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ULTRA WIDEBAND SYSTEMS A RESEARCH OVERVIEW

Jian (Andrew) Zhang Networked Systems, CRL National ICT Australia (NICTA) Andrew.Zhang@nicta.com.au

Preface
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) gave its approval, in the form of a spectral mask in the range 3.1-10.6 GHz, for commercial applications of Ultra Wideband (UWB) systems in US in 2002. UWB system is defined with respect to the bandwidth of the radiated signal. With its extremely large bandwidth, UWB opens up many new applications, including very high data rate communications and low data rate communications and accurate locations, both with low complexity, power consumption and cost. UWB is becoming the core technique for short range communications. However, to realize these attractive features, UWB research and development has to cope with a number of formidable challenges. In this chapter, based on the tutorial given in AusWireless06, we will address the fundamentals of UWB communication systems, their driving applications, open research problems, and practical system development. The review basically focuses on high level summation, with technical and mathematical details omitted. Some references are provided for interested readers for further study. The slides of the tutorial are available from http://users.rsise.anu.edu.au/~jian/UWB_tutor2.pdf.

1. UWB Basics
In the last few years, there has been a rapidly growing interest in UWB systems [Bar00, Foe01, GTG+05, YG04]. These systems make use of ultra-short duration pulses which yield ultra-wide bandwidth signals characterized by extremely low power spectral densities. UWB systems are particularly promising for short-range wireless communications as they combine high speed with low complexity, low power

consumption, low probability of intercept, immunity to multipath fading, ability of penetrating walls, and multiuser capabilities. UWB was conceived in the radar application domain and it is a recent innovation for commercial applications. The academic research on UWB communications was initiated by Scholtz in 1993 [Sch93]. However, not until recently has great attention been paid due to the drive from industry. Research into UWB was further promoted when the FCC (US) released the First Report and Order. A short history of UWB is shown in Table 1. 1895 1963 1973 1974 1989 1992 1993 2002 G. Marconi invents UWB radio Time-domain electromagnetics (Ross63) Fundamental patent on UWB comms. (Ross73) Commercial ground-penetrating UWB radar (Morey74) DoD introduces the term Ultra Wideband UWB point-to-point radios (Withington92] UWB multiple access with time-hopping (Scholtz93) FCC partly approves the commercial application of UWB

Table 1 short history of UWB So what is UWB? According to FCC, UWB is officially defined as a system which has radiated signal with -10dB bandwidth larger than 500MHz or fractional bandwidth larger than 20%. Practical UWB systems could be classified as carrier-less and carrier systems. The former uses extremely short pulses instead of continuous waves to convey information, and generally does not require mixers to up-converting and down-converting signals; the latter uses mixer, similar to conventional systems. Figure 1 shows some UWB waveforms, which are the n-order differentiated versions
2 of the basic Gaussian waveform exp(2 (t / t p ) ) .

Figure 1. left: UWB and narrow band signals in time and frequency domain; right: some typical UWB waveforms (Gaussian waveforms) in time and frequency domain, where n=2, 5, 14 and tp1=0.75ns, tp2=0.5ns. UWB is a way of spectrum reuse by limiting the transmitted power to be very low, and designing of UWB systems is all about Bandwidth. As UWB could cause potential interference to existing users, the allowed radiation power is strictly constrained. Table 2 details the FCC mask for indoor UWB communications on frequency band and the corresponding power. Frequency (MHz) 960-1610 1610-1990 1990-3100 3100-10600 Above 10600 EIRP (dBm/MHz) -75.3 -53.3 -51.3 -41.3 -51.3

Table 2. Frequency band and power limitation Main features of UWB include huge capacity potential, fading robustness, low power and low cost transceiver, precise localization capability, secure transmission (Essentially undetectable) and penetration ability. The motivation for UWB is driven by Channel Physics of wave interaction (i.e. Scattering and Loss Phenomenology). The interaction of UWB emissions with the

environment enables utility that cannot be obtained with narrowband. This is supported by the following three factors. First, reflection is minimized from clutter as objects smaller than a quarter of wavelength (Rayleigh region) disappear from the viewpoint of the transmitter. Second, ambiguous multipath, fading and scintillation are optimally minimized as objects big enough to interact with the EM wave are resolvable. Third, UWB has the capability to penetrate at high data rates as the lowest freq spectrum maximizes skin-depth for a given resolution. UWB resolves and takes advantage of multipath. It is known that narrowband measurements can confuse multipath fading for attenuation. Narrowband radio has deep fades because narrowband receiver correlation window is long (wide time window) and it sees the addition of multiple paths. UWB is immune to multipath fading because UWB receiver correlation window is short in time (narrow time window). It resolves reflections (paths are separable and distinct), and can use separate multipath components to improve performance with Rake. Spatial diversity of reflected UWB signals allows propagation around obstacles and it is hard to break a true-UWB link - if one path is blocked, the other gets through. As shown in Figure 2, UWB could even have a path loss factor smaller than 2 (free space propagation factor) due to its high temporal resolution ability. Measured UWB

Figure 2 Received power as a function of node separation (feet) Motivated by its huge bandwidth, UWB finds many applications in short-range high speed communications, low power low data-rate communications and locations,

imaging and vehicular radar. For high speed communications, UWB can provide up to several Gbps data rate at relatively low power consumption, and thus is very promising for high speed WLAN, WPAN, and PC based applications including wireless USB, 1394 and so on. For low data rate communication and localization, UWB is very promising for sensor network and portable radar. As UWB systems are defined according to the bandwidth of the signal, there is no limitation on applicable signaling and modulation techniques. To realize multi-user access, time-hopping, direct sequence and OFDM signaling are generally considered. Conventional modulations, such as QAM, PAM and PSK can be used. Due to its short length in time domain, pulse position modulation and time-hopping techniques, which are less applied in conventional systems, were of particular interest for UWB and were the focus in the early study of UWB systems [WS00]. UWB networking can adopt various topologies, for example, point to point or multiaccess, single hop or multi-hop, and ad-hoc or coordinated. However, due to its short link range at high data rate, mesh network may be a good solution for building a large network. As a summation, we have the following comments here. UWB is only defined with respect to the bandwidth of the radiated signal. Pulse is the unique label of UWB systems. Different to other broadband wireless communications, where data rate is generally boosted by advanced techniques with higher complexity, in UWB, high data rate benefits directly from the huge bandwidth, and the bandwidth trades off the power limit imposed by regulations. UWB signals have excellent temporal and spatial resolution ability, and wall penetrating ability (in some spectrum). This could open many new applications with locating function. UWB provides a potential carrier-less solution.

2. Open Research Problems

As we have emphasized before, pulse is the unique label of UWB systems. It not only leads to particular propagation properties, but also has impact on the capacity, interference and receiver performance [ZKA05r]. Huge bandwidth is the core factor of UWB system design. It results in challenges, increased complexity and cost, especially in RF parts, while potential high temporal diversity and reduced accuracy requirement in fixed-point implementations. A good solution has to balance the influence of the bandwidth. UWB properties that challenge conventional design can be summarized as follows: Complex propagation properties, including waveform distortion due to

frequency dependent propagation, dense multipath signals with low energy, make system design difficult; Stringent timing requirement demands algorithms with fast processing speed,

low complexity and timing error robustness; Large bandwidth implies the necessities of high sampling rate and advanced

narrowband interference suppression algorithms; Many advanced features of UWB signals, such as low duty cycle, large

bandwidth, multipath immunity and inherent full digital solution, can be exploited. 3.1 Portable Antenna Design Several typical requirements for antennas may change in the UWB case: 1) Antenna efficiency could vary significantly across the spectrum and should be considered globally instead of locally; 2) Not only the transmitted power but also the shape of radiated spectrum has to be controlled; and 3) Some critical performance factors of antenna, such as phase dispersion, peak pulse amplitude (efficiency), pulse width (data rate), and omni-directional impulse, are hard to be satisfied by general characterization methods.

Earlier design of UWB antennas was constrained to physically large-scale ones in the Radar applications. Portable UWB antenna design is a completely fresh ground to be explored. 3.2 Wave Shaping and Modulations As well as satisfying the limits of power spectrum density in the regulation, wave shaping can be meaningful for the whole system [LYG03, PCWD03]. Today, generally considered factors on the selection and design of the pulse shape comprise: the control of spectrum envelop and the ratio of peak-to-average emitted power; practical implementation concerns, e.g., power, switching speeds; and reliable control of the shape of pulse itself. It is possible and preferable to design an optimal wave shaper jointly considering the interference resistance, sync acquisition and other aspects in the whole system. In particular, for single-band UWB systems, transmitted power usually cannot be maximized in wave shaping design when regulation mask is to be followed. 3.3 Propagation Property and Channel Characterization Significant effort has been dedicated to UWB channel characterization [CSW02,
CWM02]. Two critical problems in the measurement campaign determine the

accuracy of the obtained model. First, what is the ``bandwidth'' property of the measurement apparatus? The shape of the pulse used to probe the channels and the antenna characteristics are of special importance. Both of them should be UWBaware so that a practical result can be anticipated. Second, the signal capturing and post data processing techniques should also be UWB-aware. Cluster and ray structures, in particular, the Saleh-Valenzuela model, is widely used to model UWB channels. It is believed that in the small-scale, UWB signals exhibit lognormal fading or Nakagami fading instead of the widely used Rayleigh fading because there are far less multipath signals arriving at a single resolution period. One interesting problem is whether there is an optimal bandwidth range in terms of propagation. Considering the required energy of resolvable multipath signals in the presence of noise, this optimal bandwidth should exist somewhere. 3.4 Coexistence and Interference Suppression

The possibility of permitting the operation of UWB radio systems over unlicensed spectrum largely depends on the degree of interference to the victims. The interference of UWB to existing systems is always there. Whether interference is tolerable depends on the acceptable operating distance. The interference depends on the shape and power of UWB signals, and the emitter location with respect to specific narrowband equipment characteristics. Theoretically, interference is mainly evaluated via the spectral characteristics of UWB signal transmission and the characteristics of an aggregate of UWB signals. Interference suppression schemes concentrate on the design of spectrally flat UWB signals with very few discrete spectrum lines by combining the shaping function and spread spectrum codes. On the other hand, the interference on UWB systems from conventional systems is less concerned, as the large bandwidth of UWB signals implies simplicity and flexibility to remove strong narrowband interference. 3.5 Synchronization and Channel Estimation Synchronization and channel estimation are key problems in UWB system. The task subjects to the requirements of high resolution ability, low sampling rate and low computational complexity in very dense multipath channels with very low energy of multipath signals. Algorithms in the literature can be classified into two types: time domain and frequency domain approaches. Time domain approaches include crosscorrelation and auto-correlation based algorithms, while frequency domain approaches are based on subspace algorithms.
3.5.1 Cross-correlation based Algorithms

These are conventional algorithms where a local template is applied to the received signal and timing is achieved by locating the peak in the correlation output. As each multipath signal has low energy, it might be hard to get accurate estimates for both timing and channel estimation. The algorithms are liable to narrowband interference. The timing resolution ability depends on the sampling rate. Efficient searching strategies [HS02] are required when training sequence with large period is used.
3.5.2 Auto-correlation based Algorithms

Auto-correlation based algorithms apply to the so-called transmitted reference systems [RO06] and systems using dirty template [YGS07]. In these systems, received signal is correlated with its delayed version, and peaky output can be observed when timing point is aligned. Generally, inter-symbol interference is assumed to be absent in the systems, and channel estimation is not needed for detection. These algorithms can achieve synchronization faster and more effectively than cross-correlation based methods, at the cost of reduced data rate.
3.5.3 Subspace Method with Reduced Sampling Rate

In [MKV03], a subspace method based on spectrum estimation technique is proposed for synchronization and channel estimation in UWB systems. The scheme uses bandpass filter to achieve sampling rate reduction and estimates timing and channel based on subspace approaches, e.g., shift invariant techniques. The advantages of the scheme are its high resolution ability and reduced sampling rate requirement, the disadvantages are its high complexity associated with singular value decomposition of large matrix, and reduced energy collection. 3.6 Receiver Design Basic UWB receivers include threshold detectors, correlation receivers and RAKE receivers [CS02, CWVM03, Pia04, TG05, WCS00]. Complex and advanced signal processing algorithms can be incorporated into these basic receivers. In practice, some of these algorithms may have low efficiency. In addition, the UWB channel introduces waveform distortion and numerous multipath signals, each with low energy, concealed in the noise. Therefore an effective algorithm should be robust to the errors in the channel and template signal estimation. On the other hand, due to the extremely narrow pulse width, timing errors usually imply marked degradation of performance. Thus algorithms which are less sensitive to the timing jitter are preferable. In [ZKA03], it is found that equal gain combining can achieve similar performance to maximal ratio combining in a UWB Rake receiver, thus the accuracy requirement on channel estimation can be largely relaxed. 3.7 Multi-user Access

There are typically three types of schemes which can be applied in UWB to realize multiple-user access, including time-hopping [WS00, MRR01], direct-sequence (DS) code division, and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Multi-user interference (MUI) can be mitigated similar to those in conventional systems [LR02,
MG02]. However, advanced signal processing techniques inevitably require high

sampling rate for UWB signals, incurring high cost. It is better to avoid MUI in a system level than to mitigate it in the receiver considering the low cost property of UWB systems. 3.8 Spatial Multiplexing and Time-Space Coding (or MIMO) The use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver opens up multiple parallel spatial data pipes within the same bandwidth and allows linear capacity increase provided rich scattering is present. The application of MIMO techniques in UWB systems seems particularly interesting, because 1) spatial multiplexing gain is obtained only if the scattering environment is rich enough or, equivalently, sufficient multipath and delay spread is present, and (indoor) UWB channels exhibit such properties; and 2) the distance between antennas could be smaller in order to form independent spatial channels due to the shorter wavelength of UWB signals. However, aimed at low cost, low power consumption applications, UWB systems armed with MIMO techniques need achieve a good tradeoff between performance and complexity. In this sense, beamforming may be a better option which could achieve good balance between performance improvement and cost increasing. 3.9 Signaling Scheme As mentioned earlier in the multi-user access schemes, time-hopping, DS and OFDM can all been applied in UWB systems. DS-UWB and Multiband OFDM UWB were chosen as two candidate systems for the WPAN standard by IEEE802.15.3a. Both systems are proven, however, they both have disadvantages and cannot make full advantage of UWB properties. In DS-CDMA UWB systems, multiple-finger RAKE receivers and equalizers should be used which increase the system complexity significantly. These single-band systems are inflexible in removing narrowband interference (NBI) and they are power-inefficient use of FCC mask. In Multiband

OFDM UWB systems, expensive A/D converters with high sampling rate and long quantization digits are required, and the problems of carrier-frequency offsets (CFO) sensitivity and large Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAR) are associated. Thus, novel system architectures are under investigations by considering the following issues Bandwidth efficiency is not so important; Very limited number of users in a network; The system must be able to deal with dense multipath signals efficiently; Performance, complexity and cost are the first things to consider.

3.10 Challenges in RF Development Because of its large bandwidth, UWB systems face several challenging problems in RF design [HHS04], including the development of Small portable antenna, New UWB LNA, Resistive-terminated LNA has noise figure, Shunt-FB and CG LNAs need gm = 40mA/V which makes sub-mW power consumption unfeasible; Tradeoffs between LNA gain and Noise Figure for UWB signals High-speed, high dynamic range ADC, Parallel ADC may be required and there is choice between TimeInterleaved and Frequency Channelized ADC; Tradeoff between the sampling rate and quantization accuracy; Large dynamic range required in the presence of narrowband interferers; Power amplifier with good linearity, and analog correlator, If analog (sliding) correlator is used, the design of delay line is difficult.

3. Short-range High-speed UWB Communications


The ex- high-speed WPAN standardization group IEEE802.15.3a shortlisted two candidate systems, Multiband OFDM UWB systems and DS-UWB systems. The IEEE standardization process had to be terminated after long-time stuck as the two parties supporting the two systems could not reach agreement. The MBOA

association continues its standardization based on Multiband OFDM UWB. Next, we examine the two systems, from the pure technical point of view. 4.1 Multiband OFDM UWB Systems There are several advantages when applying OFDM modulation to UWB systems: OFDM is spectrally efficient (Not that important for UWB though) OFDM has an inherent robustness against narrowband interference (important) OFDM is capable of dealing with dense Multipath Channels (important) Ability to comply with worldwide regulations (important). The basic idea of Multiband OFDM (MB-OFDM) is: The whole spectrum is divided into 14 bands each with 528MHz, and these bands are grouped; Freq. hopping is applied to each group. OFDM modulation is applied to each band. Figure 3 shows the band plan. Only Band group #1 is used currently.
Band Group #1 Band #1 Band #2 Band #3 Band Group #2 Band #4 Band #5 Band #6 Band Group #3 Band #7 Band #8 Band #9 Band Group #4 Band #10 Band #11 Band #12 Band Group #5

Band #13

Band #14

3432 MHz

3960 MHz

4488 MHz

5016 MHz

5544 MHz

6072 MHz

6600 MHz

7128 MHz

7656 MHz

8184 MHz

8712 MHz

9240 MHz

9768 MHz

10296 MHz

Figure 3. Band plan of MB-OFDM systems To increase link distance, MB-OFDM uses frequency hopping and zero prefix to reduce its power spectrum density. To simplify the ADC design and achieve good performance at low SNR, MB-OFDM only uses low order modulations, such as QPSK. Convolution code is used as channel coding. Various approaches are introduced to improve frequency diversity. Table 3 shows the key parameters of MBOFDM systems.

Table 3. Key parameters of MB-OFDM systems


Time-Frequency Hopping

To extend the range of communications and mitigate interference, frequency hopping is introduced in MB-OFDM. Frequency hopping also enables multi-user access without decreasing single users data rate significantly. Table 4 shows the frequency hopping mode. However, the use of frequency hopping also introduces some design problems. Firstly, it causes very stringent requirement on the switching time and stability of frequency synthesizer. RF switching time is roughly 2ns which is 10,000 times faster than that in 802.11. Secondly, frequency hopping causes slow packet synchronization as a receiver generally has to wait at a fixed carrier frequency to see effective output. Waiting period is up to 5 OFDM symbols after RF adaptation. Since the length of preamble is fixed, symbols available for other functions including frequency offset estimation are reduced.
TFC Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BAND_ID 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 1 2 3

Table 4. Time-frequency hopping mode

Diversity Improvement

In OFDM systems, each subcarrier sees Rayleigh fading and performance could be significantly degraded without exploiting frequency diversity. Frequency diversity is achieved by exploiting independent fading of subcarriers. The maximum degree of diversity equals to the number of multipath signals given independent distributed multipath signals. In general, frequency diversity can be achieved by channel coding, however, the degree is limited, equivalent to the constraint length of the code. To improve frequency diversity, MB-OFDM systems introduce frequency domain spreading, time domain spreading and dual carrier modulation (DCM). Freq. domain spreading is achieved by using conjugate symmetric inputs over two largely spaced subcarriers. Time domain spreading is achieved by repeating the same information over two OFDM symbols. DCM maps 4 interleaved bits onto two 16-point symbols using two fixed but different mappings. This yields a 16-QAM-like constellation. The resulting two 16-point symbols are then put onto two different subcarriers separated by 50 subcarriers. MB-OFDM also applies a three-stage interleaver to further exploit frequency diversity. Data bits are interleaved and scattered across 6 consecutive OFDM symbols.
Digital Compensation of RF Distortion

The large bandwidth of UWB signal imposes many challenges on RF design: ADC with high sampling rate and quantization accuracy, power amplifier with good linearity, LNA with low noise figure, and small on-chip Filters. Complexity and cost of these components increase quickly with the performance requirement increasing. It is known that some RF distortion caused by inferior RF components could be compensated by digital processing. According to Moores law, the cost of digital circuits can be reduced much faster than that of analog circuits. Thus the complexity reduction of RF should be the first thing to consider. For MB-OFDM design, the impairment of RF distortion on system performance can be roughly ranked in descending order as follows: Intercarrier interference caused by carrier frequency offset, nonlinear distortion and out-of-band radiation generated by power amplifier due to the high peak-to-average power ratio of the signal, I/Q imbalance, phase noise

and DC offset. Digital compensation can significantly improve the performance degradation due to RF distortion, and make a low-cost RF solution possible. 4.2 DS-UWB Systems In the original DS-UWB proposal, the whole band is divided into two subbands. The lower band is roughly from 3 to 5 GHz, provides long wavelet, while the high band is roughly from 6 to 10 GHz, providing short wavelet. Each symbol is made with an Nchip code sequence, consisting of ternary codes (+1, 0, -1). Modulation could be the one between BPSK and MBOK. In MBOK, each symbol consists of K=M/2 chips and represents log2M bits. The symbols are drawn from a set of K ortho-normal vectors, and are modulated antipodally to give M possible symbols. Common choices for the vectors include the Hadamard matrix and the identity matrix. When M=2, MBOK reduces to BPSK. Convolution codes with constraint length 6 and 4 can be used optionally for different data rates. DS-UWB can realize data rate from 28Mbps to 1320Mbps by changing the coding rate, and the length of code sequence (N). The link range deceases with the data rate increasing. DS-UWB provides low and scalable receiver complexity: ADC can range from 3 bits to 1 bit for super-low power implementation; Rake pipeline and equalizer can be optimized to trade off power and cost in multipath. However, as mentioned before, in dense multipath channels which are typical for UWB in the non-line-of sight case, DS-UWB becomes inefficient in equalization and signal energy collection. 4.3 Comparison Both MB-OFDM and DS-UWB have advantages and disadvantages as briefly discussed before. Here, we make some systematic comparison and try to get some insight on the system design for UWB systems. Signal bandwidth and data rate The signal bandwidth of DS-UWB is about three times of that in MB-OFDM. So the data rate of DS-UWB can match that in MB-OFDM although time spreading is used in DS-UWB.

Frequency Selectivity and Fading DS-UWB (single carrier) results in frequency-selective fading with relatively low power fluctuation (variance), while MB-OFDM (multi-carrier) creates a bank of parallel channels that experience flat fading with a Rayleigh distribution (deep fades). Equalization and Energy collection DS-UWB uses Rake structure to capture multipath energy, whose complexity increases linearly with the increasing of Rake taps. Equalization in dense multipath to remove inter-symbol interference (ISI) is also one major disadvantage of DS-UWB. MB-OFDM can use frequency diversity for energy capturing, which is simple and effective. However, the degree of frequency diversity is limited by targeted data rate. Frequency domain equalization is simple. However, residual ISI introduced by carrier frequency offset and other system imperfections is hard to remove. Hardware cost DS-UWB only requires 2 bits or so for quantization, while MB-OFDM requires 5-6 bits, thus the product of sampling rate and number of quantization bits is approximately equivalent for the two systems, and the ADC cost is similar. Compared to DS-UWB, MB-OFDM requires better power amplifier with larger dynamic range, more complex frequency synthesizer and sharper band filter to reject adjacent channel interference. Thus MB-OFDM has higher RF cost than DS-UWB. In terms of digital baseband complexity, DS-UWB requires Rake structure and MB-OFDM needs FFT module, thus the two systems have similar complexity.

4. Low data-rate UWB Communications and Localizations


Due to its excellent temporal resolution ability, UWB provides communication systems with precise localization capability. At the same time, UWB trades power with bandwidth. Thus UWB is perfectly suitable for systems requiring low power robust communications and precise localization. IEEE802.15.4a has defined an alternative low data rate WPAN and sensor network standard based on UWB.

IEEE802.15.4a defines optional physical layer techniques (PHY) consisting of a UWB Impulse Radio (operating in unlicensed UWB spectrum) and a Chirp Spread Spectrum (operating in unlicensed 2.4GHz spectrum). The UWB PHY operates in the frequency range from 3211 4693 MHz and optionally from 5931.9-10304.25 MHz. There are four channels defined in the low band, each with 3dB bandwidth 494MHz, and channel 2 (3952 4446MHz) is mandatory. Data rates vary from 0.1 to 26.03Mbps, with 0.811Mbps mandatory. There are quite a few novel techniques adopted in the standard, including Ternary codes for ranging, combined BPPM and BPSK for modulation, and time hopping mechanism for multiuser access and interference mitigation. Repeated symbols with length 64, 256 or 1024 in the preamble is used for ranging, synchronization and channel estimation. Each symbol consists of Ternary codes with length 31 or 127. These ternary codes have perfect periodic auto-correlation and great cross-correlation. Ranging is the basis for localization, referring the process of measuring the distance between the transmitter and receiver. Ranging can be realized by measuring parameters including time of arrival (TOA), time difference of arrival (TDOA), signal strength (SS) and angle of arrival (AOA). TOA and TDOA are the two most suitable parameters to measure for UWB due to the signals super temporal resolution capability.

In the payload, each symbol is represented by a sequence/burst of short time duration pluses, modulated by Ternary (BPPM+BPSK) modulation, where each symbol carries two bits with one bit determining the position of a burst of pulses while another bit modulating the polarity of the same burst. This particular modulation scheme admits multiple classes of receivers: coherent, differentially-coherent and non-coherent receivers. A mathematical form of the kth UWB PHY symbol can be written as
x ( k ) (t ) =
N burst j =1

(k ) 1 sj

( p t g 0k ) T PPM jTc h ( k ) Tburst

),

where g0 and g1 are the modulation

symbols obtained from a mapping of the coded bits, sj {j = 0,1,,Nburst-1}, is the scrambling sequence and takes the possible values {-1 or 1}, p(t) is the transmitted pulse shape at the input to the antenna, TPPM is the duration of the binary pulse position modulation time slot. The hopping sequence h(k), provides suppression of multiuser interference and the scrambling sequence, sj, provides additional interference suppression among coherent receivers as well as spectral smoothing of the transmitted waveform. The FEC used by the UWB PHY is a concatenated code consisting of an outer ReedSolomon (RS) systematic block code and an inner systematic convolutional code. Figure 4 shows a typical UWB transceiver suitable for low data rate applications. As shown in the structure, LNA is not necessary at the receiver as transmit power can be increased to allow higher noise figure. Oscillator at the receiver can also be omitted by using envelop detector. The receiver circuits run at symbol rate (kHz or MHz) instead of at RF rate, and thus power consumption and complexity can be significantly reduced. The power consumption of such a transceiver can be below 10mW in the active mode and below 100uW in the sleeping mode.

T ransm itter Baseb and P rocessor Integr ator A DC

MAC

S R AM

Figure 4. A typical UWB Transceiver for low data rate applications

5. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to acknowledge NICTA. NICTA is funded by the Australian Government's Department of Communications, Information Technology, and the Arts and the Australian Research Council through Backing Australia's Ability and the ICT Research Centre of Excellence programs.

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