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CHAPTER 8

HAZOP STUDY OF STRIPPER

SUMMARY

In this chapter, it reviews about the hazop study of stripper. It describes the parameters need to be used and control during the process begins. HAZOP is a formal procedure that offers a great potential to improve the safety, reliability and operability of process plants by recognizing and eliminating potential problems at the design stage. It is not limited to the design stage, however. It can be applied anywhere that a design intention (Perrys Handbook, 1998). When using the operability study technique to vet a process design, the action to be taken to deal with a potential hazard will often be modification to the control system and instrumentation, the inclusion of additional alarms, trips or interlock. If major hazard are identified, major design changes may be necessary, alternatives processes, material and equipment. In order to have a safe process successfully producing to specification to the required product, a sound control system is necessary but not sufficient(Coulson & Richardsons, 1999).

8.1 INTRODUCTION In this project, the safety procedure will be used to study the safety of the plant designed. HAZOP study is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation. This procedure is preferred since it is a formal systematic examination of a processing plant for identifying hazards, failure and operability problems and assessing the consequences. This leads to fewer lapses in safety, quality and production provided that the plant is installed according to the design and maintained in appropriate condition. A HAZOP is carried out as a team activity. The HAZOP can also be used as a check on the operability of an existing plant. The procedure for a HAZOP study is to apply a number of guide words to various parts of the process design intention, which tells us what, the process is, expected to do. The advantages of HAZOP study to the design application: Early identification of problems areas when conceptual design stage. Identifies need for emergency procedures to mitigate. Provide essential information for safety case, such as on the hazards identified and effectiveness of safety systems. Through examination of hazard and operability problems when applied at detailed stage. Meets legislative requirements. Identifies need for commissioning, operating and maintenance procedures for safe and reliable operations.

8.2 Parameters and guide words The key feature is to select appropriate parameters which apply to the design intention. These are general words such as flow, temperature, pressure, level, time, concentration and reaction. It can be seen that variations in these parameters could constitute deviations from the design Intention. A set of guide words to each parameter for each section of the process was applied in order to identify deviations. These guide words are given below and are applied to the stripper unit operations to be considered. Guide Word Meaning The complete negation of these intentions Comment No part of the intentions is achieved but nothing else happens. These refer to quantities More or Less Quantitative increases or and properties such as flow decreases rate and temperature as well activity likes HEAT All As well as A qualitative increases the design intentions together and are with

No or Not

operating achieved

some additional activity. Part of A qualitative decrease Only some of the attention achieved; some are not.

The following words are used in a special way, and have the precise meanings given below: i. Intention: the intention defines how the particular part of the process was intended to operate and the intention of the designer. ii. Deviations: these are departures from the designers intention which are detected by the systematic application of the guide words.

iii. Causes: reasons why, and how, the deviations could occur. Only if a deviation can be shown to have a realistic cause is it treated as meaningful. iv. Consequences: the results that follow the occurrence of a meaningful deviation.

The table below shows the typical HAZOP process parameter that could be considered during the measurement of the HAZOP study.

Typical Hazop Process Parameter Pressure Temperature Flow Level Time Composition pH Reaction Heating Cooling Mixing Addition Data Information Separation Viscosity Voltage Frequency Speed Density Solubility

Type of vessel: Stripper Temperature: 180C Pressure: 2.75Pa Guide Word None No Flow No flow in stream coming to the column Line fracture Quality amount and of Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Actions Required Install low level alarm

product will suffer. Accidental discharge to the environment (aromatics are flammable material). -

Plant shut down.

More of

Flow

LCV fails open error in

Overfills Incomplete separation of nonaromatics from solvent + aromatics

Install high level alarm and check sizing.

Pressure

Isolation valve close in error

Full delivery

pump

Isolation valve close error in

Temperatu re

Higher pressure in transfer

Degradation of the solvent quality will

High Temperat ure Alarm


5

line

become significant ms.

(HTA).

Less of

Flow

Leaking flange valve of

Material discharge to the environment

Isolate that of plant part the

Others

Maintenan ce

Equipment Failure

Line be

cannot

Install alarms.

completely drained purged or

REFERENCES Charles A.Wentz, Safety, Health, And Environmental Protection, McGraw Hill, 1998 Coulson and Richardsons. Chemical Engineering Design, Volume 6. Butterworth Heinemann. 2000. Green W. Don & Perry Robert H. Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook. Seventh Edition Kansas. McGraw Hill, 1997.

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