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COMPETENA PARENTAL

MODELE DE CONCEPTUALIZARE I DIAGNOZ

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(Parental Competence Questionnaire)

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DR. SIMONA GLVEANU

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EDITURA UNIVERSITAR Bucureti, 2012


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(Parental Competence Questionnaire)

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MODELE DE CONCEPTUALIZARE I DIAGNOZ

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COMPETENA PARENTAL

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Colecia PSIHOLOGIE

Redactor: Gheorghe Iovan Tehnoredactor: Amelua Vian Coperta: Angelica Mlescu

Editur recunoscut de Consiliul Naional al Cercetrii tiinifice (C.N.C.S.) Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei GLVEANU, SIMONA Competen parental : modele de conceptualizare i diagnoz / Simona Glveanu. - Bucureti : Editura Universitar, 2012 Bibliogr. ISBN 978-606-591-472-8 3-055.52-055.1

DOI: (Digital Object Identifier): 10.5682/9786065914728

Copyright 2012 Editura Universitar Director: Vasile Muscalu B-dul. N. Blcescu nr. 27-33, Sector 1, Bucureti Tel.: 021 315.32.47 / 319.67.27 www.editurauniversitara.ro e-mail: redactia@editurauniversitara.ro

Distribuie: tel.: 021-315.32.47 /319.67.27 / 0744 EDITOR / 07217 CARTE comenzi@editurauniversitara.ro O.P. 15, C.P. 35, Bucureti www.editurauniversitara.ro

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Toate drepturile asupra acestei lucrri sunt rezervate, nicio parte din aceast lucrare nu poate fi copiat fr acordul Editurii Universitare

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Despre autoare
Simona Maria Glveanu este asistent universitar doctor n Catedra de Psihologie a Universitii Ecologice Bucureti. Activitatea sa didactic include: consilierea psihologic n coal, dinamica grupurilor etc. A participat la numeroase conferine tiinifice, a publicat peste 25 de studii, cercetri n volume i reviste de specialitate naionale i internaionale. Dintre acestea amintim selectiv: Scientia Socialis, Lithuania - Validating a training program for parental competence in ,,Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, vol 2, (2012). La Editura Academiei Romne, Bucureti a publicat: Rezistena la stresresurs a competenei parentale n Revista de psihologie, vol. 58 nr.1, (2012); Modele parentale relevate n tablouri familiare - abordare nomotetic n ,,Revista de psihologie, vol. 57 nr.1 (2011); Particularii etno-culturale n educaia adulilor n ,,Cercetri filosofico-psihologice, nr.2, (2010). La Editura Universitar, Bucureti a mai publicat: Familia i evoluia psihocomportamental a copiilor n ,,Psihologia sntii, Avram, E. (coord.) (2010); Diagnoza comunicrii verbale ca vector al stabilitii/instabilitii conjugale informale n ,,Cercetarea modern n psihologie. Individ, grup, organizaie: studii aplicative, Milcu, M. (coord.) (2010); Un model multifactorial al competenei parentale n: ,,Cercetarea psihologic modern: Direcii i perspective, Cercetare cantitativ vs. cercetare calitativ, Milcu, M; Griebel, W.; Sassu, R. (coord.) (2009); Managementul serviciilor de consiliere psihologic n educaie n ,,Psihologia n organizaiile moderne, Avram, E. (coord.) (2008). La alte edituri, a publicat: Modelul familial - factor mediator n delincvena comportamental n Direcii i perspective psihologice n abordarea unicitii umane i sintalitii, Editura MAI, Bucureti (2010); Dezvoltarea abilitilor sociale baz n managementul carierei tinerilor n Perspective pentru dezvoltarea carierei tinerilor n context european, Ed. Sigma, Bucureti (2009); Coordonate psihopedagogice n consilierea copiilor i tinerilor cu tulburri de conduit n: ,,Neurotiine i psihologie clinic, Avram, E., Ttreanu, L. (coord.), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti (2009).

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CUPRINS
Prefa ........................................................................................ Cuvnt nainte ............................................................................. 15 19

Capitolul II MEDIUL FAMILIAL N ASISTAREA FORMRII I DEZVOLTRII COPILULUI ................................................ 1. Rolul familiei n formarea personalitii ................................ 1.1. Componenta afectiv ....................................................... 1.2. Conduita moral .............................................................. 1.3. Integrarea social ............................................................. 1.4. Deviana comportamental .............................................. 2. Interrelaiile parentale i dezvoltarea cognitiv ..................... 3. Reprezentrile copilului viznd mediul familial ....................

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Capitolul I MODELE PARENTALE ......................................................... 1. Modelul prinilor ,,autoritari ............................................... 2. Modelul prinilor ,,indulgeni .............................................. 3. Modelul prinilor ,,protectori/hiperprotectori...................... 4. Modelul prinilor ,,inconsecveni ........................................ 5. Modelul prinilor ,,indifereni ............................................. 6. Modelul prinilor ,,agresivi ................................................. 7. Modelul prinilor ,,eficieni .................................................

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PARTEA NTI ARIA PROBLEMATIC A COMPETENEI PARENTALE: PREMISE TIINIFICE, MODELE DE CONCEPTUALIZARE I DIAGNOZ 27 29 35 40 44 46 50 52

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Capitolul III DEMERSURI EXPLICATIV-INTERPRETATIVE ALE COMPETENEI PARENTALE ............................................. 1. Modelul factorial al competenei parentale ............................ 7

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Capitolul IV MIJLOACE DE DIAGNOZ ALE COMPETENEI PARENTALE ............................................................................ 142 1. Instrumente de investigare a interrelaionrii n familie conotaii pentru evaluarea competenei parentale .................. 142 2. Strategia naional integrat de formare i dezvoltare a competenelor parentale .................................................................. 144 8

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2. Conotaii psihologice ale modelelor explicativ-interpretative 2.1. Modelul personal sau modelul trsturilor .................... 2.1.1. Competena parental modul al competenelor sociale (dimensiuni de personalitate) ................... 2.1.2. Inteligena emoional resurs a competenelor parentale ............................................................... 2.1.3. Ali factori psihologici individuali ai prinilor ... 2.1.3.1. Cogniia prinilor ................................... 2.1.3.2. Rezistena la stres .................................... 2.1.3.3. Tulburrile emoionale ............................ 2.1.3.4. Tulburrile de personalitate i psihozele. 2.2. Modelul situaional sau contingent .................................. 2.2.1. Particulariti socio-culturale i socio-economice vectori mediatori n competena parental ........... 2.2.2. Amprenta carierei profesionale asupra competenei parentale ............................................................... 2.2.3. Bonafactor modelator n competena parental . 2.2.4. Competen parental i tip de familie ................. 2.2.4.1. Familia tradiional / modern ................ 2.2.4.2. Familia parental ..................................... 2.2.4.3. Familia monoparental............................ 2.2.4.4. Familia extins ........................................ 2.2.4.5. Familia de provenien ............................ 2.3. Modelul interacionist-integrativ ..................................... 2.3.1. Relaia dintre trsturile copilului i ale prinilor . 2.3.2. Tipologia copilului dificil .................................... 2.3.3. Relaiile dintre frai .............................................

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3. Abordri internaionale contemporane n studiul parentingului/ competenei parentale. ............................................................ 148 PARTEA A DOUA CERCETARE Capitolul V METODOLOGIA CERCETRII .......................................... 1. Obiective................................................................................. 2. Ipoteze .................................................................................... 3. Subieci ........................................................................ .......... 4. Metode ......................................................................... .......... 4.1. Instrumente folosite pentru examinarea prinilor .......... 4.1.1. Inventarul CC.P. (S.Glveanu) ............................ 4.1.2. Grila de evaluare a percepiei cadrelor didatice asupra dinamicii competenei parentale (S.Glveanu) ........................................................ 4.1.3. Chestionarul 16 P.F (R.B.Cattell) ........................ 4.1.4. Chestionarul G.Z. (J.Guilford-W.Zimmerman) ... 4.1.5. Testul EQ (T.Carabin) . ....................................... 4.1.6. Inventarul EMBU (C. Perris et al.) ...................... 4.1.7. Chestionarul COPE (C.S.Carver et al.) ............... 4.1.8. Chestionarul M.R.Q. (W.E.Snell et al.) ............... 4.2. Instrumente folosite pentru examinarea copiilor ............. 4.2.1. Chestionarul W-M (Woodworth Mathews) ....... 4.2.2. Grila de observare i evaluare a comportamentului copilului la coal i de investigare a evenimentelor familiale din perspectiva cadrelor didactice (S.Glveanu) ........................................................ 157 157 158 158 159 159 159 165 166 174 177 179 181 185 190 190

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Capitolul VI PREZENTAREA, ANALIZA I INTERPRETAREA DATELOR ................................................................................ 1. Analiza preliminar a datelor ................................................. 2. Modelul factorial al competenei parentale ............................ 9

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3. Variaia competenei parentale n funcie de particulariti socio-demografice) ................................................................. 4. Un set de trsturi de personalitate ca predictori ai competenei parentale ................................................................................. 5. O serie de variabile psiho-sociale ale prinilor n corelaie cu dimensiunile competenei parentale .................................. 5.1. Inteligena emoional ..................................................... 5.2. Modul de percepere a experienei modelului educativ trit n familia de origine ................................................. 5.3. Stilul de coping ................................................................ 5.4. Particularitile relaei de cuplu ....................................... 6. Adaptarea colar i social a copiilor n alternative ce coreleaz cu atributele competenei parentale ........................

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BIBLIOGRAFIE ...................................................................... ANEXE ...................................................................................... Anexa 1 Chestionar pentru investigarea atitudinilor parentale (Simona Maria Glveanu) ......................................... Anexa 2 Gril de identificare a copiilor cu dificulti colare i familiale, destinat cadrelor didactice (Simona Maria Glveanu) .......................................................... Anexa 3 Inventarul C.C.P. (Simona Maria Glveanu) .. ...... Anexa 4 Grila de evaluare a percepiei cadrelor didactice asupra dinamicii competenei parentale (Simona Maria Glveanu) ................................................................................... Anexa 5 Gril de observare i evaluare a comportamentului copilului la coal i de investigare a evenimentelor familiale (din perspectiva cadrelor didactice) (Simona Maria Glveanu) . .................................................................................

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Capitolul VII CONCLUZII .............................................................................

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REZUMAT (n limba englez) . .............................................. 10

CONTENTS
Foreword .................................................................................... PART I THE PROBLEMATIC AREA OF THE PARENTAL COMPETENCE: SCIENTIFIC PREMISES, MODELS OF CONCEPTUALIZATION AND DIAGNOSIS Chapter I PARENTAL MODELS ............................................................ 1. The authoritative parents ..................................................... 2. The indulgent parents .......................................................... 3. The protective/hyper-protective parents ............................. 4. The inconstant parents ........................................................ 5. The indifferent parents ........................................................ 6. The aggressive parents ........................................................ 7. The efficient parents ........................................................... 15

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Chapter II THE FAMILIAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD ............................. 1. The role of the family in building the personality .................. 1.1. The affective component ................................................. 1.2. The moral conduct ........................................................... 1.3. The social integration ...................................................... 1.4. Behavioral deviance ........................................................ 2. The parental interrelations and cognitive development .......... 3. The childs representations of the family ...............................

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Chapter III EXPLANATORY-INTERPRETATIVE APPROACHES OF THE PARENTAL COMPETENCE ....................................... 1. The factorial model of the parental competence .................... 11

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Chapter IV DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS OF THE PARENTAL COMPETENCE ........................................................................ 142 1. Tools for investigating the familial interrelations the implications for the assessment of parental competence ........ 142 2. The integrated national strategy of creating and developing the parental competence ......................................................... 144 12

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2. The psychological connotations of explanatory-interpretative models .................................................................................... 2.1. The personal model ......................................................... 2.1.1. The parental competence a component of the social skills (personality dimensions) .................. 2.1.2. The emotional intelligence a resource for the parenting skills ..................................................... 2.1.3. Other parents individual psychological factors .. 2.1.3.1. Parents cognition ................................... 2.1.3.2. Stress resistance ...................................... 2.1.3.3. Emotional disorders ................................ 2.1.3.4. Personality disorders and psychoses ...... 2.2. The situational or contingent model ................................ 2.2.1. The socio-cultural and socio-economic features mediating vectors of the parental competence ..... 2.2.2. The effect of the professional career on the parental competence ............................................ 2.2.3. The babysitter a shaping factor of the parental competence .......................................................... 2.2.4. The parental competence and the familial type ... 2.2.4.1.Traditional/ modern family ...................... 2.2.4.2. Parental family ........................................ 2.2.4.3. Monoparental family ............................... 2.2.4.4. Extended family ...................................... 2.2.4.5. Family of originm ................................... 2.3. The interactionist-integrative model ................................ 2.3.1. The relation between childs and parents characteristics ....................................................... 2.3.2. The typology of the difficult child ....................... 2.3.3. The relations inside the brotherhood ....................

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3. International innovations that address the positive parenting/ parental competence ............................................................... 148 PART TWO RESEARCH Chapter V RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ............................................ 1. The objectives ......................................................................... 2. The hypotheses ....................................................................... 3. The subjects ............................................................................ 4. The methods ........................................................................... 4.1. Tools used for examining the parents .............................. 4.1.1. Inventory P.C.Q (S.Glveanu) ............................. 4.1.2. The chart for teachers assessment of the dynamics of the parental competence (created by us) ......... 4.1.3. 16 P.F. questionnaire (R.B.Cattell) ....................... 4.1.4. G.Z. questionnaire (J.Guilford-W.Zimmerman) ... 4.1.5. EQ test (T.Carabin) ............................................... 4.1.6. Inventory EMBU (C.Perris et al.) ......................... 4.1.7. COPE questionnaire (C.S.Carver et al.) ................ 4.1.8. M.R.Q. questionnaire (W.E.Snell et al.) ............... 4.2. Tools used for examining the children ............................ 4.2.1. W-M Questionnaire (Woodworth- Mathews) ....... 4.2.2. The chart for teachers observation of the childs behavior in school and for data gathering about the family situation (S.Glveanu) .............................. Chapter VI DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION ................................................................ 1. The preliminary data analysis ................................................. 2. The factorial model of the parental competence ....................

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BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................... ANNEXES ................................................................................. Annex 1 - Questionnaire for investigate parental attitudes (Simona Maria Glveanu) .......................................................... Annex 2 - A grid to identify children that present difficulties to adapt at school and within society and have a difficult life situation (Simona Maria Glveanu) .................................... Annex 3 - Inventory P.C.Q (Simona Maria Glveanu) ........... Annex 4 - The chart for teachers assessment of the dynamics of the parental competence (Simona Maria Glveanu) ........... Annex 5 - The chart for teachers observation of the childs behavior in school and for data gathering about the family situation (Simona Maria Glveanu) ..........................................

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Chapter VII CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................

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3. The variation of the parental competence according to socio-demographic features .................................................... 4. A set of personality traits as predictors of the parental competence ............................................................................. 5. A number of parents psychosocial variables correlated with the dimensions of the parental competence ............................ 5.1. Emotional intelligence ..................................................... 5.2. Perception of the educational model experienced during childhood ............................................................. 5.3. Coping style .................................................................. 5.4. Marital relation features ............................................ ..... 6. The childrens scholar and social adaptation significantly correlates with the attributes of the parental competence ......

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SUMMARY ............................................................................... 14

Prefa
Raportul prini-copii este, fr ndoial, o experien de vrf (peak experience) n nici un alt gen de relaionare nu se ntlnete att de pregnant acea entelehie (starea de mplinire sau desvrire, definit de Aristotel drept esena sufletului), acea punere n act a potenialelor vitale: att copilul, ct i printele nva, se dezvolt, cultiv dragostea, sperana, fericirea, iertarea, vocaia devoiunii i a sacrificiului. Creterea copiilor, denumit astzi generic cu termenul parenting, este, evident, cea mai veche vocaie uman. Succesul acesteia a fost asigurat de pulsiunea filogenetic a grijii pentru progenitur de aceea s-a i pretat la intuiie, empirism i rutin. Astzi, parenting-ul este domeniu al unor politici publice, incit la apariia unor dezbateri, hotrri legislative i reuniuni tiinifice internaionale. n asemenea context, o lucrare de sintetizare i integrare a informaiilor, concepiilor, teoriilor i modalitilor de operaionalizare este mai mult dect necesar. Autoarea gndete ntr-un registru nou relaia prini-copii i anume n termenii competenei parentale; noiunea a fost conceptualizat de aceasta nc din 2008, dup doi ani de studii i publicat n Cercetare psihologic modern, volum coordonat de M. Milcu, W. Griebel i A. Sassu. Conceptul de competen parental, operaionalizat de autoare n cartea de fa, apare nu numai ca un insight n faa empirismului, ci fundamenteaz o tiin cu metodologie investigativ i diagnostic, ntr-o viziune multifactorial, sistemic i nomotetic. Comparnd diverse concepii ale unui nsemnat numr de autori privind stilul educativ (structurate pe axele autoritate-

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liberalism, dragoste-ostilitate) i efectele acestuia n planul dezvoltrii psihice a copilului, autoarea a conturat ase modele parentale autoritar, indulgent, hiperprotector, inconsecvent, indiferent i agresiv ca premis pentru relevarea modelului printelui eficient/competent. Este de remarcat pertinena i rigoarea cu care autoarea lrgete cadrul de investigare a relaiei prini-copii prin prezentarea i analizarea, ntr-o viziune integrativ, a teoriilor referitoare la rolul familiei n formarea personalitii, conduitei sociale i morale i dezvoltarea cognitiv a copilului, din perspectiva succesului sau insuccesului modelului educativ n integrarea colar i social a copilului. Considerentele dezbtute pn acum au permis autoarei s identifice complexitatea competenei parentale i s o reflecte prin elaborarea unui model factorial ce conine cinci factori (cunoaterea particularitilor copilului, suport afectiv, disciplinare, managementul timpului i al situaiilor de criz) i raportarea la trei modele explicativ-interpretative (personal, situaional i interacional-integrativ). Se cuvine a fi subliniat maniera n care autoarea a rspuns provocrii lansate de situaia din Romnia i anume a lipsei unor instrumente valide de evideniere a relaiilor prinicopii dei la nivel internaional exist numeroase asemenea instrumente n sensul conceperii i validrii unui chestionar de investigare a competenei parentale (CCP). Contribuiile sunt cu att mai consistente cu ct parcurgem partea a doua a crii n care sunt argumentate metodologic caracteristicile psihometrice ale instrumentelor concepute. Autoarea aprofundeaz analiza competenei parentale sub aspectul variaiilor ei determinate de particularitile sociodemografice, trsturile de personalitate i caracteristici psiho-

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sociale precum: inteligena emoional, stilul de coping, ambientul conjugal i modelul educativ trit n familie. Cartea de fa este un succes, un construct de referin n domeniu, viznd emergena impactului dintre psihologie i viaa curent, dinamic. Prin modul de organizare a coninutului, cartea reprezint o valoare tiinific i metodologic, cu certe note de originalitate. Din perspectiv teoretic, autoarea ofer o sistematizare i o trecere de la paradigmele reducioniste la cele dinamice i interacionist-sistemice n studiul relaiei prinicopii (prin conceptualizarea i operaionalizarea competenei parentale n relaia cu colarul mic). De asemenea, din perspectiv practic, realizeaz o exemplificare a unui demers de cercetare a competenei parentale (prin construirea unui chestionar de evaluare i a unor grile de observare i evaluare a dinamicii acesteia i a comportamentului copilului la coal, introduse n portofoliul instrumental din aria parenting-ului). Reuind o cercetare ampl asupra funcionalitii competenei parentale, rezultatele remarcabile ale autoarei au fost i sunt diseminate la manifestri tiinifice din ar i strintate. n acest sens amintim participarea sa la ediia din 2011 a conferinei Evidence-Based Parent Education Programs and Best Practices to Promote Positive Parenting, derulat de European Society for Developmental Psychology, cu workshopul Arta de a comunica eficient cu copilul, dar i publicarea lucrrii Validating a Training Program for Parental Competence n revista Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century, aprut n 2012 sub egida Scientia Socialis Lithuania. Avem n aceast carte o abordare de avangard, cu o gndire flexibil, divergent asupra coninuturilor, formelor,

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mijloacelor i dezvoltrii competenei parentale. Ca orice lucru conceput de om, i cartea Simonei Glveanu este expresia unui caracter; dup conlucrarea de mai muli ani, avem satisfacia s vedem c aceast expresie este benefic societii. Prof.univ.dr. Grigore Nicola Academia Romn Institutul de Filosofie i Psihologie C.Rdulescu-Motru Departamentul de Psihologie

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Cuvnt nainte
Studiul i cercetarea relaiei prini-copii constituie un subiect de interes pentru specialiti din domenii diverse psihologie, pedagogie, sociologie etc., ceea ce a fcut ca aceast tematic s cunoasc o palet larg de abordri: cele centrate pe latura teoretico-descriptiv au condus la tipologii comportamentale ale copiilor i prinilor n cadre problematice relevante; alte lucrri au elaborat i validat ndrumri pentru coping-ul eficient cu sau fr o fundamentare personologic (B. Spock, 2000; Dorothy Law Nolte i Rachel Harris, 2001; Carmen Ciofu, 2004; Irina Petrea, 2007). O alt direcie a fost reprezentat de dezvoltarea self-managementului prinilor n exersarea funciei educative (L. Schlessinger, 2004) i a programelor individualizate pentru disfuncii clar determinate (A. Frankland i P. Sanders, 1999; M. Dopfner et al., 2004; F. i Ulrike Petermann, 2006). Dei demersul privind studiul relaiei prini-copii este complex i aparent complet (date fiind multitudinea cercetrilor i diversitatea perspectivelor de analiz), n literatura de specialitate ntlnim ndeosebi informaii generale despre optimizarea acestei interaciuni, care fac referire mai ales la copilul de vrst precolar, la puber sau adolescent. Prin urmare, ne-am propus definirea unui cadru tiinific pentru abordarea psihologic a relaiilor ntre prini i copiii de vrst colar mic, lansnd conceptul de competen parental i investignd condiiile de dezvoltare a acesteia ca factor de progres n procesul adaptrii colare i sociale a copilului. Structura i dezvoltarea competenelor a fost studiat n majoritatea domeniilor de activitate, cu raportare explicit la

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eficiena muncii n acest sens, R. Boyatzis a elaborat un model al competenelor lund n considerare trsturi de personalitate i comportamente observabile (R. Boyatzis, apud R. Wood i T. Payne, 1999). n cadrul cercetrii noastre concepem o extindere a termenului respectiv n domeniul consilierii psihologice prin sintagma competen parental, pstrnd notele principale ale termenului generic. Competena parental reprezint un sistem de cunotine, priceperi, deprinderi i abiliti susinute de trsturi de personalitate specifice, ce i permit printelui s ndeplineasc cu succes responsabilitile parentale, s previn i s depeasc situaiile de criz n favoarea dezvoltrii copilului. Termenul a fost conceptualizat de noi n anul 2008, fiind prezentat la Conferina internaional de la Sibiu n cadrul unui studiu ce a fost publicat un an mai trziu la Editura Universitar din Bucureti, n volumul intitulat Cercetarea psihologic modern: direcii i perspective, coordonat de M. Milcu, W. Griebel i Ana Raluca Sassu. Conceptul de competen parental a cunoscut o larg recunoatere n Romnia, prin apariia n anul 2010 a Strategiei naionale integrate de formare i dezvoltare a competenelor parentale intitulate Prini mai buni copii mai educai o via mai bun i susinute de Ministerul Educaiei, Cercetrii, Tineretului i Sportului. Studierea chestionarelor de investigare a interrelaionrii n familie disponibile la nivel naional a relevat absena unui instrument valid care s abordeze relaia dintre prini i copiii aflai n etapa vrstei colare mici; la nivel internaional au fost identificate chestionare consacrate, ns acestea nu au fost gsite i la firmele responsabile cu distribuirea testelor psihologice etalonate pe populaia romneasc. Aceste considerente au reprezentat pentru cercetarea noastr nevoi ce au

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declanat, n scopul atingerii obiectivelor acesteia, demersul de construire a unui chestionar care s investigheze competena parental i s surprind multitudinea dimensiunilor acesteia ntr-o viziune integrativ ce depete analizarea doar a stilului educativ i care, prin scale i coninut, s aduc noutate n domeniu. Viznd o abordare ct mai complet asupra relaiei prini-copii, ne-am propus: elaborarea unui model structural al competenei parentale ntemeiat pe latura personologic, dar i pe anumite aspecte psiho-sociale precum stilul de coping, inteligena emoional, particulariti ale relaiei conjugale i perceperea experienei modelului educativ trit n familie; relevarea relaiei dintre competena parental i patternurile de conduit ale copiilor pentru identificarea direciilor de dezvoltare. Tematica cercetrii, demersul tiinific proiectat i obiectivele propuse se nscriu pe linia eforturilor de a pune la dispoziia specialitilor din domeniul consilierii familiale/ colare metode de evaluare a relaiilor prini-copii: Chestionarul de investigare a competenei parentale i Grilele de observare i evaluare ale dinamicii acesteia i ale comportamentului copilului la coal (din perspectiva cadrelor didactice) instrumente n baza crora vor putea fi identificate profile psihologice ale prinilor, utile n activitatea de diagnoz i de evaluare a interveniei. Totodat, cartea se adreseaz i studenilor de la facultile de psihologie i tiine ale educaiei, celor ce urmeaz cursuri masterale n domeniile respective (oferind posibilitatea de aprofundare a cunotinelor prin prezentarea sistematic att a concepiilor tiinifice, ct i a demersului practic) precum i, nu n ultimul rnd, prinilor. Cu toate acestea, demersul investigativ nu se ncheie aici; n urmtorul volum intitulat Programe de educaie parental vom prezenta succint o serie de programe naionale i

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Programul de doctorat s-a desfurat n perioada 2008-2011 n cadrul Institutului de Psihologie Constantin Rdulescu-Motru al Academiei Romne, iar teza noastr, apreciat cu distincia MAGNA CUM LAUDE, a fost coordonat de prof. univ. dr. Grigore Nicola, cruia i mulumim pentru profunda ndrumare tiinific i preiosul sprijin moral. De asemenea, adresm mulumiri i celor care au fcut parte din comisiile de examinare pe parcursul pregtirii doctorale i de susinere a tezei: conf. univ. dr. Ruxandra Gherghinescu, conf. univ. dr. Ana Maria Marhan, conf. univ. dr. Cornelia Tatu, conf. univ. dr. Irina Anca Tnsescu i conf. univ. dr. Bogdan Danciu.

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internaionale prin prisma crora am analizat rezultatele decurse din proiectarea, implementarea i evaluarea/validarea unui training de dezvoltare a competenei parentale elaborat de noi. Coninutul acestei cri i al volumului ulterior de care am amintit mai sus se bazeaz pe textul lucrrii noastre de doctorat Studiul competenei parentale: o abordare structural dinamic n scopul proiectrii unui program de formaredezvoltare, iar cercetarea aferent acesteia (derulat ntre anii 2006-2011) a inclus i date rezultate din activitatea profesional n calitate de psiholog consilier colar.

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FOREWORD

The study of the parent-child relation has been for long a matter of interest for scholars in various social sciences (psychology, pedagogy, sociology etc). This fact has determined a diversity of scientific approaches of the above mentioned relation which can be grouped as follows: some are theoretical and descriptive and have resulted into behavioral typologies of parents and children, others have elaborated and validated guidance for coping to the inherent difficulties of the relation with or without a personality-related foundation (B. Spock, 2000; Dorothy Law Nolte and Rachel Harris, 2001; Carmen Ciofu, 2004; Irina Petrea, 2007) and, finally, others are centered on the development of parental self management over the educational process (L. Schlessinger, 2004) and of programs that are tailored on clearly identified dysfunctions (A. Frankland and P. Sanders, 1999; M. Dopfner et al., 2004; F. and Ulrike Petermann, 2006). Although the scientific work on the parent-child relation is very complex and seems comprehensive (due to the vast amount of studies and the diversity of analytic perspectives), most of the dedicated literature offers only general information for optimizing this relation and, furthermore, it concerns mainly the preschool period, puberty and adolescence. As a consequence, we intended to define a scientific frame that could facilitate the psychological approach of the parents relation to the early-school aged children. For this purpose, we defined the concept of parental competence as a progress factor for childrens school and social adaptation and investigated the conditions that influenced its development. The competence structure and development was studied in the majority activity fields, with an explicit relation to work

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efficiency; on this coordinate, R Boyatzis issued a competence model taking into consideration noticeable personality traits and behavior (R. Boyatzis, apud R. Wood i T. Payne, 1999). Within our research we conceive a development of the respective term in the psychological counseling field through parental competence term, keeping the main notes of the generic term. The parental competence was defined by us as a system of knowledge, skills, capabilities, abilities and habits that allow the parent to successfully fulfill the parental responsibilities and also to prevent/deal with crisis situations in a manner that contributes to the childs development. The term was introduced and drafted by us in year 2008, being presented during the Sibiu International Conference; the study was published one year later in the volume Modern psychological research: directions and perspectives, coordinated by M. Milcu. The parental competence term knew a wide acknowledgment in Romania, by the appearance in 2010 of Integrated national strategy of parental competences creation and development, supported by Ministry of Education, Research Youth and Sports. By studying the investigation surveys for family interrelationship available at national level, the absence of a valid tool to approach the relationship between parents and children of young school age was revealed; at international level established surveys were identified, however they were not available also for the companies responsible to distribution of psychological tests standardized for the Romanian population. These facts represented for our research needs and objectives that triggered the action of drafting a survey to investigate the parental competence and to capture the multitude of its dimensions in an integrated perspective that would go beyond the analysis of only the educational style and

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would bring novelty to the domain (through its scales and content). In order to maximize the degree of completeness of the investigation, we intended to issue a structural model of parental competence created both on personological traits, as well as on several psycho-social aspects (such as coping style, emotional intelligence, particularities of marital relation and the perception of the educational model lived in the family) and also to reveal the relation between parental competence and children behavioral patterns (in order to identify its dimensions that need to be developed). The research theme, the drafted scientific process and the intended objectives are within the line of efforts to put to disposition of family/school counseling field specialists, methods to assess the parents-children relationships, as well as The parental competence questionnaire and the Observation and assessment grills of its dynamic and of child behavior in school from teachers perspective, based on which parents psychological profiles shall be identified, useful in the intervention diagnosis and assessment activity. Then again, this book addresses the students in psychology and educational sciences and those who attend master degree courses (as it offers the possibility of deepening their knowledge through the systematic presentation of both the scientific approaches and the practical study), and, last but not least, the parents. Nevertheless, the scientific investigation has not been concluded yet: in our next book, which will be entitled Parental Education Programs, a series of national and international programs will be briefly described. Those programs were used as a landmark for analyzing the results that were obtained by designing, implementing and

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evaluating/validating the training program for the parental competence elaborated by us. This book and the afore-mentioned next volume are based on the content of our doctoral paper entitled The Study of Parental Competence. A Structural and Dynamic Approach for Designing a Formation and Development Program, and the research that was included in it was carried out between 2006 and 2011 and also included information from the professional activity as a school counselor and psychologist. The doctoral course was carried out between 2008 and 2011 at the Constantin Rdulescu-Motru Institute of Psychology of the Romanian Academy and our doctoral paper (that was awarded the MAGNA CUM LAUDE degree) was coordinated by professor Grigore Nicola, Ph.D., whom we thank for the profound scientific guidance and valuable moral support. We also thank the various scholars who took part in the examination commisions throughout the doctoral course and in the context of presenting the final dissertation: associate professor Ruxandra Gherghinescu, Ph.D., associate professor Ana Maria Marhan, Ph.D., associate professor Cornelia Tatu, Ph.D., associate professor Irina Anca Tnsescu, Ph.D., and associate professor Bogdan Danciu, Ph.D.

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