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CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

SECOND EDITION

Also of interest from SAE:

Design of Durable, Repairable, and Maintainable Aircraft Composites (Order No. AE-27)

For more information or to order a book, contact SAE at 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001; phone (724) 776-4970; fax (724) 776-0790; e-mail CustomerService@sae.org; website http://store.sae.org.

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

SECOND EDITION

Keith B. Armstrong L. Graham Bevan William F. Cole II

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES SECOND EDITION Keith B. Armstrong L. Graham Bevan William F.

Warrendale, Pa.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of SAE.

For permission and licensing requests, contact:

SAE Permissions 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 USA E-mail: permissions@sae.org Tel: 724-772-4028 Fax: 724-772-4891

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Armstrong, Keith B. Care and repair of advanced composites / Keith B. Armstrong, L. Graham Bevan, William F. Cole II.--2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7680-1062-4 1. Composite materials--Repairing. 2. Composite materials-- Bonding. 3. Airplanes--Materials. 4. Airframes--Maintenance and repair. I. Bevan, L. Graham. II. Cole, William F. III. Title.

TA418.9.C6A76 2005

620.1'18'0288--dc22

2004065362

Cover photos (from top to bottom): Airbus A.340-600, Boeing 777, Airbus A.380, B-2 Stealth Bomber, and Lockheed-Martin Joint Strike Fighter.

SAE 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 USA E-mail: CustomerService@sae.org

Tel:

877-606-7323 (inside USA and Canada) 724-776-4970 (outside USA)

Fax: 724-776-1615

Copyright © 2005 SAE International ISBN 0-7680-1062-4 SAE Order No. R-336 Printed in the United States of America.

The information contained herein is believed by the authors to be the best available at the time of printing, but it is given without acceptance of liability, whether expressed or implied, for loss or damage attributable to reliance thereon. Users of this book should make their own assess- ments of its contents for their own conditions of use, and by reference to original manufactur- ers' repair documentation.

Thisbook isdedicated to themembers of theoriginal InternationalAir TransportAssociation (IATA) Task Force (1988–1991)set up to standardizecompositerepairs, for which thefirst authoracted as chairman, and to the members of the variousTask Groups of the Commercial Aircraft CompositeRepair Committee (CACRC) and especially the Training Task Group and its chairmen over several years: first Ed Herman of McDonnell-Douglas (now part of Boeing),followed by Rick Barrett of Continental Airlines, and then by RalphEdwards of NorthwestAirlines. Workfrom the Design, NDI, and Repair Techniques TaskGroups is included in this book and is gratefully acknowledged. We particularly wish to recordthe great debt we all owe to Henk Lodewijk of KLM. Whenthe IATA Task Force completedits work and produced IATADocument DOC:GEN:3043, it made several recommendations. Henk had the vision and enthusiasmto persuade three committees (ATA,IATA, and SAE) to combine toform the CACRC and to implement the recommendations of the IATA Task Force. This book is one of the manyproducts of thatvision.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The first author especially wishes to thank E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company for sup- port for attendance at the early Training Task Group Meetings of the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) through the good offices and personal interest of Dr. Rene Pinzelli of its Geneva office and Ginger Gupton of Wilmington. Ginger is now working with her husband, Jim Gardiner, at his company, the Consolidated Yacht Corpora- tion in Miami. More recently, support from the Defence Evaluation andResearch Agency (DERA), Farnborough (U.K.) (now the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory after July 1, 2001), and British Aerospace Systems and Equipment Ltd. (now Chelton Radomes Ltd.) allowed attendance at later meetings. Without their interest and support, neither this book nor the Composites and Metal Bonding Glossary (SAE AIR 4844) would have been possible.

Our thanks also are extended to Mike Hoke of Abaris Training Inc. for many ofthe diagrams and to Matt Waterson of Aerobond (U.K.) for the forms in Chapter 12. Dave Bunt of British Airways (BA) kindly reviewed the book andmade many helpful comments. Ian Fidler of BA supplied some diagrams. The firstauthor also would like to thank BA for the 24 years of experience on which this book is based. Many companies have contributed photographs and diagrams, and we have individually acknowledged them.

Our thanks are extended to Chris Mekern for scanning and improving some of the drawings and to Bert Groenewoud for arranging the text around them. The support of KLM by giving them the time to do this is greatly appreciated. Because of a burglary at his home, Chris lost his computer and the disks for most of the work he had done; therefore, the majority of the scanning had to be redone by our local printer, Chris Bond, at very short notice.

We should also thank Philip Griggs, Ralph Edwards, and Patricia Morrison for their time in reviewing the book and in making valuable comments before the first edition was prepared for printing.

Special thanks are due to Graham Bevan (now a co-author of this second edition) of Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. for reviewing the final product, helping to correct many small errors in the first edition, and providing useful additions to make this second edition better than the original. Our combined thanks to Graham's Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. colleagues in the Customer Support, Test Laboratories, Materials & Processes, and Composite Wing departments at Airbus (U.K.) Ltd., Filton, for assistance and encouragement with our revisions. Graham would also like to thank the management atAirbus (U.K.) Ltd. for its permission to enable him to co-author this book.

Finally, thanks are due to Bill Cole (another co-author of this second edition) for writing an additional new chapter (Chapter 17) to extend the scope of the book for repair design engineers.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword

xxiii

Preface to the Second Edition

xxv

Preface

to the First Edition

 

xxvii

Chapter 1

Introduction to Composites and Care of Composite Parts

1

1.1 Definition of Composites

1

1.2 History of Composite Materials

2

1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Composites.

2

 

1.3.1 Advantages of Composites

2

1.3.2 Disadvantages of Composites

3

1.3.3 Advantages of Thermoset Resin Composites

3

1.3.4 Disadvantages of Thermoset Resin Composites

4

1.3.5 Advantages of Thermoplastic Resin Composites

4

1.3.6 Disadvantages of Thermoplastic Resin Composites

5

 

1.4 Applications of Composites to Modern Aircraft, Yachts,

 

Cars, and Trains

5

1.4.1 Early Aircraft Structures

5

1.4.2 Modern Aircraft Structures and Other

Applications

6

 

1.5 Care of Composite Parts

7

 

1.5.1 Sources of Damage to Composite Parts

10

1.5.1.1 Physical or Chemical Damage

10

1.5.1.2 Deterioration in Normal Service

12

1.5.2 Avoidance of Damage and Reduction of

Deterioration in Service

13

 

1.6 References

16

Chapter

2

Materials

17

 

2.1

Fiber Reinforcement

17

 

2.1.1 Comparison of Some High-Performance Fibers

and Common Metals

17

2.1.2 Glass Fiber

19

2.1.2.1 Glass Manufacture

22

2.1.2.2 Glass Fiber Manufacture

23

2.1.3 Carbon Fibers

25

2.1.3.1 Carbon Fiber Manufacture

.25

2.1.3.2 Future Development

25

2.1.3.3 Further Details of Carbon and Graphite Fibers

26

2.1.4 Aramid Fibers

32

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

2.1.5 Boron Fibers

34

2.1.6 Other New Fibers

34

2.2 Forms of Reinforcement

37

2.2.1 Tapes

 

37

2.2.2 Fabrics

38

 

2.2.2.1

Woven Fabric Weave Styles

.38

2.2.2.2

Effect of Weave Style

42

2.2.2.3

Noncrimp Fabrics

43

2.2.2.4

Nonwoven Randomly Oriented Mats

43

2.2.2.5

Fiber and Fabric Glossary

45

2.3 Fiber Sizing and Finish

47

2.3.1 Glass Fiber Finishes

47

2.3.2 Carbon Fiber Finishes

50

2.3.3 Aramid Fiber Finishes

51

2.3.4 Sizing and Finish for New Types of Fibers

 

and Fabrics

52

2.4 Matrix (Resin) Systems

52

2.4.1

Thermoplastic Resins

52

2.4.2

Thermosetting Resins

53

2.4.3

Properties Required of Matrix Resins and Adhesives

57

2.4.3.1 Physical

and Chemical Properties

57

2.4.3.2 Mechanical Properties

59

2.4.3.3 Epoxy-Based Matrix Resins and

 

Adhesives for Aerospace Use.

59

2.4.4

Epoxy and Phenolic Pre-Pregs and Film Adhesives—Curing Stages

61

2.4.5

Mixing and Mix Ratios for Epoxy Wet Resins

63

2.4.5.1 Weighing

63

2.4.5.2 Mixing

64

2.4.5.3 Definitions Related to Mixing and Application.

65

2.4.6

Polyester Resins

66

2.5 Adhesives

66

2.5.1

Liquid and Paste Adhesives

66

2.5.2

Foaming Adhesives

68

2.5.3

Film Adhesives

69

2.5.4

Glue-Line Thickness Control

71

2.5.5

In-Service Effects on Resin Systems

76

2.6 Core Materials

 

76

2.6.1 Wood

79

2.6.2 Foam Core Materials

80

 

2.6.2.1 Material Types

80

2.6.2.2 Foam Density

81

2.6.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages

81

2.6.3 Honeycomb Core Materials

82

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

2.6.3.1 Honeycomb Material Types

85

2.6.3.2 Cell Shapes

88

2.6.3.3 Honeycomb Densities and Cell Sizes

88

 

2.6.4 Fluted Core

90

2.6.5 Syntactic Core

90

2.7 Syntactic Foams and Potting Compounds

90

2.7.1 Filler Materials for Potting Compounds, Resin

 

Systems, and Adhesives

92

 

2.7.2 Other Fillers

93

2.8 Protective Coatings

93

2.8.1

Sealants

93

 

2.8.1.1 Old-Generation Thiokol Sealants.

96

2.8.1.2 New-Generation Polythioether Sealants.

96

2.8.1.3 Silicone Sealants

97

2.8.1.4 Viton Rubber Sealants

98

 

2.8.2

Primers

98

2.8.3

Finishes

99

2.8.4

Conductive Coatings

101

2.8.5

Erosion-Resistant Coatings

102

2.8.6

Other Protective Coatings

103

2.9 References

104

2.10 Bibliography

106

Chapter 3

Handling and Storage

107

3.1 Shipping and Receiving

107

3.2 Temperature Requirements

107

3.3 Storage Practices

108

3.3.1 Temperature Requirements

108

 

3.3.1.1 Dry Fabrics

108

3.3.1.2 Storage of Pre-Preg, Film, and Paste Adhesives, Potting Compounds, and Primers

108

3.3.1.3 Storage of Sealants for Aircraft Use

109

3.3.1.4 Storage of Consumable Items for

Composite and Bonded Metal Repairs

110

 

3.3.2 Cleanliness and Damage Prevention

110

3.3.3 Moisture Damage Prevention

112

3.3.4 Identification

113

3.3.5 Release Notes and Approved Certificates

114

3.4 Shelf Life/Out Time

116

3.5 Kitting

117

3.6 Recertification

118

3.7 Care of Materials in the Hangar or Workshop

118

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

Chapter 4

Manufacturing Techniques

121

4.1 Filament Winding

121

4.2 Lay-Up Methods for Fabrics and Tapes

123

4.2.1

Hand Lay-Up (Wet and Pre-Preg Laminating)

123

4.2.2

Automated Lay-Up

124

4.3 Pultrusion

125

4.4 Resin Transfer Molding

126

4.5 Injection Molding

128

4.6 Tow Placement

130

4.7 Press Molding

130

4.8 Vacuum Bonding

131

4.9 Autoclave Bonding.

131

4.10 Oven Curing

135

4.11 References

136

4.12 Other Useful Reading

136

Chapter 5

Original Design Criteria

137

5.1 Principal, Primary, and Secondary Structures

137

5.1.1 Sources of Damage to Composite Airframe Components

141

5.1.2 Consequences of Failure

142

5.2 Types of Composite Structures

142

5.2.1 Monolithic Laminated Structures (Solid Laminates)

142

5.2.2 Sandwich Structures

143

5.3 Ply Orientation

149

5.3.1 Warp Clock.

149

5.3.2 Balance

and Symmetry

152

5.3.3 Nesting

and Stacking

153

5.4 Core Orientation

154

5.5 Operational Environment

155

5.5.1 Temperature

155

5.5.2 Humidity.

156

5.5.3 Contaminants

156

5.5.4 Erosion

156

5.5.5 Thermal Stresses

158

5.5.6 Hygrothermal Effects.

158

5.5.7 Fire Resistance

158

5.6 Electrical Requirements

159

5.6.1 Galvanic Corrosion

159

5.6.2 Electromagnetic Interference

163

5.6.3 Electrostatic Discharge

163

5.6.4 Lightning Strike Energy Dispersion

164

5.6.5 Radar Transmissivity

165

5.7 Mechanical Requirements

166

5.7.1

Tensile and Flexural Strength

166

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

5.7.2 Stiffness

 

167

5.7.3 Fatigue

167

5.7.4 Impact Resistance (Damage Tolerance)

169

5.7.5

Creep

170

5.8 Attachments/Joints

 

171

 

5.8.1 Bonded Joints

172

5.8.2 Mechanically Fastened/Riveted Joints

175

5.9 Other Design Requirements

 

176

 

5.9.1 Aerodynamic Smoothness

176

5.9.2 Weight and Balance

 

177

5.10 References

177

Chapter 6

Safety and Environment

181

6.1 Introduction

181

6.2 Workshop Conditions for Good Bonding

184

6.3 Respirable Fibers and Dust

 

186

 

6.3.1 Fiberglass

186

6.3.2 Carbon and Graphite

Fibers

187

6.3.3 Aramid Fibers

187

6.3.4 Sanding Dust

187

6.4 Fumes and Vapors

188

 

6.4.1 Resin Fumes

188

6.4.2 Solvent Vapors

189

6.4.3 Sealant Vapors.

190

6.4.4 Coatings

190

6.4.5 Fuel

190

6.4.6 Acid Fumes and Splash

190

6.4.7 Exposure Limits

191

6.5 Skin Contact

192

 

6.5.1 Fibers in Contact with the Skin

192

6.5.2 Resins in Contact with the Skin

192

6.5.3 Solvents in Contact with the Skin

193

6.5.4 Selection of Suitable Gloves.

193

6.5.5 Skin Creams for Personal Protection

194

6.6 Material Safety Data Sheets

 

195

6.7 Exothermic Reactions

195

6.8 Waste Disposal

196

6.9 Safety Procedures

197

 

6.9.1 Emergency Action First-Aid Procedures

197

6.9.2 General Safety Procedures.

197

6.9.3 Personal Safety Precautions

198

6.9.4 Dermatitis

 

199

6.10 Action in the Event of a Chemical Spillage

201

6.11 Explosion Risk

 

202

6.12 Static Discharge

and Fire Prevention

202

 

6.12.1

Static Discharge Prevention

202

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

 

6.12.2

Fire Prevention

203

6.13 Safety Requirements for Electrical Appliances

204

6.14 ISO Environmental Management Standards

205

6.15 References

206

6.16 Bibliography

207

Chapter

7

Damage and Repair Assessment

209

 

7.1 Visual Inspection

210

7.2 Tap Test

.213

7.3 Ultrasonic Inspection

215

7.4 X-Ray Methods

220

7.5 Eddy Current Inspection

221

7.6 Thermography

.222

7.7 Bond Testers

223

7.8 Moisture Meters

.224

7.9 Interferometry/Shearography

226

7.10 Damage Types

226

7.11 Sources of Mechanical Damage

232

7.12 Damage Mapping

233

7.13 Assessment of Damage Significance

233

7.14 References

239

Chapter 8

Source Documents

241

8.1 Revision Systems

241

8.2 Effectivity

242

8.3 Drawing Numbering

Systems

242

8.4 Internal Documents

245

8.5 Material and Process Specifications

245

8.6 Original Equipment Manufacturer Documents

247

8.7 Regulatory Documents.

248

8.8 Air Transport Association of America ATA 100 System 249

8.9 Aircraft Maintenance Manual

249

8.10 Component Maintenance Manual

249

8.11 Overhaul Manual

250

8.12 Illustrated Parts Catalog

250

8.13 Structural Repair Manual

251

8.14 Engine Manual

252

Chapter 9

Structural Repair Manual (SRM) Repair Method Selection

253

9.1 Component Identification

253

9.2 Damage Classification

254

9.2.1 Damage Terminology

.254

9.2.2 Critical Areas

255

9.2.3 Allowable/Negligible Damage

255

9.2.4 Repairable Damage

256

9.2.5 Overhaul or Replace

256

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

9.2.6

Other Considerations

257

9.3 Repair Methods

 

258

 

9.3.1 Speedtape

259

9.3.2 Resin Sealing

259

9.3.3 Potted Repairs

259

9.3.4 Bolted Doublers (Metal Plates) and Bonded Doublers (Composite Patches)

259

9.3.5 Pre-Cured Doublers Versus Co-Cured Doublers

260

9.3.6 Room-Temperature Wet Lay-Up

261

9.3.7 Elevated-Temperature Wet Lay-Up

262

9.3.8 Pre-Preg Repairs

262

9.3.9 Scarfed and Stepped Lap Repairs

263

9.3.10 Composite Repairs to Metals

 

265

9.4 References

 

.266

Chapter 10

Repair Techniques

267

10.1 Preparation.

267

 

10.1.1 Paint Removal

270

10.1.2 Disbonding Methods

270

10.1.2.1 Disbonding Adhesively Bonded Metal Parts

270

10.1.2.2 Disbonding Composite Parts

274

10.1.3 Damage Removal

274

10.1.3.1 Damage Removal from Metal Parts

274

10.1.3.2 Removal of Skin and Doubler Material

276

10.1.3.3 Damage Removal from Composite Parts

277

10.1.3.4 of Core Material

Removal

277

10.1.3.5 of Surface Corrosion

Removal

278

10.1.4 Moisture and Contamination Removal

279

10.1.5 Surface Preparation of Composites—Repair Sanding and Ply Determination

280

10.1.5.1 Abrading

281

10.1.5.2 Taper Sanding/Scarfing

281

10.1.5.3 Step Sanding and Cutting

282

10.1.6 Water Break Test

284

10.1.7 Metallic Surface Preparation

 

285

10.2 Typical Repairs

 

.285

 

10.2.1 Edge Band Repairs

285

10.2.2 Repair

of Damage

to

Core

and One Skin

286

10.2.3 Repair of Damage to Core and Both Skins

286

10.2.4 Hybrid Repairs

286

10.2.5 Blind Repairs

291

10.2.6 Injected Repairs

291

10.2.7 Solid Laminate Repairs

 

295

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

 

10.2.8

Potted Repairs

296

10.2.9

Metal-to-Metal

Bonding

296

10.2.10

Plastic Welding (Solvent or Heat)

296

10.3 Adhesive Usage

 

297

10.4 Bagging Materials, Release Films, Release Fabrics, Peel Plies, Breather Cloths, Bleeder Cloths, Bleed-Out Fabrics, and Application Techniques

297

 

10.4.1

Terminology

298

10.4.2

Selection Criteria

301

10.4.3

Surface Versus Envelope Bagging

302

10.4.4

Pleating

304

10.4.5

Bagging Sequence

304

10.4.6

Vacuum Requirements and Principles

304

 

10.4.6.1 Vacuum Bonding

305

10.4.6.2 Application of Vacuum Pressure to Plates and Assemblies Using Nonperforated Honeycomb

306

10.4.6.3 Practical Techniques to Ensure

Adequate Applied Vacuum Pressure to Parts Under Repair

310

 

10.4.7

Caul Plate and Dam Usage

314

10.4 8

Vertical Bleed Method

316

10.4.9

Squeeze-Out (Edge Bleed-Out) Method

316

10.4.10

Zero-Bleed Method

317

10.4.11

Ply Compaction and Debulking

318

10.4.12

Debagging Precautions and Typical Problems

318

10.5 Curing Stages and Temperatures—Heating Techniques

319

 

10.5.1 Curing Stage Definitions

319

10.5.2 Low-Temperature Cure

320

10.5.3 Elevated-Temperature Cure

320

10.5.4 Direct Versus Indirect Heating

321

10.5.5 Ramp Rates and Soak Cycles

321

10.5.6 Temperature Control and Monitoring

321

10.5.7 Thermocouple Placement

323

10.5.8 Temperature Control Problems

324

10.5.9 Hot Bonder and Heater Blanket Usage

324

10.5.10 Heat Sinks

 

327

10.5.11 Thermocouples

328

10.5.12 Distortion of Parts During Heating or Cooling

329

10.6 Post-Repair Inspection

 

330

10.7 Surface Restoration

333

10.8 References

335

Chapter 11

Mechanical Fastening Systems

337

11.1 Introduction

337

11.2 Fastener Types

.338

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

11.2.1 Fastener Standards

339

11.2.2 Fastener Compatibility

339

11.2.3 Rivets.

340

11.2.3.1 Solid Rivets

340

11.2.3.2 Blind Rivets

341

11.2.3.3 Hollow End Rivets

343

 

11.3 Screws, Nuts, and Bolts

 

343

 

11.3.1 Specialty Fasteners (Special Bolts)

343

11.3.2 Lockbolts

346

11.3.3 Hex Drive Bolts

350

11.3.4 Specialty Blind Bolts

350

 

11.4 Spacers, Bolt Inserts, and Grommets

 

353

11.5 Hole Preparation

357

 

11.5.1 Drilling

357

11.5.2 Hole Sizes and Tolerances

360

11.5.3 Edge Distance and Fastener

Pitch

361

11.5.4 Hole Protection

361

 

11.6 Fastener Installation and Removal

 

362

 

11.6.1 Fastener Installation

362

11.6.2 Fastener Removal

371

 

11.7 Fastener Substitution

 

372

11.8 Bonded Fasteners

372

11.9 Composite Fasteners

374

11.10 References

375

Chapter 12

Documentation

377

12.1 Process Control Documents

377

 

12.1.1 Cure Chart/Data Strip

377

12.1.2 Routine and Nonroutine Work Documents

378

12.1.2.1 Routine Work Documents

378

12.1.2.2 Nonroutine Work Documents

.391

12.1.3 Nondestructive and Destructive Inspection Data 392

12.1.4 Coupon Test Results

392

12.1.5 Clean-Room Temperature and Humidity

392

12.1.6 Return to Service/Log Book Sign-Offs

392

 

12.2 Calibration Records

 

393

12.3 Material Control Records

395

12.4 Component Documentation

396

12.5 Training Records

397

Chapter 13

Shop Equipment and Hand Tools

399

13.1

Hand Tools and Techniques

399

 

13.1.1 Drills

399

13.1.2 High-Speed Grinders.

401

13.1.3 Cutting Utensils

404

13.1.4 Hand Routers

405

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

 

13.1.5 Orbital Sanders

406

13.1.6 Cast Cutter (Oscillating Saw)

407

13.1.7 Painting Equipment

408

13.1.8 Resin Applicators

408

 

13.2 Shop Equipment

 

408

 

13.2.1 Bandsaws

408

13.2.2 Air Compressors

409

 

13.3 Heating Devices

 

411

13.4 Measuring Devices

412

13.5 Health and Safety Equipment

414

13.6 References

416

Chapter 14

Tooling and Mold Making

417

14.1 Introduction

417

14.2 Caul Plate and Dam Fabrication

418

14.3 Splash Mold Making

 

420

14.4 Release Agents/Films

420

14.5 Simple Room-Temperature Tooling

421

14.6 Room-Temperature Curing

Pre-Preg Tooling

422

 

14.6.1 Lay-Up

423

14.6.2 Debulk Procedure.

424

14.6.3 Final Bagging Procedure

425

14.6.4 Autoclave Cure

425

14.6.5 Time Limits

426

14.6.6 Step Post-Curing Procedure After Room- Temperature or Low-Temperature Initial Cure

426

14.6.7 Support Structures

427

14.6.8 Initial Release Priming of New Composite Tools

429

14.6.9 Developments in Low-Temperature Curing Materials

430

 

14.7 References

 

430

Chapter

15

Metal Bonding

431

 

15.1

Introduction

431

 

15.1.1 History and Requirements

431

15.1.1.1 Metal Bonding

433

15.1.1.2 Epoxy Adhesives

435

15.1.1.3 Requirements for Adhesives

435

15.1.2 Principles of Adhesion

436

15.1.2.1 Adhesion Theory

436

15.1.2.2 Environmental Durability

439

15.1.2.3 Temperature Effects

440

15.1.2.4 Humidity Effects

441

15.1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Metal

Bonding.

441

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

15.2

Surface Preparation Methods

442

 

15.2.1

Abrasive Cleaning

444

15.2.2

Pasa-Jell

444

15.2.3

Hydrofluoric Acid Etching

446

15.2.4

Grit Blast/Silane.

448

15.2.5

Alodine or Alochrom 1200

448

15.2.6

Boeing Boegel EPII Sol-Gel Process

450

15.2.7

FPL Etch.

450

15.2.8

Chromic Acid Anodizing

451

15.2.9

Phosphoric Acid Anodizing

451

 

15.2.9.1 Phosphoric Acid Containment System (PACS)

452

15.2.9.2 Phosphoric Acid Non-Tank Anodizing

(PANTA)

452

 

15.2.10

Metadalic/Sifco Selective Plating (U.K.) Ltd

457

15.2.11

Ciba Laser Pretreatment

457

15.2.12

Other Surface Preparations

457

 

15.3

Primers

458

 

15.3.1 Reasons for Using Primers

458

15.3.2 Primer Types

459

15.3.3 Application of Primers

459

15.3.4 Curing/Drying

461

15.3.5 Thickness Verification

461

 

15.4 Handling Primers

462

15.5 References

 

463

15.6 Bibliography

464

Chapter

16

Design Guide for Composite Parts

465

 

16.1 Introduction

 

465

16.2 Analysis of Reports Received

465

16.3 Other Required Design Features Not Mentioned in the

 

Analyzed Reports

490

 

16.4 References

 

494

Chapter

17

Repair Design

495

 

17.1 General Repair Design

495

 

17.1.1

Introduction to Repair Design

495

17.1.2

Laminate Loading

495

 

17.1.2.1 Tension and Compression Loads and Strains

495

17.1.2.2 Shear Stress and Strain

497

17.1.2.3 Poisson's Ratio

498

 

17.1.3.

Repair Philosophy and Design Requirements

500

 

17.1.3.1 Certification Load Capacity

500

17.1.3.2 Repair Categorization

505

 

17.2 Laminate Repair Design

507

CARE AND

REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

17.2.1 Introduction to Laminate Repair Design

507

17.2.2 Laminate Repair Design Considerations

507

17.2.2.1 Stiffness

507

17.2.2.2 Strength

510

17.2.2.3 Stability

511

17.2.2.4 Environmental Effects and Protection

511

17.2.2.4.1 Operational and Glass Transition Temperatures (T g )

511

17.2.2.4.2 Lightning and Electrostatic

Protection

512

17.2.2.5 Other Repair Design Considerations

520

17.2.2.6 Laminate Repair Recommendations

521

17.2.3 Laminate Analysis Techniques for Repair Design

522

17.2.3.1 Introduction to Simplified Analysis Techniques

522

17.2.3.2 Elastic Modulus (E) Analysis 524

17.2.3.3 Strength (F) Analysis 529

17.2.3.4 Poisson's Ratio (ν 0 ) Analysis

531

17.2.3.5 In-Plane Shear Modulus (G)

534

17.2.4 In-Plane Shear Strength (τ)

535

17.3 Core Repair Design

540

17.3.1 Function and Loading of Core in Sandwich

Construction

540

17.3.2 Core Material, Density, and Cell Size

544

17.3.3 Core Repair Design Recommendations

544

17.4 Bonded Joint Repair Design

545

17.4.1 Introduction to Bonded Joints

545

17.4.2 Types of Bonded Joints

545

17.4.3 Failure Modes of Bonded Joints

547

17.4.4 Adhesive Behavior in Bonded Joints.

549

17.4.4.1 Adhesive Shear Stress and Strain

549

17.4.4.2 Elastic and Plastic Adhesive Behavior

551

17.4.4.3 Temperature and Moisture Effects

560

17.4.4.4 Joint Adherend Effects—Stiffness Imbalance and Thermal Mismatch

.563

17.4.4.5 Recommended Joint Overlaps and

Simplistic Analysis

568

17.4.5 Adhesive Peel Stress and Displacement

570

17.4.6 Durability—Fatigue, Creep, and Environmental

Effects

581

17.4.7 Bonded Joint Repair Considerations

582

17.4.8 Bonded Joint Repair Design Recommendations

583

17.5 Mechanically Fastened Joints

584

TABLE OF CONTENTS

17.5.1 Introduction to Mechanically Fastened Joints

584

17.5.2 Fastened Laminate Failure Modes

585

17.5.3 Fastener Failure Modes

588

17.5.4 Open-Hole Stress Concentrations—Composites

Versus Metals

588

17.5.5 Loading of Mechanically Fastened Joints

588

17.5.6 Loaded Fastener Holes

592

17.5.7 Fastener Load Distribution and Joint Geometry

594

17.5.8 Lay-Up Orientation for Fastened Joints

596

17.5.9 Pad-Ups and Hybrid Material Application 597

17.5.10 Fatigue of Fastened Composite Joints

600

17.5.11 Effects of Gaps and Shims

601

17.5.12 Fastener Selection

601

17.5.13 Mechanically Fastened Repairs in Sandwich Panels

604

17.5.14 Fastened Joint Repair Recommendations

.608

17.6 References

609

17.7 Bibliography

612

Additional Information

613

Index

617

About the Authors

637

FOREWORD

This book is a detailed work of reference, drawing from many industry sources around the world. It is a comprehensive, in-depth look at the principal materials and processes involved in manufacturing, inspecting, and repairing advanced composite aircraft structures. It should also be useful to those working with composites in non-aerospace industries.

This book becomes even more valuable considering the background of the authors. Dr. Keith Armstrong is extremely well respected for his many years of experience and leadership in advanced composite aircraft structures. He was involved in the development of carbonfiber/ Nomex ® honeycomb floor panels for the VC-10 airliner with Graham Bevan of Rolls-Royce Composite Materials and now with Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. These were the first carbon fiber composites to fly on commercial aircraft. Almost all flooring used in commercial aircraft today meets specifications that have evolved from these early composite structures. Dr. Armstrong developed many new methods in the infancy of the industry during his 24 years with British Airways. He led the effort to standardize composite repair as chairman of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Composite Repair Task Force from 1988 to 1991. He continues to be a key player in the effort to improve composites education via his ongoing participation in the Training Task Group of the SAE/IATA/ATA Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC). As part of this work, he compiled a glos- sary of terms, published by SAE as AIR 4844 Composites and Metal Bonding Glossary.

Dr. Armstrong possesses a unique combination of theoretical and practical knowledge. He earned an M.Sc. (1978) and a Ph.D. (1991) in Adhesion Science and Technology from The City University in London, England. He also has spent many years performing simple but valuable hands-on experiments, such as wedge testing of composite and aluminum alloy samples after years of immersion in water. These have now been published and are listed as references in this book.

This second edition is co-authored by L. Graham Bevan and William F. Cole II. Dr. Arm- strong and Mr. Bevan have worked together on lightweight floor panels and other projects for more than 30 years. Mr. Bevan has worked in or has been associated with the aircraft industry for most of his working life. His involvement with composites started in 1969 when hejoined Rolls-Royce Composite Materials, from the then British Aircraft Corporation. He has maintained this involvement with composites without a break during the past 35 years. Mr. Bevan currently works in Customer Support at Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. and is involved in composite repairs on all Airbus aircraft. He is a past member of the Airbus Composite Repair Task Force and a past member of the Repair Techniques Task Group of the CACRC.

Bill Cole, now Director of Engineering at AAR Corporation, has done an exceptional job as chairman of the Analytical Repair Techniques Task Group of the CACRC. Rick Barrett, co-author of the first edition has, unfortunately, left the aerospace industry. His leadership helped to establish the syllabus for this book while he was chairman of the CACRC Train- ing Task Group from 1992 to 1994. He also contributed valuable practical experience of hands-on repair work.

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

This book will become a standard by which future efforts are judged. All of us in this evolving field owe the authors of this book a debt of gratitude, not only for this work but also Dr. Armstrong's many fundamental contributions to composites technology, Graham Bevan's 35 years of dedication to this subject, Bill Cole's extremely valuable mathematical ability, and Rick Barrett's ideas and enthusiasm that made this project possible.

Mike Hoke, President Abaris Training Inc. Reno,Nevada

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

This second edition has been prepared to make improvements and additions to keep the book up to date. At the same time, the opportunity has been taken to correct some minor errors in the first edition. Some diagrams have been improved, some have been deleted, and others have been added.

At the present time, it is quite a challenge to keep pace with takeovers, amalgamations, and company name changes. These have been included up to the point of submission for printing, but in the future, there may be more.

A few new nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods have been added, together with some

new fasteners for composite materials and one new method for the surface preparation of

metals prior to adhesive bonding. A number of water-based primers have been included, and a few new books and papers have been added to the references.

It has been encouraging to receive favorable comments on the first edition from the practical

people who carry out repairs and say they have found it a very readable volume.

This second edition has been co-authored by Graham Bevan of Airbus (U.K.) Ltd. and

William F. Cole II of AAR Corporation, as Rick Barrett (who co-authored the first edition)

is no longer working in the aerospace industry. Graham has been involved with compos-

ites almost all his working life and is a recognized expert in this field. He has made useful

improvements to this second edition. Bill Cole, chairman of the Analytical Repair Tech- niques Task Group of the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC), has produced a new chapter on repair design (Chapter 17) for this second edition, and we hope it will be particularly helpful.

PREFACE TOTHE FIRST EDITION

This book is intended to meet the background information needs of composite repair techni- cians who repair aircraft composite components and structures for return to airline service. It supplements the practical work required to achieve the necessary level of skill in performing these repairs. The syllabus was developed by the Training Task Group and approved by the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC). It has been published by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) as SAE AIR 4938 Composite and Bonded Structure Technician/Specialist Training Document and covers materials, handling and storage, design aspects, damage assessment, repair techniques, manufacturers' documents, fastening systems, tools and equipment, health and safety aspects, and care of composite parts. Chapter 15 covers metal bonding, partly because some composite parts include metal reinforcements and fittings and partly because the term "composite" is sometimes used to mean any combination of two or more materials such as a skin and honeycomb core, for example. Repair design engineers should also find the book useful.

This book is designed primarily for aerospace use, but these notes have been compiled for

all composite repair technicians, regardless of the type of vehicle or component they have

to repair. Although some of the materials used may be either different from, or less strictly

regulated than, those used in the aerospace industries, we hope that this book will be useful

to the marine, automobile, railway, wind power generation, and sporting goods industries

and others using composite components. The general principles involved are very similar

for all composite materials, regardless of their end use.

A book of this size and topic range cannot cover any subject in great detail; therefore, more

extensive references should be studied when necessary. For detailed specific repair proce- dures, the Original Equipment Manufacturers' (OEMs') Structural Repair Manuals (SRMs), Overhaul Manuals (OHMs), etc., should be used. SAE (CACRC) produced Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARPs) will be included in these manuals as alternative means of compliance as opportunity arises during normal amendment procedures and as these ARPs become available.

Metal bonding has been covered in Chapter 15 because there are occasions when metal parts are bonded to composites, and the design guide in Chapter 16 documents experience and shows where small design improvements could extend the service lifetimes of composite parts. The support of SAE for all of the CACRC work is greatly appreciated. This book has been written to meet the CACRC syllabus, and it has been reviewed by some CACRC members. The book has not been approved by the CACRC; therefore, the views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the committee as a whole or of the organizations that sponsor the committee.

The purpose of training is to improve performance and to provide leadership for others. We hope that the following thoughts will inspire further effort.

CARE AND REPAIR OF ADVANCED COMPOSITES

"Education expands the boundaries of our known ignorance faster than it expands the boundaries of our knowledge."

If we wish to be good leaders, we have a vast amount of study and research to do.

As an old poem states,

1. He that knows and knows that he knows is wise,follow him,

2. He that knows not and knows he knows not is willing to learn, teach him,

3. He that knows not and knows not that he knows not is afool, shun him.

Let us all try to become at least "Type 2" and strive to reach "Type 1."