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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr.

4/2010

MODELE DE MODERNIZARE MANAGERIAL ABORDARE COMPARATIV

MODELS OF MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

Prof. univ. dr. Ion VERBONCU Academia de Studii Economice din Bucureti Abstract Asigurarea unei funcionaliti ridicate economiei i societii romneti nu este posibil fr revigorarea firmelor i organizaiilor publice, acestea din urm adevrate prestatoare de servicii pentru ceteni, comunitile locale i celelalte categorii de organizaii. Condiia fundamental a unui asemenea reviriment o constituie modernizarea managementului lor, demers complex, strategic i, n acelai timp, dificil dac lum n considerare particularitile constructive i mai ales, funcionale ale acestora. Indiferent de modalitatea pentru care se opteaz de la promovarea managementului strategic la reproiectarea managerial, de la metodologizarea managerial la profesionalizarea managerilor i a managementului rezultatul ar trebui s se reflecte n conturarea unui management performant, capabil s asimileze acquis-ul comunitar, bunele practici ale unor instituii publice similare i, concomitent, s influeneze comportamentul mediului ambiant, naional i internaional. Centrarea modernizrii manageriale pe oameni manageri i executani - , procese, structuri, instrumentar managerial, informaii, cunotine i decizii / aciuni faciliteaz obinerea de performane manageriale i, implicit, economic.

Prof. Ph.D. Ion VERBONCU Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest Abstract: The Romanian economy and organizations are going through a deep economic crisis, generated by a complex of causes, endogenous and contextual. The unanimous assessment is that one of the most important causes is represented by the the unprofessional management of the central government exercised at economic operators and public organizations levels. Making the management more efficient, by promoting and using appropriate models is an important solution given it is supported by professional managers and specialists. Such models, differentiated by organizatoric "stages" of the economy have in common the promotion of the strategic management and managerial reengineering, which facilitates and directs the managerial change awaited for over 20 years. Key words: professional management, professional managers, model of managerial efficiency, management reengineering, performance management 1. Main features of the Romanian management

Romanian organizations management approach must take into account the current state of economy and management at national level and trends that characterize them. Romania, and indeed elsewhere, is marked by deep economic and financial crisis started in 2008, but by another crisis - the management Cuvinte - cheie: management, reproiectare fully felt in the last two decades of capitalist managerial, metodologizare managerial, development of the country. We note, in this view, a complex of coordinates which allow performane manageriale i economice. Romanian organizations and their management 1. Starea actual a managementului to evolve (1): organizaiei lack of a professional national strategy 9

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr. 4/2010

n pofida unor progrese semnificative reduced functionality of n teoria managerial (apariia a numeroase macroeconomic management systems lucrri de specialitate, dezvoltarea medium degree of strategic-tactical nvmntului superior economic, centralization both of political and dezvoltarea formrii continue n domeniul national economic management managementului, conturarea unor teorii increased instability in management nchegate n domeniul managementului, structures amplificarea cercetrii tiinifice naionale insufficient systemic dimension of n management .a.) n practic, realizrile macroeconomic management sunt modeste, att la nivel de firm, ct i la excessive politicization of national nivel de instituie public. Acestea se refer management and central and local la: government dimensiunea anticipativ, prospectiv neglect of national interest este timid conturat, n continuare fiind insufficient size of innovativedeficitari n ceea ce privete proieciile educational of macro-management viitorului economiei i organizaiilor sal high degree of bureaucratization of sub forma strategiilor i politicilor management and Romanian society globale i pariale. De 20 de ani tot high corruption in public administration cutm soluii salvatoare, tot ncercm s and its management ne aezm pe o traiectorie marcat de o partial capitalization of human anumit stabilitate, dar nu reuim. Cu resources available to Romania excepia ultimului an, caracterizat printrquality managers in Romania is uneven o criz financiar mondial, nu putem and has a tendency to mitigate invoca nicio scuz pentru justificarea national quality management, quality declinului economic, deoarece cauza found in business, social services principal o reprezint declinul (health, welfare, etc.), the quality of life managerial, iar n acest context, of people - well below the EU average insuficiena unor repere realiste is questionable. obiective, opiuni strategico-tactice, modaliti de obinere de avantaje Managerial modernization models in competitive etc. amplific starea de 2. crisis conditions incertitudine. Atitudinea pompieristic de soluionare a These models are based upon the SWOT unor probleme specifice oricrui etaj analysis of the enterprise and of the national managerial este, n continuare, alimentat de amatorismul multora din and international envirnonment it operates in. cei care ayi conduc i gestioneaz We recommend the use of a diagnosis of the organizaii, agenii naionale ori managerial and economic potential (made by multidisciplinary teams of specialists from ministere. Insuficienta compatibilizare dintre within and without the firm in question), as manageri i posturile pe care le ocup, well as of a market survey intended to generat de lipsa de competen highlight the main opportunities and threats managerial, de nesincronizarea dintre (2,3). More specifically, the viability potential autoritatea personal i autoritatea oficial should be determined by means of the SWOT conferit posturilor explic n mare msur analysis, meant to evaluate the internal and lipsa de performane. Concursurile external factors that influence a firms activity. The results of the diagnostic and market organizate pentru ocuparea acesteia sunt studies could be taken advantage of along two formale, iar nominalizarea ctigtorilor se face pe alte criterii dect cele declarative directions: the consolidation and invocate, uneori chiar pe criterii politice elaboration of global and partial (vezi managementul ageniilor/autoritilor 10

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr. 4/2010

naionale i al instituiilor publice strategies deconcentrate, vezi ealoanele 2 i 3 din the design of managerial ministere, vezi firmele cu capital major i modernization methods specific integral de stat etc.). to the crisis period. din punct de vedere organizatoric, Figure 1 Managerial efficiency model of a deciziile adoptate sunt axate cu firm under crisis conditions prioritate pe structurile organizatorice, neglijndu-se elementele manageriale situate n amonte de acestea obiectivele i procesele. Obiectivele, ca importante modaliti de responsabilizare individual, de grup i organizaional, trebuie s dispun de procese de munc judicios delimitate i dimensionate (activiti, atribuii, sarcini) care, la rndul lor necesit un suport structural organizatoric adecvat, respectiv structuri ct mai suple, dinamice i eficiente. Este foarte dificil regsirea acestui trinom n practica managerial a oricrei organizaii n vreme ce, o parte important a deciziilor de restructurare sau reorganizare urmrete disponibilizarea personalului. Ca atare, nti efectele i apoi cauzele! n ceea ce privete antrenarea i, mai ales, suportul su economic motivarea - , situaia este similar. Teoretic este invocat motivarea bazat pe performanele individuale, de grup i organizaionale, iar practic, criteriul motivaional cel mai important este Mitigate or eliminate the causes legat de ndeplinirea (!) sarcinilor. Sintagma i-a ndeplinit exemplar generating widespread weaknesses and sarcinile este din ce n ce mai frecvent strengths of that cause, is achieved through a uzitat n ministere, agenii, instituii set of methods (recommendations) for effective publice i parial n firme ntruct management of economic operators, as managerii acestora nici mcar nu summarized in (2). a. Promotion of strategic management, ncearc s defineasc obiective. mentalitatea majoritii managerilor din by fundament, reengineer and implement sectorul public este una axat pe realistic strategies, able to exploit the expectativ, pe ateptare, rolul lor fiind diagnostic studies, marketing, environmental doar unul de supraveghere i and national strategy / Sector (3). On the one hand, the elaboration of a nicidecum strategic sau tactic companys strategy implies defining the obiectivele sunt greu sau imposibil de cuantificat n comparaie cu sectorul latters vision, mission, and strategic privat unde maximizarea profitului objectives, as well as identifying the resources reprezint inta fundamental a necessary for the achievemnt of objectives, setting intermediary and final deadlines, and ntreprinderii instabilitatea legislativ din ultimii 20 specifying the means of achieving a 11

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr. 4/2010

competitive advantage. On the other hand, the implementation of a companys strategy implies ensuring the necessary conditions for the actual achievement of objectives, namely: managerial conditions human conditions material conditions financial conditions cultural conditions. b. Reengineering the management of Romanian companies after rigorous methodological scenarios that meet the requirements of promoters reengineering - M. Hammer and J. Champy - focusing on the management processes through a radical, dramatic, fundamental of those (4,5,7) - We recommend to Romanian companies whos facing declining both on economic and managerial areas, that "going well", but are threatened by the imminent danger that the wine inside or outside (the environment, national and international) or "going very well, but wish to consolidate their position in a market or "fixed" in other markets - using a scenario methodology divided into five sequences: aims, processes, structures, 2. Modele de modernizare managerial people (managers and performers), results pentru firme si institutii publice (performance). c. Rigorous methodologization of management through the promotion and use of systems, modern management methods and techniques and methodologies appropriate to engineer / reengineer and maintenance operational management and its components (6,9,10). We recommend promotion and use of management based on profit centers, management by projects, management by exception, the dashboard, delegation. d. Privatization of management of large companies, wholly or partial owned by the state. Experience of privatization of large state enterprises being under economic and financial decline, indicate that this solution was not the best, since most companies have not resolved Figura nr. 1 - Model de modernizare the substantive issues that have faced. Therefore we propose that in future to use the managerial a firmei n condiii de criz privatization of their management. e. Improving organizational culture in terms of amplification its position as a strategy determinants, of change in general 12 de ani face, adesea, imposibil aezarea managementului pe nite coordonate riguroase, att teoreticometodologic, ct i pragmatic. gradul de descentralizare managerial este nc redus, instituiile publice aazis descentralizate fiind, n continuare, dependente de stat, cel puin din punct de vedere financiar. instituiile publice deconcentrate dispun de un management croit de la centru, la nivel de minister ori autoritate / agenie naional i operaionalizat, din pcate, dup aceleai tipare, indiferent de amplasarea lor teritorial. managerii publici veritabili sunt nc puini n Romnia, iar cei care conduc i gestioneaz instituiile publice i subdiviziunile lor organizatorice sunt, n mare parte, deficitari la capitolul competen managerial. Cauza principal a unei asemenea situaii o reprezint ncadrarea i promovarea acestora cu prioritate pe criterii politice.

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Economie, Nr. 4/2010

Fig. nr. 2 Model de reproiectare managerial autoritate naional instituie public 3. Abordare comparativ Asemnri Ambele modele includ cteva modaliti majore de modernizare managerial i, implicit, de amplificare a eficienei i eficacitii acestor organizaii: promovarea managementului strategic reproiectarea managerial metodologizarea managerial ameliorarea culturii organizaionale profesionalizarea managerilor i a managementului Deosebirile sunt date de: obiectul de activitate al instituiei publice, total diferit de cel al unei ntreprinderi; particularitile constructive i funcionale ale instituiei publice i managementului su; gradul de centralizare managerial i 13

and the condition of economic performance and management. Organizational culture must be addressed not in itself but in conjunction with other management components that is conditional or conditional. Also, inserting the recommendations in the category of effective management arrangements should be consistent with other, very strong relationship between them(8). f. Improving professionalization of managers and organizations. Exercise scientific management really is not possible without professional managers, i.e. managers' who know management and are able to exploit this knowledge in practice. Professional managers are those who: Know the configuration management processes and know their specific content of each function - foresight, organization, coordination, training, monitoring- evaluation; Know how to base and take management decisions, compliance with quality requirements imposed on them - the scientific, timeliness, comprehensibility, etc.; Effectively turning the systems, methods or management techniques depending on circumstances; Know how to set goals for others and to assume achieve their goals and objectives led area incumbent; Determines the subordinate staff in setting and achieving goals; Motivate staff, based on recorded performance at individual, group and organization. g. Generate a pronounced economic dimension to company management. Insufficient economic substantiation of decisions within the firm, low attention given to economic issues relating to cost, price, taxes, interest, etc.. generate an economic dimension given to Romanian company management. Considers it necessary for the overall approach, but also in terms of management efficiency parts of his that deliver high levels of economic efficiency, amid prioritize certain objectives and economic performance indicators expressed by volume (quantity) and efficiency (quality) . h. Increased national and international visibility of Romanian company

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economic foarte ridicat, comparativ management in the context of increasing cu firma international transfer of managerial knowdimensiunea politic apreciabil ce how. Romanian firm small, medium or large, marcheaz managementul acestei cannot operate outside connections with categorii de organizaii (instituii national and international environment which is influenced and should influence them. publice) inexistena unei piee specifice, a Permanent information exchange with similar concurenei, situaie ce elimin foreign companies facilitate the transfer of avantajul competitiv din managerial know-how and thus their economic terminologia i practica and scientific competitiveness. managementului strategic; caracterul adesea empiric, amatorist 3. Comparative approach al managementului unei pri Similarities: apreciabile a instituiilor publice Both models include few major imposibilitatea promovrii i modalities of managerial redesign and, utilizrii managementului pe baza centrelor de profit la nivelul implicitly, of amplifying these enterprises instituiilor publice i, n general, a efficiency and effectiveness: promoting the strategic management unui numr mai ridicat de managerial reengineering instrumente manageriale managerial methodologization impactul diferit asupra improving the organizational culture performanelor organizaionale (manageriale i economico-sociale) professionalizing the managers and management Differentiations are given by: 4. Bibliografie very high degree of managerial and economic centralization in comparison with 1. Nicolescu, O., Verboncu, I., Profiroiu M. the enterprise Starea de sntate a managementului din considerable political dimension which Romnia i ieirea din criz, Ed. 10, imprints the public institutions management Bucureti, 2010 the non-existance of a specific market, of 2. Verboncu, I. Zalman, M. Management i competition, situation which eliminates the performane, Ed. Universitar, Bucureti, competitive advantage from the terminology 2005 and practice of their strategic management 3. Verboncu, I. (coord) Strategieoften empiric / amateurish character of the cultur-performane, Ed. Printech, management of a considerable part of Bucureti, 2008 Romanian enterprises 4. Nicolescu, O. Verboncu, I. Metodologii imposibility of promoting and using the manageriale, Ed. Printech, Bucureti, 2008 profit center-based management at public 5. Mougin, Y La performance? Soyez, institution level and, in general, of a higher tranquille, je la surveille de pres! AFNOR, number of managerial tools Paris, 2007 different impact on the organizational 6. Collins, J. De la performance a performances (managerial and economiclexcellence, Edition Village Mondial, social). Paris, 2006 7. Hammer, M., Champy, C. 4. References Reengineering the corporation, 1. Nicolescu, O., Verboncu, I., Profiroiu M. Herper Collins, New York, 1993 Starea de sntate a managementului din 8. Hofstede, G. Managementul Romnia i ieirea din criz, Ed. 10, Bucureti, structurilor multiculturale (Cultures and 2010 Organisations: Software of the Mind), Ed. 14

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Economic, Bucureti, 1996 9. Verboncu, I. The Managerial Tools Managerial Performances Economic Performances, in Review of International Comparative Management, Bucureti, nr. 8, Vol. 1,3 / 2007 10. Verboncu, I. Ten Steps to Excellence in the Industrial Entreprises Management, in Proceedings of the Conference on Manufacturing Systems ICMaS, Roumanien Academy Publishing House, Bucureti, 2007

2. Verboncu, I. Zalman, M. Management i performane, Ed. Universitar, Bucureti, 2005 3. Verboncu, I. (coord) Strategie-culturperformane, Ed. Printech, Bucureti, 2008 4. Nicolescu, O. Verboncu, I. Metodologii manageriale, Ed. Printech, Bucureti, 2008 5. Mougin, Y La performance? Soyez, tranquille, je la surveille de pres! AFNOR, Paris, 2007 6. Collins, J. De la performance a lexcellence, Edition Village Mondial, Paris, 2006 7. Hammer, M., Champy, C. Reengineering the corporation, Herper Collins, New York, 1993 8. Hofstede, G. Managementul structurilor multiculturale (Cultures and Organisations: Software of the Mind), Ed. Economic, Bucureti, 1996 9. Verboncu, I. The Managerial Tools Managerial Performances Economic Performances, in Review of International Comparative Management, Bucureti, nr. 8, Vol. 1,3 / 2007 10. Verboncu, I. Ten Steps to Excellence in the Industrial Entreprises Management, in Proceedings of the Conference on Manufacturing Systems ICMaS, Roumanien Academy Publishing House, Bucureti, 2007

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