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Elements Ores Elements Material (alloy)



Manufacturing Methods


(25C) minerals oxide sulphide Ni,Ti high energy need melting like process to reach this stage with high energy need

Right now only available source is fossil fuel but the main problem is carbon hence it increases the std of living but harms environment too. ENERGY AND STANDARDD OF LIVING Wealth income Quality and availability of employment Class disparity Poverty rate Quality and affordability of housing GDP Inflation rate R=E*N. R= total yearly energy requirement E= per capita energy use per year N= population Standard of living S=f * E f= efficiency of transforming energy in to wealth Hence R = SN/f R/R = S/S + N/N f/f

Neglecting last term With first term 2-5% and second 2-3% R/R is 4-8% which is a very huge number The only way to decrease is increase f/f HOW? Increase use of fossil fuel Increase renewable energy Increase f


Si + doping material to produce holes at the atomic level Issues related to conventional source What is ecosystem? It consists of biotic i.e., living organisms and abiotic i.e., non living organisms like pond, lake, ocean, snow, desert, mountains. Humans can also alter ecosystem both positively and negatively. Key factor which is causing the pollution like global warming, acid rain is nothing but CARBON. C, H, N, S, O are main elements in fossil fuel. Natural cycle consists of carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle. CARBON CYCLE. (Refer figure)

CO2 provides life to plants.

L= litter fall major flux of carbon from vegetation to soil

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Net change in stored carbon = P-(R+D+H)-O Net effect of ecosystem on atmosphere CO2 = (E+D+O+R)-P Concept to find alternative source of energy is the source which is free from carbon. To reduce E alternate energy comes into picture. Fossil fuel has potential energy to obtain this energy we need combustion. It gives sensible heat.

Fossil Fuel (PE) Combustion with air Sensible heat of POC mCpT & mCO2Cp(T-Tf) POC carryout useful work

POC discharge in surrounding


Total Energy Req. Power consumption 2kW/person Renewable energy absorbed by earth 500W/m^2 Harness 4% efficiency and that is 20W/m2 Area of the land is 10m*10m Population density 500 people/Km Hence for 2kW consumption 1000 kW/sq Km 50000 sq m land ~5% land

Solar energy 342 W/m^2 vertical sun at 45 degree sun we get only 242 W/m^2 DIFFERENCE Renewable Source Initial Avg. Intensity Life time Equipment & Capital Cost Environment <= 300 W/m^2 Infinite $1000 per kW Non Renewable Fossil Fuel >=100 kW/m^2 Finite $500 with no norms & $1000 with norms applied Variation & Control Scale Skills Pollution & Environment damage Large Mechanical + Electrical Biomass, Biodiesel, soil error Mechanical only

Scientific Principles of Renewable Energy 1. Energy current (Refer Fig 3.1) 2. End use requirement Periodic variation Wave Hydro Ocean Tidal Biofuel Wind 12 hrs 10 MJ/kg PU0^3 1 year 1 year Hs Re. Height T PHs^2 T PH*Q PT^2 PG*b Cos

3. Quality of supply Renewable Mechanical supplies Tidal power 75%, Hydro 70-90%, Wave 50%, Wind 35% Thermal Biomass, combustion, solar collectors Photon process Photosynthesis, Photovoltaic Cells

Fig. 3.1


Technical implications:

Renewable source is dynamic in nature End use requirement & efficiency Matching supply and demand

These all efforts are being done to create LOW CARBON SOCIETY. #Carbon offset #Different models (a) Useful at small level

(b) Negative feedback control. Demand to Supply Very useful in concentrated supply (c) Dynamic characteristics Equipment idle Waste

To stop above energy storage is one of the options. (d) Decoupling local demands by connecting renewable energy resources with grid system.

(e) Feed forward load management control. It is the best strategy to utilise renewable energy. Total load at E~=D

When turbine-generator is used frequency change is a problem. (Other than solar energy) (a) Spill excess energy (b) Storage (c) Load management control These three are applied to all renewable sources.

Hydro energy example

Feed forward load control is very efficient for wind power.


Conversion of RER to Electric power: Heat energy to electric power Solar energy Air heating Water heating Fuel cell Electric energy Geothermal Biomass (PE) Combustion Gasification [to convert PE of biomass into gaseous fuel energy] [ to convert C to CO] [if CO2 is made it is loss] Fluid energy KE to mechanical energy [Moving fluid] Hydro Wind Wave Solar air heaters Marine energy [wave + tidal] First generation > Hydro, Biomass, Geothermal Second generation > Solar heating, Wind power, Bioenergy, Photovoltaic Third generation > Biomass gasification, Marine, Advanced geothermal system Fluid consists of liquids and gases. Gases are compressible where as liquids are incompressible. Steady flow Unsteady flow Laminar Turbulent [transfer of energy through fluid packets known as eddies] Differential analysis [microscopic] Integral analysis [macroscopic] [Bernoulli equation: P/g+ z + v2/2g = constant for ideal fluid] and for non ideal fluid add friction Parameter E= 2f*[L/D]2*U2


Friction between fluid layers introduces irreversibility and it generates some head loss. Also heat transfer also introduces irreversibility and so head loss.

Friction can happen in: Hydro power Solar heating Ocean thermal energy

Orifice and Venturimeter Que: A venturimeter is installed in an air duct with 0.46 m dia, throat dia = 0.23 m, Q=1.18 m3/s of air at 300 K at pressure of 1.1*10^5 N/m2. Find out maximum pressure drop a manometer can handle.

Now use orifice and we want to measure pressure drop of 50 mm water. Then calculate the diameter of the sharp edge orifice. Que:

Pipe Dia = 100 mm. Install pipe of 50 mm of 0.6 m length as shown in figure. Calculate mass flow rate in terms of P.

HYDROTURBINE Reaction turbine Impulse tubine

Principle of the power generation is P = QgH H = 20m Q = 40 L/s P = 8 kW

The drawback here is we need high H and Q for large power generation. Ha = Total head Ht - frictional loss Hf If I need 100% energy conversion in terms of power then, We need infinite time which is not required as time is important factor. So to maximise power we need to introduce some irreversibility into the system which will cause certain losses to the system. So energy will be dissipated and the surrounding entropy will increase. D = T ds/dt So we define gibbs energy G = H - TS

Reference: Renewable energy conversion, transmission and storage by Bent Sorenson Renewable energy focus handbook

NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY 8 JAN 18, 2013 Flow rate Q = Volume passing int/t = mean speed u * cross sectional area = u dt

Container fill Float method Weir method [most accurate]

Ha = P/ + v/2g V = Cv 2gHa Discharged head = Cv

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Specific speed = jet dia d /wheel pitch dia D v1 = Cv2gH

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Que: A small impulse wheel is used to drive a generator of 60Hz.The head is 100 m. Discharge is 40 L/s. Determine a) dia of wheel at the centre line of the bucket and b) speed of the wheel. Cv = 0.98 Assume efficiency 80%.

Que: Test carried out on pelton wheel Head = 27 m at the base of nozzle. Discharge 270 L/s. Dia of jet 123 m. Power developed = 60 kW. Power absorbed in mechanical bearings is 3.5 kW. Determine power loss by the nozzle and due to hydraulic resistance.


WIND POWER How it differs from hydro power? Wind to electrical conversion through Electric systems is at certain height Constant wind speed is required KE of wind -> Torque -> Turns turbine

Power Pt = 0.5 Cp A u where Cp is power coefficient u is wind speed = 1.2 kg m-3

Pt/A varies from 10 W/m to 41000 W/m for 2.5 m/s and 40 m/s respectively. Wind energy conversion system consists of Horizontal axis Vertical axis

Rotor - Blades + Supporting Drive train - Shaft + Gear box + Coupling + Mechanical brake and generator Control

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Major options available are Number of blades 2 or 3 Rotor orientation Blade material Power control Fixed/Variable rotor speed Gearbox or direct drive generator Synchronous or Induction generator

Wind machine parameters Wind direction relative to blade, lift is preferred on drag

Coefficient of performance Cp = P/(0.5 A U) Speed ratio = R/U Solidity = Blade area /A = Avg chord * Blade length * Number of blades / A

dm/dt = AU P = 0.5AU

P/A = 0.5U

at sea level 15C is 1.225 kg/m

P-bar/A = 0.5 U-bar Ke

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where Ke = energy pattern factor = 1/NU-bar * U N = number of hours in a year = 8760

i= 1 to N

Pbar/A < 100 W/m2

= 400 W/m2 > 700 W/m2

Types of wind power Materiological potential depends on available wind source Site potential Technical potential Economic potential Instrumentation potential

= P/RT = 3.4837 P/T P = 101.29 - (0.0011837)z + (4.793*10-7)z2

International standards atmosphere sea level fig2

Statistic techniques P(U) = Probability function Pw(U) = known turbine power curve Capacity factor Cf = Pw-bar/PR = energy actually produced/energy at rated capacity Pw(U) = 0.5 A Cp U where = drive train efficiency = generated power/rated power Rotor power efficiency Cp = Rotor power/Power in wind = P/0.5AU3 = blade tip speed / wind speed = R/U

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Uc = characteristic wind velocity = 2Ubar/ (Cp)max = 16/27 X = U/Uc

For D = 18m and Ubar = 6 m/s Pwbar = 38.1 kW


HAWM: Horizontal Axis Wind Machine Upwind type Downwind type Shrouded type

VAWM: Vertical Axis Wind Machine Blade top to bottom 30m and 15m wide Failure due to Fatigue failure Rotational torque

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Lift force: some parts can move with higher speed than speed of wind Drag force: No component can move with greater speed than speed of wind

What is solidity? High solidity contains large amount of materials. Large torque is generated. e.g., Water pumping

Tip speed ratio = Blade tip speed / Wind speed

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Laminar flow Frictionless

A1 = rotor area A0 and A2 enclosure area

F = m*(u0-u2) Pt = F*u1 = m*(u0-u2)u1

Loss of energy Pw = 0.5*m*(u02-u22) Hence,

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Equating Pt and Pw we get, u1 = 0.5*(u0+u2)

m = A1u1 Pt = 2A1u12 (u0-u1)

a = interference factor a = (u0-u1)/2u0

Pt = [4a*(1-a) 2]*[0.5A1u03] Pt = 0.5A1u03 Cp Cp = 4a*(1-a)2


a = 1/3 for ideal rotor Wind speed at rotor 2/3

uA = uA = 2/3uA A = 2/3 A

uA = uA 2/3uA = 1/3uA 2A = A

Assumption Rotation of wake behind rotor Finite number of blades & associated tip loss Non zero aerodynamic drag

Overall turbine efficiency is function of Rotor power coefficient Mechanical efficiency

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What is axial force on the turbine?


Fu Design of blade rotor is the only important factor so that it can work beyond the speed of design. Solution: Temporary shut down Decrease the power extraction Design fixed blades Blade pitching or braking

TSR = Vt/u = R/u Small TSR: Air passes Large TSR: works as a solid disc

(TSR: Tip Speed Ratio)

Maximum torque will be at the tip of the blade.

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Torque = Fmax * R max = AuR/2

(16) (17)

Torque Coefficient C = /max = R/u max = P/ (18) (19)

Pt = and Pt = Cp P Hence Cp = C Cp = Cpmax C = 0.59/

Que: 1.25 MW rated power at 12 m/s wind speed, rotor diameter 66m, horizontal speed 13.9 to 20.8 rpm

Angular speed range = 2f = 1.46 to 2.18 radians/s v=r = 1.46 to 2.18 * 66/2 = 48.18 to 71.94 m/s = r/v = 4 to 6

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Dynamic Matching: can be controlled by angle Power extraction efficiency

If is slow then most of the wind won't be able to detect the rotor blade If is optimum almost all the wind strikes the blade If is very fast vortex shedding will take place

Hence we can say that power extraction efficiency decreases in two ways: Blades are so close together or rotating rapidly Blades have large spacing (low solidity) or rotating slowly


Dynamical Matching depends on two timings: tb = 2/n tw = d/u = angular velocity of n blades it depends on size and shape of the blades and wind velocity

For maximum power tb = tw 2/n = d/u (22) Multiply radius on both sides and = R/u

At optimum power extraction = 2/n (R/d) (23) Assume d/R = K = 2/nK From empirical relation K = 1/2 Hence, = 4/n (24)

Que. Wind turbine: 3 blades each 4m long. What distance does the tip of each blade travel in one revolution? If it is rotating at 42 rpm how long does it take to one full revolution? How fast tips move through the air? According to optimal tip speed ratio are these blade moving too fast or slow? Take wind speed approx 6m/s.

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At a = 1/3 maximum power extraction At a = 1/2 maximum thrust on turbine At a > 1 reverse thrust, used for braking and landing the aircraft [stalling the blade]

Interaction of wind and foil depends on: Leading edge radius Mean camber-line Trailing edge angle Maximum thickness and thickness distribution

Two types of machines are available: Lift Machines Drag Machine Drag Machine causes: Viscous Unequal Friction Pressure Pitching Moment In all HAWM lift is more than drag.


Combining all the effects like no. of blades, lift, drag on Cp

Momentum Theory We are considering no wake rotation means no angular momentum of air behind rotor. Blade Element Theory We require higher lift and for that blades are slightly twisted and tapered which causes angle of attack increases. Generally twisting is done for power extraction and blade should consists torsional stiffness.

Assumptions: No aerodynamic interaction (ignore radial ow) Coefcient of lift and drag are function of blade shape Relative Wind = Vector sum of [ Wind Velocity at rotor U(1-a) + Wind velocity due to blade rotation] Rotational Component =


Inorganic waste Timber Plants Forestry Pulp sludge Black liquor Biological Municipal waste (kitchen, garbage, paper) Plastics Categorised in terms of use: Conventional [agricultural, food] Biomass waste [Derivatives] Plantation biomass [Forestry, Herbaceous, Aquatic, Eucalyptus, Sugarcane, Corn, Rapseed oil, Algae] Moisture content is important for energy calculation. Surface moisture takes away energy while inner/structure moisture generates energy. Biomass dry weight is important and it is the weight of biomass as received - weight of moisture Availability of biomass is very high. Earth has biomass in terms of Forest and Ocean. 1800 billion ton is on ground and 4 billion ton is in ocean. In terms of energy biomass on the ground contributes 3300 EJ. 1E = 10^18 Application of biomass: Energy Feeding Fertiliser

Availability ratio: Agricultural 25% Livestock 12.5% Forestry waste Ind. log 75% Fuel log 25% Wood 100% Biomass characterisation: Constituent Gasication (solid to gaseous conversion) Combustion For gasication and combustion important factors are: Analysis Proximate (it is done for moisture, ash, volatile metal, xed carbon = (100-remaining 3)) Ultimate (C, H, N, O, S, Ash, Moisture) Caloric value Gross CV (HHV) Net CV (LHV) LHV = HHV - latent heat of evaporation Analysis can be reported in different ways: As received Dry basis ( Ash A' = 100/(100-M)A) (A',VM', FC') Dry ash free basis (VM, FC)