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Coperta revistei Urbanismul, nr. 5-6, mai-iunie 1937, n facsimil Cover of Urbanismul magazine no.

5-6, may-june 1937, in facsimile Couverture de la revue Urbanismul, no. 5-6, mai-juin 1937, en facsimile

Arhiva personal / Personal archive / Archive personnelle erban Popescu-Criveanu

Editat de Registrul Urbanitilor din Romnia Published by the Register of Romanian Urban Planners dite par le Registre des Urbanistes Roumains

CUPRINS / CONTENT / CONTENU


EDITORIAL / EDITORIAL / EDITORIAL Gabriel Pascariu Despre regionalizare numai de bine! / Speak only well of regionalization! / Parlez en bien de la rgionalisation! 4 PORTRET / PORTRAIT

Colegiul de redacie / Editorial College / College de rdaction erban Popescu-Criveanu Preedinte Gabriel Pascariu Coordonatorul numrului 11/2012 Doina Bubulete Liviu Iani Kzmr Kovcs Vintil Mihilescu Crian Victor Popescu Alexandru M. Sandu Ileana Tureanu Redactor ef / Editor in chief / diteur en chef Maria Mnescu Secretar general de redacie / Secretary editor / Secrtaire de rdaction Adrian Abrudan Graphic Design - DTP MB Studio Octavian Carabela, Marius Marcu-Lapadat Colaboratori / Collaborators / Collaborateurs Mihai Alexandru Traduceri / Translations / Traductions Ileana Plopeanu, Maria Mnescu Fotografii / Photos / Photos Lorin Niculae Tiprit de / Printed by / Imprim par Artix Plus SRL Redacia / Editorial Office / Redaction Str. Tudor Arghezi nr. 21, Et. VI, Sector 2, 020943, Bucureti Tel./Fax: 021. 311.83.38 E-mail: revista.urbanismul@rur.ro Editorul i redacia nu se consider responsabile pentru opiniile i ideile exprimate de autori n materialele publicate n revista Urbanismul-Serie Nou.

Ana Vasilache In memoriam Nicole Ra

REPERE / REFERENCE POINTS / REPRES Ion Conea Sugestii i indicaii geo-istorice pentru numirea i determinarea marilor uniti administrative ale Romniei / Sugestions and geo-historical guidelines for the nomination and creation of the great administrative divisions of Romania / Sugestions et indications go-historiques pour la dnomination et la cration des grandes divisions administratives de Roumanie 10 DREPT URBAN / URBAN LAW / DROIT URBAIN Radu Sgeat Acte normative care au vizat organizarea administrativ-teritorial din Romnia / Normative acts referring to the administrative and territorial organization of Romania / Actes normatifs sur lorganisation administrative et territoriale de Roumanie (1859-2011) 20 INTERVIU / INTERVIEW Coeziunea teritorial nu este o problem de costuri / Territorial cohesion doesnt cost any additional money / La cohsion territoriale ne cote pas cher
Interviu acordat de Andreas Faludi lui Gabriel Pascariu / Interview with Andreas Faludi taken by Gabriel Pascariu / Interview accord par Andreas Faludi Gabriel Pascariu

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EVENIMENTE / EVENTS / VNEMENTS Delia Popa Conferina Coeziune teritorial i competitivitate n contextul Strategiei Europa 2020 / Conference on Territorial cohesion and competitivity in the context of the Europe 2020 Strategy / La confrence Cohsion territoriale et comptitivit dans le contexte de la stratgie Europe 2020 32 Radu Matei Cocheci Pactul teritorial i Strategia Europa 2020 Expoziia Activri urbane n Romnia / The exposition on Urban Activations in Romania / Lexposition Activations urbaines en Roumanie 34 A. I. Petrior Conferin Urbanconcept / The Urbanconcept Confrence / La Confrence Urbanconcept 35 Radu Matei Cocheci Trump in New York City 36 Clubul Studenilor Urbaniti 37 Lorin Niculae Oraul efemer. Fotografie, grafic, montaj fotografic

Revista este indexat n baza de date Copernicus. http://www. journals.indexcopernicus.com/passport.php?id=6467

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NOI APARIII / New Releases / Nouvelles apparitions Andrei tefan Sabu Politicile regionale n Romnia / Regional policies in Romania / Les politiques rgionales en Roumanie 40 Kzmr Kovcs Cui i-e fric de cartierul Matache? / Whos afraid of the Matache neighborhood? / Qui a peur du quartier Matache? 42 GLOSAR Mihai Alexandru, Maria Mnescu Regiune, Regionalism, Regionalizare. Concepte vechi i noi / Region, Regionalism, Regionalization. Old and new concepts / Rgion, Rgionalisme, Rgionalisation. Concepts anciens et nouveaux. 43 DOSAR / FILE / DOSSIER.

Teofil Gherc Descentralizare i regionalizare n Frana / Decentralization and regionalization in France / Dcentralisation et rgionalisation en France 85 Maciej Jarosaw Kolczyski Politica regional n Polonia Ctre o nou paradigm / Regional policy in Poland Towards a new paradigm / La politique rgionale en Pologne Vers une nouvelle paradigme 89 Florin Pstoiu, Radu Petcu Progres, inovare i coeziune. Reforma administrativ i noua logic regional n Danemarca / Progress, innovation and cohesion. The administrative reform and the new regional logic in Denmark / Progrs, innovation et cohesion . La rforme administrative et la nouvelle logique rgionale en Danemark 96 Jzsef Benedek Modelul german de organizare a planificrii teritoriale la nivel regional / The German model of territorial planning organization at the regional level / Le modle allemand dorganisation de la planification territoriale au niveau rgional 100 Pietro Elisei Pactele teritoriale, instrumente de dezvoltare regional i local: de la experiena Italiei la promovarea parteneriatului Europa 2020 / The Territorial Pacts, tools of regional and local development: from the Italian experience to the promotion of the Europe 2020 partnership / Les Pactes Territoriaux, des outils de dveloppement rgional et local: de lexperience de lItalie la promotion du partenariat Europe 2020 102 Dumitru Sandu n cutarea regionalizrii optime pentru dezvoltare / Searching for the optimal regionalization for development / En qute de la rgionalisation optimale pour le dveloppement 110 PROIECTE / PROJECTS / PROJETS

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Corneliu Bucur Organizarea administrativ - teritorial a Romniei ntre tradiie istoric, dictat politic, sincronism european, decizie administrativ i analiz tiinific / The administrative and territorial organization of Romania between historical tradition, political dictate, european sincronism, administrative decision and scientific analysis / Lorganisation administrative et territoriale de Roumanie entre la tradition historique, dictat politique, sincronisme europen, dcision administrative et analyse scientifique 50 Ana Maria Petrescu ROMNIA. Evoluia istoric a organizrii administrative. Delimitri teritoriale actuale / Historical evolution of the administrative organization / Evolution historique de lorganisation administrative 56 Petru Filip Regionalizarea n Romnia. Tradiie i tendine europene / Regionalization in Romania. Tradition and european trends/La rgionalisation en Roumanie. Tradition et tendances europennes 62 Dnu-Radu Sgeat Organizarea administrativ-teritorial a Romniei. Modelul interbelic / The territorialadministrative organization of Romania. The interwar model / Lorganisation administrativeterritoriale de la Roumanie. Le modle dentre guerres 67 Gabriel Pascariu Momente principale n implementarea politicii de dezvoltare regional n Romnia / Principal moments of the implementation of the regional development policy in Romania/ Moments principaux de limplmentation de la politique de dveloppement rgional en Roumanie 71 Ioan Iano, Gabriel Pascariu nceputurile politicii regionale n Romnia / First steps of the regional policy in Romania /Les premiers pas de la politique rgionale en Roumanie 74 Nicolae D. Necula Organizarea administrativ-teritorial a Bisericii Ortodoxe Romne / The territorialadministrative organization of the Romanian Orthodox Church / Lorganisation administrative-territoriale de lEglise Orthodoxe de Roumanie 80 Mircea Enache Dinamism i continuitate: regionalizare n Romnia / Dynamism and continuity: regionalization in Romania / Dinamisme et continuit: rgionalisation en Roumanie

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Liviu Iani Amenajarea teritoriului ca subiect de cooperare transfrontalier. Strategie transnaional de dezvoltare teritorial a bazinului rului Tisa (TICAD) / Spatial planning as a subject of cross-border cooperation / Lamnagement du territoire comme sujet de la coopration transfrontalire 116 Pompei Cocean, Ana-Maria Pop, Lelia Papp Cooperare transnaional pentru gestionarea optim a resurselor din bazinul hidrografic al Someului / Transnational cooperation for the optimal management of resources in the Some river catchment area / Coopration transnationale pour la gestion optimale de ressources du bassin hidrographique de la rivire Some 120 Iulian Canov, Cristina Zlota O abordare verde. Concurs de Urbanism la Kiev / A green approach. Spatial planning competition in Kiev / Une approche verte . Concours durbanisme Kiev 125 DOCUMENTE OFICIALE Alexandru Sandu Ordinul Arhitecilor din Romnia, 10 ani de activitate / 10 years of activity for the Order of the Architects in Romania /10 ans dactivit de lOrdre des Architectes de Roumanie 134 Declaraia de la Bucureti / Declaration from Bucharest / La Dclaration de Bucarest ENGLISH ABSTRACTS / RESUMS EN FRANAIS

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CUPRINS

Gabriel PASCARIU

Despre regionalizare... numai de bine!


ecizia de a consacra un Dosar temei regionalizrii a survenit pe fondul dezbaterii care a inut pentru scurt timp, vara trecut, capul de afi n media romneasc. Polemica iscat de propunerea desfiinrii judeelor i crerii de regiuni administrative s-a dovedit lipsit de profunzime i consisten ideatic tipic dmboviean, marcat mai degrab de pasiuni politice dect de argumente raionale sau doctrinare, confiscat de personaje semidocte i sfrind lamentabil n toropeala care cuprinde n general societatea romneasc spre finalul verilor toride. Reaciile cu adevrat profesioniste au fost rare i au trecut relativ neobservate n hrmlaia general. Astfel de voci singulare atrgeau atenia asupra seriozitii cu care trebuie abordat subiectul, asupra necesitii unor analize atente i a unui dialog pertinent, deschis i extins. De altfel, chestiunea unei reorganizri teritoriale a aprut sporadic, dar cu o relativ ritmicitate n deceniile tranziiei post-decembriste, asociindu-se mai ales dup 2000 cu ideea de reform a statului. Subiectul a fost abordat sau cel puin aa a fost perceput de regul, n registru emoional i partizan, iar analizele serioase, fundamentate tiinific care au fost ntocmite n aceast perioad nu au avut impact la nivelul deciziei politice. Dup tentativele euate ale Ligii judeelor abuziv desfiinate de la nceputul anilor 90, discuiile s-au focalizat n jurul decupajului regional survenit ceva mai trziu, n contextul procesului de aderare la Uniunea European (UE). Rspunznd solicitrilor Comisiei Europene, constituirea celor 8 regiuni de dezvoltare la finele anului 1998 reprezint unul dintre puinele momente de consens politic i social i rmne un reper al perioadei actuale. Acceptarea acestei formule de regionalizare pare a fi posibil atta timp ct ea servete atragerii de fonduri europene nerambursabile i ofer un bun suport pentru analiz i planificare. Problema de fond privind realizarea unei reforme administrativ-teritoriale nu este nicidecum rezolvat, actuala regionalizare fiind strict statistic i de programare investiional. Subiectul n legtur cu care vocea specialitilor s-a fcut prea puin auzit n opinia public i a fost constant ignorat de ctre clasa politic i de media, n egal msur rmne, aadar, de interes i de actualitate. Este poate motivul pentru care acesta este nsoit n continuare de tot felul de mituri, spaime i confuzii care fac dificil abordarea lui consecvent i constructiv. Prezentul numr al revistei nu i propune s ofere soluii i nici s continue, s dezvolte sau s genereze noi polemici sterile. Oferind spaiu de exprimare unor personaliti cu experien i recunoatere profesional n domenii variate de la istorie i geografie la sociologie i amenajarea teritoriului, Dosarul se
4 EDITORIAL

dorete a fi o colecie de opinii autorizate menite s reflecte complexitatea i diversitatea de puncte de vedere, abordri i perspective, numeroasele sensuri asociate termenului regionalizare. Sperm ca prin demersul nostru s crem premisele unei percepii mai corecte i mai adecvate de ctre publicul larg n ceea ce privete situaia actual, contextul european, relaiile instituionale i determinantele socioeconomice i culturale. Abordarea temei n paginile revistei este motivat i de un argument incontestabil: legtura esenial a proceselor de regionalizare cu teritoriul, cu spaiul geografic n general i, implicit, cu politicile de planificare i dezvoltare spaial. Subliniind faptul c teritoriul este, n fond, o construcie complex social, economic, politic, instituional, Keating invoc remarca lui Gottmann care constata c este, totui, surprinztor c teritoriul a fost de attea ori neglijat ca un factor de analiz n tiinele politice. Regiunea este ea nsi o form teritorial cu o multitudine de nelesuri. Cele mai importante sunt prezentate n Glosarul realizat de Mihai Alexandru i Maria Mnescu. Modul n care este neleas regiunea este definitoriu pentru procesul de regionalizare. O bun parte a textelor cuprinse n Dosar vorbesc direct sau indirect despre feluritele sensuri i denumiri atribuite regiunilor de-a lungul timpului sau n diferite locuri i conjuncturi politice i socio-economice. Perspectiva istoric pe care o ofer unele articole (Bucur, Sgeat) indic elemente de continuitate i permanen, dar i transformri i adaptri generate de factori interni i externi. Fragmentele reproduse din revista interbelic Sociologie romneasc la rubrica Repere oglindesc preocuprile unor cercettori ai vremii de a gsi un optim ntre tradiie, identitate i aciune politic. Sunt evideniate, astfel, rdcinile istorice ale unor forme teritoriale care sub diferite denumiri ri, judee, inuturi, pli au avut un rol definitoriu n organizarea i administrarea teritoriului. Regionalizarea poate fi explicat i neleas ca o construcie teritorial, rezultant a unui ansamblu de factori care o pot influena att de la nivelul local, comunitar, de jos n sus, ct i de la nivelul superior al statului n diferitele sale forme de existen democratic, autoritar, dictatorial sau de organizare unitar sau federativ. Diferitele forme de regionalizare prezentate n cele ce urmeaz exprim, n ultima instan, complexul joc de fore i interese care le determin. Sunt relevante n acest sens perspectivele cuprinztoare sau particularizante pe care le aduc unii autori cu referire la Romnia (Filip) sau la alte state europene (Gherc, Kolczynski, Benedek, Pstoiu & Petcu). Exemplul unor re-modelri recente ale organizrii administrativ-teritoriale la nivelul unor state membre ale UE poate fi util n perspectiva urmtorilor ani, n care un demers similar este probabil inevitabil i n cazul Romniei.
11 / 2012 URBANISMUL

EDITORIAL / EDITORIAL / EDITORIAL

Cazul Poloniei, cu precdere, singurul stat est-european care a parcurs un proces complet de regionalizare dup 1990, merit cercetat cu atenie, avnd n vedere o serie de similitudini de form, mrime i organizare teritorial cu ara noastr. Un factor de presiune i direcionare a proceselor de regionalizare la scara UE l constituie, n ultimele decenii, politica de coeziune i dezvoltare regional. Nevoia crerii unui cadru legal i instituional i a unui nivel teritorial de planificare adecvat pentru utilizarea fondurilor de pre-aderare i a celor structurale dup aderare a mpins Romnia spre o form de regionalizare. Istoria recent a acestui proces face obiectul altor materiale din Dosar (Iano, Pascariu), fiind surprins tangenial i n cele de sintez mai sus-amintite (Bucur, Filip). n prezent, chestiunea regionalizrii capt conotaii noi i extinse n contextul dezbaterii mai largi care are loc la nivel european pe tema coeziunii teritoriale. Conferina cu aceast tem, organizat n decembrie 2011 de ctre Ministerul Dezvoltrii Regionale i Turismului, precum i alte evenimente conexe precedente sau ulterioare, au adus n prim plan problema politicilor de dezvoltare spaial i regional pentru urmtorul exerciiu bugetar al UE (2014-2020). Un subiect derivat, dar important, l reprezint pactul teritorial ca formul de planificare participativ bazat pe cooperare multi-nivel i pe forme moderne de guvernare. Experimentul italian al anilor 90 prezentat n detaliu n partea final a Dosarului (Elisei) descrie modul n care utilizarea acestui instrument a contribuit la promovarea dezvoltrii endogene n Mezzogiorno i n alte zone dificile ale Italiei i a marcat puternic identitile regionale. Coordonata identitar - comunitar este prezent, de asemenea, n paginile Dosarului, constituind cu certitudine unul dintre cele mai delicate i complicate aspecte ale regionalizrii. Cercetarea acesteia ine de sfera studiilor sociale i antropologice, cu caracter istoric, etnografic sau arhitectural-urbanistic i ilustreaz importana pe care regiunea ca entitate teritorial o are n analiza fenomenelor sociale (Sandu). Regionalizarea apare, aadar, i ca o form de studiu al teritoriului, aa cum transpare din cuprinsul unor articole (Enache, Iano & Pascariu) sau din recenzarea unor lucrri de profil (Sabu). Putem afirma, totui, c regionalizarea este, nainte de toate, o form de administrare a teritoriului prin care se urmrete, n funcie de variatele conjuncturi istorice, politice i economice, fie exercitarea unui control mai puternic al statului, fie optimizarea utilizrii unor resurse, fie o mai eficient funcionare a serviciilor publice, fie o cretere a competitivitii economice i a emanciprii sociale i cultural, fie o combinaie de astfel de elemente. Inedita succesiune de reprezentri grafice privind
URBANISMUL 11 / 2012

evoluia organizrii administrative a Romniei, realizat de Ana Maria Petrescu ilustreaz asemenea tendine i faptul c aceast administrare nu trebuie neleas doar ca fiind global i determinat politic ci i sectorial i motivat funcional. Secvenele grafice menionate includ i regionalizri asociate unor forme de instituionalizare: gestionarea resursei de ap pe bazine hidrografice, a patrimoniului construit pe structura comisiilor zonale ale monumentelor istorice, a reelei de ci ferate pe regionale, a problemelor de mediu prin agenii regionale. Organizarea justiiei urmeaz un model similar i la fel cea a Bisericii Ortodoxe Romne. n privina ultimei, este remarcabil apropierea decupajului teritorial de cel al regiunilor istorice cu excepia zonei de nord-vest dar i acoperirea extrateritorial la scar european i internaional (Necula). n fine, nu poate fi omis aspectul transfrontalier i transnaional al regionalizrii. Crearea unor zone de cooperare de tipul euroregiunilor decurge, n special, dintr-o nou nelegere i o abordare atent a problemelor de mediu, a celor culturale i economice ce transcend graniele administrative. Geografia joac aici un rol esenial definind o serie de spaii difuze (Faludi) de planificare legate de mari bazine hidrografice, zone costiere maritime i lanuri muntoase. Studiile incluse la rubrica Proiecte se refer la bazinele hidrografice ale Tisei i Someului i sunt relevante n acest sens (Iani, Cocean et al.). Incontestabil, astzi, la nivelul statelor membre ale UE, regionalizarea se asociaz tot mai puternic proceselor de descentralizare i este ghidat de principiului subsidiaritii i de obiectivul crerii unor instituii moderne i eficiente. Parcurgerea Dosarului i a altor materiale din cuprinsul revistei sugereaz c o formul ideal de regionalizare a unei ri ar putea fi cea care ar mbina optim cerinele de funcionalitate cu cele de natur cultural- identitar, cu anumite caracteristici dimensionale, cu resursele existente i cu o anumit capacitate instituional-managerial. Actualul context european indic i faptul c o regionalizare eficient nu poate fi dect rezultatul unei complexe negocieri cu implicarea ct mai larg a specialitilor i opiniei publice, astfel nct s rspund satisfctor unei game largi de ntrebri i probleme (Enache). Nu n ultimul rnd, trebuie evaluate i acceptate costurile regionalizrii posibil ridicate pentru un mai bine care ar urma... Note
1 Michael Keating (1998), The New Regionalism in Western Europe, Edward Elgar Publishing, traducere n limba romn, 2008, Institutul European.

EDITORIAL

Speak only well of regionalization!


he decision to dedicate a File to the theme of regionalization occurred on a history of debates that held the front page last summer for a short time in the Romanian massmedia. The polemic aroused by the proposal to dissolve the districts and to create the administrative regions proved to be lacking in depth and ideation consistencytypical at the Gates of the Orient, being marked by political passions rather than rational or doctrinaire arguments, confiscated by semi-learned people and ending lamentably in the lethargy usually comprising the Romanian society at the end of torrid summers. The real professional reactions were rare and passed relatively unnoticed in the general turmoil. Such singular voices drew attention on the seriousness the subject should be approached, on the necessity to analyze attentively and to have a pertinent, open and extended dialogue. Furthermore, the problem of the territorial reorganization appeared sporadically, but with a relative rhythmicity during the decades of the post-Decembrist transition, being especially associated after 2000 with the idea of the states reforming. The subject was approached usually in an emotional and partisan range or, at least, it was perceived as such; the serious and scientifically grounded analyses that have been drawn up in this period did not have an impact on the political decision. After the failed attempts of the League of the Abusively Dissolved Counties at the beginning of the 90s, the discussions focused on the regional design that appeared a little later in the context of the accession process to the European Union (EU). Responding to the European Commissions requests, the establishment of the 8 development regions at the end of 1998 represents one of the few moments of political and social consensus and remains a reference point of the current period. The acceptance of this regionalizing formula seems to be possible as long as it serves to gain European non-reimbursable funds and it offers a good support to analyzing and planning. The basic problem of achieving an administrative-territorial reform is not yet solved, the present regionalization being strictly statistical and of investment programming. Therefore, the subject over which the experts voice was too little heard in the public opinion and ignored by both the political class and the media remains of interest and currently relevant. Maybe it is the reason for which the subject continues to be accompanied along by all kinds of myths, fears and confusions that make difficult its consistent and constructive approach. This issue does not intend to offer solutions or to continue, to develop or to generate new unproductive polemics. By providing a space to express their opinions on the theme to certain personalities with experience and professional recognition in different fields as history and geography, sociology and spatial planning, the File is intended to gather a collection of authorized opinions meant to reflect the complexity and diversity of points of view, approaches and perspectives, the various meanings associated to the term of regionalization. Through our approach we hope to create the premises for the large public to perceive more correctly and more adequately the present situation, the European context, the institutional relations and the cultural, socio-economic determinants. The approach of this theme in the Files pages is also motivated by an indisputable argument: the essential connection of the regionalization processes with the territory, with the geographic space in general and, implicitly, with the planning and spatial development policies. Underlying the fact that the territory is basically a complex social, economic, political and institutional construction, Keating refers to Gottmanns remark who noticed that it is, however, surprising that the territory was neglected so many times as a factor of analysis in the political sciences.1 The region itself is a territorial form with a multitude of meanings. The most important of them are presented in the Glossary carried out by Mihai Alexandru and Maria Mnescu. The way the region is understood is essential for the regionalizing process. Many of the texts included in the File bring into discussion directly or indirectly the various meanings and names given to the regions in the course of time or in different places or political and socio-economic circumstances. The historical perspective some articles offer (Bucur, Sgeat) indicates not only elements of continuity and permanence but also transformations and adaptations generated by internal and external factors. The fragments reproduced from the interwar review Romanian Sociology in the column Reference Points reflect the preoccupations of certain researchers of the time to find an optimal balance between tradition, identity and political action. Thus, there are pointed out the historical roots of certain territorial forms that under different names ri, judee, inuturi, pli had a defining role in organizing and governing the territory. The regionalization can be explained and understood as a territorial construction, a resultant of a complex of factors that can influence it both from the local, community level (bottom-up), as well as from the superior level of the state in its different forms of democratic, authoritarian, dictatorial existence or of unitary or federative organization. The different forms of regionalization presented in this issue express ultimately the complex game of forces and interests that determine them. The comprehensive and particularizing perspectives offered by some authors referring to Romania (Filip) or to other European states (Gherc, Kolczynski, Benedek, Pstoiu & Petcu) are relevant in this context. The example of certain recent remodeling of the administrative-territorial organization at the level of some EU member states can be useful in future when, probably, a similar approach is inevitable in the case of Romania. Especially the case of Poland, the only East-European state that covered a

complete process of regionalization after 1990, is worth being researched attentively if we take into account a series of similarities of form, size and territorial organization with our country. In the last decades, the cohesion and regional development policy put a pressure on and has been a guidance factor for the regionalizing processes at the EU scale. The need to create a legal and institutional framework and a level of territorial planning adequate to use the pre-accession funds and the structural funds after-accession thrusted Romania towards a form of regionalization. The recent history of this process is the subject of other materials in the File (Iano, Pascariu), being also tangentially caught in the abovementioned synthesis articles (Bucur, Filip). At present, the problem of regionalization gets new and extended connotations in the context of a larger European debate on the territorial cohesion. The conference with this topic, organized on December 2011 by the Ministry of Regional Development and Tourism, as well as other previous or subsequent related events, brought in the foreground the problem of the spatial and regional development for the next EU financial programming for 2014-2020. One derived but important subject is represented by the territorial pact as a formula of participative planning based on a multi-level cooperation and on modern forms of governance. The Italian experiment of the 90, presented in detail in the final part of the File (Elisei), describes the way in which the use of this tool contributed to the promotion of the endogenous development in Mezzogiorno and in other difficult areas of Italy, marking strongly the regional identities. The couple identity-community is also present in the File, constituting obviously one of the most delicate and most complicated aspects of the regionalization. Its research is related to the social and anthropologic studies with a historical, ethnographical or architectural-urban planning character and it illustrates the importance of the region as a territorial entity in the analysis of the social phenomena (Sandu). Therefore, the regionalization also appears under the form of a study on the territory, as it can be noticed in some articles (Enache, Iano & Pascariu) or out of the review of some works of the same profile (Sabu). However, we can assert that the regionalization is mainly a form of managing the territory that, according to the different historical, political and economic circumstances, intends either to exercise a more powerful control of the State, or to optimize the use of certain resources, or to make public services function more efficiently, or to increase the economic competitiveness and the social and cultural emancipation, or a combination of such elements. The original succession of the graphical representations regarding the administrative organization of Romania carried out by Ana Maria Petrescu shows such tendencies as well as the fact that this administration does not have to be understood only as being global and determined politically but also sectorial and functionally motivated. The mentioned graphical sequences include also regionalizations associated to forms of institutionalization: the water resources management associated to the hydrographical basins, the management of the built heritage associated to the structure of the zonal commissions on the historical monuments, the railway network management associated to the regional network of railroads, the management of environmental problems through regional agencies. The organization of justice and the organization of the Romanian Orthodox Church follow a similar pattern. As regards the last one, the likeness of the territorial design to that of the historical regions with the exception of the north-west area and the extra-territorial coverage to a European and international scale (Necula) are equally remarkable. Finally, the cross-border and transnational aspects of the regionalization cannot be omitted. The establishing of cooperating areas similar to the Euro-regions derives especially from a new understanding and an attentive approach of the environmental, cultural and economic problems that transcend the administrative borders. The geography plays here an essential role by defining a series of soft planning spaces (Faludi) related to the big hydrographical basins, coastal maritime areas and mountain chains. The studies included in the Projects column refer to the hydrographical basins of Tisa and Some and they are relevant in this respect (Iani, Cocean et al). It is undeniable that, nowadays, at the level of the EU member states, the regionalization is increasingly stronger associated with the processes of decentralization and it is guided by the principle of subsidiarity as well as by the objective of creating modern and efficient institutions. The reading of the File and of the other articles in this issue suggests that an ideal formula of regionalizing a country could be the one that would connect optimally the requests related to functionality with those related to cultural-identity, with certain dimensional characteristics, with the existent resources and with a certain institutionalmanagerial capacity. The present European context also suggests that an efficient regionalization cannot be but the result of a complex negotiation involving widely the experts and the public opinion so that it would respond satisfactorily to a large range of questions and problems (Enache). And last but not least, the costs possibly high of the regionalization have to be assessed and accepted for a better that could come in future Notes
1 Michael Keating (1998), The New Regionalism in Western Europe, Edward Elgar Publishing, translated to Romanian, 2008, European Institute.

EDITORIAL

11 / 2012 URBANISMUL

Parlez en bien de la rgionalisation!


a dcision de consacrer un Dossier au thme de la rgionalisation est survenue sur le fond du dbat qui a t tte daffiche dans les mdias roumains pour une courte priode de temps lt dernier. La polmique suscite par la proposition de la suppression des dpartements et la cration des rgions administratives sest prouve superficielle et sans consistance idique...typique aux portes de lOrient , caractrise plutt par des passions politiques que par des arguments raisonns ou doctrinaires, confisque par des personnages semidoctes et finissant lamentablement dans la somnolence qui envahit toujours la socit roumaine la fin des ts torrides. Les ractions rellement professionnelles ont t rares et presque pas observs dans le vacarme gnral. Ces voix singulires attiraient lattention sur la gravit du sujet, sur la ncessit des analyses attentives et dun dialogue pertinent, ouvert et large. Dailleurs, la question dune rorganisation territoriale a apparu sporadiquement, mais avec une relative rythmicit dans les dcennies de la transition post-dcembre, en sassociant particulirement aprs 2000 lide de la rforme de lEtat. Le sujet a t abord ou au moins peru gnralement, en registre motionnel et partisan, et les analyses srieuses, fondes scientifiquement qui ont t labores dans cette priode nont pas eu de limpacte au niveau de la dcision politique. Aprs des tentatives choues de la Ligue des dpartements supprimes abusivement au dbut des annes 90, les discussions se sont focalises autour du dcoupage rgional survenu un peu plus tard, dans le contexte du procs dadhsion lUnion Europenne. En rpondant aux sollicitations de la Commission Europenne, la constitution des huit rgions de dveloppement la fin de lanne 1998 reprsente un des rares moments de consensus politique et social et reste un repre de la priode actuelle. Lacceptation de cette forme de rgionalisation semble tre possible condition quelle serve lattraction des fonds europens non remboursables et quelle offre un bon support pour lanalyse et la planification. Le problme de fond sur la ralisation dune rforme administrative-territoriale nest pas du tout rsolu, lactuelle rgionalisation tant strictement statistique et ddie la programmation dinvestissements. Le sujet pas suffisamment dbattu par les spcialistes et constamment ignor par la classe politique et par les mdias, en gale mesure reste dintrt et dactualit. Celleci est probablement la raison pour laquelle le sujet est accompagn de suite par toutes sortes de mythes, craintes et confusions qui font difficile une approche consquente et constructive. Ce numro de revue ne propose pas des solutions ou de continuer, dvelopper ou gnrer des nouvelles polmiques striles. En offrant de lespace dexpression aux personnalits avec exprience et reconnaissance professionnelle dans des domaines varis de lhistoire la gographie, la sociologie et lamnagement du territoire, le Dossier tente de crer une collection dopinions autorises qui refltent la complexit et la diversit des points de vue, approches et perspectives, les nombreux sens associs au terme de rgionalisation. Nous esprons crer par notre dmarche les prmisses dune perception plus correcte et adquate par le grand public en ce qui concerne la situation actuelle, le contexte europen, les relations institutionnelles et les dterminantes socio-conomiques et culturelles. Lapproche du thme dans les pages de notre revue est motive aussi par un argument incontestable: la liaison essentielle des procs de rgionalisation avec le territoire, lespace gographique en gnral et, implicitement, avec les politiques de planification et de dveloppement spatial. En soulignant le fait que le territoire est, en fonds, une construction complexe sociale, conomique, politique, institutionnelle, Keating invoque la remarque de Gottmann qui constatait quil est, cependant, surprenant que le territoire a t tant de fois nglig comme facteur danalyse dans les sciences politiques 1. La rgion est elle mme une forme territoriale aux plusieurs significations. Les plus importantes sont prsentes dans le Glossaire ralis par Mihai Alexandru i Maria Mnescu. La manire dont la rgion est comprise est dfinitoire pour le procs de rgionalisation. Une bonne part des textes inclus dans le Dossier parlent directement ou indirectement des plusieurs sens et noms attribus aux rgions au cours du temps ou dans diffrents lieux et circonstances politiques et socio-conomiques. La perspective historique offerte par quelques articles (Bucur, Sgeat) indique des lments de continuit et permanence, mais aussi des transformations et des adaptations gnres par des facteurs internes et externes. Les fragments reproduits de la revue dentre guerres Sociologie roumaine (Repres) refltent les proccupations de quelques chercheurs de cette priode de trouver une proportion optimale entre tradition, identit et action publique. Sont ainsi mises en lumire les racines historiques des formes territoriales qui sous diverses dnominations ri , judee , inuturi , pli ont eu un rle dfinitoire dans lorganisation et ladministration du territoire. La rgionalisation peut tre explique et comprise comme construction territoriale, rsultante dun ensemble de facteurs qui peuvent linfluencer au niveau local, communautaire, du bas en haut, et aussi au niveau suprieur de ltat dans ses formes diffrentes dexistence dmocratique, autoritaire, dictatoriale ou dorganisation unitaire et fdrative. Les diffrentes formes de rgionalisation prsentes en ce que suit expriment, en dernire instance, le complexe jeu de forces et intrts qui les dterminent. Les perspectives comprhensives et particularisantes offertes par quelques auteurs avec rfrence Roumanie (Filip) ou aux autres tats europens (Gherc, Kolczynski, Benedek, Pstoiu & Petcu) sont relevantes dans ce sens. Lexemple de quelques re-modlisations rcentes de lorganisation administrative territoriale au niveau des tats membres de lUE peut tre utile dans la perspective des annes suivantes, dans laquelle une dmarche similaire est probablement invitable dans le cas de Roumanie. Le cas de la Pologne, en particulier, le seul tat est europen qui a parcouru un procs complet de rgionalisation aprs 1990, mrite tre analys

attentivement, ayant en vue une srie de similitudes de forme, grandeur et organisation territoriale avec notre pays. Un facteur de pression et orientation des procs de rgionalisation a lchelle de lUE est, dans les dernires dcennies, la politique de cohsion et du dveloppement rgional. La ncessit de cration dun cadre lgal et institutionnel, dun niveau territorial de planification adquate pour lutilisation des fonds de pre-adhsion et de ceux structurels daprs ladhsion a pouss la Roumanie vers une forme de rgionalisation. Lhistoire rcente de ce procs fait lobjet dautres articles du Dossier (Iano, Pascariu) et elle est surprise tangentiellement dans les articles de synthse dj cits (Bucur, Filip). A prsent, la question de la rgionalisation se charge des connotations nouvelles et plus larges dans le contexte du grand dbat au niveau europen sur le thme de la cohsion territoriale. La confrence avec ce thme, organise en dcembre 2011 par le Ministre du Dveloppement Rgional et du Tourisme, et aussi quelques autres vnements connexes prcdentes et ultrieures, ont apport en premier plan le problme des politiques de dveloppement spatial et rgional pour le suivant exercice budgtaire de lUE (2014-2020). Un sujet driv, mais galement important, est le pacte territorial comme formule de planification participative base sur une coopration multi-niveau et sur formes de gouvernement modernes. Lexprience italienne des annes 90 prsente en dtail la fin du Dossier (Elisei) dcrit la manire en laquelle lutilisation de cet instrument a contribu la promotion du dveloppement endogne en Mezzogiorno et en dautres zones difficiles de lItalie et a marqu fortement les identits rgionales. La coordonne identitaire-communautaire certes, un des aspects les plus dlicats et compliques de la rgionalisation est prsente aussi dans les pages du Dossier. La recherche de celle-ci appartient au domaine des tudes sociaux et anthropologiques, au caractre historique, ethnographique ou architectural-urbanistique et dmontre limportance de la rgion comme entit territoriale dans lanalyse des phnomnes sociaux (Sandu). En parcourant une srie darticles (Enache, Iano & Pascariu) et la recension dun livre sur ce sujet (Sabu), on peut remarquer que la rgionalisation apparat aussi comme forme dtude du territoire. Mais la rgionalisation est avant tout une forme dadministration du territoire visant, en troite dpendance avec les circonstances historiques, politiques et conomiques varies, lexercice dun contrle plus fort de lEtat, ou loptimisation de lutilisation de certaines ressources, ou un fonctionnement plus efficace des services publics, ou une croissance de la comptitivit conomique et de lmancipation sociale et culturelle, ou une combinaison de ce type dlments. La succession indite des reprsentations graphiques de lvolution de lorganisation administrative de la Roumanie, ralise par Ana Maria Petrescu illustre cette tendance et le fait que cette administration ne doit pas tre comprise seulement comme globale et politiquement dtermine, mais aussi sectorielle et fonctionnellement motive. Les squences graphiques mentionnes incluent aussi des rgionalisations associes aux formes dinstitutionnalisation: la gestion de la ressource deau associe aux bassins hydrographiques, la gestion du patrimoine construit associe lorganisation par commissions zonales des monuments historiques, la gestion du rseau ferroviaire associe aux rgionales ferroviaires, la gestion de lenvironnement associe lorganisation par agences rgionales. Lorganisation de la justice suit un modle similaire et celle de lEglise Orthodoxe Roumaine aussi. En ce qui concerne la dernire, on doit remarquer lapproche entre le dcoupage territorial et celui des rgions historiques fait exception la zone de nord-ouest mais aussi llargissement extraterritorial lchelle europenne et internationale (Necula). Enfin, laspect transfrontalier et transnational de la rgionalisation ne peut pas tre omis. La cration des zones de coopration du type d euro-regions dcoule, en gnral, dune nouvelle comprhension et dune approche attentive des problmes de lenvironnement, culturelles et conomiques qui transcendent les frontires administratives. La gographie joue ici un rle essentiel en dfinissant une srie despaces fluides (Faludi) de planification lis aux grands bassins hydrographiques, zones costires maritimes et chanes de montagnes. Les tudes inclus aux Projets font rfrence aux bassins hydrographiques de Tissa et Some et sont relevantes dans ce sens-l (Iani, Cocean et al.). Incontestable, aujourdhui, au niveau des tats membres de lUE, la rgionalisation sassocie de plus en plus fortement aux procs de dcentralisation et est guide par le principe de la subsidiarit et par lobjectif de la cration des institutions modernes et efficaces. Le parcours du Dossier et dautres articles inclus suggre quune formule idale de rgionalisation dun pays pourrait tre celle qui combinerait dans une manire optimale les exigences de fonctionnalit avec celles culturelles-identitaires, avec certaines caractristiques dimensionnelles, avec les ressources existantes et avec une certaine capacit institutionnelle et de gestion. Le contexte europen actuel indique aussi quune rgionalisation efficace ne peut pas tre que le rsultat dune ngociation complexe avec la participation aussi large que possible des spcialistes et de lopinion publique, ainsi que la rponse une gamme large de questions et problmes (Enache) soit satisfaisante. Enfin, les cots possiblement levs de la rgionalisation doivent tre valus et accepts pour un mieux suivre...
Notes
1 Michael Keating (1998), The New Regionalism in Western Europe, Edward Elgar Publishing, traduction en roumain, 2008, lInstitut Europen.

URBANISMUL 11 / 2012

EDITORIAL