Activity coefficient models offer an alternative approach to equations of state for the calculation of fugacities in liquid solutions (Prausnitz et al. 1986; Tassios, 1993). These models are also mechanistic and contain adjustable parameters to enhance their correlational ability. The parameters are estimated by matching the thermodynamic model to available equilibrium data. In this chapter, we consider the estimation of parameters in activity coefficient models for electrolyte and nonelectrolyte solutions.
15.1
ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS
We consider Pitzer's model for the calculation of activity coefficients in aqueous electrolyte solutions (Pitzer, 1991). It is the most widely used thermodynamic model for electrolyte solutions.
15.1.1 Pitzer's Model Parameters for Aqueous Na2SiO3 Solutions
Osmotic coefficient data measured by Park (Park and Englezos, 1998; Park, 1999) are used for the estimation of the model parameters. There are 16 osmotic coefficient data available for the Na2SiO3 aqueous solution. The data are given in Table 15.1. Based on these measurements the following parameters in Pitzer's
268
269
activity coefficient model can be calculated: p(0), P (1> , and C9 for Na2SiO3. The three binary parameters may be determined by minimizing the following least squares objective function (Park and Englezos, 1998).
c a l c
exP2
(15.1)
where q>calc is the calculated and <pcxp is the measured osmotic coefficient and <59 is
the uncertainty.
Table 15.1 Osmotic Coefficient Data for the Aqueous Na2SiO3 Solution
Molality
0.8923 0.0603 0.8926 0.0603 0.3674 0.8339 0.8304 0.3690 0.8188 0.5313 0.8188 0.5313 0.7790 0.8637 0.7797 0.8629 0.7614 1.2063 0.7617 1.2059 0.7607 1 .4928 0.7608 1 .4927 0.7685 1.8213 0.7674 1.8241 0.8021 2.3745 0.8028 2.3725 Source: Park and Englezos (1998).
m [ 2 ( v M v x3/2 v v ] ^ x )/
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(15.2)
270
Chapter 15
where
z is the charge
M
X f
denotes a cation
denotes an anion is equal to A//2/(l +bl" 2 )
A,p m
is the DebyeHuckel osmotic coefficient parameter is the molality of solute 1x"1 i ~> is the ionic strength ( I = > m,zf )
2' is a universal parameter wi the value of 1 .2 (kg.mol)"2 with
The parameters P(0)MX, P (I) MX, C\ix are tabulated binary parameters specific to the electrolyte MX. The P(2V is a parameter to account for the ion pairing effect of 22 electrolytes. When either cation M or anion X is univalent, oci = 2.0. For 22, or higher valence pairs, i = 1.4. The constant cc2 is equal to 12. The parameter vector to be estimated is k=[p(0), p(1), C* ]T.
15.1.2 Pitzer's Model Parameters for Aqueous Na2SiO3NaOH Solutions
There are 26 experimental osmotic coefficient data and they are given in Table 15.2 (Park and Englezos, 1999; Park, 1999). Two sets of the binary parameters for the NaOH and Na2SiO3 systems and two mixing parameters, 2 and T + , 9 are required to model this system. The binary } 3 M

parameters for the Na2SiO3 solution were obtained previously and those for the
NaOH system, p(0)Na0n = 0.0864, P(1)NaOH = 0.253, and C^OM = 0.0044 at 298.15
K are available in the literature. The remaining two Pitzer's mixing parameters, 9 ., and T , ~> were determined by the least squares optimization J
OH SiO,Na+OIrSiO^ M F
method using the 26 osmotic coefficient data of Table 1 5.2. The GaussNewton method may be used to minimize the following LS objective function (Park and Englezos, 1 999):
S(6 V
OH~SiO^' V Na + OH~SiO? 3 3
,w
) = >  
*i : i
= O
(15.3)
^
'
271
using the error propagation law (Park, 1 999) and (pcalc is calculated by the following equation,
<pcalc
= } + (
2/mi)[f<Pl+
c m a (B? a
+ZCca)
(15.4)
where
m
f
A,p
b I c
a
B'cpa isequalto P^'+Pca exp(a,I 1 / 2 )+p^ exp(a 2 I l / 2 ) Z z Cca is equal to is the charge is equal to 
is equal to Oy+M^
,j is equal to Q{j+hQ^
;_, is equal to
E
9;j(I)
272
Chapter 15
are tabulated mixing parameters specific to the cationcation or anionanion pairs. The ^f^ is also tabulated mixing parameter specific to the cationanionanion or anioncationcation pairs.
Table 15.2 Osmotic Coefficient Data for the Aqueous Na2SiOrNaOH Solution
NaT , molality
OH" molality
SiO32" molality
(fxp)
K)
0.0103 0.0101 0.0100 0.0096 0.0097 0.0094 0.0093 0.0090 0.0091 0.0088 0.0088 0.0087 0.0087 0.0085 0.0085 0.0084 0.0084 0.0085 0.0085 0.0085 0.0085 0.0086 0.0085 0.0085 0.0086 0.0086
0.0466 0.0466 0.1397 0.0468 0.0468 01405 0.0970 0.0970 0.2911 0.0973 0.0973 0.2920 0.4442 0.1481 0.1481 0.1465 0.1465 0.4395 0.2335 0.2335 0.7005 0.2338 0.2338 0.7015 0.3557 0.3557 1.0670 0.3519 0.3519 1.0558 0.4731 0.4731 1.4192 0.4740 0.4740 1.4221 0.5263 0.5263 1.5759 0.5289 0.5289 1.5868 0.7859 0.7859 2.3577 0.7846 0.7846 2.3537 0.9599 0.9599 2.8797 0.9582 0.9582 2.8747 1.0186 1.0186 3.0557 1.0181 1.0181 3.0542 1.3269 1.3269 3.9807 1.3246 1.3246 3.9739 1.4954 1.4954 4.4861 1.4967 1.4967 4.4901 1.6635 4.9904 1.6635 1.6629 1.6629 4.9888 Source: Park and Englezos (1998).
0.9625 0.9572 0.9267 0.9239 0.8816 0.8910 0.8624 0.8611 0.8352 0.8440 0.8253 0.8236 0.8216 0.8175 0.8222 0.8236 0.8323 0.8338 0.8408 0.8412 0.8843 0.8858 0.9027 0.9019 0.9326 0.9329
273
The parameters '0jj(I) and 0'i/I) represent the effects of asymmetrical mixing. These values are significant only for 31 or higher electrolytes (Pitzer,
First the values for the parameter vector k=[p(0), p(1), C* ]T were obtained by using the Na2SiO3 data and minimizing Equation 15.1. The estimated parameter values are shown in Table 15.3 together with their standard deviation. T + was Subsequently, the parameter vector k=[6
M J F L
OH~SiOr
Na OH~SiO~
estimated by using the data for the Na2SiO3NaOH system and minimizing Equation 15.3. The estimated parameter values and their standard errors of estimate are also given in Table 15.3. It is noted that for the minimization of Equation 15.3 knowledge of the binary parameters forNaOH is needed. These parameter values are available in the literature (Park and Englezos, 1998).
Standard Deviation
0.0039 0.0559 0.00176 0.0384 0.0095
_ . 2 _ = 0.2703
, = 0.0233
Na + OH SiO^
274
Chapter 15
and experimental values is excellent. There are some minor inflections on the calculated curves at molalities below 0.1 mol/kg H2O. Similar inflections were also observed in other systems in the literature (Park and Englezos, 1998). It is noted that it is known that the isopiestic method does not give reliable results below 0.1 mol/kg H2O. Park has also obtained osmotic coefficient data for the aqueous solutions of NaOHNaCl NaAl(OH)4 at 25C employing the isopiestic method (Park and Englezos, 1999; Park, 1999). The solutions were prepared by dissolving A1C136H2O in aqueous NaOH solutions. The osmotic coefficient data were then used to evaluate the unknown Pitzer's binary and mixing parameters for the NaOHNaClNaAl(OH)4H2O system. The binary Pitzer's parameters, P(0), P(1), and C9, for NaAl(OH) 4 were found to be 0.0083, 0.0710, and 0.00184 respectively. These binary parameters were obtained from the data on the ternary system because it was not possible to prepare a single (NaAl(OH)4) solution.
1 .0
id o
>^N +>
0.9 
<J
0.8 
Activity coefficient models are functions of temperature, composition and to a very small extent pressure. They offer the possibility of expressing the fugacity
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275
1993)
fjL=xJ?JfJ ( 15  5 )
where Xj is the mole fraction, YJ is the activity coefficient and fj is the fugacity of chemical species j.
1.0
o "o
a
0.9 
o o
0.8 
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
Several activity coefficient models are available for industrial use. They are presented extensively in the thermodynamics literature (Prausnitz et al., 1986). Here we will give the equations for the activity coefficients of each component in
a binary mixture. These equations can be used to regress binary parameters from
276
Chapter 15
15.2.1
The activity coefficients are given by the following equations =/M(XJ + A 1 2 x 2 ) + x 2 A 12 X]+A12x2 A 12 X1+A12x2
A 21
A21x1+x2
A 21
(15.6a)
xl
A21x,+x2
(15.6b)
The adjustable parameters are related to pure component molar volumes and to characteristic energy differences as following
V2
RT
(15.7a)
A l A 2 i =Lexp v2
(15.7b)
where V) and v2 are the liquid molar volumes of components 1 and 2 and the X's
are energies of interaction between the molecules designated in the subscripts. The temperature dependence of the quantities (A,12A,n) and (^12^22) can be neglected without serious error.
15.2.2 The ThreeParameter NRTL Model
Renon used the concept of local composition to develop a nonrandom, twoliquid (NRTL) three parameter (a]2, 112, ^21) equations given below (Prausnitz et al., 1986).
T,2G,2
I n y , =\\
(x 2 + x , G 1 2 ) 2
(15.8a)
= *?
\2 + 1 1 2
T 2 1 G 21
x2G21)2
(15.8b)
where
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277
G 12 = exp(a,2T12)
(15. 8c)
G 21 = ex/Xa12T21)
(15.8d)
^2=^
(15.8e)
*21  K1
_ 21 gn
(15. t)
msn
model contains three parameters which are independent of temperature and composition. However, experience has shown that for a large number of binary systems the parameter a, 2 varies from about 0.20 to 0.47. Typically, the value of 0.3 is set.
15.2.3 The TwoParameter UNIQUAC Model
The Universal Quasichemical (UNIQUAC) is a twoparameter (i^, T 2 j) model based on statistical mechanical theory. Activity coefficients are obtained by
(15.9a)
I n y 2 = l n + q 2 I n ^ + (p,(l 2  l , )  q 2 ln(9'2
2
cp 2
(15.9b)
0
+eiq2
V"2 +eiT12 1 +e2T21
where (15.9c)
(15.9d)
278
Chapter 15
Segment or volume fractions, <p, and area fractions, 9 and 9', are given by
x , r, x r,
x i r, + x , r2
x  r, + x 2 r,
(15.9e)
x,q,+x2q2
6
x,q,+x2q2
(15.9f)
. x,q, + X 2 q 2
(15.9g)
Parameters r, q and q'are pure component molecularstructure constants depending on molecular size and external surface areas. For fluids other than water or lower alcohols, q = q ' . For each binary mixture there are two adjustable parameters, T [2 and T 21 . These in turn, are given in terms of characteristic energies Au ]2 =u ]2 u 22 and Au 21 =u 2 Un given by
(IS.lOa)
RT
RT
RT
RT
Characteristic energies, Au 12 and Au 2 i are often only weakly dependent on temperature. The UNIQUAC equation is applicable to a wide variety of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures containing nonpolar or polar fluids such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, nitriles, ketones, aldehydes, organic acids, etc. and water, including partially miscible mixtures. The main advantages are its relative simplicity using only two adjustable parameters and its wide range of applicability.
15.2.4 Parameter Estimation: The Objective Function
According to Tassios (1993) a suitable objective function to be minimized in such cases is the following
279
(15.11) v >
This is equivalent to assuming that the standard error in the measurement of YJ is proportional to its value. Experimental values for the activity coefficients for components 1 and 2 are obtained from the vaporliquid equilibrium data. During an experiment, the following information is obtained: Pressure (P), temperature (T), liquid phase mole fraction (xi and x 2 =lx 1 ) and vapor phase mole fraction (V] and y2 = lyOThe activity coefficients are evaluated from the above phase equilibrium
data by procedures widely available in the thermodynamics literature (Tassios,
1993; Prausnitz et al. 1986). Since the objective in this book is parameter
estimation we will provide evaluated values of the activity coefficients based on
the phase equilibrium data and we will call these values experimental. These y exp
values can then be employed in Equation 15.11. Alternatively, one may use implicit LS estimation, e.g., minimize Equation 14.23 where liquid phase fugacities are computed by Equation 15.5 whereas vapor phase fugacities are computed by an EoS or any other available method (Prausnitz et al., 1986).
15.3
PROBLEMS
A number of problems formulated with data from the literature are given next as exercises. In addition, to the objective function given by Equation 15.11 the reader who is familiar with thermodynamic computations may explore the use of implicit objective functions based on fugacity calculations.
15.3.1 Osmotic Coefficients for Aqueous Solutions of KC1 Obtained by the Isopiestic Method
Thiessen and Wilson (1987) presented a modified isopiestic apparatus and obtained osmotic coefficient data for KC1 solutions using NaCl as reference solution. The data are given in Table 15.4. Subsequently, they employed Pitzer's method to correlate the data. They obtained the following values for three Pitzer's model parameters: p^ = 0.05041176, p^ = 0.195522, C^x = 0.001355442 . Using a constant error for the measurement of the osmotic coefficient, estimate Pitzer's parameters as well as the standard error of the parameter estimates by minimizing the objective function given by Equation 15.1 and compare the results with the reported parameters.
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280
Chapter 15
0.09893
0.5274
0.8946 0.8944
0.8981 0.9009 0.9120 0.9351 0.9675
0.9634
1.043
1.157
1.929
2.919 4.148
15.3.2
Rard (1992) reported the results of isopiestic vaporpressure measurements for the aqueous solution of highpurity NiCl2 solution form 1.4382 to 5.7199 mol/kg at 298.1510.005 K. Based on these measurements he calculated the osmotic coefficient of aqueous NiCl 2 solutions. He also evaluated other data from the literature and finally presented a set of smoothed osmotic coefficient and activity of water data (see Table IV in original reference).
Rard also employed Pitzer's electrolyte activity coefficient model to correlate
the data. It was found that the quality of the fit depended on the range of molalities that were used. In particular, the fit was very good when the molalities were less than 3 mol/kg. Estimate Pitzer's electrolyte activity coefficient model by minimizing the objective function given by Equation 15.1 and using the following osmotic coefficient data from Rard (1992) given in Table 15.5. First, use the data for molalities less than 3 mol/kg and then all the data together. Compare your estimated values with those reported by Rard (1992). Use a constant value for a,p in Equation 15.1.
281
Table 15.5
Osmotic
Coefficient (cp) 0.8556
Molality (mol/kg)
1.8
2.0 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2
1.4 1.5
4.0
2.0933
15.3.3
Calculate the binary parameters for the UNIQUAC equation by using the vapourliquid equilibrium data for benzene(l)ipropyl alcohol (2) at 760 mmHg (Tassios, 1993). The following values for other UNIQUAC parameters are available from Tassios (1993): r,=3.19, q,=2.40, r2=2.78, q2=2.51. The data are given in
Table 15.6.
Tassios (1993) also reported the following parameter estimates Au, = 231.5 R
Au= 10.6 R (15.12a)
(15.12b)
The objective function to be minimized is given by Equation 15.11. The experimental values for the activity coefficients are also given in Table 15.5.
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282
Chapter 15
Table 15.6
VaporLiquid Equilibrium Data and Activity Coefficients for Benzene(l)iPropyl Alcohol at 760 mmHg
Xi
Temperature (C) 79.9 78.5 77.1 75.3 74.4 73.6 73.0 72.4 72.2 72.0 72.1 72.4 73.8 77.5
yi
0.140 0.208 0.276 0.371 0.410 0.451 0.493 0.535
Yi
2.7187 2.6494 2.4376 2.1834 2.0540 1.9074 1.7291 1 .5492 1.3424 1.2625 1.1944 1.1210 1.0393 1.0025
Y2
0.9944
1.0009 1.0145
1.0356 1.0628 1.0965 1.1458 1.2386 1.4152 1.5698 1 .7429 2.0614 3.0212 4.3630
0.357 0.440
15.3.4
Blanco et al. (1994) presented VLB data at 26.660.03 kPa for binary systems of tetralin with pxylene, gpicoline, piperidine, and pyridine. The data for the pyridine (l)tetralin (2) binary are given in Table 15.7. Blanco et al. have also correlated the results with the van Laar, Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficient models and found all of them able to describe the observed phase behavior. The value of the parameter a12 in the NRTL model was set equal to 0.3. The estimated parameters were reported in Table 10 of
the above reference. Using the data of Table 15.7 estimate the binary parameters
in the Wislon, NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The objective function to be minimized is given by Equation 15.11.
283
Table 15.7
VaporLiquid Equilibrium Data and Activity Coefficients for Pyridine (l)Tetralin (2) at 26.66kPa*
Temperature (K) 430.15 417.85 416.65 411.30 389.85 385.0 380.9 376.7 369.55 364.10 360.50 357.7 355.55 352.55 351.05 350.05 349.30 348.85 348.20
*
(x,) 0.000 0.025 0.030 0.050 0.160 0.196 0.237 0.287 0.378 0.495 0.575 0.664 0.720 0.830 0.882 0.926 0.953 0.980 1.000
(y.)
0.000 0.332 0.348 0.494 0.795 0.840 0.873 0.900 0.932 0.955 0.967 0.977 0.982 0.988 0.992 0.995 0.996 0.998 1.000
Activity Coefficient of Pyridine (yj 1.549 1.395 1.366 1.252 1.248 1.216 1.181 1.170 1.099 1.084 1.046 1.047 1.018 1.017 1.007 0.997 0.998 1.004
Activity Coefficient of
Tetralin (y2) 1.003 1.010 1.048 0.975 0.962 0.946 0.931 0.930 0.979 1.013 1.038 1.041 1.081 1.369 1.414 1.479 2.455 2.322
The standard deviation of the measured compositions is 0.005. The temperature was measured with a thermometer having 0.01 K divisions (Blanco etal, 1994). Source: Blanco et al. (1994).
15.3.5
Monton and Llopis (1994) presented VLB data at 6.66 and 26.66 kPa for binary systems of ethylbenzene with mxylene and oxylene. The accuracy of the temperature measurement was 0.1 K and that of the pressure was 0.01 kPa. The standard deviations of the measured mole fractions were less than 0.001. The data at 26.66 for the ethylbenzene (1)  oXylene (2) are given in Table 15.8 and the objective is to estimate the NRTL and ITNIQUAC parameters based on these data.
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284
Chapter 15
The reader should refer to the original reference for further details and may also
Table 15.8
Temperature (K)
373.25 372.85 372.45 371.75 371.15 370.45 369.85 369.25 368.65
Activity Coefficient of
Ethylbenzene (Yi)
Activity Coefficient of
oXylene
(Y2>
(y.)
0.000 0.057 0.116
0.091 0.171
0.242 0.328
0.399 0.481
0.559
368.05
367.45
0.698
0.767 0.842 0.914 0.955 1.000
1.109 1.063 1.020 1.003 0.997 1.000 1.007 1.015 1.021 1.022 1.017 1.008 1.003