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# KI NEMATI CS

SYLLABUS :
Motion in one and two dimension, Projectile motion, Relative Velocity & Circular
Motion.

POSITION VECTOR

If the coordinates of a particle are given by (x
2
, y
2
, z
2
) its position vector with
respect to (x
1
,y
1
,z
1
) is given by

r = (x
2
- x
1
) i + (y
2
- y
1
) j +(z
2
- z
1
) k . Usually,
position vector with respect to the origin (0,0,0) is specified and is given by

r =x i +y j +z k

DISPLACEMENT

Displacement is a vector quantity. It is the shortest distance
between the final and initial positions of a particle. If
1

r
is the initial position vector and
2

## r is the final position

vector, the displacement vector is given by
1 2

= r r r .

The magnitude of the displacement is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
z z y y x x + +
This is nothing but the straight line distance between two points (x1,y1,z1) and
(x2,y2,z2). The displacement is independent of the path taken by the particle in
moving from (x1 , y1, z1) to (x2, y2, z2)

DISTANCE :
If a particle moves along a curve, the actual
length of the path is the distance. Distance is
always more than or equal to displacement.

Illustration 1 :
A car travels along a circular path of radius (50 /)m with a speed of 10 m/s. Find
its displacement and distance after 17.5 sec.

Solution :
Distance = (speed) time = 10 (17.5) = 175 m
Perimeter of the circular path = 2 (50/) = 100 m
The car covers 1
4
3
rounds of the path
) z , y , x ( P
1 1 1
) z , y , x ( Q
2 2 2
A
B
1

r
2

r

If the car starts from A, it reaches B and the displacement is the shortest
distance between A and B
Displacement =
2 2
R R + =

=
2 50
2 R m.
INSTANTANEOUS AND AVERAGE VELOCITY :

If

## r is the displacement of the particle in time t, the average velocity is

given by

V average =
t
r
t t
r r

1 2
1 2

= Find value - Initial value. The above definition is valid for any magnitude
of large or small. But when is infinitesimally small, the instantaneous
velocity is obtained.

V instantaneous =
Lt
t 0

t
r

=
dt
r d

In normal notation, velocity refers to the instantaneous velocity.

SPEED :
Speed =
time
ce tan Dis

When the time under consideration is very small, distance becomes equal to
the displacement and speed becomes the magnitude of instantaneous velocity.
speed is represented only by its magnitude where as velocity is represented by
magnitude as well as direction.

INSTANTANEOUS AND AVERAGE ACCELERATION :
If

## V is the change in velocity in time t, average acceleration is given by

average
a

=
t
V

.
When becomes infinitesimally small,
t
V
Lt
t

0
=
dt
V d

which gives the instantaneous acceleration.
In normal notation, acceleration refers to the instantaneous acceleration.

|
|
|

\
|
= =

dt
r d
dt
d
dt
V d
a =
2
2
dt
r d

It may be noted here that magnitude of
2
2
dt
r d

is not equal to
2
2
dt
r d
always (as in
the case of circular motion)

Illustration 2 :
A bus shuttles between two places connected by a straight road with uniform speed
of 36 kmph. If it stops at each place for 15 minutes and the distance between the two
places is 60 km, find the average values of (a) Speed (b)
Velocity
(c) acceleration between t = 0 and t = 2 hours and the instantaneous values of
(d) Velocity (e) acceleration at t = 2 hrs.
Solution :
Time taken for forward trip =
36
60
=
3
5
hrs.
Time of stoppage = 15 min = 0.25 hrs.
Time available for return trip = 2 - 5/3 - 0.25 = 1/12 hrs.
Distance travelled in the return trip = (36) 1/12 = 3 km.

a) Average speed =
time Total
distance Total
=
2
3 60 +
= 31.5 kmph.
b) Average velocity =
Time
nt Displaceme
=
2
3 60
= 28.5 kmph
c) Average acceleration =
Time
velocity in change

=
t
V V

1 2
=
( ) ( )
2
36 36 +
= - 36 km/H
2
= -
|

\
|
360
1
m/s
2

d) Velocity at t = 2 hours = - 36 kmph
e) Acceleration at t = 2hours = 0 as there is no change in velocity

Illustration 3 :
A car travels towards North for 10 minutes with a velocity of 60 Kmph, turns
towards East and travels for 15 minutes with a velocity of 80 kmph and then turns
towards North East and travels for 5 minutes with a velocity of 60 kmph. For the
total trip, find a) distance travelled b) displacement c) average speed d)
average velocity and e) average acceleration.

Solution :
Total time taken = (10 + 15 + 5)min = 1/2 hour
km d 3
1
=
km d 60 =

a) Distance travelled = d1 + d2 + d3
= 60
|

\
|
60
10
+ 80
|

\
|
60
15
+ 60
|

\
|
60
5

= 10 + 20 + 5 = 35 km
b) displacement

+ + =
3 2 1
S S S S
= 10 j + 20 i +5 cos 45
0
i + 5 sin 45 j
= 23.5 i + 13.5 j
Magnitude of displacement = ( ) ( )
2 2
5 13 5 23 . . + ~ 27 km
c) Average speed =
hr
km di Total
|

\
|
=
2
1
35
Time
travelled stance
= 70 kmph.
d) Average velocity =
Time
nt Displaceme
= ( ) j i
j . i .
27 47
2
1
5 13 5 23
+ =
+
kmph.
at an angle with the East given by Tan =
5 23
5 13
.
.

Magnitude of average velocity =
2 2
27 47 + = 54 kmph
e) Average acceleration =
Time
y in velocit change

=
Time
velocity Initial velocity Final

=
( ) ( )
2
60 45 60 45 60
0
j j sin i cos +

= ( ) j i 9 21 km/H
2

at an angle with the East given by Tan =
21
9

Magnitude of average acceleration =
2 2
9 21 + ~ 23 km/H
2
~ 1.8 x 10
-
3
m/s
2

Illustration 4 :
A car moving along a circular path of radius R with uniform speed covers an angle
during a given time. Find its average velocity and average acceleration during this
time.

Solution :
Let V be the speed of the car
V =
time
Distance
=
t
R
Displacement= + cos R R R
2 2 2
2 from the triangle OAB
A
V
B
V
o

S
2

S
3

S

= 2R sin /2
Average velocity =
Time
Diplacemnt
=
|

\
|

V
R
sin R
2
2
=

2
2 sin V

Average acceleration =
t
V
time
velocity in Change
=
V = + cos V V V
2 2 2
2 = 2 V sin
2

Average acceleration =
|

\
|

V
R
sin V
2
2
=

R
sin V
2
2
2

When is small sin ~ and
Average velocity =

2
2 sin V
= V
2
V 2
=

\
|

Average velocity = Instantaneous velocity for small angular
displacements
Average acceleration =

\
|
=

R
V
R
sin V
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
R
V
2

Average acceleration = Instantaneous acceleration for small angular
displacements.

KINEMATICAL EQUATIONS : ( CONSTANT ACCELERATION ) :

V = u + at
V
2
- u
2
= 2aS
S= ut + 1/2 at
2

The above equations are valid only for constant acceleration and in a
particular direction. u,v and s must be taken with proper sign. Usually the
direction of u is taken as positive and the sign of other variables are decided
with respect to this direction.
Displacement during the n
th
second = Sn - Sn-1
= u +
2
a
(2n - 1)
It may be noted here that this is not the distance travelled in the n
th
second.

Illustration 5 :
A particle is vertically projected upwards with an initial velocity of 22.5 m/s.
Taking g=10 m/s
2
find a) velocity b) displacement c) distance travelled in t = 4 sec
and d) displacement and distance travelled in 3rd second

V
V

V

Solution :
Taking the upward direction positive
a) V = u + (-g) t = 22.5 - 10 (4) = -17.5 m/s 17.5 m/s down wards
b) S = ut + 1/2 (-g) t
2
= 22.5 (4) - 1/2 (10) 4
2
= 10 m
c) Time to reach the top most point = t0 and at the top most
point velocity becomes zero.
V = u - gt0 0 = 22.5 - 10 (t0) t0 = 2.25 sec
Distance travelled in 4 sec = d1 + d2
d1 = u t0 - 1/2 g
2
0
t = 22.5 (2.25) - 1/2 (10) (2.25)
2
= 25.3 m
d1 can be found from V
2
- u
2
= 2a S also.
0 - (22.5)
2
= 2(-10) d1 d1 =
( )
20
5 22
2
.
= 25.3 m
d2 can be found from S = ut + 1/2 at
2
applied along the down ward
direction starting from the top most point
d2 = 0 (t - t0) + 1/2 g (t - t0)
2
= 1/2 (10) (4 - 2.25)
2
= 15.3 m
Distance travelled in 4 sec = 25.3 + 15.3 = 40.6 m
Displacement in 4 sec = d1 - d2 = 25.3 - 15.3 = 10 m
Displacement can also be found directly by applying S = ut +
1/2 at
2
along the vertical
Displacement in 4 sec = 22.5 (4) - 1/2 (10) (4)
2
= 10M
d) 3rd second is from t = 2 sec to t = 3 sec.
Displacement in the 3rd second = u +
2
a
(2n - 1)
= 22.5 -
2
10
(6 - 1) = -2.5 m
When there is no change in the direction of the motion along a straight line,
distance will be equal to displacement. When the particle reverses its
direction during the time under consideration, distance will be more than the
displacement and the time at which the reversal is taking place must be
found.

When the particle reverses its direction, its velocity becomes zero.
using V = u + at, 0 = 22.5 - 10 (t0) t0 = 2.25 sec
d = d1 + d2
using the formula S = ut + 1/2 at
2

d1 = [22.5 (2.25) - 1/2 (10) (2.25)
2
] - [22.5 (2) - 1/2 (10) (2)
2
]
= 0.31 m
Along the downwards vertical starting from the top
d2 = 0 (3 - 2.25) + 1/2 (10) (3 - 2.25)
2
= 2.81 m
d = 0.31 + 2.81 = 3 .12 m

KINEMATICAL EQUATIONS ( VARIABLE ACCELERATION ) :

When the acceleration is variable, the kinematical equation take the form
sec t 3 = sec t 2 =
sec . t 25 2 =
1
d
2
d
1
d
2
d

V =
dt
dx
a =
2
2
dt
x d
dt
dV
=
a =
dx
VdV
dt
dx
dx
dV
= |

\
|
|

\
|
V = u +

t
dt a
0

x = ut + dt dt a
t t
|
|

\
|

0 0
and V
2
- u
2
= 2

x
dx a
0

Illustration 6 :
The position coordinate of a particle moving along a straight line is given by x = 4 t
3
-
3t
2
+4t+5. Find a) Velocity and acceleration as a function of time b) Displacement
as a function of time c) the time at which velocity becomes zero and the acceleration
at this time d) the time at which acceleration becomes zero and the velocity at this
time.
Solution :
a) V =
dt
dS
=
( )
dt
x x d
0

=
dt
dx
Where x0 is the initial position coordinate
which is a constant
=
dt
d
(4t
3
- 3t
2
+ 4t + 5) = 12 t
2
- 6t + 4
a =
dt
dv
=
dt
d
(12t
2
- 6t + 4) = 24t - 6
b) Displacement = (position coordinate at time t) - (position coordinate at
t = 0)
= (4t
3
- 3t
2
+ 4t + 5) - (5)
= 4t
3
- 3t
2
+ 4t
c) When V = 0, 12 t
2
- 6t + 4 = 0 t =
12
48 9 3

since this value is imaginary, the velocity never becomes zero.
d) When a = 0, 24t 6 =0 and t =
24
6
=
4
1
units and the velocity of the
particle at this time, V= 12
4
13
4
4
1
6
4
1
2
= +
|

\
|

\
|
units

Illustration 7 :
The velocity of a particle moving in the positive direction of the x axis varies as V =
x where is a positive constant. Assuming that at the moment t = 0 the particle
was located at the point x = 0, find a) the time dependence of the velocity and the
acceleration of the particle b) the mean velocity of the particle averaged over the
time that the particle takes to cover the first S meters of the path.

Solution :
a) V =
dt
dx
= x

=
t x
dt
x
dx
0 0

2 x = t and x =
4
2 2
t

V =
2
2
t
and a =
dt
dV
=
2
2

b) Mean velocity =
time
nt Displaceme

Displacement = S, and the time taken for this displacement t =

S 2

Mean velocity =
( )
|
|

\
|

S
S
2
=
2
S

Mean velocity can also be found from the following formulae
V mean =

dx
dx V
when V is a function of x
and V mean =

dt
dt V
when V is a function of time

KINEMATICAL EQUATIONS IN VECTOR FORM ( CONSTANT ACCELERATION )

t a u V

+ =

= S . a u . u V . V 2

2
2
1
t a t u S

+ =
The above equations are useful in 2 and 3 dimensional motion.

Illustration 8 :
A particle moving on a horizontal plane has velocity and acceleration as shown in
the diagram at time t = 0. Find the velocity and displacement at time 't'.

Solution :
METHOD - I

u = u cos30
0
i + u cos 60 j =
2
3
u i + j
u
2

a = - a cos 45 i - a cos45 j =
2
a
i -
2
a
j

V = t a u

+ = i t
a
u
|
|

\
|

2
2
3
+ j t
a u
|

\
|

2
2

The magnitude of the velocity =
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
|
t
a u at
u

2
2
1
t a t u S

+ = = j t
a
t
u
i t
a
ut
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
+
|
|

\
|
|

\
|

2 2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
3
= Sx i + Sy
j
The magnitude of the displacement =
2 2
y
S Sx +

METHOD - II
This can be solved by vector addition method also. It may be noted
here that

## u t will be along the direction of

u , t a

and
2
2
1
t a

will be
along the direction of

a
t a u V

+ =
Since the angle between

u and t a

is 165
0
, the magnitude of the
velocity is
( ) ( )
0 2 2
165 2 cos at u at u + +

2
2
1
t a t u S

+ =
Since the angle between

u t and
2
2
1
t a

is 165
0
, the magnitude of the
displacement is ( ) ( )
0 2
2
2 2
165
2
1
2
2
1
cos at ut at ut |

\
|
+ |

\
|
+

KINEMATICAL EQUATIONS IN RELATIVE FORM (CONSTANT ACCELERATION
When two particles A and B move simultaneously with initial velocities

u A
and
B
u

## , at any time 't'

=
A AB
V V -

B
V ;

=
B A AB
S S S ;

=
B A AB
a a a
0
30
0
45
a
x
y
u
0
30

V
t a

0
45
2
2
1
t a

0
30
t u

S
0
45

AB
U =
B A
U U

AB
V = t a u
AB AB

+

2
2
1
t a t u S
AB AB AB

+ =
where

AB
X means parameter X of A with respect to B.
Similarly if

## r is the position coordinate at time 't' and

0
r is the initial
position coordinate at time 't' = 0,

2
1
0
+ + =

t u r r
A
A
A

2
t a
A

2
1
0
+ + =

t u r r
B
B
B

2
t a
B

=
AB
AB
r r
0
+
2
2
1
t a t u
AB AB

## + gives the position coordinate of A with

respect to B at any time.

AB
r gives the distance between A and B at any
time 't'.

Illustration 9 :
A loose bolt falls from the roof of a lift of height 'h' moving vertically upward with
acceleration 'a'. Find the time taken by the bolt to reach the floor of the lift and the
velocity of impact.

Solution :
j h S
b
=

as the bolt travels a distance 'h' down wards before hitting the
floor

= a a a
b
b
= (-g j ) - (a j ) = - (g + a) j

= u u u
b
b
= j u - j u = 0 as they have the same initial velocity upwards

2
2
1
t a t u S
b b b

+ =
- h j = 0 -
2
1
(a + g) t
2
j t =
g a
h
+
2

Velocity of impact is nothing but the relative velocity of the bolt with respect
to the lift
Vimpact = t a u V
b b b

+ =

= - (a+g) j
g a
h
+
2
= ( ) g a h + 2 j

Illustration 10 :
Two particles A and B move on a horizontal surface
with constant velocities as shown in the figure. If the
initial distance of separation between them is 10 m
at t=0, find the distance between them at t = 2 sec

Solution :
Distance between them =
AB
r

Taking the origin at the initial position of A

2
0
2
1
t a t u r r
AB AB
AB
AB

+ + =
i r
AB
10
0
=

( ) ( ) j cos i cos j cos i cos U U u
B A AB
0 0 0 0
30 10 60 10 45 2 10 45 2 10 + = =

= 5 i - 18.7 j
0 = =

B A AB
a a a
( ) ( ) j . i i r
AB
7 18 5 10 + =

t
At t = 2 sec , j . r
AB
4 37 =

and
AB
r

= 37.4 units

DISPLACEMENT - TIME GRAPHS :
The displacement is plotted along 'y' axis and the time along 'x' axis. The
slope of the curve
dt
dS
gives the instantaneous velocity at that point. The average
slope between two points
t
S

## gives the average velocity between these points.

Rate of change of slope gives the acceleration. If the slope is positive and
decreases with time, the particle is under retardation. If the slope is positive and
increases with time, the particle is under acceleration, constant slope implies zero
acceleration.

Illustration 11 :
The displacement - time graph of a particle moving along a
straight line is given below. Find
a) the time at which the velocity is zero
m 10
0
60
s / m u
B
10 =
0
45
s / m u
A
2 10 =
A B
0
m 2
x
2 4 t
circle Semi

b) the velocity at time t = 1 sec
c) the average velocity between t = 2 sec and t = 4 sec

Solution :
a) Velocity is zero when the slopoe is zero which happens at t = 2 sec
b) Since any point (x,t) lies on the circle of radius 2 m and centre (2,0),
(x-0)
2
+ (t - 2)
2
= 2
2
x = ( )

2
2 4 t
velocity is given by the slope
dt
dx
= V
V =
dt
d
( )
( )
( ) ( )
|
|
|

\
|

=
|

\
|
2 2
2 4 2
1
2 4
2
2
t
t
t = +
|
|

\
|
3
1

Since the slope is +ve between t = 0 and t = 2, v =
3
1
m/s
c) Average velocity =
time
nt Displaceme
=
2 4
2

O
= -1 m/s

VELOCITY - TIME GRAPH :

If velocity is plotted on 'y' axis and time is plotted on x axis, the slope of the
curve at any point
dt
dv
given instantaneous acceleration. The
average slope between two points
t
v

gives average
acceleration. The total area between the curve and the time
axis gives distance where as algebraic sum of the areas gives
displacement.
Distance = A1 + A2 + A3
Displacement = A1 - A2 + A3
The nature of acceleration can be found from the rate of change of slope

Illustration 12 :
The velocity time graph of a particle moving along a straight line has the form of a
parabola
v = (t
2
- 6t + 8) m/s . Find
a) the distance travelled between t = 0 second t = 3 sec
b) the velocity of the particle when the acceleration is zero
c) the acceleration of the particle when the velocity is zero
d) the velocity of the particle when the acceleration is zero
V
1
A
2
A
3
A
t

Solution :
a) Distance = area OAB + area BCF which can be
obtained by the method of integration.
Since at the points B and D, velocity becomes zero t
2

6t + 8 = 0
t = 2 sec and 4sec
Since F is in between B and D, the time corresponding
to F is
2
4 2 +
= 3 sec. Similarly A corresponds to t = 0
and E corresponds to t = 6 sec
Area OAB = A1 = ( )

|
|

\
|
+ = + =
2
0
2
0
2 3
2
2
0
8
2
6
3
8 6 t
t t
dt t t dt V =
3
20
m
Area BCF = A2 = - m t
t t
dt V
3
2
8
2
6
3
2 3
3
2
=
|
|

\
|
+ =

Distance = m
3
22
3
2
3
20
= +
b) displacement between t = 3 sec and t = 6 sec = A4 - A3 = A1 - A2 =
3
2
3
20
= 6m
c) a =
dt
dv
= 2t - 6
When V = 0 ; t = 2sec and 4 sec
a = 2(2) - 6 and 2(4) - 6
= - 2 m/sec
2
and 2 m/sec
2

d) When a = 0, 2t - 6 = 0 and t = 3 sec
V = 3
2
- 6(3) + 8 = -1 m/sec
PROJECTILE MOTION :

At the top most point Vy = 0 and
Vx = u cos
From Vy = uy + ay t, 0 = usin - gt
t =
g
sin u

Time of flight = 2t =
g
sin u 2

From
2 2
y y
u V = 2ay Sy, 0 - (u sin)
2
= 2 (-g) H and H =
g
sin u
2
2 2

Range = (Time of flight) (horizontal velocity) =
( )
g
sin u
cos u
g
sin u
=
|
|

\
| 2 2
2

R
H
T
u

V
E A
1
A
O
B F D
4
A
3
A
2
A
t
C

Range is maximum when = 45
0
and Rmax =
g
u
2

H
R
=
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|

g
sin u
g
cos sin u
2
2
2 2
2
= 4 cot
The velocity of the particle at any time 't' is given by j V i V V
y x
+ =

## V = (ucos) i + (usin - gt) j

The magnitude of the velocity = ( ) ( )
2 2
gt sin u cos u +
If is the angle made by the velocity at any time 't' with the horizontal,
Tan =

cos u
gt sin u

Taking the origin at the point of projection, the 'x' and 'y' coordinates at any
time 't' are given by
x = u cos t and y = usint
2
1
gt
2

Eliminating 't' from x and y
y = u sin
|

\
|
cos u
x

2
1
g
2
|

\
|
cos u
x

= x tan -

2 2
2
2 cos u
gx
which is the equation of a parabola.
It may be noted here that the velocity of the projectile will be always
tangential to its path. The equations of projectile motion derived above are
valid only for constant acceleration due to gravity 'g'.

Illustration 13 :
A particle is projected from the horizontal at an inclination of 60
0
with an initial
velocity 20 m/sec.
Assuming g = 10 m/sec
2
find a) the time at which the energy becomes three
fourths kinetic and one fourth potential b) the angle made by the velocity at that
time with the horizontal c) the x and y coordinates of the particle taking the
origin at the point of projection.

Solution :
a) Let V be the velocity when the given condition is fulfilled
2
1
mV
2
=
4
3

(
2
1
mu
2
)
V =
2
3u
= 10 3 m/sec
( ) j gt sin u i cos u V + =

= 20 cos 60
0
i + ( ) t sin 10 60 20
0
j = 10 i + ( ) j t 10 3 10

V = 10 3 10
2
+ ( )
2
10 3 10 t = ( )
2
3 10
Solving t = ( ) 2 3 sec
t = 2 3 while rising up and t = 2 3 + while coming down
b) Tan =

cos u
gt sin u

=
( )
10
2 3 10 3 10
= + 2
c) x = ucos t
= 10 ( ) 2 3 = 10 ( ) ( ) m or m 2 3 10 2 3 +
and y = u sin t -
2
1
gt
2

= 10 3 ( ) 2 3 - 5 ( ) m 5 2 3
2
=

PROJECTILE MOTION ON AN INCLINED PLANE :

Let be the inclination of the plane and the
particle is projected at an angle with the inclined
plane. It is convenient to take the reference frame
with x' along the plane and y' perpendicular to the
plane. gcos will be the component of the
acceleration along the downward perpendicular to
the plane and g sin will be the component of the acceleration along the downward
direction of the inclined plane.
Along the plane, the kinematical equations take the form

' y
y
u
' x
cos g
sin g
x

t a u V
' x ' x ' x
+ =
t sin g cos u V
' x
=

2
2
1
t a t ' u S
' x x ' x
+ =

' x
S = ucost -
2
1
gsin t
2

2
' x
V -
' x ' x ' x
S a u 2
2
=
2
' x
V - (ucos)
2
= 2 (-g sin)
' x
S
Similarly perpendicular to the plane, the kinematical equations take the form
t a u V
' y ' y ' y
+ = t cos g sin u V
' y
=

2
2
1
t a t u S
' y ' y ' y
+ =
2
2
1
t cos g t sin u S
' y
=

' y ' y ' y ' y
S a u V 2
2 2
= ( ) ( )
' y ' y
S cos g sin u V = 2
2 2

Here it may be noted that,
When the particle strikes the inclined plane
' y
S = 0
When the particle strikes the inclined plane perpendicular to it, 0 =
' y
S and
0 =
' x
V
When particle strikes the inclined plane horizontally 0 =
' y
S and
y
V = 0

Illustration 14 :
From the foot of an inclined plane of inclination , a
projectile is shot at an angle with the inclined plane.
Find the relation between and if the projectile
strikes the inclined plane
a) perpendicular to the plane
b) horizontally

Solution :
a) Since the particle strkes the plane perpendicularly 0 =
' y
S and 0 =
' x
V
u sin t -
2
1
g cos t
2
= 0 and u cos - g sin t = 0
t =

cos g
sin u 2
and t =

sin g
cos u

sin g
cos u
cos g
sin u 2
2 Tan = cot

b) Since the particle strikes the plane horizontally
' y
S = 0 and 0 =
y
V
u sin t -
2
1
g cos t
2
= 0 and u sin ( + ) - gt = 0
t =

cos g
sin u 2
=
( )
g
sin u +

( )
g
sin u
cos g
sin u +
=

cos
sin 2
= sin
( + )

' y
u
' x

CIRCULAR MOTION :

When a particle moves in a circle of radius R with constant speed V, its called
uniform circular motion.

When the particle covers , the direction of velocity also changes by
without change in magnitude. Change in velocity V will be towards the centre of
curvature of the circular path which causes centripetal acceleration. is called the
angular position (or) angular displacement.
Centripetal acceleration,
r
a =
t
V

The rate of change of angular position is known as angular velocity ()
Time period of circular motion T =
V
R 2

In the same time the particle covers an angle 2 from which angular velocity can be
found as
=
T
2
=
R
V
R
V
=

2
2

t =

=
V
R
and V = + cos V V V
2 2 2
2 = 2V sin
2

When is small sin ~ V = V
centripetal acceleration =
t
V

=
( )
|

\
|

V
R
V
=
R
V
2

When speed of the particle continuously changes with time, the
tangential acceleration is given by
t
a =
dt
dV

The rate of change of angular velocity is called the angular acceleration ()
since
r
a and
t
a are perpendicular to each other, the resultant
acceleration is given by a =
2 2
t r
a a +
r
t
a
a

V

V
V
V

Illustration 15 :
The speed of a particle in circular motion of radius R is given by V = Rt
2
. Find the
time at which the radial and the tangential accelerations are equal and the distance
traveled by the particle upto that moment.

Solution :

t r
a a =

dt
dV
R
V
=
2
= 2Rt t =
3
1
2
Distance travelled =

3
1
2
0
dt V =
3
1
2
3
3
|
|

\
|
Rt
=
3
2R

When a particle is moving in a plane
R
V
a
r
2
= where V is the instantaneous
velocity and R is the radius of curvature at that point.
r
a
V
2

If the path of the particle is given by y = f(x), radius of curvature can also be
found from the formula R =
2
2
2
3
2
1
dx
y d
dx
dy
|
|

\
|
|

\
|
+

Illustration 16 :
A particle is projected with initial velocity 'u' at angle with the horizontal. Find
the radius of curvature at a) point of projection b) the top most point

Solution :

a) at the point of projection P, V = u and
r
a = g cos
R =
r
a
V
2
=
cos g
u
2

b) at the topmost point T, V = ucos and g a
r
=
R =
r
a
V
2
=
g
cos u
2 2

u
p
T

SHORTEST DISTANCE OF APPROACH :
When two particles A and B are moving simultaneously, their position
coordinates at any time 't' are given by (when the accelerations are uniform)

2
0
2
1
t a t u r r
A A
A
A

+ + = and
2
0
2
1
t a t u r r
B B
B
B

+ + =
The distance between them at any time 't', S = AB r

Where
2
0
2
1
t a t u r r
AB AB
AB
AB

+ + =
The distance between them becomes minimum when
dt
dS
=0 from which the
time at which it becomes minimum can be found. Substituting the value of
time so obtained in AB r

## , S min can be found.

Illustration 17 :
Two ships A and B move with constant
velocities as shown in the figure. Find the
closest distance of approach between them

Solution :
j r
A
10
0
=

i r
B
20
0
=

j cos i cos V
A
30 20 60 20
0
=

j cos i cos V
B
45 2 10 45 2 10 + =

j i 3 10 10 = = 10 i + 10 j
0 =

A a 0 =

B a
t V r r A
A
A

+ =
0
t V r r B
B
B

+ =
0

= 10 t i + ( ) j t 3 10 10 = (20 + 10 t) i + 10 t j
B A AB r r r

= = - 20 i + ( ) j t t 10 3 10 10
S = AB r

= ( ) ( )
2
2
10 3 10 10 20 t t +
When the distance between A and B is minimum
dt
dS
= 0

( ) ( )
|
|
|

\
|
+
2
2
10 3 10 10 20 2
1
t t
( ) ( ) ( ) 10 3 10 10 3 10 10 2 t t = 0
A
km 10
o
30
North
kmph V
A
20 =
kmph V
B
2 10 =
East
0
45
O km 20 B

10 - 10 3 t - 10 t = 0 t =
|
|

\
|
+ 3 1
1
hr
Substituting this value of time in the expression for S,
S min = 20 km

CYCLIC MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES :

When three or more particles located at the vertices of a polygon of side l
move with constant speed V such that particle 1 moves always towards particle 2
and particle 2 moves always towards 3 particle etc., they meet at the centre of the
polygon following identical curved paths.
Time of meeting =
approach Velocityof
seperation Initial

Velocity of approach is the component of the relative velocity along the line
joining the particles.

Illustration 18 :
Six particles located at the six vertices of a hexagon of side l move with constant
speeds V such that each particle always targets the particle in front if it. Find the
time of meeting and the distance travelled by each particle before they meet

Solution :
t =
approach of Velocity
seperation Initial

=
0
60 cos V V

=
V
2

Since they move with constant speed V, the distance travelled by
each particle in time t =
V
2
is d = Vt = V
V
2
= 2 l
RIVER PROBLEMS :
If r V

## is the velocity of the river and b V

is the
velocity of the boat with respect to still water,
the resultant velocity of the boat R V

= r b V V

+
Only the perpendicular component of the
resultant velocity helps in crossing the river.
Time of crossing, t =
cos V
w
b
where 'w' is the
width of the river.
The boat crosses the river in the least time when = 0
The parallel component of the resultant velocity determines the drift.
Drift is the displacement of the boat parallel to the river by the time the boat
crosses the river
V
V
V
V
V
0
60
B

r
V
A
C

b
V

Drift , x = ( ) sin V V
b r

|
|

\
|
cos V
w
b

Zero drift is possible only when Vr = Vb sin. When Vr > Vb zero drift is not
possible.

Illustration 19 :
A river of width 100 m is flowing towards East with a velocity of 5 m/s. A boat
which can move with a speed of 20 m/s with respect to still water starts from a point
on the South bank to reach a directly opposite point on the North bank. If a wind is
blowing towards North East with a velocity of 5 2 m/s, find the time of crossing
and the angle at which the boat must be rowed.
Solution :
j cos i sin V
b
+ =

20 20
r V

= 5 i

Vw = 5 2 cos 45 i + 5 2 cos 45 j = 5 i + 5 j
R V

## = Resultant velocity of the boat = b V

+ r V

+ w V

= ( - 20 sin + 5 + 5) i + (20 cos + 5) j
For reaching directly opposite point, the component of the resultant velocity
parallel to the river must be zero
- 20 sin + 10 = 0 sin =
2
1
and = 30
0

Since time of crossing depends only on the perpendicular component of the
resultant velocity.
t =
5 20 + cos
w
=
5 30 20
100
0
+ cos
= 4.48 sec

r
V
w
V
45

b
V

WORKED OUT OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

EXAMPLE : 01
A point moves along 'x' axis. Its position at time 't' is given by x
2
= t
2
+ 1. Its
acceleration at time 't' is
A)
3
1
x
B)
2
1 1
x
x
C)
2
x
t
D)
3
2
x
t

Solution :
x = 1
2
+ t ;
dt
dx
=
1 2
1
2
+ t
(2t) =
1
2
+ t
t

a =
2
2
xt
x d
=
2
2
2
2
1
2
1 2
1
|

\
|
+
+

\
|
+
t
) t (
t
t
t
=
( )
3
2
1
1
+ t
=
3
1
x

EXAMPLE : 02

A body thrown vertically up from the ground passes the height 10.2m twice at an
interval of 10 sec. Its initial velocity was (g = 10 m/s
2
)
A) 52 m/s B) 26 m/s C) 35 m/s D) 60
m/s
Solution :
Displacement is same in both cases
s = ut + 1/2 at
2

10.2 = ut -
2
1
(10) t
2
t =
10
204
2
u u

t1 =
10
204
2
u u
and t2 =
10
204
2
+ u u
t = t2 - t1 = 10 sec
204
2
u = 50 u
2
= 2500 + 204 u = 52 m/s

EXAMPLE : 03
A car starts from rest moving along a line, first with acceleration a= 2 m/s
2
, then
uniformly and finally decelerating at the same rate and comes to rest. The total
time of motion is 10 sec. The average speed during this time is 3.2 m/s. How long
does the car move uniformly
A) 4 sec B) 6 sec C) 5 sec D) 3
sec

Solution :

Let the car accelerate for time 't' and move uniformly with v = at for time t1
Since the magnitudes of acceleration and deceleration are same, the time of
deceleration is also 't'.
t + t 1 + t = 10 sec
Average speed =
time
Distance
=
( )
10
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
|

\
|
+ + |

\
|
at t at at
= 3.2
2t
2
+ 2tt1 = 32 2 32
2
10
2
2
10
1
1
2
1
= |

\
|
+ |

\
|
t
t t

Solving t1 = 6 sec This problem can be solved using velocity time graph
also.

EXAMPLE : 04
A particle has an initial velocity of ( ) j i 4 3 + m/s and a constant acceleration
( ) j i 3 4 m/s
2
. Its speed after 1 sec will be equal to
A) zero B) 10 m/s C) 5 2 m/s D) 25
m/s

Solution :
t a u V

+ = = ( ) ( ) ` j i j i 3 4 4 3 + + (1) = 7 i - j
Speed = magnitude of

V =
2 2
1 7 + = 5 2 m/s

EXAMPLE : 05

An aeroplane flies along a straight line from A to B with air speed V and back
again with the same air speed. If the distance between A and B is l and a steady
wind blows perpendicular to AB with speed u, the total time taken for the round
trip is
A)
V
2
B)
2 2
2
u V +

C)
2 2
2
u V
V
D)
2 2
2
u V

Solution :
The resultant velocity of the plane must be along AB during forward
journey.
t1 =
2 2
u V
V
R
=

During return journey, the resultant velocity of the plane must be along
BA
A
R
V
B
V
u
R
V
V
A
B
u

t2 =
2 2
u V
V
R
=

Total time t = t1 + t2 =
2 2
2
u V

EXAMPLE : 06

A particle is thrown with a speed 'u' at an angle with the horizontal. When the
particle makes an angle with the horizontal its speed changes to V. Then
A) V = u cos B) V = ucos cos C) V = u cos sec D) V = usec
cos

Solution :
Since the horizontal component of the velocity of a projectile always remains
constant
u cos=V cos V=ucos sec

EXAMPLE : 07
Two shells are fired from a cannon with same speed at angle and respectively
with the horizontal. The time interval between the shots is T. They collide in mid
air after time 't' from the first shot. Which of the following conditions must be
satisfied.
A) > B) t cos = (t -T) cos
C) (t-T) cos =cos D) (usin )t -
2
1
gt
2
=(usin ) (t-T)-
2
1
g(t-T)
2

Solution :
When they collide, their 'x' and 'y' components must be same
ucos t = u cos (t-T) cos t = cos (t-T)
(usin) t -
2
1
gt
2
= (usin) (t-T) -
2
1
g (t-T)
2

Since cos = cos
|

\
|

t
T
1 and T < t
cos < cos and >

EXAMPLE : 08
A particle is projected from a point 'p' with velocity 5 2 m/s perpendicular to the
surface hollow right angle cone whose axis is vertical. It collides at point Q
normally on the inner surface. The time of flight of the particle is
A) 1 sec B) 2 sec C) 2 2 sec D) 2
sec

Solution :
It can be seen from the diagram that

V becomes perpendicular to

u .

u = ucos45
0
i + u sin45 j

V =

u +

## a t = (ucos 45 i + usin45 j ) - (gt) j

When

V becomes perpendicular to

u ,

V .

u = 0
u
2
cos
2
45 + u
2
sin
2
45 - (usin45) gt = 0 t =
45 sin g
u
= 1 sec

EXAMPLE : 09
A man walking Eastward at 5 m/s observes that the wind is blowing from the
North. On doubling his speed Eastward he observes that the wind is blowing
from North East. The velocity of the wind is
A) (5i+5j) m/s B) (5i - 5j) m/s C) (-5i +5j) m/s D) (-5i -
5j) m/s

Solution :
let j V i V V
w
2 1
+ =

In the first case
m w wm
V V V

= = ( ) j V i V
2 1
+ - ( ) i 5
Since no component along East is observed V1 - 5 = 0 V1 = 5 m/s
In the second case

m w wm
V V V

= = (V1 i + V2 j ) - (10 i ) = ( ) j V i V
2 1
10 +
Since the wind is observed from North East the components along North and
East must be same V1 - 10 = V2 V2 = - 5 m/s

## Vw = (5i - 5j) m/s

EXAMPLE :10
From a lift moving upward with uniform acceleration 'a', a man throws a ball
vertically upwards with a velocity V relative to the lift. The time after which it
comes back to the man is
A)
a g
V

2
B)
a g
V
+
C)
a g
V
+
2
D)
2 2
2
a g
Vg

Solution :
Since the velocity of the ball is given relative to the lift bl V

= V j
When the ball comes back to the man, its displacement relative to the lift is
zero bl S

= 0
bl a

= l
b
a a

= (-g) j - a j = - (g + a) j
Applying S = ut + 1/2 at
2
in relative form

bl bl V S

= t +
2
1
bl a

t
2
0 = ( )j Vt +
2
1
( ) ( ) j a g + t
2
t =
a g
V
+
2

ASSIGNMENT
LEVEL I
1. The greatest acceleration or deceleration that a train may have is a. The
minimum time in which the train can go from one station to the next at a
distance S is
A)
a
S
B)
a
S 2
C) 2
a
s
D)
a 2
s

2. A car accelerates from rest at a constant rate for sometime and attains a
velocity of 20 m/s. Afterwards it decelerates with a constant rate /2 and
comes to a halt. If the total time taken is 10s, the distance travelled by the car
is
A) 200m B) 100m C) 10m D) 20m
3. A particle starts from the position of rest under a constant acceleration. It
travels a distance x in the first 10 seconds and distance y in the next 20
seconds. Then
A) y = x B) y = 2x C) y = 8x D) y = 4x
4. A body is projected vertically upwards. If t1 and t2 be the times at which it is
at height h above the point of projection while ascending and descending
respectively, then h is
A)
2 1
t t g
2
1
B) g t1 t2 C) 2 g t1 t2 D) 4 g t1 t2
5. From a 20m high tower one ball is thrown upward with speed of 10m/s and
another is thrown vertically downward at the same speed simultaneously.
The time difference of their reaching the ground will be (take g = 10m/s
2
)
A) 12s B) 6s C) 2s D) 1s
6. A particle X moving with a constant velocity u crosses a point O. At the same
instant another particle F starts from rest from O with a constant acceleration
a. The maximum separation between them before they meet is
A)
a 2
u
2
B)
a
u
2
C)
a
u 2
2
D)
a 4
u
2

7. A bird flies in straight line for 4s with a velocity v = (2t-4) m/s. What is the
distance covered by the bird in returning to the place from where it started its
journey ?
A) 0 B) 8m C) 4m D) 2m
8. A ball is thrown vertically upwards. Which of the following plots represents
the speed-time graph of the ball during its flight if the air resistance is not
ignored

A) B) C) D)

9. If a ball is thrown vertically upwards with speed 'u', the distance covered
during the last t second of its ascent is
A) (u+gt)s B) ut C)
2
1
gt
2
D) ut -
2
1
gt
2
10. A particle has an initial velocity of 9m/s due east and a constant acceleration
of 2m/s
2
due west. The distance covered by the particle in the fifth second of
its motion is
A) 0 B) 0.5m C) 2m D) none of
these
11. Two particles are projected simultaneously in the same vertical plane from
the same point, with different speeds u1 and u2, making angles 1 and 2
respectively with the horizontal , such that u1 cos1 = u2cos2. The path
followed by one, as seen by the other (as long as both are in flight), is :
A) a horizontal straight line B) a vertical straight line C) a parabola

D) a straight line making an angle |1 - 2| with the horizontal
12. A particle starts from the origin of coordinates at time t = 0 and moves in the
xy plane with a constant acceleration in the y-direction. Its equation of
motion is y =x
2
. Its velocity component in the x-direction is
A) variable B)

2
C)

2
D)

2

13. A train starts from station A with uniform acceleration for some distance
and then goes with uniform retardation for some more distance to come to
rest at station B. The distance between station A and B is 4 km and the train
takes 4 minute to complete this journey. If and are in km (min)
-2
then
A) 2
1 1
=

B) 4
1 1
=

C)
2
1 1 1
=

D)
4
1 1 1
=

14. The driver of a train moving with a speed v1 sights another train at a distance
d, ahead of him moving in the same direction with a slower speed v2. He
applies the breaks and gives a constant de-acceleration 'a' to his train. For no
collision, d is
A) =
( )
a 2
v v
2
2 1

B) >
( )
a 2
v v
2
2 1

C) <
( )
a 2
v v
2
2 1

D) <
a 2
v v
2 1

15. In the case of a moving body, pick the correct statement
A) if speed changes with change in direction, velocity does not change
B) if velocity changes, speed may or may not change but acceleration does
change
C) if velocity changes, speed also changes with same acceleration
D) if speed changes without change in direction, the velocity may remain
constant.
16. Particle 1 is in one dimensional motion with uniform velocity whereas particle
2 is accelerating in a straight line. The graph representing path of 2 with
respect to 1 is

A) B) C) D)
17. Person A walking along a road at 3ms
-1
sees another person B walking on
another road at right angles to his road. Velocity of B is 4ms
-1
when he is 10m
off. They are nearest to each other when person A has covered a distance of
A) 3.6m B) 8m C) 6.3m D) 0.8m
18. The given graph shows the variation of velocity with displacement.
Which one of the graphs given below correctly represents the variation of
acceleration with displacement.
A) B) C) D)
19. v
2
versus s-graph of a particle moving in a straight line is as
shown in figure. From the graph some conclusions are drawn.
State which statement is wrong :
A) the given graph shows a uniformly accelerated motion.
B) initial velocity of particle is zero
C) corresponding s-t graph will be a parabola

D) none of the above
20. A body dropped from the top of the tower covers a distance 7x in the last
second of its journey, where x is the distance covered in first second. How
much time does it take to reach the ground ?
A) 3s B) 4s C) 5s D) 6s
21. A body is projected with a velocity u. It passes through a certain point above
the ground after t1 sec. The time interval after which the body passes through
the same point during the return journey is
A)
|
|

\
|

2
1
t
g
u
B) 2
|
|

\
|

1
t
g
u
C) 3
|
|

\
|

1
2
t
g
u
D) 3
|
|

\
|

1
2
2
t
g
u

22. The area of the acceleration-displacement curve of a body gives :
A) impulse B) change in momentum per unit mass
C) change in KE per unit mass D) total change in energy
23. A body thrown vertically up from the ground passes the height 10.2m twice
at an interval of 10s. What was its initial velocity (g = 10m/s
2
)
A) 52m/s B) 26 m/s C) 35 m/s D) 60 m/s
24. An insect crawls a distance of 4m along north in 10 seconds and then a
distance of 3m along east in 5 seconds. The average velocity of the insect is :
A) 7/15 m/sec B) 1/5 m/sec C) 1/3 m/sec D) 4/5 m/sec

25. A particle returns to the starting point after 10s. If the rate of change of
velocity during the motion is constant in magnitude, then its location after 7
seconds will be same as that after :
A) 1 second B) 2 seconds C) 3 seconds 4) 4 second
26. Two particles P and Q simultaneously start moving from point A with
velocities 15m/s and 20m/s respectively. The two particles move with
accelerations equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. When P overtakes
Q at B then its velocity is 30m/s. The velocity of Q at point B will be
A) 30m/s B) 5m/s C) 20m/s D) 15m/s
27. Let a and v denote the velocity and acceleration respectively of a particle in
one dimensional motion:
A) the speed of the particle decreases when 0 a v <
B) the speed of the particle increases when 0 a v >
C) the speed of the particle increases when 0 a v =
D) the speed of the particle decreases when a v <
28. The displacement-time graph of a moving particle is shown in
figure. The instantaneous velocity of the particle is negative at
the point :
A) C B) D
C) E D) F
29. A ball A is thrown vertically upward with speed u. At the same
instant another ball B is released from rest at height h. At time t the speed of A
relative to B is :
A) u B) u-2gt C) gh 2 u
2
D) u-gt
30. The velocity of a projectile at any instant is u making an angle to the
horizon. The time after which it will be moving at right angle to this direction
is :
A)
g
ec cos u
B)
g
sin u 2
C)
g
cos u
D)
g
tan u

31. A ball is thrown up with a certain velocity at an angle to the horizontal. The
kinetic energy KE of the ball varies with horizontal displacement x as :
A) B) C) D)

32. A ball of mass m is projected from the ground with an initial velocity u
making an angle of with the horizontal. What is the change in velocity
between the point of projection and the highest point :
A) u cos
2
downward B) u cos upward C) u sin
2
upward D) u sin
downward
33. Read the following statements and state whether they are True or False.
i) If u and a both are negative, motion is only retarded.
ii) If u is negative but a is positive, then displacement of the particle can never
be positive.
iii) If u is positive but a is negative particle comes to rest for a moment at
some time but if u is negative and a positive it never comes to rest.
A) T, T, T B) F, F, F C) T, F, T D) F, T, F
34. Suppose in the absence of air resistance, R = OB, H = AC, t1 = tOA
and t2 = tOB. If air resistance is taken into consideration and the
corresponding values are R', H',
'
1
t and t2' then
A) R' < R, H' < H,
'
1
t > t1 and
'
2
t > t2
B) R' < R, H' < H,
'
1
t > t1 and
'
2
t < t2
C) R' < R, H' > H,
'
1
t > t1 and
'
2
t < t2
D) R' < R, H' < H,
'
1
t < t1 and
'
2
t > t2
35. Speed of a particle moving in a circle varies with time as, v = 2t. Then :
A) angle between velocity vector and acceleration vector is increasing with
time.
B) a is constant while ar is increasing with time.
C) both A and B are correct D) both A and B are wrong.
36. Initial velocity and acceleration of two particles are as shown in fig. Assuming
the shown direction as the positive, vBA versus time graph is as :

A) B) C) D)

37. A graph is plotted between velocity (v) and displacement (s) of particle
moving in a straight line. Here v is plotted along y-axis and 's' along x-axis.
Choose the correct option.
A) slope of this graph at any point always gives us the ratio of velocity and
displacement at that point.7
B) slope represents a/v under all the conditions. (a = acceleration)
C) both A and B are correct D) both A and B are wrong.

38. In a projectile motion if a person wants to increase the maximum height to 2
times but simultaneously want to decrease the range same number of time.
He can achieve it by increasing tan of angle of projection by .......
times.
A) 2 B) 4 C) 3 D) 2
39. The velocity of a particle moving in a straight line varies with time
in such a manner that v versus t graph is represented by one half
of an ellipse. The maximum velocity is m and total time of motion
is t0
i) Average velocity of particle is /4 m ii) Such motion can not be realized in
practical terms
A) Only (i) is correct B) Only (ii) is correct
C) Both (i) and (ii) are correct D) Both (i) and (ii) are wrong
40. Starting from rest, a particle rotates in a circle of radius R = 2 m with an
angular acceleration = /4 rad/ s
2
. The magnitude of average velocity of the
particle over the time it rotates quarter circle is
A) 1.5 m/s B) 2 m/s C) 1 m/s D) 1.25m/s
41. In a car race car A takes t0 time less to finish than car B and passes the
finishing point with a velocity v0 more than car B. The cars start from rest and
travel with constant accelerations a1 and a2. Then the ratio 0/t0 is equal to
A)
2
2
1
a
a
B)
2
a a
2 1
+
C)
2 1
a a D)
1
2
2
a
a

42. A rod of length 1 leans by its upper end against a smooth vertical
wall, while its other end leans against the floor. The end that leans
against the wall moves uniformly downward. Then
A) The other end also moves uniformly
B) The speed of other end goes on decreasing
C) The speed of other end goes on increasing
D) The speed of other end first decreases and then increases
43. A particle is moving along a circular path of radius 5 m and with uniform
speed 5 m/s. What will be the average acceleration when the particle
completes half revolution?
A) zero B) m/s
2
C) 10 m/s
2
D) 10/m/s
2

44. The velocity displacement graph of a particle moving along a straight
line is shown
The most suitable acceleration-displacement graph will be
A) B)

C) D)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
C B C A C A B C C B B D A B B A A A B B
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
B C A C C B A C A A C D B D C A B B C C
41 42 43 44
C A

LEVEL II
1. A particle starts from rest at time t = 0 and moves
on a straight line with an acceleration which varies
with time as shown in fig. The speed of the particle
will be maximum after how many seconds

A) 4s B) 6s
C) 8s D) 10s

2. Due to air a falling body faces a resistive force proportional to square of
velocity v, consequently its effective downward acceleration is reduced and is
given by a = g - kv
2
where k = 0.002m
-1
. The terminal velocity of the falling
body is
A) 49m/s B) 70m/s C) 9.8m/s D) 98m/s
3. A balloon is rising with a constant acceleration of 2m/s
2
. At a certain instant
when the balloon was moving with a velocity of 4m/s, a stone was dropped
from it in a region where g = 10m/s
2
. The velocity and acceleration of stone as
it comes out from the balloon are respectively.
A) 0, 10m/s
2
B) 4m/s, 8m/s
2
C) 4m/s, 12m/s
2
D) 4m/s,
10m/s
2

4. A stone is thrown vertically up from the top of a tower with some initial
velocity and it arrives on the ground after t1 seconds. Now if the same stone is
thrown vertically down from the top of the same tower with the same initial
velocity, it arrives on ground after t2 seconds. How much time will the stone
take to reach the ground if it is dropped from the same tower ?
A)
2
t t
2 1
+
B)
2
t t
2 1

C)
2 1
t t + D)
2 1
t t
5. Two particles A and B start from the same point and slide down through
straight smooth planes inclined at 30
0
and 60
0
to the vertical and in the same
vertical plane and on the same side of vertical drawn from the starting point.
The acceleration of B with respect to A is

A) g/2 in vertical direction B) g 2 / 3 at 45
0
to vertical
C) g/ 3 at 60
0
to vertical D) g in vertical direction

6. A particle starts from rest at the origin and moves along X-axis with
acceleration a = 12-2t. The time after which the particle arrives at the origin is
A) 6s B) 18s C) 12s D) 4s
7. Figure represents position (x) versus time (t)
graph for the motion of a particle. If b and c are
both positive constants, which of the following
expressions best describes the acceleration (A)
of the particle ?
A) a = +b
B) a = -c
C) a = b + ct
D) a = b-ct
8. Two particles instantaneously at A and B are 5m, apart
and they are moving with uniform velocities, the
former towards B at 4m/s and the latter perpendicular
to AB at 3m/s. They are nearest at the instant
A) 2/5s
B) 3/5s
C) 1s
D) 4/5s
9. Three particles start from the origin at the same time, one with a velocity 'u1',
alone X-axis, the second along the Y-axis with a velocity u2 and the third
alogn x = y line. The velocity of third particle so that the three may always lie
on the same plane is
A)
2
u u
2 1
+
B)
2 1
u u C)
2 1
2 1
u u
u u
+
D)
2 1
2 1
u u
u u 2
+

10. A ball is shot vertically upwards from the
surface of a planet in a distant solar system.
A plot of the y versus t for the ball is shown
in fig. The magnitude of the free fall in m/s
2

on the planet is
A) 4
B) 8
C) 12
D) 16

11. The horizontal range of a projectile is R and the maximum height attained by
it is H. A strong wind now begins to blow in the direction of the motion of the
projectile, giving it a constant horizontal acceleration = g/2. Under the same
conditions of projection, the horizontal range of the projectile will now be
A) R +
2
H
B) R + H C) R +
2
H 3
D) R + 2H

12. A particle moves int he xy plane with a constant acceleration g in the negative
y-direction. Its equation of motion is y = ax - bx
2
, where a and b are constants.
Which of the following are correct ?
A) The x-component of its velocity is constant
B) at the origin, the y-component of its velocity is a
b 2
g

C) At the origin, its velocity makes an angle tan
-1
(a) with the x-axis.
D) the particle moves exactly like a projectile.
13. Two bodies are projected simultaneously from the same point, in the same
vertical plane, one towards east and other towards west with velocities 8 ms
-1

and 2 ms
-1
respectively. The time at which their velocities are perpendicular to
each other is
A) 2/5 s B) 5/2s C) 1/5 s D) 5 s
14. Two stones are projected so as to reach the same distance from the point of
projection on a horizontal surface. The maximum height reached by one
exceeds the other by an amount equal to half the sum of the heights attained
by them. Then the angles of projection for the stones are
A) 45
0
, 135
0
B) 0
0
, 90
0
C) 30
0
, 60
0
D) 20
0
, 70
0
15. Velocity and acceleration of a particle at some instant of time are ( ) j

4 i

3 v + =
m/s and ( ) j

8 i

6 a + = m/s
2
respectively. At the same instant particle is at
origin. Maximum x-co-ordinate of particle will be
A) 1.5m B) 0.75m C) 2.25m D) 4.0m
16. a-t graph for a particle moving in a straight line is as
shown in figure. Change in velocity of the particle
from t=0 to t=6s is :
A) 10m/s B) 4m/s
C) 12m/s D) 8m/s

17. Speed time graph of two cars A and B approaching
towards each other is shown in figure. Initial
distance between them is 60m. The two cars will
cross each other after time.
A) 2sec B) 3sec
C) 1.5sec D) 2 sec

18. The position of a particle along x-axis at time t is given by x = 2 + t - 3t
2
. The
displacement and the distance travelled in the interval t = 0 to t = 1 are
respectively
A) 2, 2 B) -2, 2.5 C) 0, 2 D) -2, 2.16

19. The acceleration time graph of a particle moving
along a straight line is as shown in figure. At what
time the particle acquires its initial velocity ?
A) 12s

B) 5s
C) 8s
D) 16s

20. A graph between the square of the velocity
of a particle and the distance s moved by
the particle is shown in the figure. The
acceleration of the particle in kilometre per
hour square is :
A) 2250
B) 225
C) -2250
D) -225

21. A particle starts from rest and traverses a distance l with uniform acceleration,
then moves uniformly over a further distance 2l and finally comes to rest after
moving a further distance 3l under uniform retardation. Assuming entire
motion to be rectilinear motion the ratio of average speed over the journey to
the maximum speed on its way is :
A) 1/5 B) 2/5 C) 3/5 D) 4/5
22. Two stones are thrown up simultaneously with initial speeds of u1 andu2 (u2 >
u1). They hit the ground after 6s and 10s respectively. Which graph in figure
correctly represents the time variation of x = (x2 - x1), the relative position of
the second stone with respect to the first upto t = 10s ? Assume that the stones
do not rebound after hitting the ground.
A) B) C) D)

23. Figure shows the position-time (x-t) graph of the motion
of two boys A and B returning from their school O to
their homes P and Q respectively. Which of the
following statements is true ?
A) A walks faster than B
B) Both A and B reach home at the same time
C) B starts for home earlier than A
D) A overtakes B on his way to home

24. A ball is projected with a velocity 20 3 m/s at angle 60
0
to the horizontal. The
time interval after which the velocity vector will make an angle 30
0
to the
horizontal is (take g = 10m/s
2
)
A) 4sec B) 2 sec C) 1 sec D) 3 sec

25. The equation of motion of a projectile is : y = 12x -
4
3
x
2

Given that g = 10ms
-2
, what is the range of the projectile ?
A) 12m B) 16m C) 20m D) 24m

26. A projectile is thrown with an initial velocity of ( )
1
ms j

b i

a

+ . If the range of
the projectile is twice the maximum height reached by it, then :
A) a = 2b B) b=a C) b = 2a D) b = 4a

27. A particle moves along a parabolic path y = 9x
2
in such a way that the x
component of velocity remains constant and has a value
1
ms
3
1

. The
acceleration of the particle is
A)
2
ms j

3
1

B)
2
ms j

3

C)
2
ms j

3
2

D)
2
ms j

2

28. Two projectiles are projected with the same velocity. If one is projected at an
angle of 30
0
and the other at 60
0
to the horizontal. The ratio of maximum
heights reached, is :
A) 1 : 3 B) 2 : 1 C) 3 : 1 D) 1 : 4
29. A particle is projected from the ground with velocity u at angle with
horizontal. The horizontal range, maximum height and time of flight are R, H
and T respectively. They are given by,
R =
g 2
sin u
H ,
g
2 sin u
2 2 2

and T =
g
sin u 2

Now keeping u as fixed, is varied from 30
0
to 60
0
. Then,
A) R will first increase then decrease, H will increase and T will decrease
B) R will first increase then decrease, while H and T both will increase
C) R will decrease while H and T will increase
D) R will increase while H and T will decrease

30. Velocity and acceleration of a particle at some instant of time are
( ) k

2 j

2 v + = m/s and ( ) k

6 i

a + = m/s
2
. Then, the speed of the particle is
....... at a rate of ....... m/s
2

A) increasing, 2 B) decreasing ,2 C) increasing, 4 D)
decreasing, 4

31. x and y coordinates of a particle moving in xy plane at some instant are :
x = 2t
2
and y =
2
t
2
3

The average velocity of particle in a time interval from t = 1 second to t = 2
second is :
A) ( ) s / m j

5 i

8 + B) ( ) s / m j

9 i

12 + C) ( ) s / m j

5 . 4 i

6 + D)
( ) s / m j

6 i

10 +

32. A particle is projected upwards with some velocity. At what height from
ground should another particle be just dropped at the same time so that both
reach the ground simultaneously. Assume that first particle reaches to a
maximum height H.
A) 6H B) 8H C) 4H D) 10H
33. Particle A moves with 4m/s along positive y-axis and particle B in a circle x
2

+ y
2
= 4(anticlockwise) with constant angular velocity = 2 rad/s. At time t =
0 particle is at (2m, 0). Then :
A) magnitude of relative velocity between them at time t is 8 sin 2t
B) magnitude of relative velocity between them is maximum at t = /4
second.
C) both A and B are correct
D) both A and B are wrong

34. An armored car 2 m long and 3 m wide is moving at 10 ms
-1
when a bullet hits
it in a direction making an angle tan
-1
(3/4) which the length of the car as seen
by a stationary observer. The bullet enters one edge of the car at the corner
and passes out at the diagonally opposite corner. Neglecting any interaction
between the car and the bullet, the time for the bullet to cross the car is
A) 0.20 s B) 0.15 s C) 0.10 s D) 0.50 s
35. The V - t graph for the rectilinear motion of a particle is represented by a
parabola as shown in fig. Find the distance traveled by the particle in time
T/2.
A)
3
T V
2
max
B)
2
T V
2
max

C)
3
T V
max
D)
2
T V
2
max

36. A glass wind screen whose inclination with the vertical can be changed is
mounted on a car. The car moves horizontally with a speed of 2 m/s. At what
angle with the vertical should the wind screen be placed so that the rain
drops falling vertically downwards with velocity 6 m/s strike the wind screen
perpendicularly.
A) tan
-1
(1/3) B) tan
-1
(3) C) cos
-1
(3) D) sin
-1
(1/3)
37. Two stones are thrown up simultaneously from the edge of a cliff with initial
speeds v and 2 v. The relative position of the second stone with respect to first
varies with time till both the stones strike the ground as
A) Linearly B) First linearly then parabolically
C) Parabolically D) First parabolically then linearly

38. There are two values of time for which a projectile is at the same height. The
sum of these two times is equal to
A) 3T/2 B) 4T/3 C) 3T/4 D) T
39. A particle is projected from a horizontal plane with 8 2 m/s at an angle. At
highest point its velocity is found to be 8 m/s. Its range will be
A) 6.4 m B) 3.2 m C) 5 m D) 12.8 m
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
A B D D A B D D D B D A A C B B B D C C
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
C A B B B C D A B B C C D A C D

LEVEL - III
1. Two particles A and B are connected by a rigid rod AB.
The rod slides on perpendicular rails as shown in fig. The
velocity of A to the left is 10m/s. What is velocity of B
when = 60
0
?
A) 10m/s
B) 5.8m/s
C) 17.3m/s D) 9.8m/s

2. In the figure , the pulley P moves to the right
with a constant speed u. The downward
speed of A is vA, and the speed of B to the
right is vB.
A) vB = vA
B) vB = u + vA
C) vB + u = vA
D) The two blocks have accelerations of the same magnitude
3. A marble starts falling from rest on a smooth inclined plane forming an angle
with horizontal. After covering distance 'h' the ball rebound off the plane.
The distance from the impact point where the ball rebounds for second time is
A) 8h cos B) 8h sin C) 2h tan D) 4h sin
4. From the top of a tower of height 40m, a ball is projected upwards with a
speed of 20m/s at an angle of elevation of 30
0
. The ratio of the total time taken
by the ball to hit the ground to its time of flight (time taken to come back to
the same elevation) is (take g = 10m/s
2
)
A) 2 : 1 B)3 : 1 C) 3 : 2 D) 1.5 : 1

5. If time taken by the projectile to reach Q is T, then PQ is equal to :
A) Tv sin
B) Tv cos
C) Tv sec
D) Tv tan

6. A particle is thrown with a speed u at an angle with the horizontal. When
the particle makes an angle with the horizontal, its speed changes to v :
A)v = u cos B) v = u cos cos C) v = u cos sec D) v = u sec
cos

7. A stone is projected from a point on the ground so as to hit a bird on the top
of a vertical pole of height h and then attain a maximum height 2h above the
ground. If at the instant of projection the bird flies away horizontally with a
uniform speed and if the stone hits the bird while descending then the ratio of
the speed of the bird to the horizontal speed of the stone is :
A)
1 2
2
+
B)
1 2
2

C)
2
1
2
1
+ D)
1 2
2
+

8. Shots are fired simultaneously from the top and bottom of
a vertical cliff with the elevation = 30
0
, = 60
0

respectively and strike the object simultaneously at the
same point.
If a = 30 3 m is the horizontal distance of the object from
the cliff, then the height of the cliff is :
A) 30m B) 45m
C) 60m D) 90m

9. A particle if projected up an inclined plane of length 20m and inclination 30
0

(with horizontal). What should be the value of angle (with horizontal) with
which the projectile be projected so that it strikes the plane exactly at mid-
point, horizontally :
A) = tan
-1

|
|

\
|
3
2
B) = tan
-1
(2) C) = tan
-1
( 3 ) D) = tan
-1
|
|

\
|
2
3

10. A stone is projected at an angle with the horizontal with velocity u. It
executes a nearly circular motion near its maximum height for a short time.
The radius of circular path is :
A)
g 2
cos u
2 2

B)
g
sin u
2 2

C)
g
cos u
2 2

D)
g
u
2

11. Two projectiles A and B are fired simultaneously as
shown in figure. They collide in air at point P at time t.
then :
A) t(u1 cos1 - u2 cos2) = 20
B) t(u1 sin1 - u2 sin2) = 10
C) both (A) and (B) are correct
D) both (A) and (B) are wrong

12. Two stones are projected simultaneously with equal speeds from point on an
inclined plane along the line of its greatest slope upwards and downwards
repectively. The maximum distance between their points of striking the plane
is double that of when they are projected on a horizontal ground with same
speed. If one strikes the plane after two seconds of the other, the angle of
inclination of plane is
A) 30
0
B) 45
0
C) 35
0
D) 15
0

13. A particle is projected under gravity with velocity g a 2 from a point at a
height h above the level plane. The maximum range R on the ground is

A) h ) 1 a (
2
+
B) h a
2

C) h a
D) 2 ) h a ( a +

14. The co-ordinates of a particle moving in a plane are given by x = a cos pt and
y = b sin pt where a, b (< a) and p are positive constants of appropriate
dimensions. Then
A) The path of the particle is an ellipse
B) The velocity and acceleration of the particle are normal to each other at t =
/2p
C) The acceleration of the particle is always directed towards a fixed point
D) The distance traveled by the particle in time interval t = 0 to t = /2p is a.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
B BD B A D C D C A C B B D

1. A particle of mass m is thrown up vertically with velocity u. As air exerts a
constant force F, the particle returns back at the point of projection with velocity
v after attaining maximum height h, then
A)
) m / F g ( 2
u
h
2
+
= B)
) m / F g ( 2
h
2

=
v
C)
) m / F g (
) m / F g (
u
+

= v D)
) m / F g (
) m / F g (
u

+
= v
2. A particle of mass m moves on X-axis as follows; it starts from rest at t = 0
from the point x = 0, and comes to rest at t = 1 at the point x = 1. No other
information is available about its motion at intermediate times (0 < t < 1). If
denotes the instantaneous acceleration of the particle, then
A) cannot remain positive for all t in the interval 0 t 1
B) || cannot exceed 2 at any point in its path
C) || must be 4 at some point or points in its path
D) must change sign during the motion, but no other assertion can be made
with the information given
3. Two trains are travelling along a straight track one behind the other. The first
train is travelling at 12 m/s. The second train, approaching from the rear is
travelling at speed v > 12 m/s when the second train is 200 m behind the first,
the driver of second train applies brakes producing a uniform deceleration of
0.20 m/s
2
. Then
A) If v = 20 m/s, the trains will not collide
V= ag 2

B) If v = 20 /s, the trains will collide after about 20 s
C) If v = 27 m/s, the trains will not collide
D) If v = 27 m/s, the trains will collide after about 15s
4. A particle of mass m and charge q starts from rest from origin along X-axis in
a region where an electric field E = E0 - a x exists. Here E0 and a are constant
and x is the distance from the starting point. Then in the region between x = 0
to x = 2 E0/a.
A) the speed of particle first increases, then decreases
B) the particle comes to rest at x = 2 E0/a
C) the particle has maximum speed at x = E0/a
D) the particle is subjected to an acceleration which changes sign at x = E0/a
5. Two particles are projected from the same point with the same speed v0 at the
different angles 1 and 2 with the horizontal. Their respective times of
flights are T1 and T2. If they have the same horizontal range, and their
maximum heights are H1 and H2 respectively, then
A) 1 + 2 = 90
0
B) H1 + H2 = v0
2
/2g C)
1
2
1
tan
T
T
= D)
1
2
2
1
tan
H
H
=
6. A projectile thrown on a level surface attains a height h after t1 seconds and
again after t2 seconds. If the maximum height attained by the projectile is H
after t seconds, then
A) t1t2 =
g
h 2
B) t1 + t2 =
g
H 8
C) t2 - t1 =
g
) h H ( 8
D) t2 - t = t - t1
7. Which of the following statements are true for a moving body?
A) If its speed changes, its velocity must change and it must have some
acceleration
B) If its velocity changes, its speed must change and it must have some
acceleration
C) If its velocity changes, its speed may or may not change, and it must have
some acceleration
D) If its speed changes but direction of motion does not change, its velocity
may remain constant
8. The figure shows the velocity () of a particle plotted
against time (t)
A) The particle changes its direction of motion at
some point
B) The acceleration of the particle remains constant
C) The displacement of the particle is zero
D) The initial and final speeds of the particle are the same

9. A particle starts from the origin of coordinates at time t = 0 and moves in the
xy plane with a constant acceleration in the y-direction. Its equation of
motion is y = x
2
. Its velocity component in the x-direction is

A) variable B)

2
C)

2
D)

2

10. Two particles A and B start simultaneously from the same point and move in
a horizontal plane. A has an initial velocity u1 due east and acceleration a1 due
north. B has an initial velocity u2 due north and acceleration a2 due east
A) Their paths must intersect at some point
B) They must collide at some point
C) They will collide only if a1u1 = a2u2
D) If u1 > u2 and a1 < a2, the particles will have the same speed at some point
of time
11. Two particles are projected from the same point with the same speed, at
different angels 1 and 2 to the horizontal. They have the same horizontal
range. Their times of flight are t1 and t2 respectively
A) 1 + 2 = 90
0
B)
1
2
1
tan
t
t
= C)
2
2
1
tan
t
t
= D)
2
2
1
1
sin
t
sin
t

12. A large rectangular box falls vertically with an acceleration a. A
toy gun fixed at A and aimed towards C fires a particle P.
A) P will hit C if a = g B) P will hit the roof BC if a > g
C) P will hit the wall CD or the floor AD if a < g
D) May be either A, B, or C depending on the speed of projection
of P
13. Two shells are filed from a cannon with speed u each, at angles of and
respectively with the horizontal. The time interval between the shots is T.
They collide in mid air after time t from the first shot. Which of the following
conditions must be satisfied?
A) > B) t cos = (t - T) cos C) (t - T) cos = t cos

D) (usin ) t -
2
1
gt
2
= (u sin ) (t - T) -
2
1
g (t - T)
2

14. A particle moving with a speed v changes direction by an angle , without
change in speed
A) The change in the magnitude of its velocity is zero
B) The change in the magnitude of its velocity is 2v sin /2
C) The magnitude of the change in its velocity is 2 v sin /2
D) The magnitude of the change is its velocity is v (1 - cos )
15. A particle of mass 'm' moves on the x-axis as follows:
It starts from rest at t = 0 from the point x = 0 and comes to rest at t = 1 at the
point x = 1.
No other information is available about its motion at intermediate times ( 0 < t
< 1)
If denotes the instantaneous acceleration of the particle, then
A) cannot remain positive for all t in the interval 0 t 1

B) cannot exceed 2 at any point on its path
C) must be 4 at some point or points in its path
D) must change sign during the motion, but no other assertion can be made
with the information given
16. A point moves such that its displacement as a function of time is given by x
2
=
t
2
+ 1. Its acceleration at time t is
A)
3
x
1
B)
2
x
t
C)
3
2
x
t
x
1
D)
2
x
t
x
1

17. A body falls from a large height 'h' in 't' second. The time taken to cover the
last metre is
A)
gh
1
B)
gh 2
1
C)
gt
1
D)
gt 2
1

18. A bead is free to slide down a smooth wire tightly
stretched between the points P1 and P2 on a vertical circle
of radius R. If the bead starts from rest from P1, the
highest point on the circle and P2 lies anywhere on the
circumference of the circle. Then,
A) time taken by bead to go from P1 to P2 is dependent on
position of P2 and equals 2
g
R
cos
B) time taken by bead to go from P1 to P2 is independent of position of P2 and
equals 2
g
R

C) acceleration of bead along the wire is g cos
D) velocity of bead when it arrives at P2 is 2 gR cos
19. The position of a particle travelling along x axis is given by xt = t
3
- 9t
2
+ 6t
where xt is in cm and t is in second. Then
A) the body comes to rest firstly at (3 - 7 ) s and then at (3 + 7 )s
B) the total displacement of the particle in travelling from the first zero of
velocity to the second zero of velocity is zero
C) the total displacement of the particle in travelling from the first zero of
velocity to the second zero of velocity is -74 cm
D) the particle reverses its velocity at (3 - 7 )s and then at (3 + 7 )s and has a
negative velocity for (3 - 7 ) < t < (3 + 7 )
20. The velocity of a particle moving along a straight line increases according to
the linear law v = v0 + kx, where k is a constant. Then
A) the acceleration of the particle is k(v0 + kx)
B) the particle takes a time
|
|

\
|
0
1
e
v
v
log
k
1
to attain a velocity v1
C) velocity varies linearly with displacement with slope of velocity
displacement curve equal to k
D) data is insufficient to arrive at a conclusion

21. A particle moves with an initial velocity v0 and retardation v, where v is
velocity at any istant t. Then
A) the particle will cover a total distance

0
v

B) the particle continues to move for a long time span
C) the particle attains a velocity
0
v
2
1
at t =

1

D) the particle comes to rest at t =

1

22. An aeroplane flies along a straight line from A to B with a speed v0 and back
again with the same speed v0. A steady wind v is blowing. If AB = l then
A) total time for the trip is
2 2
0
0
v v
v 2

l
, if wind blows along the line AB
B) total time for the trip is
2 2
0
v v
2

l
, if wind blows perpendicular to the line
AB
C) total time for the trip decreases because of the presence of wind
D) total time for the trip increases because of the
presence of wind
23. At the instant a motor bike starts from rest in a
given direction, a car overtakes the motor bike,
both moving in the same direction. The speed time
graphs for motor bike and car are represented by
OAB and CD respectively. Then
A) at t = 18 s the motor bike and car are 180 m
apart
B) at t = 18 s the motor bike and car are 720 m apart
C) the relative distance between motor bike and car reduces to zero at t = 27 s
and both are 1080 m far from origin
D) the relative distance between motor bike and car always remains same
24. A particle having a velocity v = v0 at t = 0 is decelerated at the rate a = v ,
where is a positive constant
A) The particle comes to rest at t =

0
v 2

B) The particle will come to rest at infinity
C) The distance traveled by the particle is

2 3
0
v 2

D) The distance travelled by the particle is

2 3
0
v
3
2

25. Two particles P and Q move in a straight line AB towards each other. P starts
from A with velocity u1 and an acceleration a1. Q starts from B with velocity
u2 and acceleration a2. They pass each other at the midpoint of AB and arrive
at the other ends of AB with equal velocities

A) They meet at midpoint at time t =
) a a (
) u u ( 2
2 1
1 2

B) The length of path specified i.e. AB is l =
2
2 1
1 2 2
1
1 2
) a a (
) u a u a ( ) u u ( 4

C) They reach the other ends of AB with equal velocities if (u2 + u1) (a1- a2) = 8
(a1u2 - a2u1)
D) They reach the other ends of AB with equal velocities if (u2 - u1) (a1 + a2) = 8
(a2u1 - a1u2)
26. A body is moving along a straight line. Its distance xt from a point on its path
at a time t after passing that point is given by xt = 8t
2
- 3t
3
, where xt is in metre
and t is in second
A) Average speed during the interval t = 0 s to t = 4 s is 20.2 l ms
-1

B) Average velocity during the interval t = 0 s to t= 4 s is -16 ms
-1

C) The body starts from rest and at t =
9
16
s it reverses its direction of motion
at xt = 8.43 m from the start.
D) It has an acceleration of - 56 ms
-2
at t = 4 s
27. Two second after projection, a projectile is traveling in a direction inclined at
30
0
to the horizon. After one more second it is traveling horizontally. Then
A) the velocity of projection is 20 ms
-1
B) the velocity of projection is 20
3 ms
-1

C) the angle of projection is 30
0
with vertical
D) the angle of projection is 30
0
with horizon
28. A shot is fired with a velocity u at an angle ( + ) with the horizon from the
foot of an incline plane of angle through the point of projection. If it hits the
plane horizontally then
A) tan =
+

2
tan 2 1
tan
B) tan = 2 tan C) tan =
+

2
tan 2 1
tan 2
D) tan =
+

2
sin 1
cos sin

29. A particle is projected with a velocity 2 hg so that it just clears two walls of
equal height h at horizontal separation 2h from each other. Then the
A) angle of projection is 30
0
with vertical B) angle of projection is 30
0
with
horizon
C) time of passing between the walls is
g
h 2

D) time of passing between the walls is 2
g
h

30. A ball starts falling freely from a height h from a point on the
inclined plane forming an angle with the horizontal as shown.
After collision with the incline it rebounds elastically off the inclined
plane. Then
A) it again strikes the incline at t =
g
h 8
after it strikes the incline at A

B) it again strikes the incline at t =
g
h 2
after it strikes the incline at A
C) it again strikes the incline at a distance 4h sin from A along the incline
D) it again strikes the incline at a distance 8h sin from A along the incline
31. Two particles projected from the same point with same speed u at angles of
projection and strike the horizontal ground at the same point. If h1 and h2
are the maximum heights attained by projectiles, R be the range for both and
t1 and t2 be their time of flights respectively then
A) + =
2

B) R = 4
2 1
h h C)
2
1
t
t
= tan D) tan =
2
1
h
h

32. Two shells are fired from a cannon successively with speed u each at angles of
projection and respectively. If the time interval between the firing of shells
is t and they collide in mid air after a time T from the firing of the first shell.
Then
A) T cos = (T - t) cos B) >
C) (T - t) cos = t cos
D) ( u sin ) T -
2
1
gT
2
= ( u sin ) (T - t) -
2
1
g(T - t)
2
33. Two guns situated at the top of a hill of height 10 m, fire one shot each with
the same speed of 5 3 ms
-1
at some interval of time. One gun fires
horizontally and other fires upwards at an angle of 60
0
with the horizontal.
The shots collide in mid air at the point P. Taking the origin of the coordinate
system at the foot of the hill right below the muzzle, trajectories in x - y plane
and g = 10 ms
-2
then
A) the first shell reaches the point P at t1 = 1 s from the start
B) the second shell reaches the point P at t2 = 2 s from the start
C) the first shell is fired 1 s after the firing of the second shell
D) they collide at P whose coordinates are given by (5 3 , 5) m
34. A radar observer on the ground is watching an approaching projectile. At a
certain instant he has the following information:
i) The projectile has reached the maximum altitude and is moving with a
horizontal velocity v;
ii) The straight line distance of the observer to the projectile is l;
iii) The line of sight to the projectile is at an angle above the horizontal
Assuming earth to be flat and the observer lying in the plane of the projectile's
trajectory then,
A) the distance between the observer and the point of impact of the projectile
is
D =
g
sin v
2

- l cos

B) the distance between the observer and the point of impact of the projectile is
D = v
g
sin 2 l
- l cos
C) the projectile will pass over the observer's head for l <
g
sec tan v 2
2

D) the projectile will pass over the observer's head for l >
g
sec tan v 2
2

35. A projectile is thrown with an initial velocity u, at an angle of projection first
from the equator and then from the pole. The fractional decrement in the
range of projectile is
A)
291
1
R
dR
= B)
291
1
R
dR
= C)
|
|

\
|
=
e p
g
1
g
1
g
R
dR
D)
|
|

\
|
=
e p
g
1
g
1
g
R
dR

36. A boat is moving directly away from a cannon on the shore with a speed v1.
The cannon fires a shell with a speed v2 at an angle and the shell hits the
boat. Then,
A) the shell hits the boat when the time equal to
g
sin v 2
2

is lapsed
B) the boat travels a distance
g
sin v v 2
2 1

from its original position
C) the distance of the boat from the cannon at the instant the shell is fired is

g
2
(v2 sin ) (v2 cos - v1)
D) the distance of the boat from the cannon when the shell hits the boat is

g
2
(v2 sin ) (v2 cos )
37. A projectile is fired upward with velocity v0 at an angle and strikes a point P
(x, y) on the roof of the building (as shown). Then,
A) the projectile hits the roof in minimum time if + =
2

B) the projectile hits the roof in minimum time if + =
4

C) the minimum time taken by the projectile to hit the roof is
tmin =
0
v

cos g
cos gh 2 v
2 2
0

D) the projectile never reaches the roof for v0 < gh 2 cos .
38. A shell fired along a parabolic path explodes into two fragments of equal
mass at the top of the trajectory. One of the fragments returns to the point of
firing having retraced its original path. If v is the velocity of projectile at
highest point, then
A) after explosion the other fragment has a velocity v along + x axis
B) after explosion the other fragment has velocity 3v along + x axis

C) after explosion both the fragments reach the ground with separation 2R
between them, where R is the range of the projectile
D) after explosion both the fragments hit the ground simultaneously at t =
v 2
R

39. Identify the correct statements for a moving particle along any arbitrary path
is/are:
A)
av av
V V =

B)
av av
V V

C)
av av
V V

D)
av av
V V <

40. The distance traveled by a moving train in the first, second and third seconds
are 20m, 15m and 10m respectively. It means that
A) the train is decelerating B) the initial velocity of the train
is 20 ms
-1

C) the constant deceleration of the train is 5 ms
-2

D) the constant deceleration of the train is 10 ms
-2

41. The displacement of a particle moving along a straight line as a function of
time t is given by x = t
3
+ 2t
2
+ 3t + 4.
A) the particle starts from origin B) the initial velocity of the
particle is 3 ms
-1

C) the acceleration of the particle is constant
D) the particle starts with an acceleration of 4 ms
-2

42. Choose the correct statement(s):
A) When the total area of the acceleration-time graph is negative, it always
mean that the final velocity of the particle is negative
B) When the total area of the velocity-time graph is negative, it always mean
that the final displacement of the particle is negative
C) When the total area of the velocity-time graph is negative, it may happen
that the particle returns to its original position
D) When the total area of the acceleration-time graph is negative, it may
happen that the final velocity of the particle is zero
43. Choose the correct statement(s) related to the v-t and x-t graphs.
A) The positions where the v-t graph interests or touches the time axis, the x-t
graph shows either its maximum or minimum
B) In the region where the v-t graph is parallel to the time axis, the particle
remains stationary
C) In the region where the v-t graph coincides with the time axis, its x-t graph
becomes parallel to the time axis
D) If the v-t graph is parabolic then the acceleration is uniformly varying
44. Choose the correct statement(s) related to region A.
A) The particle starts from rest
B) The velocity of the particle is decreasing with time
C) The acceleration of the particle is negative
D) At t = T, velocity of the particle is zero

45. In the above problem choose the correct statement(s) related to region C.
A) The particle starts from rest, i.e., at t = 2T, v = 0
B) The motion of the particle is accelerated

C) The particle is moving with constant velocity
D) The particle moves with increasing velocity
46. Choose the correct statement(s).
A) A projectile is a freely falling body
B) The acceleration of a projectile is maximum at the highest position
C) The time of flight is maximum when the range of the projectile is
maximum
D) The normal acceleration of the projectile is maximum at its highest position

COMPREHENSION TYPE QUESTIONS

Passage I (Q.No: 1 to 3):
A policeman is in pursuit of a thief.
Both are running at 5 m/s. Suddenly
they come across a gap between
buildings as shown in figure. The
thief leaps at 5 m/s and at 45
0
while
the policeman leaps horizontally.
1. Does the policeman clear the gap
A) No, he will not even reach at the corner of B
B) No, he will not be in a condition to cross more than 4 mts.
C) Yes, he just reaches the tip C D) Yes, he will cross the gap
2. By how much does the thief clear the gap ?
A) 0.21 m B) 0.56 m C) 0.11 m D) 0.31 m
3. By how much does the policeman fall/clear the gap ?
A) Clear by 0.09 mts. B) miss by 0.09 mts.
C) Clear by 0.90 mts. D) miss by 0.90 mts.

Passage II (Q.NO: 4 to 7):
An automobile and a truck start from rest at the same instant, with the
automobile initially at some distance behind the truck. The truck has a
constant acceleration of 2.10 m/s
2
, and the automobile an acceleration of 3.40
m/s
2
. The automobile overtakes the truck after the truck has moved 40.0 m.
4. How much time does it take for the automobile to overtake the truck ?
A) 20 sec. B) 18.7 sec. C) 2 sec. D) 6.1 sec.
5. How far was the automobile behind the truck initially ?
A) 24.8 m B) 30 m C) 50 m D) 60 m
6. What is the speed of each when they are abreast ?
A) 0 & 13 m/s B) 20 m/s & 10 m/s
C) 21 m/s & 13 m/s D) 25 m/s & 30 m/s
7. Which is the best possible graph ?

Passage III (Q.No: 8 to 11):
Two cars, A and B, travel in a straight line. The distance of A from the
starting point is given as a function of time by xA (t) = t + t
2
, with = 2.60
m/s and = 1.20 m/s
2
. The distance of B from the starting point is xB (t) = t
2

- t
3
, with = 2.80 m/s
2
and = 0.20 m/s
3
.
A) B)
C) D)

8. Which car is ahead just after they leave the starting point ?
C) Car A and B move simultaneously D) Data insufficient
9. At what time(s) are the cars at the same point ?
A) 2.27 sec. B) 5.73 sec. C) 2.6 sec
D) Both 2.27 sec. and 5.73 sec E) Both 5.73 sec. and 2.6 sec.
10. At what time(s) is the distance from A to B neither increasing nor decreasing ?
A) 1.66 sec. B) 1 sec. C) 4.33 sec.
D) Both 1.66 sec. and 1 sec. E) Both 1 sec. and 4.33 sec.
11. At what time(s) do A and B have the same acceleration ?
A) 6.27 sec. B) 4.33 sec. C) 2.67 sec.
D) Both 6.27 sec. and 4.33 sec. E) Both 4.33 sec. and 2.67 sec.

Passage IV (Q.No: 12 to 15):
Two bullets are shot at the same time t = 0. Their position and velocity at t = 0
are given by
, m 0 ) 0 t ( r
1
= =

s / m z 30 x 50 ) 0 t ( v
1
+ = =

m x 10 ) 0 t ( r
2
= =

s / m z 50 y 40 ) 0 t ( v
2
+ = =

The force of gravity is working on both of them, causing an acceleration of
2
s / m z 10 a =

12. ) t ( r and ) t ( r
2 1

are
A) z t 5 t 150 y t 40 x 10 ; z ty 5 t 130 x t 50
2
+ + + B) z t 47 y t 62 x t 27 ; z t 24 x 7
2
+ + +
C) z ) t 5 t 50 ( y t 15 x 10 ; z t 5 x t 50
2 2
+ + D) None of these
13. The distance between the bullets as a function of time is
A) 3 t 59 5
2
B) 1 t 10 t 45 10
2
+ C) t
3
- 7t
2
+ c D) 24 (t
3
-
6 t 4
2
+ )
14. At what time will be the distance between the bullets be nomial
A) 2 sec B) 1.2 sec C) 1/9 sec D) 2/7 sec
15. The relative velocity between the bullets as a function of time is
A) z 20 y 40 x 50 B) z 42 x 23 + C) z 4 x 3 D)
z 63 y 4 x 5

Passage V (Q.No: 16 to 20) :
An object 'P' is travelling with a velocity of
0
v
horizontally from the left as shown in the figure. It is
constrained to move along a smooth track. At 'A' it
can continue to travel along one of the four paths,
[ ] , , , , as indicated in the diagram. It is given that
all the four paths, viz. , , and are in the same

vertical plane. All the four paths join at 'B' after which the object continuous
moving horizontally. The time taken to traverse the horizontal distance AB
along the path ' ' is 'T'. A detail of the four different paths is given as:
is the horizontal path.
is a 'hill' path.
is a shallow valley which can be assumed to have the same length as the
horizontal path 'AB'.
is a deep valley path, with a minimum depth 'H'.
Assume the total energy (E) is to mass (m) ratio of the particle as ' 2 / ' .
16. The ratio of the velocity of the particle at a height of 'h' on and the velocity
of the particle at a depth of 'h' on is:
A)
(

+
gh
gh
2
2

B)
(

gh
gh
2
2

C)
2 / 1
2
2
(

+
gh
gh

D)
2 / 1
2
2
(

gh
gh

17. If the time taken by the object to travel from A to B along is

t , then:
A) T t t = =

B) T t t = >

C) T t t = <

D) cannot be
predicted
18. If the time taken by the object to travel from A to B along is

t , then :
A) T t t = =

B) T t t = >

C) T t t = <

D) cannot be
predicted
19. If the time taken by the object to travel from A to B along is

t , then :
A) T t t = =

B) T t t = >

C) T t t = <

D) cannot be
predicted
20. If we approximate the time taken to travel from A to B along the deep path
' ' by the time taken for a vertical return path of depth 'H', i.e., from A and
back to A, by assuming the initial velocity to be negligible as compared with
that for the major portion of the path, then the total time taken is:
A)
g
H 2
B)
g
H 4
C)
g
H 8
D) T

Passage VI (Q.No: 21 to 23):
A point moves rectilinearly in one direction. Figure shows the distance s
traversed by the point as a function of time t. Using this graph,
21. The average velocity of the point during the time of motion is
A) 10 cm/s B) 15 cm/s
C) 20 cm/s D) 25 cm/s
22. The maximum velocity is
A) 15 cm/s B) 20 cm/s
C) 25 cm/s D) 30 cm/s
23. The time moment
0
t at which the instantaneous velocity is equal to the mean
velocity averaged over the first
0
t second is
A) 10s B) 16s C) 18s D) 20s
Passage VII (Q.NO 24 to 26):
Two particles are initially located at points A and B a
distance d apart as show in figure. They start moving at
time t = 0 such that the velocity u of B is always along
the horizontal direction and velocity v of A is
continually aimed at B as shown in figure.At time t = 0,
u is perpendicular to v.
24. About the velocities u and v, we can say that
A) both the velocities are constant
B) both the velocities are changing
C) the velocity u is constant while the velocity v is changing
D) the velocity v is constant while the velocity u is changing
25. The relative velocity of approach of A towards B is
A) (v - u cos ) B) (v + u cos ) C) (u - v cos ) D) (u + v cos
)
26. The particles A and B will meet after a time
A)
2 2
u v
vd
+
B)
( )
2 2
u v
vd

C)
( )
vd
u v
2 2
+
D)
( )
vd
u v
2 2

Passage - VIII (Q.No: 27 to 29) :
Figure shows the velocity time graph of a particle moving along a straight
line.
27. The region in which the rate of change of velocity of
the particle is maximum.
A) 0 to 2 s B) 2 to 4 s

C) 4 to 6 s D) 6 to 8 s
28. The particle comes to rest at time
A) 0 sec B) 4.67 sec
C) 5 sec D) 8 sec
29. The maximum displacement of particle is
A) 33.3 m B) 20.2 m C) 26.6 m D) zero

PASSAGE - IX (Q.No: 30 to 33):
On the bank of a river two swimmers made a challenge
as "who will reach the point B on the other bank
early?" So both of them start from point 'A' on one
bank of the river to reach the winning point B on the
other bank, lying directly opposite to point A. The
stream velocity was known to be 2 km/hr and the
velocity of both the swimmers in still water was 2.5 km/hr. Both of them
follow different paths to reach point B the swimmer 'S1' crosses the river along
straight line AB, while the other swimmer 'S2' swims at rights to the stream
and then walks the distance which he has been carried away by the stream to
go to the point 'B'. Assume the velocity (uniform) of his walking as (2/3)
km/hr and the width of the river as 'W'.
30. The value of angle ' ' shown in the figure is:
A) cos
-1
(4/5) B) cos
-1
(3/4) C) sin
-1
(4/5) D) sin
-1
(3/4)
31. The value of angle ' ' shown in the figure is :
A) sin
-1
(4/5) B) cos
-1
(4/5) C) tan
-1
(4/5) D) data
insufficient
32. Match column I with column II in reference to the passage.
Column I Column II
I Time for S1 to reach B (A)
|

\
|
5
4W

II Time for S2 to reach C (B)
|

\
|
5
6W

III Drift 'x' for S2 (C)
|

\
|
3
2W

IV Time for S2 to reach B
from C
(D)
|

\
|
15
8W

V Difference in time, t ,
for S1 and S2 to reach
B
(E)
|

\
|
5
2W

A) I-C, II-E, III-A, IV-B,V-D B) I-A, II-B, III-D,IV-C, V-E
C) I-E, II-C, III-B, IV-D, V-A D) I-B, II-A, III-D, IV-C, V-E

33. What should be the velocity (assume uniform) of walking of swimmer 'S2'
such that both the swimmers reach at the point B simultaneously?
A) 1.2 km/hr B) 2.7 km/hr C) 3 km/hr D) needs more
information
* * *

MULTIPLE MATCHING TYPE QUESTIONS:
1. Match the following:
List - I List - II
a) Range = height (Max) e) acceleration perpendicular to velocity
b) For = 45
0
, at the highest
point
f) R =
g 17
8

c) y = px + qx
2

g) Kmin =
2
1
(Kmax)
d) At t = T/2 (for projectile) h) = Tan
-1
(4)

i)
1 P g
P 2 T
2
+
=
u

2. Match the following:
List - I List - II
a) one dim. motion e) motion of one projectile w.r.t another projectile
b) for no air
resistance
f) time of ascent = Time of decent for a vertically
projected up body
c) for projectile H =
R/4
g) T = 2u/g, for a body vertically projected up
d) Range =
g
u
2

i) = 45
0

3. Match the following:
List - I List - II
a) v - t graph e) Area gives displacement
b) x - t - graph f) slope gives velocity
c) a - t graph g) slope gives acceleration
d) a x h) Area gives change in velocity
h) slope of v - x graph is constant
t) non uniform acceleration
4. Match the following:
List - I List - II
a) Magnitude of acceleration is constant e) uniform circular motion
b) tangential acceleration is zero f) non-uniform circular
motion
c) speed is constant g) projectile motion
d) angle between radial acceleration and h) accelerated straight line

velocity is 90
0
motion

* * *

KEY

1. ABC
2. AC
3. ABCD
4. ABCD
5. ABCD
6. ABCD
7. AC
8. ABCD
9. D
10. ACD
11. ABD
12. ABC
13. ABD
14. AC
15. AC
16. AC
17. BC
18. BCD
19. ACD
20. ABC
21. AB
22. ABD
23. AC
25. ABC
26. ABCD
27. BC
31. ABCD
32. ABD
33. ABCD
34. BC
35. BD
36. ABCD
37. ACD
38. BCD
39. AC
40. AC
41. BCD
42. CD
43. ACD
44. BCD
45. ABD

Comprehension Type Questions:

1. B
2. D
3. B
4. D
5. A
6. C
7. A
8. A
9. D
10. E
11. C
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21. A
22. C
23. B
24. C
25. A
26. B
27. C
28. A,B,D
29. A
30.
31.
32.
33.

Multiple Matching Type Questions:
1. a f, h
b e, g
c i
d e
2. a e, h, g, f
b f, g
c i
d i
3. a e, g
b f
c h
d i, j
4. a e, g, h
b e
c e
d e, f