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The Keys to Successful Inclusion in Regular Ed R l Education Cl i Classrooms

Gillian Bird, Professor Sue Buckley OBE , y Down Syndrome Education International

Down Syndrome Education International

Support Down syndrome research pp y

Information and advice provided by Down Syndrome Education International builds on 30 years of research examining how to meet the learning needs of people with g p p Down syndrome. Over 70% of this work is funded by voluntary donations. To support research that delivers results today visit: visit:

Inclusion study y
Compared achievements of all teenagers with Down syndrome in 1987 and in 2000 in one county In 1987 all in special education classrooms (Severe LD) In 1999 about one-third full inclusion from 5 yrs Compared special class (SLD & MLD) and full inclusion outcomes with carefully matched groups except for students in special schools on average 2 years older One area of Hampshire county included children from 1988, earlier than the rest of the county and adapted the teaching to address their needs dd h i d No difference in ability or social background at 5

The benefits of inclusion in school

No progress 1988-2000 for special class outcomes Significant educational benefits for inclusion Teenagers fully included in mainstream classes
gains of more than 2 years in spoken language skills and 3 years in reading and writing gains in maths, general knowledge and in social independence i d d no differences in personal independence or social contacts out of school tend to have better behaviour

Daily living skills inclusion study y g y

120 100





Mainstream M i t
Domestic Community

Special school S i l h l

N significant No i ifi differences on daily living skills Even though special schools may say they make these a priority rather than academics Measure is Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale S l

Daily living skills - subsca ales

Socialisation skills inclusion study y


100 Socialisation skills - subscales s





Interpersonal relationships

Special school
Play and leisure time Social coping skills

S Special school group i l h l are 2 years older on average Interpersonal relationships, the over 17 age group only produce difference more special friends, boyfriends, girlfriends reported by special school students

Difficult behaviours inclusion study y

80 70

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Behaviour better in mainstream settings 10% with significant levels of behaviour difficulties in mainstream versus 30% in special schools i l h l
Insignificant Moderate

Vinel land malada aptive score (%)

Special school

Inclusion study - literacy y y


Co ommunication skills - subsca ales






Receptive language Expressive language

Special school
Reading and writing

Very significant gains in literacy (mean gain 3.3yrs) and expressive language p g g (mean gain 2.5 yrs) in mainstream education Children fully included in mainstream classrooms Access the same curriculum with individual targets and in-class support Both groups had same range of abilities and social backgrounds at start of school

Hampshire teenage surveys in 1999/2000 Reading skills (% in each group achieving skill)
Reads over 50 words Can read sentences Can read simple stories aloud Read books at year 2 level (6/7y) Read books at year 4 level (8/9y) y ( / y) Knows all letters of alphabet Reads on own initiative Can read for pleasure Mainstream 94 100 94 94 65 94 82 78 Special 30 57 32 23 9 36 27 35

Hampshire teenage survey 1999/2000 Number skills (% in each group achieving skill)
Can recite numbers 0 to 50 Can recite numbers 0 to 100 Can count up to 20 objects Can count more than 20 objects Can complete simple addition (to 10) Can complete simple subtraction (to 10) p p ( ) Can complete simple multiplication (to 10) Can complete simple division (to 10) Understands tens and units Understands hundreds, tens, units Mainstream 50 33 94 33 100 77 27 16 50 6 Special 26 13 52 17 60 43 4 4 17 4

Effects of Down syndrome on development?

Not just a pattern of global delay a specific profile of learning strengths and difficulties diffi l i THE PHENOTYPE These specific learning strengths and difficulties are increasingly well understood The childrens difficulties can be addressed with effective interventions children s The childrens strengths can be used to support learning

Typical profile associated with Down syndrome (see Robin Chapman, Chapman Robert Hodapp & Deborah Fidler) Hodapp,
Weaknesses Hearing and Vision Motor Skills Speech and Language Information processing Non-Verbal Mental Age Strengths Social understanding, empathy, social skills Self help and daily living skills Visual short-term memory

Verbal short-term memory

Number Learning from listening difficult

Reading Visual learning a strength

Closing the speech-language/nonverbal ability gap b l bilit

100 80



20 0

Daily living D il li i Communication C i ti

Special school
Socialisation S i li ti

Comparison across domains

The mainstreamed children are in a much richer spoken language world l ld The mainstreamed children receive more lit i literacy instruction The mainstreamed children have a much higher involvement in supported pp literacy as they are in all lessons

Vineland Age Equivalent Sco e ores

Closing the language/non-verbal MA gap changing the phenotype phenot pe

It is possible to improve the speech language and speech, literacy skills of children with Down syndrome and bring them in line with their other skills The immersion in mainstream classrooms and in reading activities may explain thi gain even f di ti iti l i this i for non-readers Results support the view that speech and language is held back by hearing and auditory processing difficulties print makes the language visual d ff l k h l l

What has produced these gains? p g

1 Full inclusion in the mainstream world from 1. infancy preschool and school L Learning from and with age-appropriate peers i f d ith i t The children are role models for language, play and learning classroom language and expectations are age-appropriate 2. Adapting the way we teach to the childrens specific speech, language and cognitive profile, p p g g g p allowing them to access the curriculum and to learn BOTH ARE KEY TO THE POSITIVE OUTCOMES

Implications for education p

Build on social/emotional strengths & understanding Encourage good AGE appropriate behaviour, have clear expectations and b l t ti d boundaries d i Compensate for weaknesses
Hearing and vision regularly checked Target speech and language difficulties from infancy through adulthood Learning from listening will be difficult and learning from looking is easier so always have visual support signs, pictures, reading Use reading to teach talking Enable understanding to be demonstrated without needing to say it. it

How do we include children with Down syndrome Portsmouth s ndrome in Portsmo th and in UK?
Full inclusion in the local mainstream school Full inclusion in an age appropriate class In class support from teaching assistant (TA) 15 to 30 hours according to need Accessing the same curriculum differentiated for each learner Adapted teaching methods visual learner, language delayed, sensory impairments, motor needs Move up each year with class

Including children with Down syndrome Outreach support from Trust psychologists one visit each term A i t Assistance as needed for behaviour or for access to d df b h i f t curriculum Training for staff teachers and assistants g p Regular liaison with parents and school team Support for use of IT educational software for support across the curriculum Commitment to childs right to be a child first

What have we learned since 1988?

We have learned by working with schools locally and across the UK ATTITUDES are THE KEY TO SUCCESS th t is that i believing in inclusion and seeing child first, not the disability di bilit Commitment from the top, Head and Governors Planning at whole school, class and individual levels Good communication a team approach Willingness to learn and to problem solve

Include in training vision, development, knowledge kno ledge

Up-to-date knowledge of the aspirations and lives of adults Up to date with Down syndrome a vision of people first with the right to an ordinary life (see Living with Down syndrome at y g y for adults views and more) Awareness that their development is strongly influenced by attitudes, opportunities, expectations like all other children Knowledge of the specific effects of Down syndrome on health and development Recognise wide range of individual needs

Head and Governors responsibilities p

Recognition that the evidence shows that inclusive schools are the best for all pupils and in an inclusive ethos academic results go up g p Inclusive ethos = respect for individuals, support for p pp individual strengths, build self-esteem, self-respect and respect for others, build mutually supportive and caring environments i which everyone fl i t in hi h flourishes pupils and staff i h il d t ff E Everyone has had a good day and wants to come back h h d dd d b k tomorrow One Heads definition of a successful school

Bronwen and Joe (grade 4, 8-9 years) (g , y )

Joyce, junior school head teacher y ,j


Inclusion training for all will lead to whole school change Attit d all staff need t believe i i l i Attitudes ll t ff d to b li in inclusion Disability awareness training for all Information on specific disabilities Whole school responsibility Special educational needs co-ordinator (SENCo) should be part of senior management team this shows schools priorities and commitment to SEN

Karen, junior school Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator (Senco) (ages 7-11) Co ordinator 7 11)

Sarah (student in grade 9, age 13-14), Bea (LSA/TA) and Annette (SENCo)

No we always/only do it this way! we way! A range of teaching methods team teaching, small groups, peer tutoring, working with teaching assistants Flexible and planned use of resources people, space, materials, i f l t i l information ti Training for staff at all levels g Time management for planning, meetings


Access to the curriculum what additional supports will this pupil require, teaching methods? D Developing an i di id l education plan (IEP) l i individual d ti l Use of outreach advisory staff roles ?, coordination with therapists etc y y Social inclusion buddy systems, circles of friends, lunchtimes, break times leisure activities, friendships p Time for teacher, TA and SENCo to plan

Numeracy lesson (grade 4, 8-9 years) y (g , y )

Partnership with parents based on mutual respect is essential to success and to maximising this pupils learning and social opportunities Parents are usually experts on their childs disability and have played a major part in early education programmes as teacher. They can continue to support teaching aims and help their young person consolidate and generalise l ld d l learning out of school f h l

Communication with parents must be professional and positive - recognise that parent anxiety may b hi h especially if school i be high i ll h l has little experience of inclusion Parents need to recognise that teacher anxiety will also be high and teacher time limited Home school diary to share, support each other and to celebrate (positive and p professional - not a bad news book!) )

Rachel, Finlays TA , y

Conversation Diary, Yr R, age 4-5 years y, , g y

Finlay, grade 1, age 6 years y, g , g y

If a teenager is to be included in community life and have a social life out of school other parents need to be involved and circles of friends can be planned with parents and other teenagers to ensure a social life during holidays, evenings and weekends holidays Friends with disabilities are important and this may need to be planned for when a teenager is included hen incl ded in mainstream school by setting up clubs, informal social events etc to give them the chance to meet etc. others with similar disabilities

Max, Joes Dad ,

Tracey, Bronwens Mum y,

IEP targets National curriculum levels of attainment Literacy and numeracy skills Language learning -specific words targeted from curriculum areas specific -cross curricular skills -progress on speech and language therapy goals progress Social development, friendships, increasing independence with age behaviour management plan behaviour change age, plan, plan

Planning systems g y
Likely to vary between schools Likely to vary according to the needs of pupils, teachers and parents Recommend arranging a structure (this may not always be needed but can be in place) e.g. weekly, half termly, termly meetings Set dates for IEP meeting each term with parents and staff Provide a system of support for LSAs weekly meetings?

Applying the typical profile pp y g yp p

Visual learners Learning from listening is difficult Reducing speech and language demands Reducing literacy demands: reading and recording Reducing motor/visual demands, increase text size demands Reducing sustained attention demands and building memory skills Good awareness of social and emotional cues, use of rewards and praise p Good social learners; learn from peers through observation and imitation pairs, groups, p g p

Planning for the individual

Learn about the profile and effective interventions Learn about the pupils understanding, skills, strengths, personality, temperament Learn about times and situations that are more difficult for the pupil, peers and staff to manage p p p g Use the pupils strengths to support learning Start with the curriculum for age peers- track back g p Be flexible, check rationale for particular interventions are adaptations necessary? Share information with parents

Individualised learning g
Too much individualised teaching in a 1:1 setting can: -reduce exposure to age appropriate models of d t i t d l f behaviour/language and opportunities for pupil to pupil i t il interaction ti -lead to social exclusion, feeling different -make it difficult for staff (teacher may find it difficult to carry on teaching the class, or may feel out of y g y control, LSA may feel overly responsible) may -may be too demanding for pupil and assistant

Too slow a pace may lead to: boredom, frustration, fatigue, lack of motivation, behaviour problems Improve pace by: Reminding pupil about next activity Changing activities regularly Have something ready if you finish earlier that expected Use the pupils cues to know when to finish or change Allow the pupil to make choices Allow breaks and reward success with special activities

Promoting effective learning skills g g

Meaningful activities based on pupils experience pupil s Visual resources and approaches to aid comprehension of concepts and task demands Use of pictures for illustration of meaning, for active learning: matching/selecting/sorting g g g Use of objects; use of role play Use of language: written and spoken g g p New activities based on existing skills Small steps with opportunities for practice, p pp p , Applying skills in different contexts, situations

Maximise use of visual structures

-To support understanding of and access to tasks To -To facilitate recording of work -To support introduction of new tasks To -To engage the pupil and support concentration To -To aid recognition and understanding of routines, To routines systems

Pupil profile on two sides of paper p p p p

Z can can...... What Z finds difficult...... Strategies that help Z...
Maths English Behaviour General

Examples of strategies that help Z - Math (student (st dent in grade 8 age 12 13) 8, 12-13)
Use math stories for addition and subtraction problems e.g. stories eg favourite film and TV characters or classmates names Use menus and shops to encourage addition of money shops Z responds to prompts of hand to help him remember clock times up for oclock, down for half past p p Varying activities throughout lesson to maintain concentration Give Z a choice of what happens in lesson e.g. clock work or money? Repetition of all concepts learned

Examples of strategies that help Z - English p g p g

Use of photos and pictures Linking topics to experience of his own Using his laptop to record class work and having freedom to include related pictures from the internet Opportunity to role play characters (this has been used in history lessons) Being part of class discussion by LSA knowing the lesson plan gp y g p and assisting Z with suitable answers/comments Using story board/cartoon strips to make novels and plays accessible to Z

Participation in all stages in lessons p g

1 Introduction/presentation 1. (context, overall aims and objectives, assess recall, targeted questioning) t t d ti i ) 2. Middle/activities (variety of teacher/pupil activities, signal transitions, appropriate pace, pupil-pupil interaction, pp p p p p p p independent working) 3. Conclusions/responses (summarise/review, assess learning, set homework)

Visual resources to support teaching and learning in school

Verbal presentation by the teacher Understanding the activity Participation - doing the activity Supporting responding (recording, writing, (recording writing speaking) Revision - of the course, lesson, specific objectives (targeted vocabulary, sentences, narrative)

Drawings to hold attention while listening during d ring teacher presentation (grade 3)

Teacher presentation (grade 4, 8-9 years) p (g , y )

Whiteboard and pen (grade 4) p (g )

Understanding the activity - Picture time table (4-5 years) (4 5 ears)

Writing (year R Kindergarten, 4-5 years) g (y g , y )

Aid for recall and understanding (grade 5 9 10 ( d 5, 9-10 years) Wizard of Oz ) Wi d f O

Brainstorm course work, grade 11, 15-16 15 16 years

Good use of colour to help to see the different categories Note the use of craft scissors improves presentation for a student who is developing their cutting skills

Close up of food map p p

Good use of colour to help to see the different categories Note the use of craft scissors improves presentation for a student who is developing their cutting skills

Participation - Personal book (year R age 4)

Reading and writing Year R age 4-5y g g g y

Interactive literacy activity (grade 1, 56 years) )

Interactive literacy activity y y

Many activities require no adaptation y q p

Wreck of the Zanzibar story board (grade 4)

Bronwen grade 3 (age 7-8) and grade 4 (aged 8-9) 8 9)

Participation (grade 6) p (g )

Storyboard (grade 6) y (g )

Resource for participationFrench (grade 7, 11-12 years)) 7

Learning about the orchestra matching, selecting, selecting listening and showing cards sho ing

Music lessons (grade 8, 12-13 years) 8 12 13 ears)

Examples p

Homework and test

Recording - series of sentences (grade 2, 6-7 2 6 7 years) )

Words, writing (grade 3, 7-8 years) , g (g , y )

Sloping desk (grade 3, 7-8 years) p g (g , y )

Recording writing (grade 6, 10-11 years) g g (g , y )

Drawing g

grade 8 g

Drawings history WW2 (grade 9, 1314years) 14 )

English, history (grade 9, 13-14 years) g , y (g , y )

Revision - Materials in record books (grade 1)

Records - math and science (grade 3) (g )

Revision records

grade 3

Revision record -water project g p j grade 3

Class wall display p y

Bronwens Mousehole Cat Storyboard y

The front cover Food tech project grade 11 ( d (age 15-16) 15 16)

Design brief g


Questionnaire results - food technology (grade 11)

Visual resources pictures, photos, symbols s mbols

On paper online and in books paper, books, for learning new vocabulary, to illustrate the meanings of sentences and text, text to support remembering and revision, to enliven records, records to understand time and sequences of activities, as in a visual timetable/plan, timetable/plan

to enable access to the curriculum through differentiation, to enable children to contribute their views and express bl hild ib h i i d themselves (Talking mats, voice of the child).

To learn letter sounds and letter names, to support sound discrimination learning about phonics g p to support a range of speech, language and memory activities. Two sets of letters are advisable, for matching games, for making words from letters and practising spelling.

Written words, blank paper/ card, black felt pen

To support learning of new vocabulary, vocabulary remembering and revision, speaking practice, practice to teach reading, spelling and writing, to support learning about sounds in words, syllables, rhyme. words syllables rhyme Blank card/paper for writing down words or sentences for use in literacy and language activities as above above, for teaching new vocabulary, for supporting independence in writing and for a useful words box.

Written sentences
In school record books books, personal books, published books, on paper, in sentence, on whiteboard, on the computer paper sentence whiteboard to support learning of new vocabulary and grammar for annotating pictures, describing activities, pictures activities support remembering and revision,

speaking practice, to help develop communication skills, to teach reading and writing, to support verbal participation in whole class activities.

Computer, ICT p ,
For supporting learning and practice in all areas of the curriculum, especially good for independent work, for sourcing pictures from the internet, managing personal photographs (from a digital camera), online games and activities, as a reward activity, activity for research for curriculum subjects, and to develop applied ICT skills. skills Many people with Down syndrome become skilled users of ICT.

Software, online, rewards, achievements, take home and share

Software and online resources for all areas of learning to learning, support writing and communication, e.g Speaking for myself, Clicker 5, picture and symbol software, and PowerPoint and p y Word in secondary school. Visual records to show progress reward systems, photographic records, certificates and accumulative records to h t show practice and achievements. ti d hi t Visual records to take h Vi l d k home to share. h

Sets of numeral cards, cards written words for numbers, number lines and squares, squares resources that help to develop understanding of the number system through visual representation, for example, Numicon and Stern, with activity cards and g guidance and other practical equipment.

Writing frames, role play, role models g , p y,

Writing frames, mind maps and visual scripts frames to support understanding, recall, writing and communication, and to enable access to literature. Sign/gesture and role play knowledge of a sign system as appropriate for the individual, and use of gesture and role play to enact ideas and support learning. Child and adult role models learning with children and adults who can be watched and copied, for promoting the development of attention, independence, social and motor skills. kill

Supporting working memory pp g g y

Lists (pictures words) for independence (pictures, Conversation diary Pictures of all types to prompt and support Using a digital camera Using software Clicker 5 Word Powerpoint 5, Word, Using a daily and weekly calendar (planner) to plan for the future, future and to discuss the past Increasing self reliance watch, clock, calendar, timetable, p personal belongings, packing school bag, managing at lunch g g ,p g g, g g time.

Resources available and ready y

Readily available resources for drawing and writing pens, paper and books for drawing and writing, sticking, particularly for support assistants and teachers to use with children to help them understand, enjoy, remember, practice and learn from hand drawn illustrations and written information. Black felt pen is recommended for all written information. Objects additional toys and objects that relate to learning objectives can help students to engage in their learning.

Examples of how to use visual resources p

Visual resources can be matched, sorted, selected, posted, named, stuck into record books, shown to t d d t ki t db k h t others, held up in whole class activities, used as memory aids and in a wide range of personal b k id di id f l books and communication aids, including, for example, in a daily con ersation diary, dail conversation diar or a social story book. stor book

See Whole School Inclusion book in DSii (out in next 3 months) Ed Education for children with D ti f hild ith Down syndrome b k in d book i Dsii series DVD on Primary Inclusion y For more information see Down Syndrome Issues and Information published by Downsed International at or contact office on Tel +44 g (0) 23 9285 5330, Fax +44 (0) 9285 5320, e mail

References Hampshire Inclusion studies p

1. Buckley, S., Bird, G., Sacks, B., & Archer, T. (2002). A comparison of mainstream y, , , , , , , ( ) p and special education for teenagers with Down syndrome: Implications for parents and teachers. Down Syndrome News and Update, 2(2), 46-54 and 2. in Down Syndrome Research and Practice. 9 (3) pp 54-67 (with full data tables). y 3. Buckley, S., Bird, G., Sacks, B., & Archer, T. (2002). The achievements of teenagers with Down syndrome. Down Syndrome News and Update, 2(3), 90-96. 4. 4 Buckley, S J & Sacks, B. (1987) The adolescent with Down syndrome: Life for the S. J. B (1987). teenager and for the family. Portsmouth, England: University of Portsmouth. Buckley, S., Bird, G. & Sacks. B. (2006) Evidence that we can change the profile from a study of inclusive education Down Syndrome Research and Practice. 9 (3) pp. education. Practice pp 51-53. Articles are available in full on All available i print f il bl in i t from Th D The Down S d Syndrome Ed Educational T t ti l Trust