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Table of contents

Contents Organization behavior Behavior disciplines Challenges and opportunities Basic OB model Dependent variable Independent variables

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Definition of Organization Behavior:


1. "Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness." - Stephen P. Robbins

2. "Organizational behavior is the study and application at knowledge about the how people as individuals and a groups - act within organization. It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively." - Keith Davis

3. "Organizational behavior can be defined as the understanding; prediction and management of the human behavior affect the performance of the organizations. - Luthans

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Disciplines of Organizational Behavior:


As with most sciences, there exists a basis in which it is developed. As in Organizational Behavior it is the study of the structure and functioning of organizations and the behavior of groups and individuals within them and drawing primarily on the disciplines of sociology and psychology (Warner, 1994), that present it as a science that has strong ties to other disciplines. The history of Organizational Behavior (OB) can be traced back to the Scientific Management approaches from the Industrial Revolution as early as the late 1800s with the work of Frederic Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) (Wertheim). It is in this case, behavioral disciplines that have shaped Organizational Behavior into a distinguishable discipline. Of the options as it relates to Organizational Behavior, four sciences have been identified as having significant impact in OBs development. They are psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Within each major category there exist individual contribution dimensions that carry with it a unit of analysis affecting the individual, group, and organizational system. Each of following dimensions has been assigned to an individual behavioral science, as follows: Psychology: As defined, psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of human and other animals. Through Organizational Behaviors beginnings the science of psychology had with it particular impact. Scientists saw particular significance to psychologys contribution through various contributions that helped form the study of Organizational Behavior. Learning: This are of contribution became a significant element to Organizational Behavior studies when scientists attempted to identify how people would learn new skills within the workplace and how different learning styles would have to address for employees. Motivation: In order to optimize the performance of members within any organization it is necessary to understand the individual characteristics of such members and by attempting to fulfill their individuals needs creates a pattern in which to bring out the best in their efforts. Personality: Psychologys research in personality contributes to OB ability to assess individual attitudes and tie them to an organization or workgroup. This can certainly be a key to identifying elements related to motivation and other interpersonal dynamics. Emotions: Certainly an interrelationship between a persons personality and motivation include ones emotions and the facets in which it is carried upon at work. Much discussion related to the concept of emotions and employee effectiveness in which members are aware of the tendencies and awareness of emotion has brought attention to this contribution to OBs ongoing development.

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Perception: As one learned to adapt and find a place within the organization their perception of what exists around them becomes clear. How a member responds to the organization and its members are key to determination their attitudes and tendencies. Training: Since most organizations are compromised of individuals with various background and perspectives, how an organization introduces the procedures, policies, and rule becomes a challenge. Psychologys contribution of training to the study of OB permits organizations see how individuals respond to training and how it can best serve the organization. Leadership effectiveness: It is a long held belief that the modern organization is more complex than ever before. The modern leader must take into account more attributes and motivational elements. Psychology has provided multiple means of measuring leadership and developing statistical models of attributes and behaviors that make up an effective leader. Job satisfaction: Certain key metrics relating to an organizations effectiveness include job satisfaction of its members. How an organization provides an environment and opportunity to bring out the best in its employees is certainly its ability to explore the psychology of this work force. Individual decision making: Decisions are made every day by an organizations members. The tendencies to make the correct decision or the one that would be benefit the organization is certainly attributed to the individuals cognitive and psychological state. How one make such decisions and how it affects the rest of the organization will certainly be an ongoing topic of discussion as it relates to OB.

Performance appraisal: The systematic process of providing employees feedback as to their individual performance takes into account communication parameters and goal setting that benefits both the individual and organization. These cross roads of objectives and needs have within it a place in both Psychology and OB. Attitude measurement: Psychologys statistical work has provided much input related to OB as it relates to members attitudes. How an organization is to manage, reward, and create policy should include the mindsets of its members and align to organizational objectives. Employee selection: The traits and characteristics of successful employees has been long measured and analyzed. Psychologys impact in this area is great to include quantitative analysis of characteristics found to be successful based upon position requirements and organizational needs. Work design: The interconnection of worker and their environment to include machinery, climate, temperature, and associated stressors has a direct connection to that workers cognitive state and tendencies. Even the study of personality and work design has come to the forefront. Psychologys ability to contribute this element to the ongoing

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management of an organization will continue to become an issue as organizations seek optimal performance and efficiency. Work stress: How a person reacts to his/her environment and perception of that environment is deeply affected by the perspective they hold and how they think. Stress being a potential positive negative aspect of organizations certainly has a role in the study of OB. Sociology: Sociology is defined as the study of people in relation to their social environment or culture. The impact that sociology has on Organizational Behavior is significant as organizations at their nature are formations that hold both a social environment and culture. The elements of Sociologys contribution to Organizational Behavior include: Communication: The means and manner in which an organizations members exchange information and the effectives of such exchange is highly necessary for the effective organization. Sociologys contribution towards this dynamic of organizations is valuable in order to optimize the process and improve its accuracy. Power: As shared with Anthropology, the study of power, its presence, and influence within the organization has within it a substantial role within the organization. In order to best analyze and assess an organization, the role of power and authority and its influences is necessary. Conflict: As a natural by-product of any organization, conflict and its study are necessary in order to identify and map the process of improvement within an organization as well as predict potential calamity. The study of conflict and its origins will be necessary to identify the sources and solutions within the organization. Intergroup behavior: With teaming being a critical next step for many organizations, the role of intergroup behavior will have increased necessity. The ability to study the dynamics of a group and their exchanges can better help the OB practitioner in facilitate the formation of groups within the organization for organization benefit. Formal organization theory: Even with many organizations moving to matrix or less structured organization, the concepts related to the formal organization will continue to provide necessarily information as to more fluidity of structure in order to meet the coming demands and changing landscape of organizations to meet shareholder and stakeholder needs. Organizational technology: As technologys presence becomes increasing present, the tools and means in which an organization links equipment and technology with human capital will become an important competitive element. The study of how these interplay contributes to how the organization may use such technology to its benefit. Organizational change: Change management has been at fore front of many organizations in order to compete in the global market. How an organization can adapt to environmental changes and needs will define its future success.

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Organizational culture: As shared with Anthropology, the core elements of any organization and how to interpret such elements will continue to be of significance to the organization. With employee engagement becoming more important to many organizations, the tangible and intangible attributes of the organization will either become a favorable aspect or challenge to the organization. Social Psychology: As defined, an area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. Social Psychology brings together these two complimentary disciplines into Organizational Behavior. Within this discipline, the interplay of individual and group come into focus. Behavioral change/Attitude change: Currently and ongoing debate continues concerning attitudinal versus behavioral changes and the impact it has for an organization. Especially in the area of customer service do we see this discussion the often. As organizations evaluate the merits of modification of both issues, the study of this contributory element will an important to the ongoing development of OB. Group processes/Group decision making: As discussed above the study of group dynamics and its impact will affect both processes and decision making for the organization. As researchers and managers continue to explore this element of social psychology and organizational behavior the benefits will become revealed.

Anthropology: As defined, anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Realizing that organizations are micro versions of societies and interdependent on society as a whole the relevance of its effect on OB becomes clear. Comparative values/Comparative attitudes: Values alignment has been discussed recently as it relates to employee selection and performance. Certainly employee attitudes affect behavior and in turn performance, but herein lies anthropologys contribution to how it might affect the outcomes of an organization. Cross-cultural analysis: Certainly the acceleration of mergers and acquisitions will increase how an organization will blend different organizational cultures that would strength geographies and multiple diversity dimensions. It is the analysis of multiple cultures and their opportunities for cross pollination that will provide predictors of the future impact of such consolidation. Organizational environment: The environment in which an organization exists creates for it both opportunities and challenges. Anthropologys contribution of this dimension will

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certainly assist the study of Organizational Behavior in areas such as workspace studies and the various employment arrangements available to management. As stated above, it is clear there has existed substantial basis and precedence from these four behavioral sciences as a foundation for Organizational Behavior. As each develops new theories and research it presents new challenges and opportunities to find the highest level of effectiveness for the Organizational Behavior practitioners.

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Challenges and opportunities of OB:


1. Globalization to Respond Organizations are no longer constrained by national borders, world become global village. Increased foreign assignment Transferred to your employers operating division in another country, Once there, youll have to manage workforce, aspiration from employees, and attitudes from those you are used to back home. Working with different people Working with bosses, peers and other employees who were born and raised in different culture, to work effectively with them youve to understand how their culture, geographic and religion have shaped them. Coping with Anti-capitalism backlash Soak the rich means fine should be charged with respect of income you earn. Managers at global companies have come to realize that economic values are not universally transferable, need to modify by managers to reflect economic values in those countries theyre working. Overseeing Movement of jobs to countries with low cost labor In a global economy, jobs tend to flow to places where lower cost provides business firms with comparative advantages. Managing people during the war on terror An understanding of OB topics such as emotions, motivation, communication a n d leadership can help managers to deal more effectively with their employees fear about terrorism. 2. Managing w orkforce diversity The people in organization are becoming heterogeneous demographically, Workforce diversity= whereas globalization focuses on differences between people from d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s , m i x o f p e o p l e i n t e r m s o f g e n d e r , a g e , r a c e , a n d s e x u a l orientation. Embracing diversity Changing US demographics Changing management philosophy Recognizing and responding to difference.

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3. Improving Quality and productivity World added capacity in response to increase demand. Excess capacity translate in increase competition, is forcing managers to reduce costs and, at the same time; improve the organization quality and productivity. 4. Im proving Custom er service OB can contribute to improving an organization performance by showing that how employees attitude and behavior are associated with customer satisfaction. 5. Im proving people skills Designing motivating jobs, how creating effective teams, techniques for improving interpersonal skills. 6. Stimulating innovation and change Victory will go the organization maintain their flexibility, continually improve their quality and beat their competition in market place. An organizations employees can be major block in change, the challenge to the manager to stimulate their creativity and tolerance for change. 7. Coping w ith Tem porariness Survival for the organization, is need to move fast and flexible and innovative in their products, jobs are redesigned, task are done by flexibility, trained old employees with new technology, better understanding of change, overcome resistance to change, create organizational culture. 8. Working in netw ork organization Global working through one link i.e. INTERNET, technology changes the people to work together and communicate at thousand miles, people can work from their home and non office locations. 9. Helping employees Balance work-life conflicts Flexible Working hours, reporting time, creating opportunities for employees, job Security, design workplace and jobs. 10. Creating positive Work Environment Human strength, vitality, right person appointed at right place, effort on what good for organization. 11. Improving Ethical Behavior Manager shouldnt place an order on which subordinate dont agree.

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Basic OB Model:

Organizational System Level

Group Level

Individual Level

Organizational Level: Organizational behavior reaches its highest level of sophistication when we add formal structure to our previous knowledge of individual and group behavior. Group-level variable: The behavior to people in groups is more than the sum total of all the individuals acting in their own way. Individual-level variables: It has been said that Managers, Unlike parents must work with used, not new, human beings human beings whom others have gotten to first.

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Independent Variables (IV) & Dependent Variables (DV):


In an experiment, the independent variable is the variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher, and the dependent variable is the response that is measured. An independent variable is the presumed cause, whereas the dependent variable is the presumed effect. The IV is the antecedent, whereas the DV is the consequent.

The dependent variable:


Production: A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness: Achievement of goals. Efficiency: The ration of effective output to the input required to achieve it. Absenteeism: Absenteeism is defined as the failure to report to work. Absenteeism is huge cost and disruption to employers. Turnover: Turnover is the voluntary and involuntary permanent withdraw from an organization. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB): Is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employees formal job requirements but that never the less promotes effective functioning of the organization. Job satisfaction: The final dependent variable well look at is job satisfaction. In experiments, the IV is the variable that is controlled and manipulated by the experimenter; whereas the DV is not manipulated, instead the DV is observed or measured for variation as a presumed result of the variation in the IV. "In no experimental research, where there is no experimental manipulation, the IV is the variable that 'logically' has some effect on a DV. For example, in the research on cigarettesmoking and lung cancer, cigarette-smoking, which has already been done by many subjects, is the independent variable." (Kerlinger, 1986, p.32) When researchers are not able to actually control and manipulate an IV, it is technically referred to as a status variable (e.g., gender, ethnicity, etc.). Even though researchers do not actually control or manipulate status variables, researchers can, and often do, treat them as IVs (Heppner, Kivlighan & Wampold, 1999). "The DV refers to the status of the 'effect'(or outcome) in which the researcher is interested; the independent variable refers to the status of the presumed 'cause,' changes in which lead to

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changes in the status of the dependent variableany event or condition can be conceptualized as either an independent or a dependent variable. For example, it has been observed that rumor-mongering can sometimes cause a riot to erupt, but it has also been observed that riots can cause rumors to surface. Rumors are variables that can be conceived of as causes (IVs) and as effects (DVs)." (Rosenthal & Rosnow, 1991, p. 71)

Independent Variables:
Organizational Level: Organizational behavior reaches its highest level of sophistication when we add formal structure to our previous knowledge of individual and group behavior. Group-level variable: The behavior to people in groups is more than the sum total of all the individuals acting in their own way. Individual-level variables: It has been said that Managers, unlike parents must work with used, not new, human beings human beings whom others have gotten to first. IV: knowledge of position, attitude toward policies, and ability to handle conflicts. DV: commitment to position (continuing in position for 2 years or not continuing). Some Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables The following is a hypothesis for a study. 1. "There will be a statistically significant difference in graduation rates of at-risk high-school seniors who participate in an intensive study program as opposed to at-risk high-school seniors who do not participate in the intensive study program." (LaFountain & Bartos, 2002, p. 57) IV: Participation in intensive study program. DV: Graduation rates. The following is a description of a study. 2. "A director of residential living on a large university campus is concerned about the large turnover rate in resident assistants. In recent years many resident assistants have left their positions before completing even 1 year in their assignments. The director wants to identify the factors that predict commitment as a resident assistant (defined as continuing in the position a minimum of 2 years). The director decides to assess knowledge of the position, attitude toward residential policies, and ability to handle conflicts as predictors for commitment to the position." (LaFountain & Bartos, 2002, p. 8)

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References:

Heppner, P. P., Kivlighan, D. M., Jr., & Wampold, B. E. (1999). Research design in counseling (2nd ed.). New York: Brooks/Cole. Kerlinger, F. N. (1986). Foundations of behavioral research (3rd ed.). Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. LaFountain, R. M., & Bartos, R. B. (2002). Research and statistics made meaningful in counseling and student affairs. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Rosenthal, R., & Rosnow, R. L. (1991). Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data analysis (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2007). Organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River, Sussmann, Mario, Vecchio, Robert P. (1982). A Social Influence Interpretation of Worker Motivation. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review, 7(2), 177. Retrieved September 2, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 944674). Warner, Malcolm (1994). Organizational behavior revisited. Human Relations, 47(10), 1151. Retrieved September 2, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 49053). Wertheim, E. G. Historical background of organizational behavior. Retrieved August 29, 2007, from http://web.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/introd/history.htm#schools. Worthen, Helena (2004). Studying the workplace: considering the usefulness of activity theory. Convergence, 37(1), 23-29. Retrieved September 2, 2007, from ProQuest Education Journals database. (Document ID: 772216201).