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Research Ethics Definition Research Ethics Research Ethics Guiding Principles The word research was derived from

from a French word recherch which means search closely. Literally it refers to investigating thoroughly. Research is defined as any form of disciplined investigation that aims to contribute to a body of knowledge or theory. The word ethics is derived from the Greek word ethos meaning a persons character, nature or disposition. Therefore, ethics are guidelines or sets of principles or standards of human conduct (sometimes called moral philosophy, It is the study of such principles for good professional practice, which serve to advise and steer researchers as they conduct their work. Ethics is a branch of philosophy which is concerned with thinking about morality, integrity (adhering to high moral principles or professional standards) and the distinction between right and wrong. It is considered a normative science, because it is concerned with norms of human conduct. Research ethics refers to the moral principles guiding research, from its inception through to completion and publication of results and beyond for example, the curation of data and physical samples after the research has been published. Distinctive Features Social scientists typically engage in researching controversial and sensitive subjects and consequently it is inevitable that ethical problems will emerge from their research. This does not mean that researchers should avoid sensitive topics, but rather the methods by which the research is conducted should be ethically justifiable. Codes of good practice define the rights and responsibilities of researchers and their relationships with their research subjects, employers and funding bodies.

However, conducting ethical research is sometimes not a simple matter of applying prescribed rules that provide solutions for major methodological decisions. Ethical dilemmas may arise if researchers are faced with competing values and a choice between different methodological strategies, where none of those strategies can realize all those values in practice. Indeed, in research involving human subjects, there can often be conflicts between various parties: the subject, the researcher, the researchers discipline, the funding body and society itself. Guiding ethical principles include: 1. Honesty: Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. 1. Do not fabricate, or dont falsify or dont cook data, 2. Do not deceive colleagues, granting agencies, or the public. 3. do not report false reports rather than actual works 2. Objectivity: indicates the attempt to observe things as they are, without falsifying observations to accord with some preconceived world view. It also refers to striving to avoid biases in: A. Data collection Most professors accept land privatization. Do you? (Prestige biases) Leading the respondents to the kind of answer that you think is favorable. Ex. You plant trees every time; you cut them, dont you? You push the respondent to say yes. Do not collect or ignore positive or negative information deliberately. B. Data analysis: do not ignore negative/positive evidences - to support or oppose C. Data interpretation Distorting interpretations to fit prejudice and preconceived ideas Exaggeration

3. Carefulness: Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Dont be careless to consult influential papers/persons Keep good records of research activities (data collection & research design). Dont fail to check if any suspicion. Falsified DAs report for SWC, some experts did not want to investigate in the field, but we did. Make clear orientation, follow-ups for your assistants/data collectors. Dont neglect calculation errors after printing/submission 4. Respect for Intellectual Property: honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Give credit where credit is due. 1. Never plagiarize. Acknowledge or credited all contributions to research. 2. Do not use unpublished data, methods/models, or results without permission 5. Non-Discrimination: Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors that are not related to their scientific competence and integrity. 1. Making derogatory comments/expressing a low opinion and personal attacks in your review of author's submission. 2. Rejecting a manuscript for publication without even reading it. 3. Rejecting fund competing proposal without even reading it. 6. Responsible Research and Publication 1. Avoid submitting previous works for grant competition 2. avoid submitting the works of your advisee for presentation without consulting 3. Avoid duplicative publication. 7. Openness: share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas. 8. Integrity: Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action.

9. Confidentiality: protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records. 10. Responsible Mentoring: help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their own decisions.