ordinal, care poate fi pus inainte sau dupa numele lunii. Exemple: 21st July (the twenty-first of July) June 4th (the fourth of June) 23 April, 1989 (the twenty-third of April nineteen eighty-nine) December 29 (the twenty-ninth of December)

Numeralul fractionar
Numerele fractionare exprima una sau mai multe parti ale unui intreg si se scriu ca fractii (1/2, 3/4, 7/8, 1/3, 2/10). Cand citim sau cand scriem cu litere fractiile in limba engleza, folosim numerale cardinale pentru numarator si numerale ordinale pentru numitor (la numitor pentru 2 folosim half - jumatate si pentru 4 folosim quarter - sfert). Exemple:

1/2 se citeste one half 3/4 se citeste three quarters 7/8 se citeste seven eights 1/3 se citeste one third 2/10 se citeste two tenth 1/1 se citeste one whole (un intreg)

Ora in limba engleza


Ora in limba engleza se exprima folosind numerale cardinale pentru ore si pentru minute (la minute sunt cateva exceptii pe care le vedem in exemplele de mai jos). Minutele se exprima inaintea orelor, intre minute si ore, pentru prima jumatate a cadranului ceasului se foloseste past, iar pentru a doua se foloseste to. In engleza americana se folosesc prepozitiile after si before in loc de past si to. Exemple: What time is it? (Cat e ceasul?) it's ten to one (e unu fara zece) it's half past six (e sase si jumatate) it's a quarter past twelve (e douasprezece si un sfert) it's a quarter to two (e doua fara un sfert) it's six past five (e cinci si sase) it's five o'clock (cinci fix)

Numeralul distributiv
Numeralul distributiv exprima gruparea numerica a obiectelor, distributia lor. Exemple: one at a time (cate unul o data) one by one (unul cate unul) two at a time (cate doi o data) two by two (doi cate doi) one after another (unul dupa altul) every week/month/year (in fiecare saptamana/luna/an) every two days (la fiecare doua zile, din doua in doua zile) every six hours (din sase in sase ore)

Numeralul multiplicativ
Numeralul multiplicativ se formeaza din numeralul ordinal + times, in afara de once (o data) si twice (de doua ori). Exemple: Definitie: Articolul reprezinta un determinant substantival care contribuie la realizarea intelesului unui substantiv intr-o propozitie.

Tipuri de articole: Articolul Hotarat - THE Articolul Nehotarat - A / AN Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata)

Articolul hotarat THE:


Cand folosim articolul hotarat THE?

Inaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat in textul respectiv: Exemplu: A man knocked at the door and a girl opened it. The man was her father. Un barbat a batut la usa si o fetita i-a deschis. Barbatul era tatal ei. Inaintea substantivelor care sunt unice: Exemple: the moon, the earth, the stars, the sun, the air luna, pamantul, stelele, soarele, aerul Inaintea numeralelor ordinale: Exemple: the first, the second, the third, the twenty-first, the seventeenth primul, al doilea, al treilea, al douazeci si unulea, al saptesprezecelea In realizarea superlativului: Exemple: the best year, the youngest girl, the most important, the fastest, the tallest cel mai bun an, cea mai tanara fata, cel mai important, cel mai rapid, cel mai inalt Inaintea substantivelor care reprezinta nume de colectivitati si institutii: Exemple: the army, the crowd, the government, the police, the parliament armata, multimea, guvernul, politia, parlamentul Inaintea unor nume proprii (nume de familie, muzee, teatre, ziare, hoteluri, etc): Exemple: the Browns, the Johns, the National Theatre, the Marriott Grand Hotel, the New York Times, the Beatles familia Brown, familia John, Teatrul National, Marriott Grand Hotel (hotelul), New York Times (ziarul), Beatles (formatia) Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume de locuri geografice, munti, fluvii, oceane, mari etc: Exemple: the Alps, the Atlantic, the Thames, the Danube, the Red Sea, the Sahara Alpii, Atlanticul, Tamisa, Dunarea, Marea Rosie, Sahara

Cand NU folosim articolul hotarat THE?

Inaintea momentelor in care servim masa, decat daca ne referim la un moment anume: Exemple: Breakfast is ready. Micul dejun este gata. What time do you have dinner?

La ce ora serviti cina? Atentie: The lunch I had yesterday was not so delicious. Pranzul pe care l-am servit ieri nu a fost atat de bun.

Inaintea numelor de anotimpuri decat daca ne referim la un anotimp anume: Exemplu: I always go to the mountains in spring. Intotdeauna merg la munte primavara. Atentie: The summer in 2010 was the warmest in Romania. Vara din 2010 a fost cea mai calduroasa din Romania.

Articolul nehotarat A / AN
Utilizam articolul nehotarat A:

Inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o consoana: Exemple: a girl, a boy, a teacher, a family, a classroom o fata, un baiat, un profesor, o familie, o sala de clasa

Utilizam articolul nehotarat AN:

Inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u): Exemple: an elephant, an apple, an interview, an onion, an action un elefant, un mar, un interviu, o ceapa, o actiune

Articolul nehotarat - exceptii:

Folosim articolul nehotarat AN inaintea unui substantiv care incepe cu litera "h", doar atunci cand este vorba despre un "h mut". Exemple: an hour, an honour o ora, o onoare Folosim articolul nehotarat A inaintea unui substantiv care incepe cu litera "u" sau grupul de litere "eu", doar atunci cand acestea se pronunta ca "you" Exemple: a European, a university, a unit un european, o universitate, o unitate de masura

Cand folosim articolul nehotarat A/AN?

Inaintea unui substantiv concret nedeterminat si numarabil: Exemple: A boy entered into the classroom. Un baiat a intrat in clasa.

The reporter took an interview. Reporterul a luat un interviu.

Inaintea unui substantiv concret cu functia de nume predicativ: Exemple: She is a teacher. Ea este profesoara. Ronnie is an elephant. Ronnie este un elefant.

Articolul zero
Nu folosim articol in urmatoarele situatii:

Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume proprii la singular: Exemplu: Paul is going to the school. Paul merge la scoala. Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume de tari, orase si limba acestora:

MOD DE FORMARE

AFIRMATIV Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv (la persoana a III-a singular se adauga terminatia "-s" sau "-es") Exemple: I go to school every day. Merg la scoala in fiecare zi. He reads a book every month. El citeste o carte in fiecare luna. She lives in Bucharest. Ea locuieste in Bucuresti.

INTEROGATIV Do / Does (pers.III, sg.) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv Exemple: Do you go to school every day? Mergi la scoala in fiecare zi? Does he read a book every month? Citeste el o carte in fiecare luna?

Does she live in Bucharest? Locuieste ea in Bucuresti?


NEGATIV Subiect + do / does (pers.III, sg.) + not + Verbul la infinitiv Se folosesc adesea contractiile don't (do + not) si doesn't (does + not) Exemple: I don't go to school every day. Nu merg la scoala in fiecare zi. He doesn't read a book every month. El nu citeste o carte in fiecare luna. She doesn't live in Bucharest. Ea nu locuieste in Bucuresti.

Reguli pentru adaugarea terminatiei "-s" sau "-es" la afirmativ pentru persoana a III-a singular

La majoritatea verbelor se adauga terminatia "-s" la persoana a III-a singular la afirmativ Exemple: I talk He talks I work He works I sleep He sleeps Verbelelor care se termina in ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o li se adauga terminatia "-es" Exemple: I kiss He kisses I wish He wishes I catch He catches I mix He mixes I go He goes La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o consoana, se inlocuieste litera y cu litera i , iar apoi se adauga terminatia "-es" Exemple: I fly He flies I study He studies I cry He cries La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o vocala, se adauga terminatia "-s" Exemple: I pay He pays

I stay He stays I play He plays

Cand folosim Prezentul Simplu?


Folosim Prezentul Simplu (Present Simple) pentru:

activitati zilnice, saptamanale, lunare, anuale Exemple: I go to the mountains every month. Merg la munte in fiecare luna. We have breakfast at 7.30 every morning. Luam micul dejun la ora 7.30 in fiecare dimineata.

obiceiuri, hobby-uri Exemple: She plays tennis in her free time. Ea joaca tenis in timpul liber. In the summer, they go to the seaside. Vara, ei merg la mare.

situatii permanente Exemple: He lives in Paris. El locuieste la Paris. I work as a manager. Eu lucrez ca manager.

a exprima actiuni care respecta un anumit program Exemple: The bus for Bucharest lives at 12.15 on Monday. Autobuzul pentru Bucuresti pleaca luni la 12.15. I have Maths Friday at 11.30. Eu am matematica vineri, la 11.30.

situatii emotionale Exemple: I love my girlfriend very much. Imi iubesc prietena foarte mult. He hates cats. El uraste pisicile.

adevaruri generale Exemple: The earth moves around the sun. Pamantul se misca in jurul soarelui. Water boils at 100C. Apa fierbe la 100C.

Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Simplu


every day/ week/ month/ year etc., every morning/ evening/ afternoon/ night, usually, always, sometimes, often, never, in the morning/evening/night etc. Exemple: He goes to the gym every day. El merge la sala in fiecare zi. I play football every week. Eu joc fotbal in fiecare saptamana. We go to the dentist every year. Noi mergem la dentist in fiecare an. She watches TV every evening. Ea se uita la televizor in fiecare seara. She usually studies hard for her exams. De obicei, ea se pregateste din greu pentru examene. I always do my homework. Intotdeauna imi fac temele. He sometimes goes shopping. El face cumparaturi uneori. I often play pool with my friends. Eu joc deseori biliard cu prietenii mei. She never goes to school by bus. Ea nu merge niciodata la scoala cu autobuzul. In the evening we play Monopoly. Seara jucam Monopoly.

EXERCITII

1. Pune propozitiile urmatoare la persoana a III-a singular: Exemplu: They live in Craiova. (He) Ei locuiesc in Craiova. He lives in Craiova, too. El locuieste in Craiova, de asemenea. a) I fly from Bucharest to Rome every week. (Mary) Eu zbor de la Bucuresti la Roma saptamanal. b) We usually play in the park. (John) Noi ne jucam de obicei in parc.