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Jaclyn Easter Literacy Lesson Title: Invertebrate Animals Content Area/Unit: Life Science/Animals: Invertebrates and Vertebrates Grade

e Level: 7th Date: Wednesday 3-6-13 Rationale and Invertebrate animals account for 90% of all living things. 97% Description (some studies say 96-98%) of all animals are invertebrates! Knowing, in depth, every aspect of the various invertebrate phyla is not developmentally appropriate. I hope to provide students with a brief introduction into the invertebrate world and allow students choices about invertebrates based on their interests. Read and think aloud with students to introduce an unfamiliar topic. Standards Millions of species of animals, plants, and microorganisms are alive today. Although different species might look/behave dissimilarly, the unity among organisms becomes apparent from an analysis of their chemical processes, and the evidence of common ancestry. In classifying organisms, scientists consider (anatomical) details of both internal and external structures. Learning Objectives/ Timeframe Students will explain what invertebrates are and how they fit in the animal kingdom. Students will conduct independent research on the invertebrate phylum of their choosing. Students will organize research information in a way that is understandable and appealing to peers and teachers. Materials/ Resources Instructional Methods Introduction Hook Invertebrate concept-definition map, Invertebrate Files book and article with pictures, Read/Think Aloud Script, Projector Interdisciplinary Connections with English, Literacy Read Aloud, Think Aloud, TIPS (Think, Ink, Pair, Share), ConceptDefinition Map Invertebrate book placed on overhead accentuating pictures of various types of invertebrates. Introduce goals/learning targets for the day. Briefly go over our schedule for the day.

TIPS: What does it mean to be invertebrate? Name some common invertebrate creatures and describe their characteristics? Which kingdom do invertebrates belong to and why? Share thinking in small group, then large group.

Development (Direct Instruction/ Modeling)

Read Aloud/Think Aloud: (Establish Context) Today, were going to learn a little more about invertebrates in general the definition, what they are/what they are NOT, facts and examples of invertebrates, and so on. Later in the week, we are going to compare and contrast invertebrates with vertebrates, so make sure you take very detailed notes. Also, in order to fully understand the animal kingdom its very important to know how the terms invertebrate/vertebrate are different and how they are related. (Fast Map Vocabulary) PLEASE GET OUT YOUR VOCABULARY JOURNALS! Some words that will help you understand are: Vertebrae, Phyla/Phylum, Adapted, and Exoskeleton Vertebrae means each of the series of small bones forming the backbone Turn to your partner tell them the definition of VERTEBRAE Write the definition down in your vocabulary journal. Next is, Phylum a category used in the classification of living things. It ranks just below the largest category of KINGDOM. (Phyla is the plural form of phylum.) Turn to your partner tell them the definition of PHYLUM Write the definition down in your vocabulary journal. Third is, Adapted to modify for a new purpose Turn to your partner tell them the definition of ADAPTED. Write the definition down in your vocabulary journal. Our last word is, Exoskeleton a rigid covering on the outside of bodies of certain types of animals Turn to your partner tell them the definition of EXOSKELETON. Write the definition down in your vocabulary journal.

(Activate Listening) I want you to listen closely as I read the following passage aloud to you. Pay close attention for the definition of INVERTEBRATE. Listen also for FACTS about invertebrates, and examples of invertebrates. When I am done reading, I will share my thinking with you about how I would fill out THIS (hold it up) conceptdefinition map, for the word invertebrate. Are you ready? Read the passage see attached script. I DO - Model using a concept-definition map for INVERTEBRATES Think Aloud first TWO paragraphs. Guided Practice/ Independent Practice WE DO TOGETHER the third paragraph for the conceptdefinition map. YOU DO TOGETHER the fourth and fifth paragraphs for the concept-definition map. ALONE Follow-up activity students fill out the conceptdefinition map on their own for the last two paragraphs. Students then utilize all of the information from the read aloud and their concept definition map to create a summary about what they learned. Together in pairs, students will determine the most valuable or important point from both of their summaries. Check For Understanding Assessment of/for Learning Closure/Bridge Check for understanding SHARING WHIP! Most valuable points from their summaries. Students begin utilizing the general invertebrate information in their research on more specific invertebrate phyla. Students will begin independent research on the invertebrate phylum of their choosing. Evaluation of this lesson is based on group discussion and summary responses. This literacy lesson has taken the needs of English Language Learners (ELLs) and struggling readers into account. The research project is differentiated by product, and based on


Differentiation and Student Needs

student interests. Students are able to choose the invertebrate phylum, which is most interesting to them. They also get to choose how they will share their research (in an organized manner) with peers (e.g. poster, PowerPoint, Prezi, etc.) and myself.

Literacy Technique (1): Read Aloud Definition In a read aloud, the teacher selects a piece of text and reads aloud to a group of students. How I used this technique in my content area: I selected a piece of text that is interesting, adequately complex (more complex than independent reading level), and makes connections to previous lessons about animals (in general) and classification. I prepared students for listening by asking questions and directing attention to important points/vocabulary. Tough vocabulary was front-loaded (fast-mapped, could also do a quick write or TTYP). I then read the passage aloud to students putting an emphasis on the major points and vocabulary through gestures, facial expressions, and intonation. The students and I, and eventually the students in small groups/pairs, shared these main points and critically thought (HOTS) about the reading by summarizing. (Critical thinking could also include: elaborating on the content, making connections to prior knowledge, and offering feelings/opinions.) Students were provided with a graphic organizer for note taking. This organizer was used in a later compare/contrast activity of invertebrates and vertebrates. During a read aloud, I am focused on content and building background knowledge. As students progress from grade to grade and texts become increasingly complex, I want my students armed with the knowledge and abilities to derive meaning from reading. Connections to Shanahan Framework: During a read aloud, the teacher models fluency for students. Comprehension is increased through discussion/critical thinking about a passage. Important vocabulary can be highlighted and front-loaded or fastmapped. Literacy Technique (2): Graphic Organizers (Concept Definition Map) Definition Graphic organizers are visual representations of concepts, facts, details, and their relationships within an organized structure. A concept definition map develops key concepts (vocabulary) within a unit of study. How I used this technique in my content area: I first determined the critical vocabulary terms for students to dissect: invertebrate and vertebrate animals. I talked with students about the components of the graphic organizer and explicitly modeled how to appropriately use the graphic organizer, using a think aloud. I directed student attention to the important details, which were based on the objectives. For instance, in our concept definition map, the key components to search for were: what it is/definition, what it is not, facts, and examples. There was a gradual release of responsibility (GRR) as students began to use the concept-definition map peers and independently, to increase comprehension.

Graphic organizers should be used as a note taking and vocabulary tool to help students actively process, reorganize, and elaborate on information. They are not a means to an end! Our concept definition map was used later as a study tool and when comparing and contrasting invertebrates and vertebrates. Graphic organizers can also be used to organize ideas prior to small group discussions. Connections to Shanahan Framework: Graphic organizers are useful in building vocabulary (word knowledge) and increasing comprehension. Literacy Technique (3): Think Aloud Definition During a think aloud, the teacher shares with students the use of comprehension processes or strategies that help him or her gather meaning from and use written texts. The invisible processes that take place in ones mind while reading are made visible to students to increase comprehension! How I will use this technique in my content area: When utilizing the think aloud, I first introduced the strategy by announcing the reading comprehension process I was planning to model and its purpose. (These strategies might include, summarizing, determining the main idea, accessing prior knowledge, and/or questioning.) In the instance of this lesson, we were summarizing. I then read the passage. Afterwards, I began describing that comprehension process and used the process aloud to increase student comprehension. I used the think aloud to explain to students HOW I would take notes, fill out the graphic organizer for invertebrate, and summarize new information. Since students had never seen a graphic organizer before, I needed to make my thinking very visible. I used gradual release of responsibility (GRR) during this process. Students then used this graphic organizer for a later comparing and contrasting activity. This strategy is useful when introducing a complex text or topic. Also, using this strategy early in the school year or unit will provide students with opportunities to practice reading comprehension skills that they can eventually apply independently. Making my thinking visible while reading a complex text helps students access information they may have otherwise struggled to understand. Connections to Shanahan Framework: When thinking aloud, the invisible processes involved in comprehension are made visible. This increases student comprehension, and teaches others HOW to think metacognitively when reading. Have I actually understood? How does this information relate to what I already know? What message is the author trying to convey?