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INTRODUCTION

Steam is formed in boiler from feed water the water used in the boiler is called boiler feed water. Water available from reservior contains many impurities which are in form of dissolved and undissloved form. Thus, it cannot be used directly in the boiler as feed water. Thus differrent impurities or undissolved solvent are removed by various method in the dm plant by treating the water. Also the water which is send to cooling tower is treated in softner plant for remove hardness because the reservior contains more hardness which causes corrosion.

Water available from natural resourses contain following impurities


. un-dissolved material like mud,sand etc. . Dissolved salts & minerals like-carbonate, bicarbonate etc. . dissolved gas like oxygen, carbon dioxide etc. . Other material like acid, oil etc.

INTRODUCTION OF D.M PLANT


De-mineralization is a process of removing minerals salts and impurities from the water. The mineral salts are removed by using ion-exchanger process. Raw material contain salts of magnesium, calcium and potassium in the form of chlorine, nitrate , carbonate etc. De-mineralization involves two ions exchanger reaction.Initially the cation exchanger. The cation present in water such as calcium, etc is removed by hydrogen ion (H+). The salts thus gets converted to their respective acids by this exchanger. Then this acidic water is then passed through Anion Exchange where the anions .Such as chlorine, carbonate etc are removed by hydroxyl ion (OH-).

COMPONENT OF D.M PLANT


. Reservoir . Clarifier . Clarifier tank . Multi grade filter (MGF) . Dual medium filter (DMF) . Activated carbon filter (ACF) . Strong acid cation (SAC) . Degasser tank . Weak acid cation (WAC) . Strong base anion (SBA) . Mixed bed exchanger (MB)

RESERVIOR Reservoir is the place where are reserve or store the raw water coming from river, ponds etc. CLARIFIER In clarifier water coming from reservoir is treated by different dosing and and in top of the clarifier there is one scrapper which help for doing process. CLARIFIER TANK
In clarifier tank water coming from clarifier after process and chemical dosing is stored.

Multi grade filter (MGF)


In this process water is passed through a bed composed of porous material. When water passes through this filter the suspended solid matters are collected in the filter bed and the clear water is collected from the bottom.

Dual medium filter (DMF)


The process carried out in this filter bed is same as that of MGF.It remove mud particle and turbidity from the water.This filter contains sand, gravel.

Activated carbon filter (ACF)


Activated carbon filter contains black solid substance known as charcoal. Which removes chorine,lead and unpleasant tastes etc.

Strong acid cation (SAC)


Cation exchanger contains beds of cation resin.when the raw water passes through this resin bed,cation of the salt like Ca+ , Mg+ and Na+ are substituted by H+ ions of the resin.So the salts of calcium, magnesium and potassium are converted to different acids which get mixed with water.So water coming from cation exchanger is acidic.

Degasser tank
In degasser unit, water coming from cation exchanger is given from top of the degasser tower to increase its surface area contact. Low pressure air by the help of degasser blower is blown from the bottom of the column. By this process the carbonic acid formed in the cation exchanger break easily and carbon dioxide is liberated. Degasser water is collected at the tank called degasser tank. Degasser unit reduce load on anion exchanger.

Weak acid cation (WAC)


SAC can remove all cation associated strong acids like sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, etc.as well as weak acid also. Where as WAC can remove cation associated with weak acids only, like silica acid, organic acid.

Strong base anion (SBA)


Water coming out of the degasser unit passes through anion exchanger. Thus exchanger contain another type of resin called anion resin and represented by (R+OH-). Anion of the salts like SO4-, CL- , SIO3- are substituted by OH- ions of the resin to form H20.

Mixed bed exchanger (MB)


This type of bed is mainly used to remove silica slippage. In this bed both and anion are used in the exchanger. The water coming from the anion exchanger passes through this exchanger.

THE PROCESS OF DEMINERALIZATION


The most basic process of demineralization by the ion exchanger process in two stage demineralization. The first stage is removal of cation followed by removal of anion. Water, free from undissolved solids from pressure filter and activated carbon filter passes though a cation exchanger. Which contain a bed which is known as cation resin. This resin contain (H+) ions. When water passes through the bed cation are reacts with (H+) ions of the resin. Water come out from the cation exchanger is acidic. This comes to degasser tank and in this the carbon dioxide is removed to the atmosphere. The water passes through another exchanger called as anion exchanger. Anion exchanger contains another type of resin called as anion resin (OH-) Ions. When water is passed through the bed anion are reacts by the (OH-) ions of the resin. So the water come out from anion exchanger is free from salts. Another exchanger called as mixed bed , containing both cation H+ and anion OH- resin is used to stop any slippage salts from the cation and anion exchanger. After this process the water goes to D.M tank.

INTRODUCTION OF SOFTNER PLANT


Water before supplying to the cooling tower must be treated in softner plant to reduce the hardness and turbidity of water otherwise the water contain impurities and turbidity may hamper the instrument in the power plant and also to the cooling tower in the form of corrosion and sealing. Thus water is treated in the softner by differrent process to remove the hardness of water before feeding it to the cooling tower.

PROCESS OF SOFTENING PLANT


In the softner plant, first water come from reservior to filter before come to filter alum dosing is applied . In filter mud particles, turbidity etc are removed from water. After filteration the water now supplied to softner. Ion exchanger softening is the most commonly used method for removal of hardness from water. The softner contains strong acidic cation exchange resin in sodium (Na) form. When hold water pass through the resin the calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged by resin and equal number of sodium ions are exposed to the water. The resin has finise capacity for removal of calcium and magnesium ions and after this capacity is exhausted the resin will have to be regenerated to bring it back to the sodium foam. The resin is regenerated by passing NACL solution through the resin.