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1947: The Partition of India

Srishti Lulla Senior Division Web Site

Annotated Bibliography
Primary Sources "Aurangzeb the Mughal King." India. U of Texas, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.edb.utexas.edu/edc385g/fall2005/religion/city.php?COUNTRY_ID=2&CIT Y_ID=7&CULTURE_ID=17>. I used this image to show when the Mughal Kings were crubling, and this was the last powerful ruler of them. Both sides used field guns to fire at the enemy in the Haji Pir Pass area along the disputed border. BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/7666985.stm>. I used this picture to show fighting in 1965. Bourke-White, Margaret. Vultures feeding on corpses lying abandoned in alleyway after bloody roiting. The Old Indian Photos. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. I used this image to show the horror and violence of the rioting going on at the time of partition. British India in 1945 and Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan in 1971. English at Emory. Emory U, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://english.emory.edu/Bahri/Part.html>. I used this two pictures on my website to show how exactly and where exactly India was partitioned, and also where Bangladesh came out of. "Declaration of Pakistan and India on Jammu and Kashmir, 1966." 1966. Fordham U. Internet History Sourcebooks. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. This source was key to understanding tensions between India and Pakistan after the conflict of partition, over the topic of Kashmir. This is a declaration of peace after the 1965 war between the two countries, but it is not very useful without prior knowledge about the topic. It helped me analyze a lot about the direness of the situation and the many attempts to solve it, which later backfire and

dissolve into conflict again. This source gave me a better understanding over India and Pakistans stance on Kashmir. "East India Company." The Victorian Web. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.victorianweb.org/history/empire/india/eic.html>. I used this image to show the logo of the British East India Company. East India Company overwhelms the Sultan of Mysore, Battle of Seringapatam, 1799. PBS. Maya Vision International, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/thestoryofindia/gallery/photos/21.html>. I used this image to show the British taking over India from the Mughals. The Front Page of the Times of India, 15 August 1947. History. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://historyjk.blogspot.com/2012/09/3rd-year-option-3-african-and-asian.html>. I used this image to show the jubilation at getting India for Indians on Independence Day. "Gandhi and Nehru - Commemoration - Issued in 1973." India Picks. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.indiapicks.com/stamps/Gandhi_Nehru/Nehru_Main.htm>. I used this image to show the importance of Gandhi and Nehru to India, as they even appeared on stamps many years later. Image of Lord Mountbatten. The Famous People. Famous People, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/lord-mountbatten-15.php>. I used this image to show Lord Mountbatten. Image of West Bengal and Bangladesh. Melibee Global. Melibee Global, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://melibeeglobal.com/2012/11/cooing-bengali-culture/>. I used this image to show where West Bengal and Bangladesh were.

In a couple of months in the summer of 1947, a million people were slaughtered on both sides in the religious rioting. Here, bodies of the victims of rioting are picked up from a city street. SikhNet. SikhNet, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.sikhnet.com/news/partition-and-mughals-opinion>. I used this image to show how bad the rioting was and how many were killed. Indian army soldiers attacking Naya Chor in Sindh in support of Bengali rebels of the liberation army during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-16111843>. I used this image to show fighting in 1971. "Indian National Congress Flag." X Timeline. Famento, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=86953>. This was a picture I used to show the flag of the Indian National Congress, so I could prove their interest in India. In 1947, the border between India and its new neighbour Pakistan became a river of blood, as the exodus erupted into rioting. SikhNet. SikhNet, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.sikhnet.com/news/partition-and-mughals-opinion>. I used this image to show how many people had to leave their homes; one way was by train. "The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre." Bharat Mata Mandir. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://bharatmatamandir.in/blog/2013/01/10/the-jallianwala-bagh-massacre/>. This image was used to show the hostility of the British when they massacred many people at Jallianwala Bagh. Jawaharlal Nehru gives his "tryst with destiny" speech at Parliament House in New Delhi in 1947. The Guardian. Guardian News, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013.

<http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/11/second-world-war-indian-independenceempire>. I used this image to show Nehru on Independence Day. Jinnah on the Cover of Time Magazine. The Liberal. Liberal, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.theliberal.co.uk/issue_13/kovar_jinnah.html>. I used this image to show the importance of Jinnah to the Muslim League and to all Muslims as he was on the cover of Time Magazine, so he will be important. "Kashmir Disputed Land." The Internationalist Voice. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://theinternationalistvoice.wordpress.com/2012/11/06/kashmir-dispute-no-end-insight/>. This image was used to show just how much Kashmir is coveted by many countries, including India and Pakistan. "Lord Louis Mountbatten." BBC. BBC, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mountbatten_lord_louis.shtml>. I used this image to show the Last Viceroy of India, Mountbatten. "Map of India." Map. Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/asia/india/>. This map showed an overview of the Indian subcontinent. Map of India, Pakistan, and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). India-Pakistan: Troubled Relations. BBC, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/south_asia/2002/india_pakistan/timelin e/1971.stm>. This image helped to illustrate the area that Bangladesh occupied and how far it was from West Pakistan. "Map of Pakistan." CIA. CIA, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pk.html>. This image

shows a map of Pakistan where I highlighted Rawalpindi to show where that massacre was. Mehra, Dwarkadas. Personal interview. N.d. The interviewee in this situation was one who did not experience the terror of partition, but rather experienced the aftermath in Mumbai itself, a city with many riots going on. His firsthand point of view is interesting and it gives a better understanding of why there were Hindu-Muslim tensions and how they played out in India and Pakistan. Mehra, Maya. Personal interview. N.d. This interview was done with a survivor of partition, who traveled from Sindh to Mumbai. As she details her experiences, it is extremely useful as it is much deeper and much more personal to have this journey from this point of view. Though she was only two when her family was forced to move, the level of detail that she describes with and the horrors she has seen really make the topic a lot clearer. The migration was a "massive exercise in human misery," wrote Bourke-White later. SikhNet. SikhNet, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.sikhnet.com/news/partition-and-mughalsopinion>. I used this image to show how many people were displaced from their homes. A newspaper report of the debate in the Imperial Legislative Council on Rowlatt Bills which precipitated Gandhis clash with the Government. Mahatmagandhiji.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.mahatmagandhiji.com/bio/rowlatt.htm>. This was an image I used to show the anger of the Indians over the Rowlatt Acts. "Partitioning India over Lunch." BBC News. BBC, 10 Aug. 2007. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6926464.stm>. This source was extremely useful as it gave a primary source about how partition was done and firsthand experiences from a British point of view.

People duck as gunshots are fired from inside the Taj Mahal hotel in Mumbai on November 27, 2008. Hindustan Times. HT Media, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.hindustantimes.com/photos-news/PhotosIndia/26114thanniversary/Article4-921168.aspx>. I used this image to show how dangerous the 26/11 attacks were and how much it affected the public. Population distribution of Punjab before independence. Raj-Arth Neeti. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://rajarthneeti.wordpress.com/>. I used this image to show what a dilemma Punjab was as it could not fit into either India or Pakistan at partition. Religious violence broke out in Bengal on the eve of Indian independence. Gandhi toured the areas, fasted, prayed, and miraculously brought peace to Bengal. Kamat's Potpourri. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://www.kamat.com/mmgandhi/noakhali.htm>. I used this image to show what a miracle worker Gandhi was and how he helped stop the riots. Singh, Maharaja Hari. Letter to Lord Mountbatten. N.d. Fordham U. Internet History Sourcebooks. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. This primary source very accurately described tensions in Kashmir as it was deciding its future. It showed both the urgency of the situation, and what actually happened to Kashmir during the partition. I found this perspective really useful as it helped me to understand a bit more about the importance and widespread influence of the partition, but as this source is written in the middle of partition, prior knowledge is needed to analyze this source. Thousands of Indian and Pakistani troops were engaged in battle and they fought on many fronts along their border. BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_pictures/7666985.stm>. I used this image to show more fighting in 1965.

Secondary Sources Chandra, Bipan. India's Struggle for Independence. New Delhi: Penguin, 1989. Print. This book was highly detailed and useful in telling the story before partition of how India managed to get Independence. Specifically, I found chapters 10, 14, 22, and especially chapter 32 on communalism which really helped me understand more about the rioting going on and specifically why it was happening. Chatterji, Joya. The Spoils of Partition. New York: Cambridge UP, 2007. Print. This book was used for finding the aftermath and impacts of migration, specifically focusing in depth on Bengal, which many books dont describe in detail. This book gives some background to partition, but prior knowledge of India and its partition are needed to fully understand this source. Einfeld, Jann, ed. The History of Nations: India. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven, 2003. Print. This book is structured with articles from authors of all different backgrounds and perspectives. Not only does it have primary sources in this book like speeches from famous people, but also authors research. This book was great in that it provided a guide to the entire Indian history, independence, partition, and aftermath all at once. It is a great book to read with lots of background information on the topic. - - -, ed. The History of Nations: Pakistan. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven, 2004. Print. This book was structured the same way as the previous book was about India. However, because India had a large history before independence, it was less specific than this book about Pakistan, because Pakistans history was started later. This is a great book to read to understand the topic with no prior knowledge.

"A Historical and Political Perspective of Kashmir Issue." The Dialogue 7.3 (2012). Academic OneFile. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. This source is a great background source to understanding the background to this conflict. It gave basic details to not only independence and partition, but also to the entire Kashmir conflict. It gave the history to the Kashmir conflict, telling who it comprises of and who it has been ruled by over the ages that makes it what it is today. This was informative and clear and showed both perspectives of the issue. "India-Pakistan: Troubled Relations." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/south_asia/2002/india_pakistan/timelin e/default.stm>. This website was great in that it clearly and concisely explained the IndoPak wars and conflicts. Jillani, Shahzeb. "Scars of Bangladesh Independence War 40 Years on." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-16111843>. This website provided information for the third Indo-Pakistani War. Kashmir Dispute Has Roots in Colonial History. National Public Radio. NPR, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=97766007>. This audio clip explained the roots of the Kashmir conflict from all perspectives, dating back to colonial history. Keen, Shirin. "The Partition of India." English at Emory U. Emory U, n.d. Web. 1 Feb. 2013. <http://english.emory.edu/Bahri/Part.html>. This website was a very useful website I used to get the timeline from. It was an unbiased timeline with all the important events highlighted. This also gave lots of great background information.

Khan, Yasmin. The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. N.p.: Yale UP, 2007. Print. This book provided a fresh twist, and instead of focusing on the partition itself like most other books, it focused a lot on the before and after. Partition knowledge wasnt directly needed, but prior knowledge of the situation in India was needed to fully understand this. Chapters 7-9 were very useful to understanding the aftermath, which was really the most detailed and best part of the book. Menon, Shivshankar. "Hostile relations India's Pakistan dilemma: Shivshankar Menon was India's Foreign Secretary until July 31, 2009. He previously served as India's High commissions and diplomat to China and Israel." Harvard International Review 31.3 (2009): 14+. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. This was an interesting firsthand point of view from Indias previous Foreign Secretary. He gives a good sense of why there are tensions between India and Pakistan, and how Indians and Pakistanis view each other. He gave multiple incidents where these tensions have played out in situations. Nehru, Jawarhlal. "Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964): Speech on the Granting of Indian Independence, August 14, 1947." 14 Aug. 1947. Internet History Sourcebooks. Fordham U, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. This speech was a very short speech given on Indian Independence Day, but it had a lot to offer about what was to come in the future and the current Indian situation. Nehru foreshadows the gloom and doom about to set on India and Pakistan, and this was a good source to correctly gain a background and insight to this topic before delving straight into it.

Park, Richard L. "East Bengal: Pakistan's Troubled Province." Far Eastern Survey 23.5 (1954): 70-74. Print. This source was useful in providing insight into the Bangladesh conflict. It gave lots of background information on their civil war in 1971. Partition Still Casts Shadow on India-Pakistan Ties. National Public Radio. NPR, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=98357841>. These three audio clips and summary from an interview with Ayesha Jalal and Sugata Bose gave lots of primary as well as secondary source information and encompassed all areas of partition. Talbot, Ian, and Gurharpal Singh. The Partition of India. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print. This book encompassed almost all aspects of my topic, but was more philosophical than factual. The part that I found most useful in my research was its section about partition violence which accurately described many of the riots with some primary sources attached to that. Most of the other chapters in the book was very analytical about the situations, and didnt actually describe those situations much, so prior knowledge of the topic was needed to correctly understand those sections. U.S. Tries to Ease Tension between India, Pakistan. National Public Radio. NPR, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=97629323>. This audio talked about the US and all it has done to try and prevent further violence between India and Pakistan. Wolpert, Stanley. India and Pakistan: Continued Conflict or Cooperation? Los Angeles: Regents of the U of California, 2010. Print. Though this book was meant for small audiences, prior knowledge of the conflict was needed to understand this source. It was really useful in that it clearly presented the stories of the three Indo-Pakistani wars, which

was very thorough, but insightful. The author of this book, Staley Wolpert, is the Head of the History Department in UCLA, and he is a vast resource for topics about India since 1947, as he has written many books on these topics and has visited India a huge number of times.