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An engineer is being pressured by her client (a real estate developer) to certify a building as ready for occupancy .

Which issue should the engineer consider first and foremost?


Delivery of prompt and professional services to the engineer's client. The need for compensation of contractors who will only be paid upon certification. Whether the building is safe for occupancy by the public. All of the above are equally important issues.

Who sets the ethical standards which professionals are bound by?

Professional regulatory bodies adopt codes of ethics or codes of professional practice to be followed. Every professional is guided by their own concept of morality. Professional associations publish guidelines to be followed. The body of case law generated through hundreds of years of court cases defines the appropriate course of action for ethical dilemmas.

Which of the following statements regarding penalties is true when a professional commits a single wrongful act?
Once disciplined by a professional regulatory body the professional is immune from civil suit and criminal prosecution in relation to the same act.

The professional may be subject to civil and professional disciplinary action, but cannot be prosecuted criminally for acts done in the role of professional. The professional may be subject to criminal, civil, and professional disciplinary action. If charged with a criminal offence, a professional is immune from regulatory discipline in relation to the same act.

What is the standard of proof for professional misconduct?

More certain than a balance of probabilities, but less certain than beyond a reasonable doubt. Beyond a reasonable doubt. Absolute certainty. Balance of probabilities (more likely than not).

Which of the following is generally true regarding the relationship between insurance coverage and alleged professional misconduct?
Insurance generally covers the cost of legal counsel for defending all allegations of professional misconduct. Insurance only applies after a finding of misconduct and therefore never covers the cost of defending allegations. The costs of legal counsel for defending allegations that relate to intentional behaviour such as fraud are generally not covered, but the costs of defending allegations in relation to unintentional acts such as negligence are generally covered. All of the above are false.

A geoscientist has access to data regarding gold deposits, and shares that information with a friend who trades mining stocks. Which duty has the geoscientist breached?
Duty to uphold the integrity of the profession. Duty of loyalty owed to the client. Duty of confidentiality owed to the client. All of the above.

An engineer is concerned about the safety of work methods used be a contractor. Which of the following best describes the appropriate course of action?
Work methods of the contractor are the responsibility of the contractor and the engineer should not interfere. The engineer should raise the concerns with the contractor, but leave the ultimate decision regarding work methods to the contractor. The engineer should insist that the contractor change the work methods under threat of refusal to certify work for payment. The engineer should warn the contractor that the work method is considered unsafe and notify the appropriate occupational health and safety regulatory office of the work methods being used.

Which of the following statements is false regarding the obligations of a professional asked to provide expert witness opinion evidence in a court case involving allegations of professional incompetence.
Because civil litigation is an adversarial process, the witness may consider the interests of the party that hired him or her when formulating the opinion evidence to be given. Experts may rely on assumptions when providing opinion evidence. Experts may be compensated for providing opinion evidence in court. The role of the expert is to assist the court in understanding technical matters.

Which of the following would not be a conflict of interest?

The City seeks an opinion from an engineer on the best route for a new highway, and one of the two main options would result in a noisy road passing close by the engineer's residence. A geoscientist arrives at a project site to perform soils testing for the purpose of assessing foundation type, and discovers that the landowner is an acquaintance he attended elementary school with. An engineer is asked to rate the relative competence of two bidding contractors, and one of the contractors is the engineer's brother. All of the above involve conflicts of interest.

Which of the following would be a breach of the duty of loyalty by a mechanical engineer who works for a company that does only air conditioning system design?
Assisting a friend who is a bicycle shop manager install an extractor fan in a bicycle workshop. Working in a bicycle repair shop on the weekends. Advising an acquaintance who is a bicycle shop manager as to the type of extractor fan that might be suitable for the bicycle workshop. None of the above would be a breach of the duty of loyalty.

What penalties may a professional face for failing to report known misconduct of another professional?
Fine, temporary suspension, and / or expulsion. Fine only. Fine and / or temporary suspension. None if the professional is not personally involved in the "known misconduct".

An engineer is asked to provide a written opinion on the adequacy of the design of another engineer for the purposes of a court case, but is concerned that insufficient information has been provided. What is the minimum precaution the engineer should take?
Provide the opinion without expressing concern in the written report, but explain to the lawyer the opinion is provided to that there are concerns regarding the sufficiency of the information provided. Refuse to provide the opinion unless complete information is provided. Provide the opinion on the information given without any written or verbal expression of concern regarding the sufficiency of the information provided. Clearly set out in the report the information on which the opinion is based, state all assumptions underlying the opinion, and state that the opinion may change if the assumptions made or information relied on are inaccurate.

Which of the following statements is true?

Bid shopping is unethical and victims have a clear legal remedy.

Bid shopping is unethical, but not necessarily illegal. Bid shopping is rarely practiced. None of the above.

A geoscientist prepares a prospectus. There is a mistake in the prospectus and a private investor sues the geoscientist. The corporation who commissioned the prospectus does not sue. Which cause of action should the geoscientist be least concerned about?
Innocent misrepresentation. Fraud. Negligent misrepresentation. Breach of contract.

If toxic contamination migrates onto your property from a neighbouring property, which of the following will not generally be a cause of action you would have?
Nuisance. Negligence. Breach of contract. Rylands v. Fletcher.

Which of the following is not a typical task for an architect of record on a construction project?
Evaluating delay claims. Issuing certificates of completion. Certifying progress payments. Approving the construction technique of the main contractor.

Which is not a correct statement regarding change orders?

A change order that decreases the contract sum is called a credit. Design errors or oversights are a common cause of change orders. A change order that increases the contract sum is called an extra. Because contracts are carefully drafted, change orders rarely occur except on large projects.

At what stage should the contract administrator conduct field reviews?

As the contractor is preparing to begin work. When the contractor has completed the work, but before the certificate of completion is issued. When the contractor declares that the work is finished and ready for inspection. When the contractor is actually proceeding with the work.

A project has been fully designed with drawings and specifications prepared. The owner is on a tight budget and wants the project built for the lowest price possible. The owner is prepared to pay the architect to closely oversee the construction. What type of delivery system is most appropriate for this situation?
Invitation to tender. Request for qualifications Request for quotation. Request for standing offer.

Which of the following is generally false in relation to a bidder who submits a bid in a tender process?
The bidder will be obliged to enter into Contract B if the owner accepts the bid.

The bidder must negotiate with the owner if the owner so requests. The bidder is owed a duty of fairness when the bid is evaluated. The bidder cannot revoke the bid.

Which of the following is an effective means for an engineer to ensure her design meets the standard of a reasonable engineer?
Evaluation of the design against checklists produced by the relevant professional association. Following well designed procedures when performing the design. Peer review of the design. All of the above.

Which of the following is false regarding insurance?

Insurance saves the cost of having to defend frivolous claims. Not having insurance may result in bankruptcy if a large claim is brought. Insurance is always readily available. It is advisable to have insurance, except that extremely large companies may have sufficient assets to self insure.

Which of the following is false regarding subrogation?

The rights the insurer receives are no greater than the rights the insured had to give. Insurance coverage may be lost if subrogation rights are compromised. Not all contracts give the insurer a right of subrogation. Subrogation rights are effective against named insureds.

Which of the following would normally be covered by a consultant's errors and omissions insurance policy?
A claim by the owner because a negligently designed wall fell down and damaged other property. A claim by the owner for negligent design that resulted in water ingress. A claim by the owner for negligent design that resulted in mould. A claim by the owner because the drawings were delivered late.

Which of the following is false regarding bid bonds?

If a bid bond is in place, the owner may have fewer remedies against a defaulting bidder than if there had been no bid bond. After compensating the owner for the default of the bidder, the surety will be able to recover against the bidder. The liability of the bidder to the owner may be limited by the terms of the bid bond. Having a surety provide a bond is the only way for a bidder to provide a bid bond.

Which of the following relationships is governed by labour law?

Employer-employee. Union-management. Employee-construction contractor. All of the above.

Which of the following may be an unfair labour practice at the time a union is seeking certification?
The employer laying off workers. The employer posting notices discrediting the union. The employer offering pay increases.

All of the above.

Which is not a prohibited ground of discrimination?

Sex. Education. Religion. Race.

Which of the following most accurately states the duty of the governments in Canada to consult with Aboriginal people?
All aboriginal people who will be affected by the project and who have a proven claim against the land affected by the project. All aboriginal people who will be affected by the project. Aboriginal people who have filed an objection to the project. All aboriginal people.

Which of the following rights does the copyright holder not hold in relation to a book?
Right to make copies of the book. The right to restrict who can re-sell the book. The right to publish the book. Right to create a direct translation of the book.

Which of the following is least likely to occur in a contract between a municipality and a large construction consortium?

Unconscionability. Misrepresentation. Amendment of the contract. Mistake.

Which of the following is not likely a fundamental term of a construction contract?


The order in which the work will be done. Who name of the party required to perform the work. The contract sum. The time for completion.

Which of the following is not a common issue in construction contacts?

Change orders. Unforeseen conditions. Incapacity of the parties. Indemnities.

Which of the following is not suited to the design-build-operatefinance model of project delivery?
A public transport network. A public swimming pool. A private road to a ranch. A toll road.

Assuming it is the only breach of contract that occurred, which of the following would likely be a fundamental breach of a contract to build a house?
The owner failing to specify the colour of paint for the living room until a week past the date for doing so. Failure by the contractor to remove all unused building materials from the site. Failure by the contractor to install essential reinforcement in the concrete of the foundations. The owner providing only 3, instead of 4, copies of construction drawings to the contractor.

Which of the following would be a complete defence to a claim of negligence?


The harm would have occurred regardless of the defendant's acts. The plaintiff was partly responsible for the harm they suffered. The plaintiff expected that the loss would occur. The plaintiff has insurance for the type of loss suffered.

X purchased a car from Y without asking any questions about its condition. X later finds out that the brakes are faulty. A reasonably experienced driver would have been able to tell the brakes were faulty by driving the car. Can X sue Y for misrepresentation?
Yes, a seller of a car has a duty to disclose all faults to a prospective purchaser. Yes, because brakes determine the safety of the car, B had an obligation to disclose the fault. No, A did not ask B any questions and so B was not under a duty to disclose information regarding patent defects. Yes, a seller has no right to assume that the buyer is knowledgeable about cars.

Under which tort may a car manufacturer be liable for injury resulting from defective seatbelts?
Breach of fiduciary duty.

Fraud. Nuisance. Breach of duty to warn.

Which of the following is false regarding litigation?

The details of the dispute can be kept private. Litigation is expensive because lawyers are generally required. Litigation often takes a heavy emotional toll on the parties. Disputes normally take a long time to get resolved.

Generally, which of the following will not have a claim of lien?

A subcontractor to the architect. A contractor. An architect. A subcontractor to the prime contractor.

Which documents can be used to prove delay?

As-built schedule. Correspondence with dates. Photographs with dates. All of the above.

Which of the following is usually an implied term of an employment contract?


Salary. Number of sick days per year. Length of vacation. Length of notice of termination.

Which of the following statements regarding regulation of professions in Canada is false?


Most professions in Canada are self regulated. The right of professions to govern themselves is conferred by federal statute. Professional regulatory bodies ensure that unregistered persons do not practice the regulated profession. The regulatory bodies of self regulated professions determine who has the right to use professional titles associated with that profession.

What are the primary purposes of national organizations such as Engineers Canada (formerly the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers), the Canadian Council of Professional Geoscientists, and the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada?
They represent the professions when complaints are made against individual professionals by members of the public. The are professional regulatory bodies that regulate professionals in Canada. They are voluntary associations that aim to provide professionals with networking opportunities. They coordinate and foster mutual recognition among regulatory bodies and encourage commonality of operations.

Which of the following best describes who may use the title "Professional Engineer"?
Persons who have successfully completed the requirements of an engineer in training program. Anyone working in the engineering industry may use that title.

Persons who work in the engineering industry and are paid up members of Engineers Canada (formerly the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers). Graduates of a Bachelor of Science Engineering program from an accredited University.

Which of the following statements regarding scope of practice of a profession is false?


The scope of professional practice is defined keeping in mind overarching goal of regulation of professions, which is to protect the public. Ambiguity in the definition of the scope of practice is resolved by considering the facts of individual cases and keeping in mind the intent and purpose of the governing legislation. To protect the integrity of the professions, all definitions of the scope of practice are specified precisely and without ambiguity. Definitions of the scope of practice can be either specific or generic.

Why do the definitions for the scope of professional practice often contain exclusions?
Given the limited number of qualified professionals there would not be sufficient professional manpower to complete the work required if the definition was broad and did not contain exclusions. Professional liability insurers are not prepared to insure broad categories of work. Exclusions protect the right of professionals to refuse to perform certain types of work. Exclusions are required to ensure that professionals in neighbouring and overlapping professions are not in breach of statute of for merely practicing the profession they are registered to practice.

Which of the following statements regarding professional registration is false?


Registration must be done in each jurisdiction in which the individual wishes to practice. Most regulatory bodies have an examination as part of the registration process. Registration in multiple jurisdictions may be facilitated by reciprocity agreements between regulatory bodies. Only individuals, and never the corporations that employ them, are required to be registered.

Which of the following statements regarding use of professional seals is false?


Professionals should not give their seal for others to use on their behalf. Improper use of a professional seal is a disciplinary offence. Most regulatory authorities have guidelines for the use of seals. Using a professional seal means that the professional has personally prepared or supervised the preparation of the documents.

What is a letter of assurance?

An assurance that a project will be completed on time. A letter by a professional stating that that work has been done in accordance with the plans or specifications. An assurance that a project will be constructed within budget. An assurance that the professional's fee will not exceed the amount quoted at the start of the project.

Which best describes the possible consequences of a breach of a binding code of ethics?
Unless the professional is sued by party who has suffered from the wrong, there will be no consequences. A breach of a code of ethics may also be a breach of a legal duty and so the breaching professional may face civil liability in addition to disciplinary action. Only the most egregious breaches of professional ethics result in disciplinary action. The professional will be subject to disciplinary action by the regulatory body, but will be protected from civil liability.

Which of the following is the best definition of a conflict of interest?

The temptation to cut costs for the benefit of the client even though public

safety might be compromised. The reluctance of a professional to expend sufficient hours on a task when the budget has been exhausted and the client is not willing to pay additional fees. The temptation to approve slightly defective work to appease a contractor the professional is friends with. A situation where the professional's duties to the public, the client, the employer, the profession, or him or her self point to different courses of action in a particular situation.

Which of the following regarding the relationship between unethical and criminal conduct is true?
Unethical conduct is normally also criminal in nature. Criminal conduct related to professional duties is generally also unethical. Conduct may be criminal or unethical, but the same act cannot be both criminal and unethical. All of the above are false.

What steps should a professional take when accused of negligent and/or unethical conduct?
Apologize for the error and offer compensation in return. Notify his or her client. Notify his or her insurer. Attempt to remedy the mistake as quickly as possible.

Which of the following duties requires professionals to report the misconduct of fellow professionals?
Duty to the profession. Duty to the public. Duty to the employer. Duty to him or her self.

Which of the following duties ranks highest?

Duty to the profession. Duty to the client. Duty to the employer. Duty to the public.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the standard of care expected of professionals?
Correct more often than not. Standard of the average professional in the field. Standard of a reasonable person. Standard of perfection.

What first steps should a professional take when faced with a conflict of interest involving the duty of loyalty to the client?
Withdraw from the project. Proceed and try not to be influenced by the conflicting interest. Warn his or her insurer of the risk of a lawsuit. Consider disclosing the conflicting interest to the client with a view to discussing whether the client is prepared for the professional to continue acting in the circumstances.

An architect knows the construction budget for a housing development, and suspects that the housing market might decline such that his client, the developer, may struggle to cover the costs of the housing development. Which of the following courses of action are appropriate?
The architect mentions the concern to his client, the developer, and asks whether the developer would like to consider design modifications to reduce construction costs.

With a view to reporting back to the client, the architect mentions the construction budget to a financial analyst friend of his and asks whether the analyst thinks that the project is financially risky. The architect warns a contractor friend of his who is considering bidding on the project that the owner may have trouble paying the construction costs. None of the above are appropriate.

What remedy might an employer have against an employee who sets up a competing business?
The employer may be entitled to terminate the employee. The employer may be able to sue the employee for profits lost by the employer due to competition by the employee. Profit earned by the employee may be ordered handed over the employer. Any of the above may apply.

A contractor makes a claim for extra costs incurred due to an impractical design by the architect who is the principal agent and arbiter of claims for extras. What should the architect do?
Seek legal advice. Deny the extra and maintain that the design was adequate. Approve payment of 50% of the extra if the architect is unsure whether the design was adequate. Acknowledge that the design was impractical and approve the extra.

An environmental engineer is asked by a developer to write a report to be submitted for environmental approval of a development, and is told that payment will be made by way of a unit in the development if the development gets environmental approval. What should the engineer do?
Decline to act for the developer in any circumstances in light of the nature of the initial offer. Accept possible payment by way of a unit in the development, but warn the developer that the report will be objective and impartial even if that results in no compensation for the engineer. Accept possible payment by way of a unit in the development.

Insist on payment not dependant on environmental approval being granted, or decline to provide the report.

Which of the following is generally not part of a phase 1 environmental site assessment?
Review of information held by regulatory authorities. Soil sampling to check for contamination. Gathering of information from former owners. Property title searches.

Which course of action should a professional not follow when an owner insists that the professional accept a risk that the professional is not comfortable accepting?
Accept the risk if it seems unlikely to materialize. Refuse to enter the contract. Obtain insurance to cover that risk before agreeing to enter into the contract. All of the above are acceptable.

Who of the following would not be personally liable for the costs of environmental cleanup?
The owner of the land. The prior owner of the land. Shareholders of the company that polluted the property. A director of the company that owns the contaminated property.

Which of the following corporate wrongs would the directors of the corporation not likely be personally liable for?

Corporate failure to pay wages. Corporate breach of construction lien legislation. Corporate failure to pay for office supplies. Corporate failure to remit income tax.

Which of the following accurately describes when performance specifications will be used?
The owner wants to control the design of the project. The owner wants flexibility to change the design while the project proceeds. The contractor has highly specialized design expertise. None of the above.

Which of the following is generally not a task of the contract administrator / owner's consultant?
Conducting field reviews. Acting as the first interpreter of the contract documents. Review of shop drawings. All of the above are tasks that may be completed by the owner's consultant.

Which of the following statements is false regarding invitations for tenders for private projects?
The invitation is always required to include statutorily defined rules for rejecting bids. The invitation sets out the criteria by which bids will be evaluated. The invitation allows the buyer to allocate risk to the seller. Invitations often contain privilege clauses.

Which of the following is true regarding consultants who advise owners in evaluating and awarding contracts?
Consultants are seldom liable for the advice they give because full legal protection can be achieved by exclusion of liability clauses. Good faith is seldom a defence for consultants. Consultants may be sued for defamation if they advise owners to reject bids. None of the above.

Under the postal acceptance rule, when is a contractual communication complete?


The sender places the envelope in the mailbox. The envelope arrives in the recipient's mailbox. The recipient actually opens the envelope and reads the contents. The sender seals the envelope.

Which of the following will not likely lead to a conflict between the insurer and the insured?
A strong claim is made and the value of the claim is within the coverage limit. A strong claim is made that exceeds the coverage limit. A claim is made alleging conduct that arguably falls outside the policy coverage. A weak claim is made within the coverage limit.

Which of the following would likely not be covered by a contractor's CGL policy?
The cost of repairing a car after an employee of the contractor dropped a hammer onto it from high up on the side of the building. The cost of removing windows that were likely to leak. The cost of repair to a lobby canopy that is damaged by a falling window after

its defective hinge failed. The cost of repairing cracks in a neighbouring house which resulted from the contractor providing inadequate lateral support when excavating for a foundation.

Which of the following is false regarding performance bonds?

The surety is not always required to personally complete the construction project. If the surety refuses to acknowledge that the contractor was in default, the surety may be liable for damages for delaying the completion of the construction contract. If the surety makes a voluntary payment to the obligee in error, it may not be able to recover it. The maximum liability of the surety is always limited to the value of the bond.

Which of the following is likely to be excluded from a builders' risk insurance policy?
Fraud by employees. The cost of making good faulty workmanship. Loss of revenue due to delay. All of the above.

Which of the following is true for all types of bonds used on construction projects?
The surety can rely on any defence open to the principal. They require the surety to complete the obligations the defaulting principal was obliged to meet. They are put in place at the start of the construction project. They are primarily for the benefit of the owner.

Which of the following is false regarding labour law negotiations?

The rules of agency apply between the union and the employees it represents. Only the official representative union of the employees can negotiate with the employer. The agreement reached between the union and the employer binds all unionized employees. The employer can discourage the employees from supporting a particular union for negotiation purposes.

Which of the following is false regarding the situation during a lockout or strike?
Persons not part of the union have the right to ignore the picket line and attend work. Employers can hire temporary replacement workers. Employees can undertake alternative employment until the strike / lockout is resolved. Employees have the right to picket outside the place of work.

Which workers are generally laid off first when a collective agreement is in place?
The more senior ones. The ones who are paid the most. The more junior ones. The ones whose performance the employer is not satisfied with.

If the contract between the owner and the contractor fails to specify who is responsible for occupational health and safety on the work site, who is responsible for safety?
The owner. The owner is responsible for the first half of the contract, the contractor is responsible for the second half.

The owner and the contractor share the responsibility for the entire contract. The contractor.

The clever rhyming lyrics of a song are protected by:

Trademark law. Copyright law. Patent law. Common law.

Which of the following is not a requirement for a machine to be patentable?


The way the machine works must be new. It must be useful. It must be an improvement on existing machines that do the same job. It must not be in general use by the public.

Which of the following is not a risk associated with a letter of intent?

A party relying on the letter may not realize that it is unenforceable. The letter may be inadvertently worded like an offer which is then accepted to create a binding contract. Both parties may commence work without ever creating a formal contract, which will create problems if a dispute arises. There may be no consideration to make the letter a valid contract.

Which of the following is false regarding the law of agency?

The scope of agency can be limited. A principal will not be bound by the acts of an agent unless actual authority exists. Not all acts by a party who is an agent will be performed in their role as agent. The agent must always act in the principal's best interest.

For which of the following project delivery models does the owner take the greatest risk of changes in law?
Design-build-operate. Design-build. Construction management. Design-bid-build.

Under which of the following project delivery models does the contractor not have significant incentive to reduce costs?
Fixed price contract. Cost-plus contract. Alliance agreement. Unit price contract.

Which of the following is false regarding public-private partnerships?

The risks borne by the concessionaire are typically short term in nature. The concessionaire may be comprised of a number of separate companies. There is a sharing of risk between the public and private sectors. User fees are typically the source of revenue from which the concessionaire is compensated.

Which of the following is an unintentional tort?

Fraud. Negligence. Trespass. None of the above.

Which of the following is typically not a fiduciary relationship?

Lawyer and client. Doctor and patient. Owner and contractor. Parent and child.

Which of the following is not an advantage of negotiation?

It is less costly than mediation, arbitration, or litigation. No party is forced to live with a result which it did not agree to. The parties control the process. It ensures final resolution of the dispute.

Which of the following is a reason why a lien claim may not succeed?

The lien claimant did not file a lien action in the correct court registry. The deficiencies in the work exceeded the value of the lien claim.

The filed documents were not properly notarized. All of the above.

Which of the following elements of a delay claim is generally the most difficult to prove?
The amount of additional cost caused by the delay. The existence of a duty to not interfere with the another party's performance of the contract. Breach of the duty to not interfere with another party's performance of the contract. That the breach of duty (to not interfere) caused a delay, or a need for acceleration.

Which of the following points towards an independent contractor relationship?


The person performing the work gets paid a set amount, regardless of how long it takes to perform the work. The employer requires the person performing the work to have insurance coverage. The employer directs where and when the work is to be done. The employer states how many workers will perform each task.

Which of the following statements is false regarding regulation of professions in Canada?


Elected officials of professional regulatory bodies are often members of the profession the body regulates. Regulatory bodies have the right to discipline members for inappropriate conduct. Most regulatory bodies have elected officials in addition to full time staff. Professionals may opt to register with industry associations rather than the applicable professional regulatory body.

Which of the following statements is false regarding technical groups and associations?
Technical associations provide training to members of the profession. Technical societies may own the copyright in technical standards they produce. Many technical societies have their own codes of ethics. Professionals are required to join the provincial technical group related to their primary area of professional practice.

What is the significance of the scope of practice specified for a profession?


Professionals have to charge set rates for work falling within the scope of practice. Only registered professionals can perform work within the scope of practice. The scope of practice defines the subject matter on which professionals are tested every 5 years to evaluate competence. The scope of practice limits the type of work that can be done by registered professionals.

Which of the following is typically not a requirement for registration as a professional engineer or geoscientist?
Technical competence exam. Law and ethics exam. A degree from an accredited university. Sufficient practical experience.

Which of the following would not be an example of enforcement by a professional regulatory body?
Preventing a non-registered professional from using the title "Professional Engineer". Preventing a draftsperson from signing off on plans for a 12 storey building. Holding a hearing to determine whether a registered professional engineer acted in breach of the code of ethics of the profession.

Preventing a building contractor, not registered as a professional engineer, from marketing herself as a "Professional contractor and engineer".

What is the best approach when a legislated design code is ambiguous on a key point of design for a project?
Replicate what was done on a previous design by another engineer in the firm. Select an interpretation that is consistent with the intent of the code. Use a different code. Any of the above.

Which of the following would not be overseen by the board of a professional regulatory body?
Verifying the qualifications of new members. Drafting bylaws for the professional body. Calculating compensation for victims of professional negligence. Holding disciplinary hearings.