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New 21st Century Chemistry

Suggested answers to in-text activities and unit-end exercises Topic 3 Unit 13


In-text activities Checkpoint (page 118) 1 a) There is very little water moisture in the air. b) There is very little oxygen in the water near the seabed. 2 Tube A. The presence of sodium chloride (an ionic substance) speeds up the rusting process.

Discussion (page 122) 1 Painting on the chain would wear off. Grease on the frame would be messy. Handlebar is chromium plated to make it more attractive. 2 Plastic is lighter and does not rust.

Discussion (page 123) 1 a) There was no oxygen in the boiled distilled water. The nail was in contact with water only. Therefore it did not rust. b) Sea water contains ionic substances such as sodium chloride. This speeded up the rusting process. c) It corroded instead of iron. 2 a) b) c) d) To prevent the iron body from rusting. Tin is less reactive than iron. When the tin coating is scratched, the iron rusts more quickly than when it is alone. Zinc ions are poisonous and thus zinc cannot be used to coat the iron body of the can. Aluminium is softer than iron. It is easier to pull off the ring-pull.

Decision Making (page 125) There is no single right answer for this type of exercises. It is more important that students are able to support their choice with sensible reason(s) rather than giving the right answer in this type of exercises. The following answers are just for reference. 1 2 Painting is used because it is cheap. Chromium plating is used because both good protection and shiny appearance are important.

Suggested answers to in-text activities and unit-end exercises Topic 3 Unit 13

Jing Kung. All rights reserved.

New 21st Century Chemistry

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Painting is used because it is cheap. Painting is used because it is cheap. Chromium plating is used because both good protection and shiny appearance are important. Zinc plating or tin plating is used because both methods give good protection with medium cost. Painting is used because it is cheap. Tin plating is used because tin is non-poisonous and the method gives fairly good protection with medium cost.

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Checkpoint (page 127) 1 a) The thickness of the aluminium oxide layer is increased by a process called aluminium anodization. Anodized aluminium is much more resistant to corrosion. Iron is painted to prevent both oxygen and water from reaching the iron. b) As soon as the paint on iron is scratched, rusting starts. On the other hand, aluminium reacts with oxygen in the air to give an even coating of oxide. This protects the metal from further attack. 2 Rust is not firmly attached to the iron surface and tends to fall off. A fresh iron surface is exposed and rusting goes on. This causes disintegration of the metal. Hence rusting is a destructive process. When aluminium reacts with oxygen in the air, an even coating of aluminium oxide forms. This oxide layer sticks to the surface of the metal. It protects the metal underneath from further attack. Hence corrosion of aluminium is a useful process.

STSE Connection (page 128) 1 The first materials used were the ones readily available at that time. Sitka spruce and bamboo are strong yet light. Bamboo is hollow and helps to cut down on mass. Then steels were used as they have better strength for larger aircraft. However, they were heavy and so there was a need for a better solution. Aluminium can be made stronger by alloying. Hence aluminium alloys are widely used. Today, newer materials such as carbon fibre and Kevlar are paving their way forward in aircraft design. They are extremely stiff and ultra lightweight.

Suggested answers to in-text activities and unit-end exercises Topic 3 Unit 13

Jing Kung. All rights reserved.

New 21st Century Chemistry

Light Excellent conductor of heat and electricity Corrosion resistant However, aluminium is too weak to be used on its own.

Increased strength to mass ratio Increased corrosion resistance Improved stiffness and resistance to bending

Unit-end exercises (pages 130-134) Answers for the HKCEE and HKALE questions are not provided. 1

Presence of ionic substances Presence of acidic pollutants Higher temperature Scratching or bending the surface Attachment to a less reactive metal

Suggested answers to in-text activities and unit-end exercises Topic 3 Unit 13

Jing Kung. All rights reserved.

New 21st Century Chemistry

When aluminium reacts with oxygen in the air, an even coating of aluminium oxide forms. This oxide layer sticks to the surface of the metal. It protects the metal underneath from further attack. By electrolysis; aluminium anodization B B (Option A: Tin is less reactive than iron. It cannot provide sacrificial metal). A (1) The iron wire in Dish I was attached to copper, a less reactive metal. Hence the rusting process was speeded up. (2) The iron wire in Dish II was attached to zinc, a more reactive metal. Zinc corroded instead of iron. (3) The iron wire in Dish III was not protected. Hence it rusted. B Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) gave a blue colour in the presence of iron(II) ions. Phenolphthalein gave a pink colour in the presence of excess hydroxide ions. C A a) Test tubes (3) and (4) In test tube (3), the iron nail was in contact with water only. There was no air (oxygen). Rusting would not occur. In test tube (4), the iron nail was in contact with dry air only. There was no water. Rusting would not occur Test tube (1) The sodium chloride solution speeds up the rusting process. i) To stop oxygen from dissolving in the water again. ii) To absorb moisture in the air inside the test tube. i) Yes ii) It will rust faster in the gases given off from an industrial plant. It is because the gases are probably acidic and form acids with moisture in the air. The rusting process is speeded up.

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b) c) d)

Suggested answers to in-text activities and unit-end exercises Topic 3 Unit 13

Jing Kung. All rights reserved.

New 21st Century Chemistry

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a) b)

Magnesium is a sacrificial metal. It corrodes instead of the steel tank. Tin is less reactive than iron. Once the tin coating of the can is damaged, the iron rusts more quickly than when it is alone. Zinc is more reactive than iron. Even when the zinc coating of the iron rubbish bin is damaged, the zinc corrodes instead of the iron. Both oxygen and water are present in the soil. i) Attach a lump of zinc / magnesium to the tank. ii) Zinc / magnesium is more reactive than iron. When it is attached to the steel tank, it corrodes instead of the steel. This method is called sacrificial protection. i) Stainless steel does not corrode easily. ii) Stainless steel is very expensive. It is cheaper to protect the steel tank from rusting and replace the tank when necessary.

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a) b)

c)

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a) Aluminium oxide layer. When aluminium reacts with oxygen in the air, an even coating of aluminium oxide forms. This oxide layer sticks to the surface of the metal. It protects the metal underneath from further attack. i) Aluminium anodization ii) The positive electrode

b)

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Label three tests tubes A, B and C. Clean three iron nails with sandpaper to remove all the rust. Place an iron nail in test tube A. Put some cotton wool in the middle of the test tube and add anhydrous calcium chloride on the cotton wool. Stopper the test tube. Place another iron nail in test tube B. Half fill the test tube with boiled distilled water. Add a layer of oil above the water. Stopper the test tube. Place the last iron nail in test tube C. Half fill the test tube with distilled water. Stopper the test tube. Re-examine the nails after two to three days. Iron nails in test tube A and B do not rust while the one in test tube C rusts. The iron nail in test tube A is in contact with air only while the one in test tube B is in contact with water only. On the other hand, the iron nail in test tube C is in contact with both air and water. The results show that air and water are necessary for rusting to occur.

Suggested answers to in-text activities and unit-end exercises Topic 3 Unit 13

Jing Kung. All rights reserved.