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International Journal of English and Literature (IJEL) ISSN 2249-6912 Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, 37-40 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, 37-40 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. THE ROLE OF MEASUREMENT AND

THE ROLE OF MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT IN ENRICHING STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE SKILLS

JANARDHANREDDY. K & A. PHANIRAJA KUMAR Research Scholar, Department of English, Rayalaseema University, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT

This paper examines communicative competence which is described as the learner’s ability to use the language for listening, speaking, reading and writing in terms of linguistic, sociolinguistic, strategic and discourse competencies. Assessment and Measurement are two integral components of the teaching and learning cycle. This paper also discusses teacher’s awareness of the classroom situation and how his requirement is highly essential in communicating assessment and evaluation strategies and plans in advance. The paper focuses the types of assessment and evaluation and the process of evaluation and its strategies in improving student’s language skills. It also discusses the contents for evaluation which includes testing of aural skills and oral skills. The overall discussion is completely on assessment and evaluation of the student’s language skills.

KEYWORDS: Sociolinguistic, Assessment, Evaluation, Diagnostic, Formative, Summative and Testing Tools

INTRODUCTION

The method of teaching all round the world in all fields during the last 15years has changed drastically. Globalization has made English language a defector standard in national communication. English has become the language of the educated and the language of employability. Good command over the language is a unique qualification to keep an edge over the others. For the effective functioning of the language, a focus on active speaking, writing and communication skills is must. Language teaching especially, in UG courses is viewed as a communicative competence. Communicative competence is described as the learner’s ability to use the language for listening, speaking, reading and writing in terms of the following competencies:

(1) Linguistic

(Knowledge of form)

(2) Sociolinguistic

(Ability to use language in different contexts)

(3) Discourse

(Coherence and Cohesion)

(4) Strategic

(Repair and Compensation Strategies)

Before we go into the details of the testing objectives and how they are translated into the test itself, we need to know what assessment and evaluation are in the teaching learning process.

Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment is the act of gathering information on a daily basis in order to understand individual students’ learning and needs.

Evaluation is the culminating act of interpreting the information gathered for the purpose of making decisions or judgments about students’ learning and needs. Assessment and Evaluation are integral components of the teaching-

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Janardhanreddy. K & A. Phaniraja Kumar

learning cycle. The main purposes are to guide and improve learning and instruction. Effectively planned, assessment and evaluation can promote learning and understanding abilities of the student. Assessment data assists the teacher in planning and adapting for further instructions.

Guiding Principles

The following principles are intended to assist teachers in planning for student assessment and evaluation.

Assessment and evaluation are essential components of the teaching-learning process.

A Variety of assessment and evaluation techniques should be used. Techniques should be selected for their appropriateness to students’ learning styles and to the intended purposes. Students should be given opportunities to demonstrate the extent of their knowledge, abilities and attitudes in a variety of ways. Hence a teacher’s awareness of the classroom situation and requirement is highly essential.

Teachers should communicate assessment and evaluation strategies and plans in advance to the students.

Assessment and evaluation should be fair and equitable. They should be sensitive to the classroom and community situations and to cultural or gender requirements.

Assessment and evaluation data and results should be communicated to the students regularly in meaningful ways.

The data collected about the students what the teacher collected during assessment becomes the basis for an evaluation.

Types of Assessment and Evaluation

There are three types of assessment and evaluation that occur regularly. They are:

o

Diagnostic

o

Formative

o

Summative

Diagnostic Assessment and Evaluation

Diagnostic assessment and evaluation usually occur at the beginning of the year or perhaps at the beginning of each unit of study.The purposes are to determine students’ knowledge and skills, their learning needs, and their motivational and interest levels.By examining the results of diagnostic assessment, teachers can determine where to begin instruction and what concepts or skills to emphasize.

Formative Assessment and Evaluation

Formative assessment and evaluation focus on the processes and products of learning. Formative assessment is continuous and is meant to inform the student and teacher of the student’s progress toward the curriculum objectives. This type of assessment and evaluation provides information upon which instructional decisions and adaptations can be made and provides students with directions for future learning.

Summative Assessment and Evaluation

Summative assessment and evaluation occur most often at the end of a unit of instruction and at term or year end when students are ready to demonstrate achievement of curriculum objectives. The main purposes are to determine

The Role of Measurement and Assessment in enriching Students’ Language Skills

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knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes that developed over a given period of time, to summarize student progress, and to report this progress to all concerned.

The Evaluation Process

Teachers as decision makers strive to make a close match between curriculum objectives, instructional methods and assessment techniques.The evaluation process carried out parallel to instruction is a recurrent one that involves Four phases:

Preparation

Assessment

Evaluation

Reflection

Preparation Phase

In the preparation phase, teachers decide what is to be evaluated, the type of evaluation to be used (diagnostic, formative or summative), the criteria upon which student learning outcomes will be judged, and the most appropriate assessment techniques for gathering information on student progress. Teachers may make these decisions in collaboration with students.

Assessment Phase

During the assessment phase, teachers select appropriate tools and techniques, then collect and collate information on student progress. Teachers must determine where, when and how assessment will be conducted and students must be consulted and informed.

Evaluation Phase

During evaluation phase teachers interpret the assessment information and make judgments about student progress. These judgments provide information upon which teachers base decisions about student learning and report progress to students and parents. Students are encouraged to monitor their own learning by evaluating their achievements on a regular basis.

Reflection Phase

The reflection phase allows teachers to consider the extent to which the previous phases in the evaluation process have been successful.

Assessment and Evaluation Strategies

Assessment data can be collected and recorded by both the teacher and students in a variety of ways. method of data collection is used, teachers should meet with students regularly to discuss their progress.

Observation

Whatever

It is an unconstructive means by

which teachers can determine their progress during learning. Observations can be recorded as anecdotal notes, and on checklists or rating scales.

Observation occurs during students’ daily listening and speaking experience.

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Anecdotal Records

Janardhanreddy. K & A. Phaniraja Kumar

Anecdotal records are notes written by the teacher regarding student language, behaviour, or learning. They document and describe significant daily events and relevant aspects of student activity and progress.

Contents for Evaluation

Having seen the strategies for formative and summative evaluation, it is important to look at the contents of the test papers to be administered to the students.

Testing Aural Skills

Testing tools (activities) that enable the teacher to evaluate the students’ sense of accuracy of pronunciation like stress, rising and falling tones and intonation.

Testing Oral Skills

Testing tools (activities) that enable the teacher to evaluate the students’ sense of accuracy of pronunciation and communicative competence, like Interviews, Role Plays and Telephone Skills.

CONCLUSIONS

As a teacher we have always professed that we should be facilitating the language use of the students in all the four skills. However context based examinations, written examinations, written examinations that more often test reading and writing skills have limited our chance of exploring the avenues of teaching aural and oral skills for an examination. In A.P., with the introduction of practical work for 50 marks and theory exam for the rest of the marks, now it is possible to focus our attention on improving aural and oral skills at the undergraduate level.

REFERENCES

1. Rin Voluci M.(1984) Grammar Games, Cambridge University Press.

2. Krishna Swami N.(1975) Modern English,Madras, Macmillan.

3. Allen, Virginia French (1983) Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary, New York.Oxford University Press.

4. Richards, J.A. (943) Basic English and its uses, London.

5. Lado, R (1964) Language Teaching: A Scientific Approach.NewYork: Mc GrawHill

6. Crystal David,English as a Global Language, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2003.