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Topic Optical Fibres

Submitted By:
SANJEEV KUMAR REG. 11008322 ROLL: RBLG06B11

Submitted To: UMA KAMBOJ

PHY 112

OPTICAL FIBRE

Acknowledgement
It is a great pleasure for me to acknowledge the assistance and contributions of many individuals in making this dissertation a success. First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisor, MRS. UMA KAMBOJ , for her assistance, ideas, and feedbacks during the process in doing this dissertation. Without her guidance and support , this dissertation cannot be completed on time. Secondly, it is a pleasure to express my thanks to all my friends specially 1. MR. S.K CHAKRAVARTI 2. MR. ABHAY KUMAR 3. MR.SHUBHAM SHARMA and 4. MR. RAHUL TEHALANI for sparing their time to participate in this project. I deeply appreciate their helpfulness and willingness in providing the useful information for this project Lastly, I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my family for their encouragement and moral support.

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INDEX
CONTENTS PAGE NO.

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Introduction

Working principal

Types of optical fibre

Advantages and disadvantages

Application

Conclusion
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ABSTRACT

This review describes the evolution of optical fibre , which are intended for the remote and passive detection of various phenomenon . Emphasis is placed on the principal of using this technology . Fibre optic technology is one of the fastest growing technologies in the modern day science. Optical fibre sensors and fibbers draw more and more interests of researchers and application engineers for its exclusive and very valuable characteristics. It is mainly used to sense the physical and chemical properties such as micro-bending, strains, vibrations, accelerations, linear and rotary position, temperatures, pressures, determination of pH, refractive index of liquid solution, pipeline condition monitoring etc. furthermore, fibre optic sensors have a variety of special benefits for example faster response, low-cost fabrication, very light weight, highly sensitive plus non-reactive to electromagnetic interference. Fibre optic sensors can also be classified under various types based on sensing methods and applications. These distinctive and valuable application features facilitate an extensive range of industries such as biomedical, aerospace, structural health monitoring, transportation, oil-pipe condition etc. This paper discusses about the basic working principle of fibre optic sensing technology, various types of fibre optic sensors and their applications and future scope of fibre optic sensors. This paper also discusses about fibre optic sensors for improved and enhanced performance . furthermore its main use in our technology is to boost up our communication technology . this feature makes it different from other material for future use because our most of the resources are non-renewable sources . and fibre optic technology is one of the good material for us. In this paper I will try to bring light on each possible application and research on various technologies based upon optical fibre . it is mostly used in various fields such as computer science /it filed for fast processing and communication and in medical filed for performing various surgeries and other body part scanning .

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Introduction :

Light has been used as a communication device for centuries and almost every civilization has used light in some form for communication. Around 400 BC the Greeks armies used polished shields to send coded messages by reflecting light in flashes to one another. In the early 1900s the British army developed a more accurate signaling device called the Mance Heliograph (The word heliograph comes from the Greek helios meaning "sun" and graphein meaning "write". ) that used mirrors and a sighting device which allowed instantaneous light communication from as much as 50 km away. Heliographs were used by the British and Australian armies up to the 1960s and by the Pakistani army as late as 1975. Many modern navies still use lantern signaling devices as a means of ship-toship communication. The use of light to communicate in this way was not always practical, and the limit of distance that could be used made getting a message across continents difficult and time consuming. With the advent of the telegraph and telephone in the late 1800s and early 1900s, which used wire to transmit signals, the heliograph started to fall from wide-spread use. It was still popular with militaries, but its use in the commercial world declined.

The first fibre optics cable was the result of joint work between the Corning and Siemens Corporations in 1977. Corning provided the fibre technology and Siemens the cabling technology to produce a cable that transmitted information by using light. A Fibre optic is a long, thin strand about the size of human hair, made up of a very pure glass. This strand, called the core, is the material that the light travels through. Surrounding the core is a dark flexible material called the cladding; it reflects back any light that escapes the core. Finally, on the outside of each cladding there is a plastic coating, called a buffer, which protects the fibre from damage and moisture. Commonly, hundreds or thousands of these optic fibres are placed together in one optical cable which is protected by an outside covering called a jacket.
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The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibres is known as fibre optics. Optical fibres are widely used in fibre-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibres are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibres are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so that they may be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in confined spaces. Specially designed fibres are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fibre lasers. Optical fibres typically include a Optical fibres typically include a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. This causes the fibre to act as a waveguide . NASA used fibre optics in the television cameras sent to the moon. At the time, the use in the cameras was classified confidential, and only those with the right security clearance or those accompanied by someone with the right security clearance were permitted to handle the cameras. The crucial attenuation limit of 20 dB/km was first achieved in 1970, by researchers Robert D. Maurer, Donald Keck, Peter C. Schultz, and Frank Zimar working for American glass maker Corning Glass Works, now Corning Incorporated. They demonstrated a fibre with 17 dB/km attenuation by doping silica glass with titanium. A few years later they produced a fibre with only 4 dB/km attenuation using germanium dioxide as the core dopant. Such low attenuation ushered in optical fibre telecommunication. In 1981, General Electric produced fused quartz ingots that could be drawn into fibre optic strands 25 miles (40 km) long .

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Working Principal :

At the heart of an optical communication system is the optical fibre that acts as the transmission channel carrying the light beam loaded with information . As mentioned earlier, the guidance of the light beam (through the optical fibre) takes place because of the phenomenon of total internal reflection (TIR), which we will now discuss.

TIR (Total Internal Reflection ) : We first define the refractive index (n) of a medium: where c (7 3 X108 m/s) is the speed of light in free space and v represents the velocity of light in that medium. For example, for light waves, n = 1.5 for glass and n =1.33 for water .

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n1=1.5 n2=1.0

As we know, when a ray of light is incident at the interface of two media (like air and glass), the ray undergoes partial reflection and partial refraction . The vertical dotted line represents the normal to the surface. The angles 1, 2, and 3 represent the angles that the incident ray, refracted ray, and reflected ray make with the normal. According to Snell's law and the law of reflection,

n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2

and 1 = 3
Further, the incident ray, reflected ray, and refracted ray lie in the same plane. In Figure since n2 > n1 we must have (from Snell's law) 2 < 1, i.e., the ray will bend toward the normal. On the other hand, if a ray is incident at the interface of a rarer medium (n2 < n1), the ray will bend away from the normal The angle of incidence, for which the angle of refraction is 90, is known as the critical angle and is denoted by A c.
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Thus, when

1= c = sin-1

2 = 90. When the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle (i.e., when 1 > c), there
is no refracted ray and we have total internal reflection (see Figure 2)

Acceptance Angle:
Multimode optical fibre will only propagate light that enters the fibre within a certain cone, known as the acceptance cone of the fibre. The half-angle of this cone is called the acceptance angle, max.

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In the above figure it was shown that the light beam enters from air to the optical fibre, a less dense to the denser medium, with an external angle in. This causes the light refracted towards the normal at an angle 1. To propagate the light beam down the optical fibre, the light beam at the core and cladding interface must taken an angle less than the critical angle c.

Calculation of critical angle: From Snells law we can write, n sinin= n1 sinn =n1 sin(90 )= n1 cos

n sinn =
However, we may keep n as 1.

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thus known as Acceptance angle or half of acceptance angel. .

Numerical Aperture
Numerical Aperture is the measurement of the acceptance angle of an optical fibre, which is the maximum angle at which the core of the fibre will take in light that will be contained within the core. Taken from the fibre core axis (center of core), the measurement is the square root of the squared refractive index of the core minus the squared refractive index of the cladding. NA = sin in

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Attenuation :
Attenuation and pulse dispersion represent the two most important characteristics of an optical fiber that determine the information-carrying capacity of a fiber optic communication system. The decrease in signal strength along a fiber optic waveguide caused by absorption and scattering is known as attenuation. Attenuation is usually expressed in dB/km. Due to attenuation, the power output (Pout) at the end of 1km of optical fiber drops to some fraction (k) of the input power (Pin) i.e. Pout = k.Pin (k less than 1). Clearly, after 2km, Pout = k2.Pin, and, after L km, Pout = kL.Pin. Hence, the ratio of the power out of L km of optical fibre to the power in is given by taking the log of both sides and multiplying by 10 gives the power loss in dB as

where M (= 10 log10k)is the attenuation coefficient of the fiber in dB/km Since attenuation is the loss, therefore, it is always expressed as

Pout = Pin 10 (power -

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Types of optical fibre :

Optical fibers come in two main types : Single-mode fiber has a small core that forces the light waves to stay in the same path, or mode. This keeps the light signals going farther before they need to be beefed up, or amplified. Most long-distance, or long-haul, fiber optic telephone lines use single-mode fiber. The second type, called multimode fiber, has a much larger core than single-mode fiber. This gives light waves more room to bounce around inside as they travel down the path. The extra movement eventually causes the pulses to smear, and lose information. That means multimode fiber signals cant travel as far before they need to be cleaned up and reamplified. Multimode fibers can carry only a third or less the information-carrying capacityor bandwidththan single-mode fiber and they won't work for long distances. Network engineers prefer multimode fiber for shorter-distance communication, such as in an office building or a local area network (LAN), because the technology is less expensive. However, with the growing demand for more bandwidth between computers and over the Internet, single-mode fiber is becoming more popular for smaller networks, too. Therefore, we can categorize the fiber optic communication in two categories: 1. Step Index a. Single Mode b. Multimode 2. Guided Index Step Index: These types of fibers have sharp boundaries between the core and cladding, with clearly defined indices of refraction. The entire core uses single index of refraction. Single Mode Step Index: Single mode fiber has a core diameter of 8 to 9 microns, which only allows one light path or mode.

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Multimode Step-Index Fiber: Multimode fiber has a core diameter of 50 or 62.5 microns (sometimes even larger). It allows several light paths or modes. This causes modal dispersion some modes take longer to pass through the fiber than others because they travel a longer distance .

Multimode Graded-Index Fiber

Graded-index refers to the fact that the refractive index of the core gradually decreases
farther from the center of the core. The increased refraction in the center of the core slows the speed of some light rays, allowing all the light rays to reach the receiving end at approximately the same time, reducing dispersion.

As the above figure shows, the light rays no longer follow straight lines; they follow a serpentine path being gradually bent back toward the center by the continuously declining refractive index. This reduces the arrival time disparity because all modes arrive at about the same time. The modes traveling in a straight line are in a higher refractive index, so they travel slower than the serpentine modes. These travel farther but move faster in the lower refractive index of the outer core region.

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Parts of the Fibre Optic System : A fibre optic system has four maincomponents: 1.Transmitter :converts a signal, for example sound, into a pattern of light. 2. Optical Fibre : the cable that conducts the light patterns over large distances. 3. Optical Regenerator : in transmittance, some light energy may be lost. This device boosts the light signal back up to continue its journey. This is used for signals sent over very large distances. 4. Optical Receiver : converts the light patterns back to an understandable message, (i.e., sound).

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Advantages and disadvantages :

Advantage :
Enormous potential bandwidth: The optical carrier frequency has a far greater potential transmission BW than metallic cable systems. Small size and weight: Optical fiber has small diameters. Hence, even when such fibers are covered with protective coating they are far smaller and lighter than corresponding copper cables. Electrical Isolation: Optical fibers which are fabricated from glass or sometimes a plastic polymer are electrical insulators and unlike their metallic counterpart, they do not exhibit earth loop or interface problems. This property makes optical fiber transmission ideally suited for communication in electrically hazardous environments as fiber created no arcing or spark hazard at abrasion or short circuits . Signal security: The light from optical fiber does not radiate significantly and therefore they provide a high degree of signal security. This feature is attractive for military, banking and general data transmission i.e. computer networks application. Low transmission loss: The technological developments in optical fiber over last twenty years has resulted in optical cables which exhibits very low attenuation or transmission loss in comparison with best copper conductors. Potential low cost: The glass which provides the optical fiber transmission medium is made from sand. So, in comparison to copper conductors, optical fiber offers the potential for low cost line communication.

Disadvantage of Optical Fiber Communication:


It requires a higher initial cost in installation .

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Although the fiber cost is low, the connector and interfacing between the fiber optic costs a lot. Fiber optic requires specialized and sophisticated tools for maintenance and repairing.

Application :
The previously mentioned the advantages with the fibre optics cable has lead to almost daily leaps forward for the telecommunication industry. However, the advantages of fibre optics go well beyond the communication or data transmittance sectors. The fibre optic cable has been used for the advancement in such diverse areas as Medicine, Mechanics, and Plumbing . Medicine : The properties of the fibre optic have allowed medical personnel to see places in the human body with greater ease and comfort for the patient. i) bronchoscopes allow doctors to examine the inside of the respiratory tract (your lungs and throat); so doctors are able to detect or rule out tumors of the lungs or airways and to get tissue samples for analysis. endoscopes allow doctors to evaluate the interior surfaces of an organ by inserting a small tube into the body through a small cut. The procedures are relativelypainless with the patient being sedated. laparoscopes allow doctors to perform surgery on growths within the abdomen or pelvic areas, to examine the female organs, stomach, liver, appendix, or gallbladder, and remove the appendix or gallbladder if necessary. When compared to the traditional abdomen surgery, laparoscopy usually involves less pain, less risk, less scarring and faster recovery time.

ii)

iii)

All of these tools make use the fibre optics ability to carry light, the small size of a single fibre as well as the flexibility of each fibre . Inspection of Manmade Materials
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Mechanics : The use of fibre optics as part of imaging systems allows engineers to inspect mechanical welds in pipes and engines. Engines of planes, rockets, space shuttles and cars can now be examined both externally and internally after use. This increased safety feature has allowed for the prevention of previously unpreventable accidents. Potential problems can now be detected and thus corrected before they occur.

Plumbing : Again, the use of fibre optics in imaging systems and as well as its flexibility allow us to inspect water and sewer lines without the high cost or interruption in their operation. Inspection can now be done more quickly and with greater accuracy. The whole system can be examined, not just the section of pipe that was dug up. Imaging : Optical fiber is also used in imaging optics. A coherent bundle of fibers is used, sometimes along with lenses, for a long, thin imaging device called an endoscope, which is used to view objects through a small hole. Medical endoscopes are used for minimally invasive exploratory or surgical procedures. Industrial endoscopes (see fiberscope or borescope) are used for inspecting anything hard to reach, such as jet engine interiors. Many microscopes use fiber-optic light sources to provide intense illumination of samples being studied .

sensors :
Common uses for fiber optic sensors includes advanced intrusion detection security systems. The light is transmitted along a fiber optic sensor cable placed on a fence, pipeline, or communication cabling, and the returned signal is monitored and analysed for disturbances. This return signal is digitally processed to detect disturbances and trip an alarm if an intrusion has occurred.

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Conclusion
Fibre optics systems have allowed scientists to make many important advances in the telecommunication, mechanical and medical fields. Sound, video, and computer communications are more reliable than in the past. Engineers are able to monitor and maintain safer modes of transportation. And doctors can perform less dramatic life-improving procedures. The world of fibre optics has opened many possibilities for solving technological problems and has improved human civilization. At present there are many optical fiber communication links throughout the world without using optical solitons. When we introduce optical solitons as light pulses through the fibers, we can achieve high quality telecommunication at a lower cost. We can expect a great revolution in optical fiber communication within a few years by means of solitons. The understanding of light theory was used as the fundamental building block for the development of the optical fibers that are used today. By using Snells law, it was possible to send light signals over any distance using optical fibers. Different fiber types are better suited for different applications depending on what is required. Attenuation plays an important role on how effective the fiber can transmit the signal with low loss. In perfecting the purification and production process it will reduce the number of flaws that may arise during these processes. With the ideal optical fiber readily available it can be applied to a working optical fiber system.

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Refrencesess: Webs:
http://www.www-fibreoptics.com http://www.lungdiseases.about.com http://www.corningcablesystems.com http://www.tyndall.ie/learning/optic_fibres.html http://shoutfind.net/medical/Endoscopes.htm http://www.answers.com/topic/laparoscopy http://www.tyndall.ie/learning/plastic_optic_fibre.html http://www.howstuffworks

BOOKs:
G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, (McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 1983) V. Hostrandss Scientific Encyclopedia, 9th ed. (John Wiley & Son Inc., NY, 2002)

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J. Palais, Fiber Optic Communication, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1984) E. Lacy, Fiber Optics, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1982)

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