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Module

03
Arc Breaking Technologies and Current Interruption

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3.1INTRODUCTION Thecircuitbreakers,astheyhavebeendenedearlierinchapter1,areautomaticswitcheswhichcaninterruptfault currents.Insomeapplications,likesinglephasetractionsystems,singlepolecircuitbreakersareused.Thepartofthe circuitbreaker connected in one phase is called the "pole". The circuitbreaker suitable for three phase system is called a triplepole circuitbreaker. Each pole, of the circuitbreaker, comprises one or more "interrupters" or "arc extinguishingchambers".Theinterrupterenclosesasetof"fixedandmovingcontacts".Themovingcontactscanbe drawnapartbymeansoftheoperatinglinksofanoperatingmechanism. The electric arc, produced by the separation of current carrying contacts, is a type of electric discharge between electrodes. Incircuitbreakers, the arc persists during the briefperiod after separation of currentcarrying contacts. Thecircuitbreakershouldbecapableofextinguishingthearcwithoutgettingdamaged.Thearcisinterruptedbya suitablemediumandbyadoptingsuitabletechniqueforarcextinction.Thecircuitbreakerscanbeclassifiedonthe basisofarcextinctionmedium. Thearcplaysanimportantroleinthebehaviorofthecircuitbreaker.Theinterruptionofd.c.arcsisrelativelymore difficult than a.c. arcs. In a.c. arcs, as the current becomes zero during the regular wave, the arc vanishes and it is prevented from restriking. Circuitbreakers employ various techniques to extinguish the arc resulting from the separation of the current carrying contacts. The mode of arc extinction is either "high resistance interruption" or "zeropoint interruption". High Resistance Interruption: In this process, the resistance of the arc is increased by lengtheningandcoolingittosuchanextentthatthesystemvoltageisnolongerabletomaintainthearcandthearc getsextinguished.Thistechniqueisemployedinairbreakcircuitbreakersandd.c.circuitbreakers. Low Resistance or Zeropoint Interruption: In this process, the arc gets extinguished at natural current zero, of the alternatingcurrentwave,andispreventedfromrestrikingagainbyrapidbuildupofdielectricstrengthofthecontact space.Thisprocessisemployedinalmostalla.c.circuitbreakers.Thetheoryandmannerinwhichthevarioustypesof circuitbreakerandcontactorextinguishthearcandinterruptthecurrentisdealtwithinthefollowing. 3.2BREAKINGTECHNOLOGIESINBRIEF 3.2.1ARCEXTINGUISHERS Anarcextinguisheristhecomponentofthecircuitbreakerthatextinguishesanarcwhenthecontactsare opened.Figure3.1showsarcextinguishersinalowvoltagecircuitbreaker.Anarcisadischargeofelectric currentcrossingagapbetweentwocontacts.Circuitbreakersmustbedesignedtocontrolthembecausearcs cannot be prevented. There are four techniques to extinguish an arc and there are several arc control methods.Inthistopic,thosemethodswillbeintroduced.

Figure(3.1)Thearcextinguishersinalowvoltagecircuitbreaker Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page2of22

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3.2.2WHATISANARC? Doyoueverrecallpullingaplugfromawallsocket(Fig.3.2)andseeingwhatappearedtobesparks?What youwereobserving,onaverysmallscale,wasanattemptatarcformationbetweenthewallcontactsand theplugcontactsinyourhand.Forthesakeofthisdiscussion,letsdefineanarcasadischargeofelectric currentcrossingagapbetweentwocontacts.

Figure(3.2)TypicalARC Arcsareformedwhenthecontactsofacircuitbreakerareopenedunderaload.Arcscanbeverydestructiveandvary greatly in size and intensity. The size of the arc depends on the amount of current present when the contacts are pulledapart.Forexample,anarcthatformswhennormalloadcurrentisbrokenisinsignificantcomparedtothearc that forms when a short circuit is broken. Because arcs cannot be prevented, circuit breakers must be designed to controlthem. Theheatassociatedwithanarccreatesanionizedgasenvironment.Themoreionization,thebettertheconditions are for an arc to be maintained and grow. The bigger the arc, the more heat created, which increases ionization. Arcingisaconditionthatmustbedealtwithquicklyandeffectivelybyacircuitbreaker. Theimportantthingtorememberhereisthattheabilityofthecircuitbreakertocontrolthearcisthekeytoitsshort circuit interrupting capability. This is a critical factor for selecting circuit breakers. A short circuit is the most devastatingovercurrentcondition. CurrentZeroorZeroPointisaveryimportantaspecttoarcextinguishing.Atcurrentzero,conditionsareoptimalfor preventinganarcfromcontinuing.ThecurrentissaidtobeCurrentZerowhenthesinecurveisat0,180and360 (Fig.3.3).

Figure(3.3)CurrentZero Voltage is also a very important consideration because it is the pressure that keeps the current moving. Left unchecked,voltagewillkeeppushingthecurrentthroughcurrentzeroandgivenewlifetothearc.Voltagedoesnot takekindlytobeingstoppedinitstracksduringtheextinguishingofanarc.Ifitreignites,itcandamagethewhole electricalsystem. Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page3of22

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Circuitbreakerstakethisprocessintoaccountbysimultaneouslyopeningthecontactsandextinguishingthearc.The successfulextinguishingofthearcdependsontheDielectricStrengthofthegapbetweenthecontacts.Thedielectric strength is the maximum voltage a dielectric can withstand without breaking down. A Dielectric is any insulating material between two conductors. In these discussions, the circuit breaker contacts are the conductors and the insulatingmaterialcanbeair,gasoravacuum.Ifthedielectricstrengthisgreaterthanthevoltagetryingtoreignite thearc,thearcextinguishingwillbesuccessful. The invention of a device called DEION arc extinguisher in the early 1900s by Westinghouse was a revolutionary advanceinarcinterruption.Improvedversionswereusedforyearswithamajorityofcircuitbreakersandcontinueto beusedtodaywithlowvoltagecircuitbreakers. Anumberofotherapproachestoarccontrolhavealsobeentried.OneofthesuccessstoriesistheuseofVacuum Interruptionwithmediumvoltagebreakers. 3.2.3ARCCONTROLTECHNIQUES Eachapproachhasmadeimprovementstoitsinitialconceptinanefforttoextinguisharcsmoreefficiently.Arc controlmethodsutilizeoneormoreofthefollowinggeneraltechniques: StretchingArc:Thearcisproducedwhenthecontactspart.Asthegapwidens,thearcisstretched(Fig.3.4) andcooledtothepointwhereitisextinguished.

Figure(3.4)StretchingARC BreakingArcintoSmallerPieces:Thearcisproducedwhenthecontactspart.Thearcmovesupintothearc dividerandsplits(Fig.3.5),coolsandisextinguished.

Figure(3.5)BreakingARC BlowingOutArc:Inthismethod,ahighpressuregasblowsthearcintoanarcdividertobeextinguished(Fig.3.6).

Figure(3.6)Blowingoutarc Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page4of22

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Enclosing Contacts: In this method, the contacts are housed in an oxygenfree enclosure (Fig. 3.7) with a dielectric suchasavacuum,gasorcoolingoil.Withoutoxygen,thearccannotsustainitselfandthearcisextinguished.

Figure(3.7)Enclosingcontacts 3.2.4ARCCONTROLMETHODS Therearesixmethodsusedaroundtheworldtodaytodealwitharccontrol,arcchute,vacuuminterrupter,SF6 minimumoil,magneticcoil,Puffer The arc chute method: only uses the Breaking Arc into Smaller Pieces technique. Arc chutes are normally associated with low voltage circuit breakers due to efficiency and cost. In general, an arc chute will confine, divideandcoolanarc(Fig.3.8),resultinginthearcbeingunabletosustainitself.Thereisonearcchutefor eachsetofcontacts.

Figure(3.8)Arcchutemethod Thevacuuminterrupter:methodusestheEnclosingContactstechniquetoextinguisharcs.Thevacuumenables thecontactstobesmallerandeliminatesthedivider,makingthismethodthemostcosteffectiveandefficient above1000V.Arcingtakesplacewithinasealedevacuatedenclosure(Fig.3.9).Thecontactsarelocatedinside andarcingoccurswhenthecontactsareseparated.Becausetheenvironmentinsidetheinterrupterenvelope isavacuum,anarccannotbeeasilysustained.Itwillnotreachtheintensitypossiblewithanarcchute.One vacuuminterrupterisprovidedforeachsetofcontacts.

Figure(3.9)Vacuuminterruptermethod Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page5of22

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TheSF6method:alsousestheEnclosingContactstechnique.Itwasaprecursortothevacuuminterrupterand used SF6 gas as the dielectric (Fig. 3.10). The heat energy created by the arc works to break apart the SF6 molecules.Thelargerthearc,thegreaterthebreakdownofthegaswhichaidsinextinguishingthearc.

Figure(3.10)SF6method Theminimumoilmethod:alsousesEnclosingContactswithoilasthedielectric(Fig.3.11).Thearcenergyis absorbedasitripshydrogenawayfromtheoilmolecule.Theoilitselfalsohelpstocoolthearc.Ascurrentzero isapproached,moreoilisdrawnintothesystem,furthercoolingandDeionizingthearc.Itisusedtodayinlow voltagesituationsandpotentiallyexplosiveenvironmentswhereanarcchuteisnotdesirable.

Figure(3.11)Minimumoilmethod The magnetic coil method: uses the Breaking Arc into Smaller Pieces technique. It is very similar to the arc chutemethod.Thenaturalmovementofanarcisupward,inthisinstance,intoanarcchute.Acoil,calleda blowout coil, is located in the centre of the arc chute (Fig. 3.12). The arc is broken into two. The arcs are lengthened and cooled as they rise higher. The cooling reduces the rate of ionization. When the ionization dropsbelowthelevelnecessarytosustainthearcs,theyextinguishatcurrentzero.Priortovacuuminterrupter technology becoming the method of choice with medium voltage power breakers for extinguishing arcs, the magneticcoilmethodservedwellformanyyears.

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Arcrunners Arcsplitters Elongatedarc Arcinprocessoftravelling Blowoutcoils Originofarc Figure(3.12)Magneticblowoutcoil The puffer method: uses the Blowing Out Arc and Enclosing Contacts techniques. It uses SF6 gas as the dielectric.Itisthemostecientandcosteectivemethodabove38kV.Thistypeinterrupterisbasicallyapair ofseparablecontacts,apistonandacylinder,mountedinareservoirofgas(Fig.3.13).Asthecontactspart, thepistonmovesuptodrivethegasthroughthearctointerruptit.Italsoutilizescoilsandtakesadvantageof naturalmagneticaffectstocreateaforcesufficienttoextinguishthearc.

Figure(3.13)PuffermethodCurrentInterruptioninA.C.CircuitBreakers 3.3INTRODUCTIONTOCURRENTINTERRUPTIONINACCIRCUITBREAKERS Thewaveformsofthecurrentandthevoltageduringthearcinterruptionprocesswillbestudiedinthischapter.This descriptionappliestothecircuitbreakersemployingtheprincipleofzeropointinterruption.Everya.c.circuitbreaker generally adopts the zeropoint interruption technique. Consider a circuitbreaker connected to a generator on no load at rated terminal voltage. The circuitbreaker is in open position and the other side of circuitbreaker is short circuited(Fig.3.14).

Figure(3.14)Alternatorcircuitbreakerclosingon3phaseshortcircuit.

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Let thecircuitbreaker beclosed at the instant when voltage of terminal B w.r.t. neutral is zero. In such a case the short circuit current in phase B will have maximum d.c. component and the waveform of current will be unsymmetricalaboutnormalzeroaxisasshowninFig.3.15. The figure shows the typical waveform of short circuit current in a phase having maximum d.c. component. The generatorisonnoloadbeforet=0.Hencethecurrentiszerobeforet=0.Att=0,theshortcircuitisappliedandthe currentincreasestoahighvalueduringthefirstquartercycle.Thepeakofthefirstmajorcurrentloop(showndotted) isOMandthisisthemaximuminstantaneousvalueofcurrentduringtheshortcircuit.Thisinstantaneouspeakvalue ofthefirstmajorcurrentloopiscalledtheMakingcurrent.InthefigurethemakingcurrentisOM.Wewillcomeback tothismakingcurrentaftercoveringtheremainingprocess. Thecircuitbreakercontactsseparateafterafewcyclessincetherelayandtheoperatingmechanismtakesatleasta coupleofcycles.Letusassumethatthecircuitbreakercontactsseparateatt=T1.Ther.m.s.valueofshortcircuit currentattheinstantofcontactseparationistermedasBreakingcurrent.

Figure(3.15)Oscillogramofcurrentandvoltageduringfaultclearing. Aftertheseparationofcontactsofthecircuitbreaker,anarcisdrawnbetweenthecontacts.Thearccurrentvaries sinusoidally for a few cycles. At t = T2, a particular current zero, the dielectric strength of arc space builds up sufficientlysoastopreventthecontinuationofarc.Atthecurrentzero,thisarcisextinguishedandisinterrupted. Meanwhilewhatishappeningtothevoltagebetweencontacts?ThisvoltageisrecordedinFig.3.15.Beforet=0,the contactsareclosedandthevoltagebetweenthemiszero.Aftertheseparationofthecontact(t=T1),thevoltage acrosscontactincreases,infactthisvoltageisthevoltagedropacrossthearcduringthearcingperiod.Thevoltage acrossarcisinphasewithcurrentsincethearcisresistive.Thepeculiarwaveformshapeisaresultofvoltampere characteristicofarcdischarge.Duringsubsequenthalfcycles,thevoltagesacrosscontactincreasesduetoincreased arc resistance. Finally at t = T2, when arc gets extinguished, a high frequency voltage transient appears across the contactswhichissuperimposedonpowerfrequencysystemvoltage.Thishighfrequencytransientvoltagetriestore strike the arc. Hence it is called Restriking Voltages or Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV). The restriking voltage is Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page8of22

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transient voltage appearing across breaker pole after final current zero. The power frequency system voltage appearing between the poles after arc extinction is called Recovery Voltage. The transient recovery voltage or restrikingvoltagehasaprofoundeffectoncircuitbreakerbehavior.Thecurrentthatwouldflowinthecircuitifthe circuitbreakerswerereplacedbysolidconductoriscalledprospectivecurrent. The transient recovery voltage (TRV) appearing across the circuitbreaker pole immediately after the final arc interruption causes a high dielectric stress between the circuitbreaker contacts. If the dielectric strength of the medium between the contacts does not build up faster than the rate of rise of the transient recovery voltage, the breakdowntakesplacecausingreestablishmentofthearc.Ifthedielectricstrengthofthecontactspacebuildsup very rapidly so that it is more than the rate of rise of transient recovery voltage the circuitbreaker interrupts the currentsuccessfully.TherateofriseofTRVgenerallydependsonthecircuitparametersandthetypeoftheswitching dutyinvolved.Therateofbuildingupofthedielectricstrengthdependsupontheeffectivedesignoftheinterrupter andthecircuitbreaker. Whileswitchingcapacitivecurrents,thehighvoltageappearingacrossthecontactgapcancausereignitionofthearc afterinitialarcextinction.Ifthecontactspacebreaksdownwithinaperiodofonefourthofacycle(0.020.25second) frominitialarcextinction,thephenomenoniscalledReignition.Ifthebreakdownoccursafteronefourthofacycle, thephenomenaiscalledRestrike. 3.4TRANSIENTRECOVERYVOLTAGE(TRV) Inalternatingcurrentcircuitbreakers,thecurrentinterruptiontakesplaceinvariablyatthenaturalzeroofthecurrent wave. After a current zero, the arc gets extinguished if the rate of rise of transient recovery voltage between the contactsislessthantherateofgainofthedielectricstrength.Thevoltageappearingbetweenthebreakercontactsat themomentoffinalcurrentzerohasaprofoundinfluenceonthearcextinctionprocess.

(a) Voltagesafterfinalcurrentzero(TRV)(Simplified) Figure(3.16)Voltageacrosscircuitbreakercontactsduringandafterfaultextinction (b)

Shape of TRV waveform as seen from Cathoderay oscillographicrecord

Thevoltageappearingacrosscontactsaftercurrentzeroisatransientvoltageofhighernaturalfrequency(restriking voltage)superimposedonthepowerfrequencysystemvoltage(recoveryvoltage).Thetransientcomponentvanishes afterashorttimeoftheorderoflessthan0.1millisecandthenormalfrequencysystemvoltageisestablished.Figure 3.16illustratesthewaveformoftherecoveryvoltageandrestrikingvoltage.Aftercurrentzerothevoltageappearing Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page9of22

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across the contacts is composed of transient restriking voltage and power frequency recovery voltage. Recovery voltageisthevoltagewhichappearsacrosstheterminalsofapoleofacircuitbreakerafterthebreakingofcurrent.It referstothebreakerpolefirsttoclear,whilethetransientrecovery(TRV)orRestrikingVoltageistherecoveryvoltage duringthetimeinwhichithasasignificanttransientcharacter.TRVlastsforafewtensorhundredsofmicroseconds (Fig.3.16b).Itmaybeoscillatoryornonoscillatoryoracombination,dependinguponthecharacteristicsofthecircuit andthecircuitbreaker.Itisthevoltageacrossthefirstpoletoclear.Thesameisgenerallyhigherthanacrossthetwo poleswhichclearlater. PowerFrequencyRecoveryVoltageistherecoveryvoltageofpowerfrequency(50Hz.)appearingafterthetransient voltagehasbeensubsided.TheTransientRecoveryVoltagereferstothevoltageacrossthepoleimmediatelyafterarc extinction.Suchvoltagehasapowerfrequencycomponentplusanoscillatorytransientcomponent.Theoscillatory transientcomponentisduetotheinductanceandcapacitanceinthecircuit.Thepowerfrequencycomponentisdue to the system voltage (Fig. 3.16). The transient oscillatory component subsides after a few microseconds and the powerfrequencycomponentcontinues.Thefrequencyoftransientcomponentisgivenby

fn =

1 2 LC

Hz

where fn=frequencyoftransientrecoveryvoltage,Hz L=equivalentinductance,Henry C=equivalentcapacitance,Farad.

Inactualsystemsthewaveformofthetransientrecoveryvoltagehasseveralcomponentfrequenciesrangingfroma fewhertztoseveralthousandhertz,dependinguponthevaluesofthecircuitparameters. 3.4.1EFFECTOFNATURALFREQUENCYOFTRV Figure3.17illustratestheslopesoftangentstothreeTRVwaveformsofdierentfrequencies(fn,f2n,f4n). Withincreaseinthenaturalfrequency,therateofriseofTRV(RRRV)atcurrentzeroincreases.

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Figure(3.17)EffectoffrequencyofTRVontheRRRV Therateofriseoftransientrecoveryvoltageacrosscircuitbreakerpolecausesvoltagestressonthecontact gap tending to continue the arc. With higher frequency (say f4n), relatively less time is available for the buildingofdielectricstrengthofthecontactgap.Hencehigherfrequencyisassociatedwithgreaterstresses. Thebreakingcapacityofacircuitbreaker(r.m.s.valueofcurrent,whichthecircuitbreakercaninterrupt)is relatedwiththerateifriseTRVand,therefore,naturalfrequencyofTRV.Thebreakingcapacityreduceswith increaseinnaturalfrequency. 3.4.2EFFECTOFPOWERFACTORONTRV Thevoltageappearingacrossthecircuitbreakerpoleattheinstantoffinalcurrentzeroisinfluencedbythe powerfactor of the current (Fig. 3.18). The arc gets extinguished at current zero. The powerfrequency voltage appears across the circuitbreaker pole. The instantaneous value of the voltage at the instant of currentzerodependsuponthephaseanglebetweencurrentandvoltage.Forunitypowerfactorloads,the voltage andcurrent are in phase and both are zero at the same instant (Fig. 3.18a).For zero powerfactor currents, the peak of the voltage (emax) is impressed on the circuitbreaker pole at the instant of current zero.SuchsuddenapplicationofvoltagegivesrisetoseveretransientandhasahighrateofriseofTRV(Fig. 3.18b).Henceinterruptingcurrentsoflowpowerfactorisadifficultswitchingduty. 3.4.3EFFECTOFREACTANCEDROPONPOWERFREQUENCYRECOVERYVOLTAGE SupposeV1isvoltageatthelocationofthecircuitbreakerbeforefault.Duringthefaulttheincreasedcurrent causeanincreaseinthevoltagedropinthereactance.Asaresultthevoltageappearingatthelocationofthe fault, immediately after fault clearance say V2 is slightly less than V1. It takes some time for the system voltagetoregaintheoriginalvalueV1.Hencethepowerfrequencyrecoveryvoltageisslightlylessthanthe normalpowerfrequencysystemvoltage.

(a)Unitypowerfactor:e0ati0 Figure(3.18)Effectofpowerfactoroninstantaneousvalueofvoltageatcurrentzero. Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption (b)Zeropowerfactor:emaxati0

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3.4.4EFFECTOFARMATUREREACTIONONRECOVERYVOLTAGE Theshortcircuitcurrentsareatlaggingpowerfactorand,therefore,haveademagnetizingarmaturereaction inalternators.Asaresult,theinducede.m.f.ofalternatorsreducesduringshortcircuitcurrents.Thee.m.f requiressometimetoregainitsoriginalvalue.Hencethepowerfrequencycomponentofrecoveryvoltageis slightlylessthanthenormalvalueofsystemvoltage. 3.4.5EFFECTOFTHEFIRSTPOLETOCLEAR Refer to Figure 3.19 illustrating a three phase fault not involving the earth. The voltage across the circuit breakerpole,rsttoclearis1.5timesthephasevoltage.Inthreepolecircuitbreakers,arcextinctioninthe three poles is not simultaneous as currents in three phases are mutually 120o outofphase. Hence, the powerfrequencyrecoveryvoltageofthephaseinwhichthearcgetsextinguishedrst,isabout1.5timesthe phasevoltage.Inpracticetherecoveryvoltageofthepole,firsttoextinguishthearcisoftheorderof1.2to 1.5times.Iftheneutralisgroundedthroughreactorandifthefaultinvolvesearth,therecoveryvoltageat thelocationofthecircuitbreakerisinfluencedbytheequivalentsystemreactancesandcanbecalculatedby themethodofsymmetricalcomponents. 3.4.6THEFIRSTPOLETOCLEARFACTOR Toconsidertheeffectofthefirstpoleclearonthepowerfrequencycomponentoftherecoveryvoltage,the followingfactorhasbeendefinedinthestandardsonhighvoltagea.c.circuitbreakers. Thefirstpoletoclearfactorisdefinedas

The first - pole - to - clear factor =

RMS voltage between healthy phase & faulty phase Phase to neutral voltage with fault removed

atthelocationofthecircuitbreakerduringaphasetophasefault.ReferringtoFig.3.20,rstpoletoclearfactoris

VRY V theratio RN

atthelocationofthecircuitbreakerforaphasetophasefault.

Figure(3.19)Voltageacrossthephase,firsttoopen.

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Figure(3.20)Explainingthefirstpaletoclearfactor(VRY/VRN) 3.5SINGLEFREQUENCYTRANSIENT The single frequency restriking voltage transient is produced in the circuit illustrated in Fig. 3.21b. Frequency of

fn =
oscillationisgivenbythenaturalfrequencyofthecircuit,i.e. where L=inductance,Henry C=capacitance,Farads.

1 2 LC

Hz

Thesefrequenciesareoftheorderof10to10,000HzdependinguponthevalueofLandC.Theactualpowersystem iscomposedofdistributedcapacitanceandinductances.Thecircuitconfigurationisalsocomplex.TheTRVforsuch circuits can have several component frequencies ranging from a few Hertz to several kilohertz. A typical single frequencytransientisillustratedinFig.3.21a.Suchatransientisobtainedwhileopeningonaterminalfault.Insuch casesthereactancebetweenthefaultandthecircuitbreakerisnegligible.

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(a)waveform 3.6DOUBLEFREQUENCYTRANSIENTS ThecircuitmayhaveLandConbothsidesofthecircuitbreakerasshowninFig.3.22a.Beforeclearingthefault,both terminals1and2areatthesamepotential.Afterarcextinctionbothcircuitsoscillateattheirownnaturalfrequencies and a composite double frequency transient appears across the circuit breaker pole (Fig. 3.22b). In general the frequenciesandwaveform,rateofriseandpeakvalueoftheTRVdependsupon,severalaspectssuchas: networkconfiguration typeoffault typeofneutralearthing (b)Circuit Figure(3.21)ExplainingsinglefrequencytransientofTRV.

(a)circuit TheTRVwavecanbedefinedbyvariousmethodssuchas specifyingthepeakandtimetoreachthepeak. specifyingtheTRVwavebydefiningthesegmentoflineswhichenclosetheTRVwaveform. Thelattermethodhasbeennowuniversallyadopted. 3.7RATEOFRISEOFTRV (b)waveform Figure(3.22)DoublefrequencytransientofTRV.

The rate of rise of restriking voltage usually abbreviated by R.R.R.V. is a rate expressed in Volts per microsecond, represents the rate of increase in restriking voltage. The rate of rise of Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) and the naturalfrequencyofTRVarecloselyassociated.TherateoftheriseofTRVdependsonthesystemparameters.The circuitbreakershouldbecapableofinterruptingitsratedshortcircuitbreakingcurrentunderthespecifiedconditions ofTRV.HencethefollowingcharacteristicsofTRVaresignificant: Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page14of22

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PeakofTRV,timetoreachthepeak.HencetherateofriseofTRV FrequencyofTRV Initialrateofrise Thetermrateofriseofrestrikingvoltageisexplainedasfollows.Ifeistherestrikingvoltage,

R.R.R.V . =

de dt

volts sec

wheretisinmicrosecondsandeisinvolts. Thepeakrestrikingvoltageisdefinedasthemaximuminstantaneousvalueattainedbytherestrikingvoltage(em). ReferringtoFig.3.23,R.R.R.Visgivenby

R.R.R.V . =

em tm

V sec

where em peak restriking voltage in volts and tm is the time between voltage zero and peak restriking voltage in microseconds.IfEmisthepeakrecoveryvoltageinvolts,then

Amplitude factor =

em Em

10 3 Natural frequency = 2t m

kilo cycles second


(1)

Figure(3.23)Measurementofsinglefrequencytransient. DerivationofRestrikingVoltage. Consider the circuit shown in Fig. 3.21b when current reaches zero at nal arc extinction, a voltage e is suddenly impressedacrosscapacitorandtherefore,acrossthecircuitbreakercontacts.Thecurrent(i)whichwouldflowtothe faultiscomingfromdischargingthecapacitorandfromthegeneratorthroughtheinductor.Thus Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page15of22

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i = iL + iC i=

1 de edt + C dt L 2 di e d e = +C 2 dt L dt

(2)

i=
Assuming zero time at zero currents, and further e = Emcos( t) and breaker,

Em sin (t ) L before opening of circuit

di Em = cos(t ) dt L di Em = L Att=0, dt
SubstitutinginEq.(2),weget

Em e d 2e = +C 2 L L dt

(3)

Thesolutionofthisstandardequationis

t e = E m 1 cos LC

(4)

Thisisanexpressionforrestrikingvoltageinwhich EmisthepeakvalueofrecoveryvoltageinVolts,phasetoneutral t=timeinseconds L=inductanceinHenrys C=capacitanceinFarads e=restrikingvoltageinVolts.

Note,Rateofriseofrestrikingvoltage

E de t = m sin dt LC LC

(5)

R.R.R.Vismaximumwhenitsderivativeiszero,

de d 2e is maximum when 2 = 0; i.e. dt dt


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orwhen

Em t cos =0 LC LC

t = LC 2 ;i.e.
t=

LC

t=
ThemaximumR.R.R.Visthevalueofde/dtat

LC

R.R.R.V.max=

Em LC

(6)

de = 0; i.e. when dt Further,peakrestrikingvoltageoccurswheneismaximum,i.e.when


t = LC ;i.e.

t = LC
e = E m (1 cos ) = 2 E m

andpeakingrestrikingvoltageisequalto SUMMARYOFEXPRESSIONS (7)

t e = E m 1 cos LC
R.R.R.V . = Em t sin LC LC at Em LC

(8)

(9)

emax = 2 E m

t = LC

(10)

R.R.R.V .max =

at t =

LC
(11)

fn =

1 2 LC
(12)

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ItisobservedfromEqs.11and12that R.R.R.V.max=2Emfn (13)

The Maximum Rate of Rise of Restriking voltage is proportional to the natural frequency of the circuit. This is an importantconclusion.ThecircuitwithhighnaturalfrequencygivesahighrateofTRVandproducesseveredielectric stressonthecontactspaceofthecircuitbreaker.Hence HighfnHighrateofriseofTRV ExamplesonRestrikingVoltage Example1:A50Hz,3phasealternatorwithgroundedneutralhasinductanceof1.6mHperphaseandisconnected tobusbarthroughacircuitbreaker.Thecapacitancetoearthbetweenthealternatorandthecircuitbreakeris0.003 Fperphase.Thecircuitbreakeropenswhenr.m.s.valueofcurrentis7500A.Determinedanalyticallythefollowing: Maximumrateofriseofrestrikingvoltage. Timeformaximumrateofriseofrestrikingvoltage. Frequencyofoscillations. Neglectfirstpoletoclearfactor. Solution: Frequencyofoscillationisgivenby

fn =

1 2 LC

fn =

1 2 1.6 10 0.003 10 6
3

= 72644 Hz

TherecoveryvoltagecanbecalculatedfromtheknownvaluesofcurrentiandL E=iL=i2fL Em =75003141.6103=3768voltsrms =2Erms=23768=5329volts

Expressionforrestrikingvoltageis

t e = Em 1 cos LC t = 53291 cos 3 6 1.6 10 0.003 10 t = 53291 cos 6 2.2 10


whereeisinvoltsandtisinsec.

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d 2e = 0; i.e. when 2 Maximumrateatriseofrestrikingvoltageoccurswhen dt

t=

LC =

2.2 = 3.46 sec

MaximumR.R.R.Visgivenby

Em 5329 = = 2422 volts - sec 2 .2 LC

Example2:Athreephasealternatorhasthelinevoltageof11kV.Thegeneratorisconnectedtoacircuitbreaker.The inductivereactanceuptothecircuitbreakeris5Ohmsperphase.Thedistributedcapacitanceuptocircuitbreaker betweenphaseandneutralis0.01F.Determinethefollowing: Peakrestrikingvoltageacrossthec.b. Frequencyofrestrikingvoltagetransient. Averagerateofrestrikingvoltageuptopeakrestrikingvoltage. MaximumR.R.R.V. NeglectFirstPoletoclearfactor Solution: 2fL=5

L=

5 = 0.0159 H 314
11 = 6.35 kVrms 3

Vr=11kV

V ph =

Emax=26.35=9kV Expressionforstrikingvoltage

t e = Em 1 cos LC t = 91 cos 6 0.0159 0.01 10 t = 91 cos 6 12.6 10


Peakrestrikingvo1tage=2Emax=29=l8kV Timeforpeakrestrikingvoltage,

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t = LC = 12.6 = 39.6 sec


Averagerateofrestrikingvoltage

emax 18 = = 0.455 kV sec tm 39.6


Frequencyoscillations

fn =

1 2 LC

fn =

1 = 12631 Hz 2 12.6 106

MaximumR.R.R.V.=

Em 9 103 = = 714 volts - sec 12.6 LC

Example3:Inasystemther.m.s.voltageis19.1kV,Lis10mH,Cis0.02 F.Determinetheaveragerateofriseof restrikingvoltage,whenthecircuitbreakeropens. Solution:

t e = Em 1 cos LC t = 2 19.11 cos 3 6 10 10 0.02 10 t = 271 cos kV 6 14.14 10


Timetoreachmaximumrestrikingvoltage,

t = LC = 14.14 = 44.4 sec


Peakrestrikingvo1tage(emax)=2Emax=227=54kV Averagerateofrestrikingvoltage

emax 54,000 = = 1216 V sec tm 44.4

Example4:Inashortcircuittestona3polecircuitbreakerpowerfactoroffaultwas0.4,therecoveryvoltagewas Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page20of22

LV , MV & HV Switchgear

0.95timesfulllinevalue.Thebreakingcurrentwassymmetrical.Thefrequencyofoscillationsofrestrikingvoltagewas 15,000c/s.Estimatetheaveragerateofriseofrestrikingvoltage.Theneutralisgroundedandfaultinvolvesearth. Neglectfirstpoletoclearfactor. Solution: The maximum restriking voltage is given by 2Emax, where Emax is the instantaneous value of power frequency voltageatthetimeofcurrentzero. Linetolinevoltage=110kVr.m.s.

110 Linetophasevoltage= 3 kVr.m.s. 110 PeakEmax= 3 2=90kV


Thepowerfactor=0.4 Hencep.f.angle=66.4o sin=0.92 Recoveryvoltageis0.95timespeakvalue. Theinstantaneousvalueoftherecoveryvoltageis e=kEmax where k=k1k2k3 k1=multiplyingfactorduetopowerfactorangle=sin =0.92 k2=multiplyingfactorduetosystemvoltage=0.95 k3=factordependsoncircuitconditions=1inthiscasesincethefaultinvolvesearth k=0.920.951=0.875

e=0.87590=78.75kV(instantaneous) Timetoreachthefirstpeakofrestrikingvoltage,

tm =

1 2 fn

sec

tm =

1 = 0.33 104 2 15,000

sec = 33 sec

Averagerateofrestrikingvoltage(R.R.R.V.)

2e 2 78.75 = = 4.8 kV sec tm 33

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LV , MV & HV Switchgear

3.8REIGNITIONANDRESTRIKE Reignitionisthereappearingofarcafterarcextinctionwithinonefourthofacyclefromfinalcurrentzero.Reignition may occur by chance if the movingcontact travel was too small after arc extinction current zero. The contact gap breaksdownandarcreigniteswithoutovervoltage.Thearcgetsquenchedattheverynextcurrentzerobywhichtime movingcontactshouldhavemovedsufficientlyawayfromthefixedcontacttowithstandtheTRV.Thereignitionitself isnotharmfulasitdoesnotgiveanyovervoltagebeyondpermissiblelimit. Restrikeisdefinedasthereappearanceofarcafteronefourthcyclefromthearcextinctioncurrentzero.Incapacitor currentbreaking,asinglerestrikegivesanovervoltageofabout4p.u.andasecondrestrikegivesanovervoltageof about6p.u.resultingininternalandexternalashovers,phasetophaseaswellasphasetoground. 3.9SPECIFYINGTHETRVWAVE TheTRVwaveformcanbespeciedbyvariousmethods(Fig.3.24)suchasSpecifyingthepeakvalueandtimetoreach the peak (Fig. 3.24a). This method was used earlier. Specifying the parameters which determine the line segments envelopingtheTRVwave(Fig.3.24b).

(a)Twoparametermethod,VC,t3 Figure(3.24)PossiblemethodsdefiningTRVwaveform(tins) SUMMARY (b)Fourparametermethod,V1,VC,t1,t3

Thesuddenshortcircuitinana.c.systemcausesariseincurrentintheshortcircuitedphases.Thecurrentincreases toseveraltimesthenormalcurrent,duringthefirstquartercycle.Thereaftertheamplitudeofthewaveformreduces successively, while passing through the subtransient, transient, and steady state. The waveform is asymmetrical aboutthenormalzeroaxis.Thevalueofcurrentatthepeakofthefirstmajororcurrentloopiscalledmakingcurrent. Ther.m.s.valueattheinstantofcontactseparationiscalledbreakingcurrent. Thevoltageappearingacrossthecircuitbreakerpoleafterfinalcurrentzeroiscalledrecoveryvoltage.Therecovery voltagecontainingthehighfrequencycomponentiscalledTransientRecoveryVoltage(TRV).TRVtriestorestrikethe arc.Theabilityofthecircuitbreakertocleartheshortcircuitdependsupontherateofriseofdielectricstrengthof thegap,whichshouldbemorethantherateofriseofTRV. Module(03)ArcBreakingTechnologiesandCurrentInterruption Page22of22