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COPYRIGHT 2012 Department of Forensic Science VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF FIREARM/TOOLMARK PROCEDURES MANUAL FORENSIC SCIENCE

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 1 of 118

Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis Appropriate Appendices References

Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Bullet Evidence Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis Appropriate Appendices References

Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Cartridge Cases/Cartridges Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis Appropriate Appendices References Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Shotshell Cases/Shotshells Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis Appropriate Appendices References Microscopic Comparison

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Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 2 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

Table of Contents 5.7 5.8 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 Appropriate Appendices References National Integrated Ballistic Information Network (NIBIN) Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis Appropriate Appendices References Range Determination

Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis Appropriate Appendices References

Physical Examination & Classification of Toolmarks Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis Appropriate Appendices References Serial Number Restoration Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis Appropriate Appendices References Fracture Match Examination

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Introduction Safety Considerations Preparation Instrumentation Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Procedure or Analysis Appropriate Appendices References

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 3 of 118

Table of Contents 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18 Verification/Blind Verification Introduction Verification Requirements Verification Documentation Requirements Blind Verification Requirements Quality Assurance

Introduction Reagents Balances Comparison Microscopes Stereo Microscopes Micrometers, calipers and tape measures Arsenal weights Shore Durometer U.S Department of Justice General Rifling Characteristics Software NIBIN System Performance Check Reference Collections Estimation of the Uncertainty of Measurement

Scope Documentation Estimating the Uncertainty of Measurement Type A Uncertainties Type B Uncertainties Combination of Uncertainties Determination of Confidence Reporting Estimation of Uncertainty Measurement Sample Uncertainty of Measurement Budget References Report Formats

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Introduction Firearm Functioning Test Fires and Disposition Resubmission of Test Fired Ammunition Components obtained from Evidence Ammunition Trigger Pull Barrel Length/Overall Length Non-Functioning Firearm/Instrument Magazine/Cylinder Capacity Firearm Parts Unfired Cartridges Fired Ammunition Components Toolmarks Ejection Pattern Analysis Drop Testing/Mechanical Testing NIBIN Examinations Distance Determination Examinations Fracture Matching Number Restoration

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Performance Standards

Appendix A:

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 4 of 118

Table of Contents Appendix B: Abbreviations

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 5 of 118

Introduction INTRODUCTION The information in this Procedures Manual was collected from the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners (AFTE) Procedures Manual and other sources. It is presented here for easy reference for Firearm/Toolmark Examiners. This manual presents a basic outline and procedures most routinely used to analyze evidence submitted to the Firearm/Toolmark Section of the Virginia Department of Forensic Science (DFS). This manual, in combination with the Section Training Manual, provides the basis for effective quality management of analysis. The Departments Quality Manual (QM) provides additional guidelines. This manual is not all-inclusive. Its purpose is to provide a framework of analytical procedures for the Firearm/Toolmark Examiner. Every effort has been made to document the routine procedures used by this section and to provide appropriate references. Many procedures have been adapted from standard laboratory practices and, therefore, no specific reference may be available. Every case is unique and must be evaluated by the individual examiner. Not all possible analyses that may be encountered in casework can be appropriately covered in a procedures manual nor can all possible variations to a described procedure be included. It is always the examiners responsibility to choose the best analytical scheme for each individual case, particularly for evidence not routinely encountered. It is expected that examiners be familiar with and use methods and reference materials reflected in the DFS Firearm and Toolmark Section Training Manual, as well as maintain knowledge of current literature publications related to the discipline. It is expected that Section Supervisors shall be consulted and the Physical Evidence Program Manager shall be notified of extraordinary procedures and that deviations from existing procedures shall occur in accordance with the Department of Forensic Science Quality Manual. New methods must be validated before use. Published methods must be verified to work in each Regional Laboratory before use. Prior to beginning a validation process, consult the Section Supervisor who shall consult with the Physical Evidence Program Manager for determination and approval of an appropriate validation plan. Reference collections of data or materials used for identification, comparison or interpretation shall be fully documented, uniquely identified and properly controlled. Examples of these types of reference collections may include, but are not limited to: Firearm collection Ammunition collection Magazine collection

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These collections are properly controlled by limiting their access to Firearm/Toolmark Section personnel. A list of Firearm/Toolmark reference collections is maintained by the Section Supervisors and is available to Section personnel in the Department LIMS or on the network drive in Firearm/Toolmark Shared Folders. Materials that are not a part of a reference collection but that are retained for training, display or other purposes should be designated as such. Examination Documentation

Worksheets are provided as controlled forms. There may be times, however, when plain paper may be useful for additional note taking. This is an acceptable practice as long as the evidence description and pertinent information regarding tests performed are recorded. Examination records shall include each examination activity conducted, to include the sequence and results of each, which will allow for another examiner to evaluate the data, interpret the results and come to the same conclusion and also be able to repeat the various steps used by the examiner in the analysis under conditions as close as possible to the original. Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 6 of 118

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Introduction Internet references included in case file documentation shall, at a minimum, contain the website address and the date accessed/printed. AFTE has established a search engine which provides an avenue to search all published articles with abstracts. The index and the associated articles should be considered a reference source throughout this manual. The index can be accessed at: http://www.afte.org/Journal/jsearch.html. The case file notes shall contain documentation as to the types of materials that are generated during the analysis and how they are being packaged for return, i.e., test fires, toolmark tests and casts, patterns from chemical analysis of clothing and other items, and test shot patterns. Tests produced during analysis shall be considered evidence. Tests produced from laboratory materials will be created in FACE, listed on the Request for Laboratory Examination form (RFLE) and on the Certificate of Analysis (CoA) as sub-items of the tool or medium from which they were produced. Sections within this manual more specifically address the handling of tests. Report wording included in Section 14 - Report Formats shall be used to the extent possible when preparing the CoA to ensure consistency within the section. When drafting report wording for evidence types not listed or when specific examples do not appear for a particular type of evidence, look first to phrases within available wording that may be applied to the current situation. If a situation is so unusual that appropriate report wording is not available in the manual, it is expected that the Section Supervisor shall consult with other Section Supervisors for appropriate wording and obtain approval from the Physical Evidence Program Manager or the Director of Technical Services. Reports may not use non-specific terms (e.g., consistent with, highly specific, similar to, indicative of, or characteristic of) without additional explanation and/or qualification. Good housekeeping is important when analyzing evidence, particularly when the evidence is present at a trace or microscopic level. There are no specific environmental factors, outside those provided in a standard laboratory facility, which would influence the quality of the test results. Instrumentation/Equipment and Reagents General Guidelines For new equipment or after a piece of equipment has been removed from service for significant maintenance, verify that the instrument meets specifications for use by conducting a performance check for that instrument. Follow the Quality Manual to ensure the instrument response is appropriate before returning the instrument to service for casework. Reagents may be prepared in different final volumes using the same ratios of chemicals, following the appropriate formulas, and documenting the final volume made on the Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122). Evidence Storage Evidence in Section storage (e.g., X/FX/ADM, where X = the laboratory code C, E, N or W) is considered to be in longterm storage and must be stored properly sealed. Evidence in an examiners personal custody stored in the examiners personal evidence locker(s), in X/FX/ADM or in a room with limited access is considered short-term storage for a term up to six months. Personal evidence stored in X/FX/ADM must be sealed and placed in an area labeled as the personal custody of the particular examiner. Whenever evidence is not actively being analyzed, it must be sealed. Evidence stored in a room with limited access does not have to be sealed. Evidence does not need to be returned to a container, but it must be protected.

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 7 of 118

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms 1 1.1 Introduction All firearms must be treated as though they are loaded. This policy cannot be over stressed and must be followed at all times, whether its in the evidence receiving area, firearm section, test firing area, or court. Safe firearm handling within the laboratory environment corresponds with safe firearm handling in general. The only way to prevent accidents is to practice safety at all times. Firearm evidence in the laboratory environment is not dangerous if handled correctly and treated with respect. Occasionally, loaded firearms are received in evidence for a particular examination. These, of course, need very special handling. It is the responsibility of the firearm examiner to ensure that all appropriate safety function checks are performed on a firearm or item of ammunition prior to test firing. 1.2 Safety Considerations PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FIREARMS

Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemicals, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual. 1.3 Preparation of Cleaning Solutions

NOTE: ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID. 1.3.1 Acetic Acid Solution

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1.3.2 Bleach Solution

Prepare a 15% Acetic Acid Solution by combining 150 milliliters of Glacial Acetic Acid to 850 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on the Reagent Preparation Log (form 100-F122)

Prepare a Bleach Solution by combining 10 milliliters of bleach to 90 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record in the Reagent Preparation Log (form 100-F122)

1.4

Instrumentation Standard Trigger Weights As appropriate for length measurements: Ruler (and/or) Tape Measure (and/or) Non-marring object, such as a dowel Scale/Balance Stereo Microscope Protractor, ejection pattern analysis Rubber mat and Durometer, drop testing

1.5

Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Appendix A - Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 8 of 118

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms 1.6 Procedure or Analysis The evidence shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual. A systematic approach should be used for the physical examination and classification of firearms, with recording of findings and observations in case notes (DFS Document 240-F101).

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1.6.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.6.2 General, Visual, and Physical Examination 1.6.2.1 Firearm/ammunition submitted without request for comparison Caliber/Gauge Make/Model Importer Serial number and location Firing mechanics Type of action Safeties, and operability Operating condition Rifling characteristics

The muzzle of the firearm must always be pointed in a safe direction Firearms submitted to the laboratory for examination should be unloaded and in a safe condition; however, the examiner must first safety check a weapon to ensure that it is unloaded before conducting any other examinations If a firearm is found to be loaded, the Supervisor shall be notified and it shall be documented in the case notes A magazine received in a loaded condition must first be unloaded prior to conducting any examinations with it using a firearm Test firing or any examination of the firearm that utilizes ammunition or an ammunition component, shall only be performed in designated test firing areas After the examination is completed, a safety appliance shall be placed in/through the action for return to the agency

The initial examination of a firearm submitted without request for comparison shall include a Firearm Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F101). This worksheet shall include the manufacturers data of the firearm and shall serve as a source to document the condition of the firearm as received. Document in notes any reference material (i.e., make, model, serial number and/or tag number of reference used to make determination). Visual and physical examinations are conducted to determine the following firearm features, to be recorded on a Firearm Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F101):

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When cartridges/shotshells are submitted with a firearm in a non-comparison case and no request for analysis of the cartridges/shotshells has been made by the submitting agency, at the discretion of the examiner, the number of cartridges/shotshells may be noted with no further examinations being conducted. Cartridges/shotshells not examined do not have to be individually marked; they can be placed in a proximal container and the container marked according to the Quality Manual. If any further examinations are conducted of the cartridges, each individual cartridge shall be marked according to the Quality Manual and documented on a Cartridge/Shotshell Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F104). For firearms that initially qualify in this category, but later become involved in a comparison examination, a copy of the original firearms worksheet produced (DFS Document 240-F101) during the examination shall be included with the documentation for the comparison request. Additional features as DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 9 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms noted in Section 1.6.2.2 shall be documented on the copy. The date which the additional data was added to the copy shall be clearly identified. 1.6.2.2 Firearms submitted with request for comparison The initial examination of a firearm submitted with request for comparison shall include a Firearm Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F101). This worksheet shall include the manufacturers data of the firearm and serve as a source to document the condition of the firearm as received. Further information shall be added to the worksheet as tests are performed. Examine the firearm visually and microscopically for any trace material. Determine if further examination of trace material is necessary and consult the appropriate discipline prior to the removal of any trace evidence. Document findings and observations and record in case notes.

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Once the firearm has been examined for the presence of pertinent trace evidence material, visual and physical examinations are conducted to determine the following firearm features, to be recorded on the firearm worksheet: Caliber/Gauge * Make/Model * Importer Serial number and location * Firing mechanics * Type of action * Safeties, and operability * Operating condition * Trigger pull Rifling characteristics * o Include land and groove measurements when a bullet comparison is requested (measurements are not necessary when only cartridge cases will be compared) Barrel length Overall length

Features marked with an asterisk are mandatory. Features not marked with an asterisk may be recorded at the discretion of the examiner, as required. 1.6.3 Trace Material Examination

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Evidence recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This trace material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this evidence, and if further examination of the material is necessary, remove and preserve a sample of the material present. Removal of material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination of the evidence. Remove material being careful not to damage the evidence Place the removed material into a suitable container/packaging for possible submission for further examination Record findings and observations of pertinent/significant trace material, as applicable on the firearm worksheet

If the material IS NOT going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following, as necessary: For evidence containing blood, tissue, or other biohazards, as practical based on evidence type DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 10 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms and size, place the evidence into an appropriate beaker containing a 10% bleach solution (refer to Section 1.3.2) to soak for at least one (1) minute. Use of an ultrasonic bath may assist with loosening debris more efficiently. Care should be taken when using an ultrasonic bath to minimize damage to the evidence Remove loosened material by rinsing with methanol or water Remove plaster by soaking in a 15% Acetic Acid Solution (refer to 1.3) Remove paint by soaking in alcohol or acetone Use a non-abrasive brush to remove loose material Use TergAZyme for removal of tissue, Naval Jelly or E-zest coin cleaner to remove dark stains, as needed Record steps taken and observations in case notes

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1.6.4 Pre-Firing Safety Examination A visual examination of firearm prior to test firing is needed to determine: 1.6.5 Trigger-Pull Examination Standard Trigger Weights 1.6.5.1 Single-Action Trigger Pull

Obstruction in the bore Signs of cracks or weaknesses in major parts of frame, slide, or barrel Overall mechanism functioning Type of ammunition appropriate for use with firearm Suitability of evidence ammunition submitted for test firing Soundness of chamber/barrel, condition of percussion nipples, existing load in chamber (muzzleloaders) If firearm should be test fired remotely due to unsafe firearm condition Record any deficiencies noted and observations on worksheet.

Trigger pull is defined as the amount of force, which must be applied to the trigger of a firearm to cause sear release. The trigger pull of a firearm can be obtained utilizing standard trigger weights, which make contact with the trigger at a point where the trigger finger would normally rest. The trigger pull of a firearm shall be reported in the CoA if the examination is performed.

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Ensure that the firearm is unloaded Measuring the trigger pull of a rimfire firearm should not be performed on an empty chamber A fired cartridge case or dummy cartridge should be used to measure the trigger pull of a rimfire firearm Consider the potential for damage of a centerfire firearm and the use of a fired cartridge case or dummy cartridge Cock the firearm Hold the firearm with the muzzle vertical Rest the trigger hook of the standard trigger weight hanger on the trigger where an average finger would normally rest, making sure it is not touching any other part of the firearm Weights should be hanging parallel to the bore of the firearm Re-cock the firearm Add weight until the sear releases Note the weight at which the sear releases Reset the sear connection after each attempt Record the lightest weight necessary for sear release Record findings and observations on worksheet DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 11 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms 1.6.5.2 Double-Action Trigger Pull Ensure that the firearm is unloaded Measuring the trigger pull of a rimfire firearm should not be performed on an empty chamber A fired cartridge case or dummy cartridge should be used to measure the trigger pull of a rimfire firearm Consider the potential for damage of a centerfire firearm and the use of a fired cartridge case or dummy cartridge Hold the firearm with the muzzle vertical Rest the trigger hook of the standard trigger weight hanger on the trigger where the average finger would normally rest, making sure it is not touching any other part of the firearm Weights should be hanging parallel to the bore of the firearm Add weight until the weight pulls the trigger through the double-action sequence and the sear releases Note the weight at which the sear releases Reset the sear connection after each attempt Record the lightest weight necessary for sear release Note any revolver cylinder chamber that differs from the lightest weight recorded Record findings and observations on worksheet

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1.6.5.3 Interpretation of Results 1.6.6 Barrel and Overall Length Measuring Using a Calibrated Measuring Device

The results acquired are only an approximation and a different technique may lead to a different trigger pull weight. The trigger pull is normally recorded to the nearest one-fourth (1/4) pound. Record the interpretation of results on worksheet.

One of the routine procedures conducted in a firearm identification examination is determining the barrel length and in some cases the overall length of a firearm. Barrel length is defined as the distance between the muzzle end of the barrel and the face of the closed breechblock or bolt for firearms other than revolvers. On revolvers, it is the overall length of the barrel including the threaded portion within the frame. Overall length of a firearm is defined as the dimension measured parallel to the axis of the bore from muzzle to a line at right angles to the axis and tangent at the rearmost point of the butt plate or grip. Barrel length and overall length normally should include compensators, flash hiders, or any other permanently affixed attachments to the muzzle of a firearm. Removable barrel extensions, poly chokes, flash hiders, etc., are not included when measuring the barrel length or overall length.

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1.6.6.1 Barrel Length Revolvers:

Care must be taken if any object is placed down the barrel to determine the barrel length. A nonmarring item should be used for making internal measurements. All measurements are made and reported in inches to nearest 1/16 inch. The Starrett DS-7 and 14A squares and scale (or equivalent) shall be used for measuring the overall length of firearms when the measurements are being reported in the CoA. The Starrett DS-7 scale (or equivalent) shall be used for measuring the barrel length. Once the Uncertainty of Measurement is implemented within the Department, Section 13 shall delineate how uncertainty shall be reported.

Measure the distance from the breech end of the barrel to the muzzle. Do not include the cylinder. This measurement is usually performed externally on the firearm. It can be made Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 12 of 118

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms internally by placing a non-marring item down the barrel of the firearm, marking the item at the muzzle and at the forcing cone, extracting it and then measuring the marked length. Firearms Other Than Revolvers:

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1.6.6.2 Overall Length 1.6.6.3 Interpretation of Results 1.6.7 Test Firing

Measure the distance from the breech face of the bolt, which is in a closed and locked position, to the muzzle, either externally or internally. Assure that the firing pin is not protruding through the firing pin hole by cocking the mechanism. This measurement is performed internally by placing a non-marring item down the barrel of the firearm flush to the breech face, marking it at the muzzle end, extracting it and measuring the marked length. The distance from the closed and locked breech end to the muzzle would be the measurement of the barrel of the firearm.

Measure the distance from the butt to the muzzle, parallel to the bore. Place the butt of the firearm on the head portion of large square with the barrel parallel to the blade, then place the head of the small square on the blade of the large square so that the blade of the small square touches the muzzle of the firearm. Read measurement on the large square with the line formed by the intersection of the blade from the small square onto the large square.

All measurements should be considered approximations based on the device used to obtain the measurements, and record the findings on worksheet.

Test firing recovery methods include the water tank, the cotton-waste recovery box, the Detroit bullet trap, the snail system, and the bullet-trap range. The type of firearm and ammunition tested will usually dictate the type of recovery method used. In order to perform a microscopic comparison of a submitted firearm, a minimum of two (2) test shots should be fired and recovered. Other test firing procedures may include downloading ammunition, and firing primed cartridges or shotshells. Firearms with missing or broken parts may have to be test fired using parts from the reference collection. Document in notes the part utilized to test fire the questioned firearm along with the make, model, caliber and serial number or the tag number assigned to the reference firearm or magazine. 1.6.7.1 Safety Considerations All firearms must be treated as though they are loaded. This policy cannot be over stressed and must be followed at all times, whether its in the evidence receiving area, firearm section, test firing area, or court. Safe firearm handling within the laboratory environment corresponds with safe firearm handling in general. It is the responsibility of the firearm examiner to ensure that all appropriate safety function checks are performed on a firearm or item of ammunition prior to test firing. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be used. The examiner should be aware of the maximum velocity of the projectile that can be fired into a particular water tank or bullet trap, as well as the proper water depth needed for firing. Due to the potential hazard of the firearm malfunctioning or undergoing a catastrophic failure during remote firing, the examiner should be stationed behind a protective shield or at a safe distance from the firearm when discharging the firearm.

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 13 of 118

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms 1.6.7.2 Water Recovery Tank The water recovery tank is usually used to recover bullets from handguns, rifles, and slugs fired from shotguns. The cotton-waste recovery box utilizes similar procedures.

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1.6.7.3 Bullet-Trap Range

The recovered test-fired components shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual and in accordance with 1.6.7.7 Consideration should be given to indexing and sequencing each shot Proper hearing and eye protection must be worn Ensure that the water level in the bullet recovery tank is appropriate Ensure that all lids or doors of the bullet recovery tank are closed and properly secured Ensure that the exhaust fan or system is turned on Ensure all warning systems are activated Check the barrel for obstructions before firing No more than two (2) cartridges/shotshells should be loaded into the firearm during the initial testing of the firearm Test firing into the bullet recovery system shall be done with the muzzle of the firearm inserted into the shooting tube so that any discharge from the muzzle will be captured within the recovery tank Recover the bullets using an appropriate device Ejected, fired cartridge cases/shotshell cases must be retrieved Record findings and observations on worksheet

The bullet trap is usually used to test fire firearms when the recovery of the fired projectile(s) is not necessary. The Detroit bullet trap and the snail system utilize the same procedures. The recovered test-fired components shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual and in accordance with 1.6.7.7 Consideration should be given to indexing and sequencing each shot Proper hearing and eye protection must be worn Ensure that the exhaust fan or system is turned on Ensure all warning systems are activated Check the barrel for obstructions before each firing No more than two (2) cartridges/shotshells are to be loaded into the firearm during the initial testing of the firearm Fire the firearm into the front of the range trap Ejected cartridge cases/shotshell cases must be retrieved Record findings and observations on worksheet

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1.6.7.4 Remote Firing

During the course of examining a firearm, it may be determined that it would be unsafe for the examiner to fire the firearm by holding it as designed. If it is necessary to obtain test standards from this firearm, the firearm should be fired remotely. The Zero-One (or a similar device) can be utilized for firing long arms and some handguns, while the Ransom Rest (or a similar device) can be utilized for firing handguns. The recovered test-fired components shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual and in accordance with 1.6.7.7 Check the barrel for obstructions before each firing The examiner should consider indexing and sequencing each shot Proper hearing and eye protection must be worn Set up the chosen remote-firing device in front of the appropriate recovery system, as DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 14 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms per guidelines set forth by the device manufacturer Place firearm in device Dry-fire the firearm in the remote firing device before using ammunition Ensure that the exhaust fan or system is turned on Ensure that all warning systems are activated The examiner should load no more than one (1) cartridge/shotshell into the firearm during the initial testing of the firearm Activate the remote device while standing behind a protective shield or at a safe distance away from the firearm Pull the string that is attached to the trigger, which will cause the firearm to function Retrieve the test-fired components Record findings and observations on worksheet

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1.6.7.5 Downloading Ammunition 1.6.7.6

It may be necessary to reduce the powder load of the cartridge in order to obtain a velocity suitable for safely collecting test-fired components for comparison purposes. Even with a reduced load, it may be necessary to fire the firearm remotely. Remove the bullet from the cartridge using an inertia bullet puller or a reloading press Remove existing powder from the cartridge Weigh the pulled bullet Consult a reloading manual, such as Lyman, to determine the powder charge for the weight of the pulled bullet, to determine the velocity requirement for safe test firing Weigh the powder in accordance with the velocity requirement Reload the cartridge with weighed powder that is not less than 30% of the original weight Loosely pack a small piece of tissue or other similar material into the cartridge case to fill the gap between the bullet and powder Seat the bullet back into the cartridge case using a rubber mallet or a reloading press 50% downloading CANNOT be used with slow burning powders 50% downloading CANNOT be used with many non-canister powders Check the barrel for obstructions before each firing The ammunition components of each test shot should be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual Record findings and observations on worksheet

Primed Cartridge/Shotshell During the course of examining a firearm, it may be determined that it would be unsafe for the examiner to fire the firearm as designed. If it is not necessary to obtain test-fired components for comparison purposes, the firing condition of the firearm can be tested using a primed, empty cartridge case or shotshell case. Obtain a primed empty cartridge case in the desired caliber or pull the bullet of a cartridge using an inertia bullet puller or reloading press, retaining only the primed cartridge case For shotguns, obtain a primed empty shotshell in the desired gauge or cut open a shotshell removing all components, retaining only the primed shotshell A commercial firing pin testing device may be used Proper hearing and eye protection must be worn Ensure that the exhaust fan or system is turned on Ensure that all warning systems are activated Check the barrel for obstructions before each firing Load the primed, empty cartridge case, primed, empty shotshell, or a commercial firing DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 15 of 118

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms pin testing device into the chamber of the firearm and test fire in front of the bullet trap When utilizing a primed, empty cartridge/shotshell, it is imperative to check the barrel for obstruction before each test fire Repeat if the firearm has more than one action Retrieve all test-fired components Record finding and observation on worksheet

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1.6.7.7 Test Fired Ammunition

Tests may be produced from submitted evidence ammunition or laboratory stock ammunition/components. Tests shall be considered evidence and shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual. In addition, each test shall be marked with a unique sequential test identifier, such that it can be designated from all other tests and the total number of tests can be easily determined. Case documentation shall include the specific date(s) tests are generated. Tests shall be sealed in an appropriate container, (small envelope, plastic bag, specimen box) which shall be labeled in accordance with the Quality Manual and with the following information: firearm item #, firearm brand, model, caliber, serial number. Test fired ammunition components produced from laboratory stock ammunition shall be created in FACE as a sub-item, added to the RFLE as a sub-item of the firearm with which they were produced, and be reflected on the CoA. They shall be described as follows: Ammunition components produced from test firing Item __ [Item # of firearm __] (Item created at this laboratory). Tests produced from laboratory stock ammunition shall be returned in the same container with the firearm which generated the tests.

Tests made from evidence ammunition shall be returned in the same container in which the evidence cartridges/shotshells were received. See Section 14 for report statements to address submissions where test fired evidence ammunition is resubmitted for comparison purposes. Additional test fired components from laboratory stock ammunition may be retained in the laboratory for reference or training purposes. Tests retained at the laboratory should not be labeled with the FS Lab # or subsequently be used for any identification purposes. Test specimens maintained for reference shall be subjected to requirements as stated in 12.11. 1.6.8 Rusty Firearm Examination

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Rusty firearms or those found in water, etc. may be submitted for examination. Immediate attention must be given to the firearms recovered from water to prevent further damage to the firearm. The examiner should instruct the agency that recovers the firearm to submit the firearm in a container of the fluid in which the firearm was found. If this is not practical, the agency can be instructed to immediately and thoroughly spray the firearm with a water-displacing product such as WD-40 or other similar product to prevent further deterioration. It should be noted that the firearm might be too rusted to be functional. An examiner must take all necessary precautions to ensure that the firearm is unloaded. If it cannot be readily verified as being unloaded, it must be examined in an area designated for the firing of firearms. Determining whether or not a firearm is unloaded may necessitate a complete disassembly, or, in some cases, destruction (e.g., cutting). Determine to what extent restoring the firearm is possible (i.e., for test firing, for recovering manufacturer information, serial number, etc.) Soak the firearm in penetrating oil, de-rusting solvents, or similar material to dissolve rust

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DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 16 of 118

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms Periodically check the firearm until the firearm functions, or the desired information is recovered Clean the firearm with gun cleaning solvent, cleaning patches, and cloth (only a non-marring item should be used down the barrel of a firearm) Record findings and observations on worksheet

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1.6.9.1 Visual Condition of Firearm as Received Cocked/uncocked Safety position Loaded/unloaded Cartridge position Stuck cartridge/discharged cartridge cases Presence and/or location of flares 1.6.9.2 Visual abnormalities 1.6.9.3 Barrel (loose, damaged etc.) Receiver (condition) Slide (condition) Parts broken or missing (firing pin, ejector, extractor) Screws (loose or missing) Alterations or adaptations Sights If the firearm is to be x-rayed, it should take place prior to disassembly

1.6.9

Malfunctioning Firearm Examination

A firearm examiner may be called upon to examine a firearm to determine if the firearm will malfunction. Many of these cases will deal with the question: "Will the firearm fire without pulling the trigger?" In these instances it should be the goal of the examiner to acquire a detailed account of the incident, followed by a thorough examination and testing of the firearm. Examinations may include external and internal observations, x-ray, and striking or dropping the firearm in attempts to duplicate the incident as reported. The examiner should attempt to conduct examinations in a manner so as not to alter the firearm. However, there may be occasions when damage may occur. Any change to the firearm should be specifically documented in the examiners notes. A systematic approach should be used for the malfunctioning firearm examination, with recording of all findings and observations. No one procedure can sufficiently outline the steps necessary to examine all firearms for any malfunction. The following list of examinations should serve as a guideline.

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Relationships of the action parts Correct assembly The proper locking of the action on closing Cylinder rotation (securely locks) Hand relationship to the ratchet Trigger (not returning, sticks, broken spring, etc.) Trigger pull (single action, double action) and striking of hammer 1.6.9.4 Safeties , , full cock, seating check (any false seating positions, pull off/push off, etc.) Function (grip, magazine, disconnector) Rebound hammer or inertia firing pin Firing pin (relationship to primer, condition) DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 17 of 118

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms 1.6.9.5 Drop hammer several times to check safeties Position of the slide or bolt in order to fire Condition of safeties

Action Check Check feeding of magazine (lips, follower), carrier or lifter, and feed ramp Slam fire Extractor and/or ejector markings on evidence cartridges/discharged cartridge cases Marks exhibited on the cartridges/discharged cartridge cases Check for any inherent quirks known about the particular firearm based on literature or case data

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1.6.9.6 Test Fire Firearm 1.6.9.7 Special Situational Tests 1.6.9.8 Action - Internal 1.6.10 Hammer notches (worn, burrs, dirt, etc.) Sear (worn, broken, burrs, etc.) Safeties (relationships and general parts relationship) Springs (weak, broken, altered, etc.) Signs of any tampering or faulty assembly

Note any operational problems Check the barrel for obstructions before each firing Misfires Ammunition involved (proper cartridge, type, reloads, etc.) Check consistency of the impression on test-fired components and evidence

The force to be used in testing could alter or damage internal parts and their working relationship(s). Firearms that are received in a damaged condition may require special situational tests, which may require more force than normal for an examination. Care should be exercised when testing a firearm to minimize examiner-caused damage that could prevent the determination of the cause of the reported malfunction.

Bore/Chamber Casting

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Occasionally, firearms are received for which the caliber may not be known or may be different than is designated on the firearm and in the industry literature. In order to facilitate firing of test shots that are the correct caliber for a particular firearm, it may be necessary to make a bore and/or chamber cast. By measuring the cast, the correct cartridge can be determined for test firing. Casts can be made using various casting materials such as low melting point metals and silicone rubber compounds. The procedure below is for Mikrosil, Forensic Sil, Espe Impregum and Cerrosafe. Casts made will be designated as a sub-item of the firearm from which they are derived, and described in FACE, on the RFLE, and in the CoA. Ensure that the firearm is not loaded Open the action and remove the bolt or bolt assembly Check the bore for obstruction Push a cleaning patch in the barrel, from muzzle end, until it is inch to inch from the beginning of the chamber Lubricate the chamber with gun oil, a silicone spray, or some other similar substance such as WD40 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 18 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms Mix Mikrosil or Espe Impregum as per manufacturer's instructions or melt Cerrosafe and pour into the chamber until full; inject Forensic Sil per manufacturer instructions into the chamber until full Do not allow casting material to flow into breech as it will make extraction of the cast difficult When casting material is set or cool, depending on type used, gently tap end of cleaning rod to loosen the cast from the chamber and then remove the cast from the breech end If a Cerrosafe cast cannot be loosened from the chamber, then the cast can be melted out of the barrel by heating Remove the stock from the firearm and place the breech end in a large container of water Heat to just above its melting temperature Cerrosafe can be reused Mikrosil, Forensic Sil and Espe Impregum have to be pushed or forced out of the chamber and are not reusable Use the same steps for casting the bore, but only the last three (3) inches of the bore need to be cast Record findings and observations on an appropriate worksheet

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1.6.10.1 Interpretation of Results Record the interpretation of results on an appropriate worksheet. 1.6.11 Drop-Test Procedures

The correct caliber of the firearm can be determined by measuring the mouth, base, overall length, rim (if pertinent), shoulder length of the chamber cast, or the diameter of the bore cast.

This Voluntary Industry Performance Standard provides the firearm designer and manufacturer with recommendations for test procedures to evaluate new designs of rifles, shotguns, and handguns as they are defined by the Federal Gun Control Act of 1968. The test parameters simulate conditions where the firearm is subjected to abusive mishandling to demonstrate the ability of the firearm to withstand this abuse without discharging. This Standard does not apply to muzzle-loading and black-powder firearms of any type. The requirements of this Standard are not appropriate for firearms primarily intended for formal target shooting; and therefore, this Standard does not apply to firearms whose trigger pull is designed to be less than three pounds. A systematic approach should be used for the drop, exposed hammer, jar-off, and rotation testing, with recording of findings and observations in examiners notes using one or a combination of the following tests. The test should be conducted with the firearm as received and the same firearm should be used throughout the test.

With the firearm in the safe carrying condition, the firearm should be capable of passing the below test criteria for drop testing from a height of 48 inches onto a 85 5 Durometer (Shore A) rubber mat, one inch thick, on a concrete floor The mat and concrete should be large enough so that when the gun is dropped it will fall and come to rest without interference within the perimeter of the mat The drop height should be measured from the surface of the rubber mat to the center of gravity of the firearm The center of gravity should be determined to an accuracy of one inch by any recognized method for finding the center of gravity of an irregular shaped object The firearm should be re-cocked and reset in the safe carrying condition after each drop The firearm should not fire a chambered, empty-primed case of its designated caliber/gauge when tested in accordance with this procedure (firing indicates a malfunction) DFS Document 240-D100 Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Revision 6 Issue Date: 6-February-2012 19 of 118

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1.6.11.1 Drop Test

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms In a multi-chambered gun the primed case should be inserted in each chamber directly in front of its firing pin Check the barrel for obstructions before each firing Parts breakage or other damage resulting from drop testing does not constitute failure as long as the empty primed case does not fire and the firearm can be unloaded safely after each drop The firearm should be dropped in such a way as to cause it to strike the rubber mat in each of the following attitudes: Barrel vertical, muzzle down Barrel vertical, muzzle up Barrel horizontal, bottom up Barrel horizontal, bottom down Barrel horizontal, left side up Barrel horizontal, right side up

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1.6.11.2 Jar-off Test

The magazine, clip, or remaining revolver cylinder chambers should be fully loaded with dummy cartridges/shotshells The firearm should not fire a chambered, empty primed case of its designated caliber/gauge when tested according to this procedure (firing indicates a malfunction) The firearm should be of minimum and maximum weight configurations for a given model including weight variations introduced by accessories catalogued by the manufacturer Record findings and observations on a worksheet (DFS Document 240-F107).

With the firearm cocked and in the ready-to-fire condition (safety off) the firearm should be capable of passing a jar-off, shock equivalent to being dropped from a height of 12 inches onto a 85 5 Durometer (Shore A) rubber mat, one inch thick on a concrete floor. The test should be conducted with firearm as received and the same firearm should be used throughout the test. The mat and concrete should be large enough so that when the gun is dropped it will fall completely within the perimeter of the mat The drop height should be measured from the surface of the rubber mat to the lowest point on the firearm The gun should be caught after its first bounce from the mat so that it strikes the mat only one time Check the barrel for obstructions before each firing The firearm should be re-cocked and reset in the ready-to-fire condition after each drop The firearm should not fire a chambered, empty primed case of its designated caliber/gauge when tested in accordance with this procedure (firing indicates a malfunction) In the case of a multi-chambered gun, a primed case should be in each chamber directly in front of its respective firing pin Parts breakage or other damage resulting from drop testing does not constitute failure as long as the empty primed case does not fire and the firearm can be unloaded safely after each drop The firearm should be dropped in such a way as to cause it to strike the rubber mat one time only in each of the following attitudes: Barrel vertical, muzzle down Barrel vertical, muzzle up Barrel horizontal, bottom up Barrel horizontal, bottom down

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1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms Barrel horizontal, left side up Barrel horizontal, right side up The magazine, clip, or remaining revolver cylinder chambers should be fully loaded with dummy cartridges/shotshells The firearm should be of minimum and maximum weight configuration for a given model, including weight variations introduced by accessories catalogued by the manufacturer Record findings and observations on a worksheet (DFS Document 240-F107)

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1.6.11.3 Rotation Test 1.6.11.4

The rifle or shotgun should be in the safe carrying condition. The firearm should be capable of passing the test criteria when allowed to fall freely from an upright position with its butt resting on the surface of an 85 5 Durometer (Shore A) rubber mat, one inch thick on a concrete floor. The mat backed by concrete should be large enough so that when the gun is dropped it will fall and come to rest without interference within the perimeter of the mat. The test should be conducted with firearm as received and the same firearm should be used throughout the test. The firearm should be re-cocked and reset to the safe carrying condition after each drop Check the barrel for obstructions before each firing The firearm should not fire a chambered, empty primed case of its designated caliber/gauge when tested in accordance with this procedure (firing indicates a malfunction) In a multi-chambered gun the primed case should be inserted in each chamber directly in front of the firing pin Parts breakage or other damage resulting from drop testing does not constitute failure as long as the empty primed case does not fire and the firearm can be unloaded safely after each drop The firearm should be tested so as to fall once on its right side and once on its left side The magazine or clip should be fully loaded with dummy cartridges/shotshells The firearm should be of minimum and maximum weight configurations for a given model, including weight variations introduced by accessories catalogued by the manufacturer Record findings and observations on a worksheet (DFS Document 240-F107)

Interpretation of Results May determine if firearm is capable of firing when subjected to abusive mishandling. Record interpretation of the results in case notes.

1.6.12

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Ejection Pattern Analysis 1.6.12.1 Standard Ejection Pattern Test Fire all ejection pattern tests at the firing range Check the barrel for obstructions before each firing Shoot the tests at shoulder height

Ejection pattern testing is another procedure performed upon request to determine the pattern produced when a cartridge case/shotshell case is ejected from a firearm during the firing process. Use the evidence firearm and the same manufacturer and type of ammunition received from the requesting agency or the ammunition determined by the examiner from the fired ammunition components received.

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 21 of 118

1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms With pistols, use the strong hand and a strong grip, with the shooting arm extended Measure from the ejection port to a point on the ground directly below the ejection port A minimum of five (5) cartridges/shotshells should be fired A second examiner may assist in marking the points on the ground or the floor where the fired cartridge cases/shotshell cases first land Measurements should be taken from the point on the ground or floor directly below the ejection port as a point of reference Measure from the point of reference to where each ejected cartridge case/shotshell case first lands The point of reference is to be used as the center position of the protractor, with the base of the protractor being in line with the barrel of the firearm Measure from the center point of the protractor to where each cartridge case/shotshell case first lands to determine the angle in degrees of the ejection Document the general direction of each ejected cartridge case/shotshell case to include the location of right or left of the shooter, and front or rear of the shooter Draw a sketch to illustrate the results Record findings and observations on DFS Document 240-F130

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1.6.12.2 Non-Standard Ejection Pattern Analysis 1.6.13 Ammunition Reference Collection/Library

A non-standard ejection pattern analysis would be appropriate when information about the conditions or situations of a shooting incident is provided by an agency that requests an ejection pattern test be conducted simulating those conditions/situations. Conduct a standard ejection pattern test Using the information provided about the conditions of the shooting incident, the examiner shall devise a method to best simulate those conditions. Since the variables are infinite, no set procedures will be established for simulating these variables. It will be up to the discretion of the examiner to best determine the methodology to be used. Report findings and observations on a worksheet (DFS Document 240-F130) Report results of a standard ejection pattern test Report the results of the non-standard ejection pattern test including an explanation of all the variables used to conduct the examination

The Ammunition Reference Collection shall be generated, edited or modified by a firearm section supervisor or designee and is defined as a collection or cataloging of ammunition and components utilized for various scientific reasons, such as:

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To identify the manufacturers ammunition designation and source of evidence ammunition or component parts To provide an exemplar resource for training new forensic scientists/evidence technicians To provide a resource for the identification of ammunition components recovered at a crime scene or from autopsies Space, storage containers, and computer equipment available will govern each laboratorys ammunition reference collection; however, the following should be considered: Use of architect blueprint cabinets, map drawers, or similar style cabinets for storage of the collection Use of clear plastic tubes or boxes for storage of each ammunition entry. When available the entry should consist of at least one whole cartridge/shotshell and one cartridge/shotshell disassembled into its component parts

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1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms Recording ammunition information, such as: Manufacturer Bullet weight Bullet style or configuration Manufacturers Index Headstamp Other pertinent information

1.7

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1.6.14 Firearms Reference Collection (FRC)/Library Appropriate Appendices Appendix A - Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations References

Catalog in storage cabinet utilizing caliber and/or other manufacturers data as appropriate to organize Utilize a computer and appropriate software to track and maintain the collection

The FRC shall be maintained in the Department of Forensic Science Laboratory Information Management System. The FRC shall be generated, edited or modified by a firearm section supervisor or designee. It is defined as a collection or cataloging of firearms utilized for various scientific reasons, such as: To examine operability of various firearm designs To identify component parts as to manufacturer/brand To provide an exemplar resource for training new forensic scientists/evidence technicians To provide a resource for firearm parts for repair of evidence firearms To provide a resource for recognition and/or identification of firearm markings

1.8

A Guide to Firearms Safety. A Safety and Educational Publication of the National Rifle Association. May 1994. Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Procedures Manual, 2001. Biasotti, A. A. Vise/Rest for Remote Firing. AFTE Journal. Vol. 11. No. 4. p. 16. Bullet and Cartridge Case Recovery. AFTE Journal. Vol. 16, No. 2, p.75. Code of Virginia 18.2-308.6

Criteria for Evaluation of New Firearms Designs Under Conditions of Abusive Mishandling for the Use of Commercial Manufacturers. American National Standards Institute Voluntary Industry Performance Standards ANSI/SAAMI Z299.5-1996. Newtown, CT: Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute Inc. 1996. DeForest, Gaensslen, and Lee. Forensic Science: An Introduction to Criminalistics. New York: McGraw Hill.1983. Denio, Dominic. Making a Rusted Gun Functional. AFTE Journal. Vol. 13. No. 3. p. 29. Gamboe, Tom. MAFS Firearms Workshop: Trigger Pull Methods. AFTE Journal. Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 77. Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 23 of 118

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1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms Glossary of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, 5th ed. 2007. Haag, Michael, Stuart, Jay and Haag, Kim. Ejection Patterning Standard Testing and Effects of NonStandard Angles, Orientations and Maneuvers, AFTE Journal (2009) 41 (2): 111-129.

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http://www.swggun.org/guidelinedocs/guidelines_triggerpull.htm NRA Firearms Fact Book. National Rifle Association of America. 3rd ed. 1989. Poole, Robert A. Mikrosil Casting Material Information. AFTE Journal. Vol. 15. No. 2, p. 80. Reduced Powder Loads. AFTE Newsletter. No. 3. p. 14. Safety On CD, 1998. The Proper Method for Measuring Weapons. AFTE Journal. Vol.14, No. 3, p. 10. Thompson, Roger C. Firearms Malfunction Worksheets. AFTE Journal. Vol. 15, No. 1, p. 100.

Howe, Walter, J. Laboratory Work Sheets. AFTE Newsletter. No 2. August 1969. p. 13.

Lyman Reloading Handbook for Rifle, Pistol and Muzzle Loading. Lyman Gun Sight Products. Middlefield, Conn.1971. McBrayer, William S. What? Another Water Tank and Bullet Stop! AFTE Journal. Vol. 10. No. 2. p. 90.

New Ballistics Tank from Detroit-Armor Corporation Allows Fast Recovery Without Projectile Distortion. AFTE Journal. Vol. 16, No. 3, p.106.

Rios, Ferdinand and Thornton, John. Static vs. Dynamic Determination of Trigger Pull. AFTE Journal. Vol. 16, No. 3, p. 84.

Speer Reloading Rifle and Pistol Manual. Blount Inc., Sporting Equipment Division. Lewiston, ID 1994. Striupaitis, Peter P. "Bore Casting Techniques for Caliber Designation of Rifles. AFTE Journal. Vol. 15, No. 2, p. 88.

U.S. Code Title 18, Chapter 44, Section 921, paragraph 24 (Gun Control Act of 1968) can be accessed at http://www.nraila.org/federalfirearms.htm VA Department of Forensic Science Firearm and Toolmark Training Manual. www.afte.org

www.swggun.org

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 24 of 118

2 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Bullet Evidence 2 2.1 PHYSICAL EXAMINATION & CLASSIFICATION OF FIRED BULLET EVIDENCE

Introduction The initial examination of any fired bullet evidence shall include the completion of a worksheet (DFS Document 240-F102). These worksheets shall include the physical and damage description and/or a drawing or photocopy or photograph of the fired evidence, which will serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received and any tests or comparisons performed.

2.2

Safety Considerations

Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemicals, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual. 2.3 Preparation of Cleaning Solutions

NOTE: ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID. 2.3.1 Acetic Acid Solution

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2.3.2 Bleach Solution Instrumentation Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Caliper/Micrometer/Ruler Scale/Balance Ammunition references

Prepare a 15% Acetic Acid Solution by adding 150 milliliters of Glacial Acetic Acid to 850 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

Prepare a Bleach Solution by combining 10 milliliters of bleach to 90 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122) 2.4

2.5

Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations

2.6

Procedures or Analysis

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The evidence shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual. A systematic approach should be used for the physical examination and classification of fired evidence, with recording of findings and observations in case notes.

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2 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Bullet Evidence 2.6.1 General, Visual, Physical, and Trace Examinations The initial examination of any bullet shall include a bullet worksheet, which will serve as a source to document the condition of the bullet as received. Further information shall be added to the worksheet as tests are performed.

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Examine the bullet visually and microscopically for any trace material. Determine if further examination of material is necessary and consult the appropriate section prior to the removal of any trace evidence. Document findings and observations and record in notes. Once the bullet has been examined for the presence of pertinent trace evidence material, visual and physical examinations are conducted to determine the following bullet features, to be documented on the worksheet (DFS Document 240-F102). Any trace evidence material present Caliber/gauge Bullet/slug weight (record weight of bullets in grains; record weight of slugs in ounces or grains) Number of land and groove impressions on a fired bullet Direction of twist Measured width of the land impressions Measured width of the groove impressions Measured diameter Bullet composition Bullet style Possible manufacturer/marketer of the bullet/projectile, if needed use reference materials (i.e., ammunition database) and indicate in notes the number assigned to this reference. Description of the base of the bullet Type and position of cannelures Any extraneous markings to include flared base, skid marks, shave marks, and other marks Presence of gunpowder and/or powder imprints adhering to the base Condition of the fired evidence as received Suitability of the fired evidence for comparison purposes GRC Search for possible firearms from which bullet was fired As appropriate, compare marks on bullets with tests from a firearm or with other bullets (see Section 5)

2.6.2

Trace Material Examination Evidence recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This trace material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this evidence, and if further examination of the material is necessary, remove and preserve a sample of the material present. Removal of the material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination of the evidence. Remove material being careful not to damage the evidence Place the removed material in a suitable container/packaging for possible submission to the appropriate section for further examination Record findings and observations on worksheet If the trace material IS NOT going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following:

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For evidence containing blood, tissue, or other biohazards, as practical based on evidence type and size, place the evidence into an appropriate beaker containing a 10% bleach solution (refer to Section 2.3.2) to soak for at least one (1) minute. Use of an ultrasonic bath may assist with loosening debris more efficiently. Care should be taken when using an ultrasonic bath to minimize damage to the evidence DFS Document 240-D100 Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Revision 6 Issue Date: 6-February-2012 26 of 118

2 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Bullet Evidence Remove loosened material by rinsing with methanol or water Remove plaster by soaking in a 15% Acetic Acid Solution (refer to 2.3) Remove paint by soaking in alcohol or acetone Use a non-abrasive brush to remove loose material Use TergAZyme for removal of tissue, Naval Jelly or E-zest coin cleaner for dark stains as needed Record findings and observations on worksheet Caliber Determination

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2.6.3 2.6.4 Methods of Measuring Land and Groove Impressions

Caliber, or the base diameter, is one of the class characteristics of a fired bullet, and is written as a numerical term that may be depicted with or without a decimal point. The determination of caliber will aid the examiner during the identification or elimination of a suspect firearm. If no firearm is submitted, the bullet's caliber may be used in determining the General Rifling Characteristics of the firearm involved. The following may be utilized to determine the caliber of any fired bullet. The condition of the bullet will determine which steps can be used:

Compare the base diameter of the evidence bullet directly with known fired test standards Measure the base diameter of the evidence bullet to the nearest 0.001 using a measuring device and compare this measurement with known measurements published in reference literature Determine the number and widths of the land and groove impressions and compare to Table 6, page 312 of Section 4 (Appendices) of the Glossary of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners (AFTE Glossary), 5th ed. 2007. Determine the widths of one land and groove impression, multiply by the number of land and groove impressions to obtain the circumference. Use the mathematical formula C=d, to determine the diameter of the bullet Physical characteristics of the evidence bullet, such as weight, bullet shape, composition, nose configuration, and number and placement of cannelures, may aid in caliber determination

One of the class characteristics used in the discipline of firearm identification is the width of the land impressions and groove impressions. These measurements may aid the examiner during the identification or elimination of a suspect firearm. If no firearm is submitted, these measurements shall be used in determining the General Rifling Characteristics of the firearm involved. The measuring of land and groove impressions on a fired bullet can be accomplished by utilizing either the air-gap method, Leica measuring modules or one of the stereo microscope methods (grid, micrometer, or caliper). In measuring a fired bullet to determine the width of the land impression or the groove impression, it is paramount that the points used for beginning and ending a measurement comply with the disciplinewide practice. This practice utilizes the anchor points shown below.

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Each available land and groove impression will be measured and recorded to the nearest thousandth of an inch (0.001) to obtain a minimum and maximum land and groove impression value for each bullet examined, except as noted below. Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 27 of 118

2 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Bullet Evidence For multiple bullets having similar general rifling characteristics and identified as having been fired from the same firearm, only one bullet needs to be measured. Methods may include the comparison microscope air gap method, Leica measuring modules, stereo microscope-micrometer/caliper air gap method, and stereo microscope grid method. For bullets that are microscopically identified to tests produced with a firearm, at the discretion of the examiner, either the tests or questioned bullet(s) may be measured. 2.6.4.1 In the air gap method the fired bullet in question is mounted on one stage of the comparison microscope. The measuring device is mounted on the other stage. Both stages must be using the same magnification level (objective setting) and be in focus. Align the image of the land or groove impression with one of the anchor points corresponding with the anvil of the micrometer or measuring jaw of the caliper. Rotate the micrometers spindle to the next anchor point of the micrometer or the other jaw of the caliper to the land or groove impression and record the measurement gap (opening) of the micrometer/caliper to the nearest thousandth of an inch. In the stereo microscope-micrometer/caliper air gap method the fired bullet in question is either held or mounted on a steady surface beneath the stereomicroscope.

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2.6.4.2 2.6.4.3 2.6.4.4 2.6.5 FBI General Rifling Characteristics File (GRC)

Align the image of the land or groove impression with one of the anchor points corresponding with the anvil of the micrometer or measuring jaw of the caliper. Rotate the micrometers spindle to the next anchor point of the micrometer or the other jaw of the caliper to the land or groove impression and record the measurement gap (opening) of the micrometer/caliper to the nearest thousandth of an inch. In the stereo microscopegrid method the fired bullet in question is either held or mounted on a steady surface beneath the stereo microscope. The land or groove impression of the fired bullet is positioned with both of the anchor points corresponding to points on the alignment grid. The measurement is recorded to the nearest thousandth of an inch. Follow the instructions in operating manuals for using the Leica Application Suite Measurement Module or the Leica IM500 Measurement Module. The measurement is recorded to the nearest thousandth (0.001) of an inch.

2.6.6

Caliber is written as a numerical term and may be depicted with or without the decimal point. If the base is mutilated, the examiner may only be able to determine that the evidence is consistent with a range of calibers or that the caliber cannot be determined. May determine caliber/gauge, brand, type, style, general rifling characteristics of the fired bullet May determine if there are suitable markings for identification with a firearm or with other fired components May determine list of possible firearms that could have fired the bullet May be able to identify the firearm in which it was fired DFS Document 240-D100 Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Revision 6 Issue Date: 6-February-2012 28 of 118

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Interpretation of Results

The FBI's General Rifling Characteristics File (GRC) shall be utilized when attempting to determine a list of possible firearms that could have fired an evidence bullet when no firearm is submitted. The search program available on the DFS Intranet in the Firearms Section shared folder (\\Dfsfile1\fx all labs\FBI GRC Search 2010) shall be used for GRC search results. Generally, the minimum and maximum land and groove impression values shall be entered into the program. At the discretion of the examiner, a tolerance may be used to expand the search parameters. A print out of the search criteria and results will be included in case file documentation. The GRC File is an investigative aid and should not be construed as an all-inclusive list of firearms available with those particular class characteristics.

2 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Bullet Evidence Record interpretation of results on worksheet Report findings 2.7 Appropriate Appendices

2.8

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Appendix B - Abbreviations References Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Procedures Manual, 2001. Barnes, Frank C. Cartridges of the World. 9th ed, 2000. Glossary of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, 5th ed. 2007. Howe, Walter, J. Laboratory Work Sheets. AFTE Newsletter. No. 2, August 1969, p. 13. Mathews, J. Howard. Firearms Identification Vol. I, 1973. VA Department of Forensic Science Firearm and Toolmark Training Manual.

Appendix A - Performance Standards

Felix, Kyle. Using Bullet Weights and Type to Determine Caliber and Brand, AFTE Journal, 2008; 40(1): 6480.

Lutz, Monty C. and Ward, John G. "Determination of Bullet Caliber From an X-ray," AFTE Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, p. 168.

Molnar, S. A Simplified Technique for L&G Measurements. AFTE Newsletter, No. 4, December 1969, p. 28. U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 1NCIC. Criminalistics Laboratory Information System (CLIS) Operating Manual. 2001 -2008.

Walsh, J. F. Accuracy, Speed and Conversion in Rifling Measurements. AFTE Journal. Vol. 9, No. 1, p. 50. www.afte.org www.firearmsid.com www.swggun.org

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DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 29 of 118

3 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Cartridge Cases/Cartridges 3 3.1 PHYSICAL EXAMINATION & CLASSIFICATION OF FIRED CARTRIDGE CASES/CARTRIDGES Introduction The initial examination of any fired cartridge case evidence shall include the completion of a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F103). Unfired cartridge evidence shall be documented on a Cartridge/Shotshell Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F104), except as noted in 1.6.2.1. These worksheets shall include the physical description of the fired cartridge case/cartridge and will serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received and any tests or comparisons performed. Safety Considerations

3.2

3.3

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Preparation of Cleaning Solutions NOTE: ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID. 3.3.1 Acetic Acid Solution 3.3.2 Bleach Solution Instrumentation Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Micrometer/Caliper Ruler Scale/Balance

Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemicals, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual.

Prepare a 15% Acetic Acid Solution by combining 150 milliliters of Glacial Acetic Acid to 850 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

Prepare a Bleach Solution by combining 10 milliliters of bleach to 90 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

3.4

3.5

Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations

3.6

Procedure or Analysis

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The evidence shall be marked in such a way to protect characteristics which may be used for comparison microscopic examination (chamber marks) and in accordance with the Quality Manual. A systematic approach should be used for the physical examination and classification of cartridges/fired cartridge cases, with recording of findings and observations in case notes.

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 30 of 118

3 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Cartridge Cases/Cartridges 3.6.1 General, Visual, Physical, and Trace Examinations The initial examination of any cartridge/cartridge case shall include a worksheet, which will serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received. Further information shall be added to the worksheet as tests are performed.

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3.6.2 Cartridge Component Verification 3.6.2.1 3.6.3 The cartridge shall be disassembled Components shall be documented, including the type of powder Report results (see 14.10.12, 14.10.13 and 14.10.14) Trace Material Examination

Examine the cartridge/cartridge case visually and microscopically for any trace material. Determine if further examination of the material is necessary and consult the appropriate section prior to the removal of the material. Document findings and observations and record in case notes.

Once the cartridge/cartridge case has been examined for the presence of pertinent trace evidence material, visual and physical examinations are conducted to determine the following features, to be documented on the worksheet (DFS Document 240-F104/DFS Document 240-F103, as applicable). Any trace evidence material present Caliber The possible manufacturer/marketer of the cartridge case, if needed use reference materials (i.e., ammunition database) and indicate in notes the number assigned to this reference. Ignition system centerfire, rimfire, other Description of metal used in cartridge case and primer Description of headstamp

At times, a request may be made for examination of a cartridge for determination that its composition meets the legal definitions of ammunition and explosive material as specified in the Code of Virginia 18.2-308.2(d). These examinations shall be documented in the remarks section of a cartridge worksheet (DFS Document 240-F104).

Evidence recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this evidence, and if further examination of the material is necessary, remove and preserve a sample of the material present. Removal of the material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination of the evidence.

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Remove material being careful not to damage the evidence Place the removed material into a suitable container/packaging for possible submission to the appropriate section for further examination Record findings and observations on worksheet If the trace material IS NOT going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following:

For evidence containing blood, tissue, or other biohazards, soak or as practical based on evidence type and size, place the evidence into an appropriate beaker containing a 10% bleach solution (refer to Section 3.3.2) to soak for at least one (1) minute. Use of an ultrasonic bath may assist with loosening debris more efficiently. Care should be taken when using an ultrasonic bath to minimize damage to the evidence Remove loosened material by rinsing with methanol or water Remove plaster by soaking in a 15% Acetic Acid Solution (refer to 3.2) Remove paint by soaking in alcohol or acetone DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 31 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

3 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Cartridge Cases/Cartridges Use a non-abrasive brush to remove loose material Use Naval Jelly, E-zest coin cleaner or other appropriate cleaner to removed dark stains, as needed Record findings and observations on worksheet

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3.6.5 Determination of Marks Breech face class marks Extractor marks (clock position, if possible) Ejector marks (clock position, if possible) Resizing marks Chamber marks Anvil marks Magazine marks Ejection port marks Firing Pin Impression (class and individual characteristics) Firing Pin Drag Slide Scuff Mark (head @rim) Slide Drag Mark (wall) Other marks

3.6.4

Caliber Determination

Caliber can usually be determined by examination of the headstamp of the cartridge/cartridge case, and is written as a numerical term that may be depicted with or without a decimal point. If it is not legible on the headstamp, the cartridge case can be compared with laboratory standards, available manufacturer literature, or other appropriate references.

Visual and microscopic examination of the cartridge/cartridge case may reveal a variety of markings. Types of marks that might be found may be as follows:

As appropriate, compare marks on cartridge/cartridge case with tests from a firearm or with other cartridge cases (see Section 5). Any component markings that can be produced by cycling cartridges through the action of a firearm (chamber, extractor, ejector, other mechanism marks) shall not be reported as fired in/from marks unless it is determined by testing that marks having the same characteristics (depth, shape, individual detail, etc.) can not be produced by cycling at least two (2) similar cartridges/shotshells through the action.

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3.6.6 Interpretation of Results

Tests of cycled ammunition shall be treated as evidence and marked and documented as specified for tests. The experimental test design and results shall be documented in the case notes. Only the above marks necessary to effect an identification or elimination are required to be photographed and/or described in case file documentation as outlined in 5.6.3. For determinations where specimens can neither be associated nor disassociated (inconclusive), all pertinent mechanism markings shall be evaluated and documented in the case file as described in 5.6.3.2.

May determine caliber and brand/manufacturer/marketer of cartridge/cartridge case May determine if there are suitable markings for identification with a firearm or with other fired components May determine possible firearms that could have fired/extracted/ejected/chambered cartridge/ cartridge case DFS Document 240-D100 Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Revision 6 Issue Date: 6-February-2012 32 of 118

3 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Cartridge Cases/Cartridges May be able to identify the firearm in which it was fired/extracted/ejected/chambered Record interpretation of results on worksheet Report findings 3.7 Appropriate Appendices

3.8

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Appendix A - Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations References Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Procedures Manual, 2001. Code of Virginia 18.2-308.2(D). Glossary of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, 5th ed. 2007. Howe, Walter, J. Laboratory Work Sheets. AFTE Newsletter. No. 2, August 1969, p. 13. VA Department of Forensic Science Firearm and Toolmark Training Manual. www.afte.org www.swggun.org

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 33 of 118

4 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Shotshell Cases/Shotshells 4 4.1 PHYSICAL EXAMINATION & CLASSIFICATION OF FIRED SHOTSHELL CASES/SHOTSHELLS Introduction The initial examination of any evidence shotshell cases shall include the completion of a worksheet (DFS Document 240-F103). Unfired shotshells shall be documented on a Cartridge/Shotshell Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F104). These worksheets shall include the physical description of the shotshell/shotshell case and serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received and any tests or comparisons performed. By examining wadding, the examiner may be able to determine the gauge size, manufacturer, and if the wad may possess markings suitable for comparison with the firearm that fired it. By examining recovered shot pellets, the examiner may be able to determine the actual shot size. The determined size can then be compared to the shot size loaded in submitted shotshells or to the size indicated by markings on the hull of the submitted shotshell case. Safety Considerations

4.2

4.3

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Preparation of Cleaning Solutions NOTE: ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID. 4.3.1 Acetic Acid Solution 4.3.2 Bleach Solution

Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemicals, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual.

Prepare a 15% Acetic Acid Solution by adding 150 milliliters of Glacial Acetic Acid to 850 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

4.4

Instrumentation

Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Micrometer/Caliper Ruler Scale/Balance

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Prepare a Bleach Solution by combining 10 milliliters of bleach to 90 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

4.5

Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 34 of 118

4 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Shotshell Cases/Shotshells 4.6 Procedure or Analysis The evidence shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual. A systematic approach should be used for the physical examination and classification of shotshells/fired shotshell cases, with recording of findings and observations on the appropriate worksheet.

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4.6.1 Shotshells/Shotshell Cases 4.6.1.1 General, Visual, Physical, and Trace Examinations 4.6.1.2

Examination of shotshells/shotshell cases should include general, visual, physical, and trace examinations, gauge determination, and marks determination.

The initial examination of any shotshell/shotshell case shall include a worksheet which shall serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received. Further information shall be added to the worksheet as tests are performed. Examine the shotshell/shotshell case visually and microscopically for any material. Determine if further examination of the material is necessary and consult the appropriate section prior to the removal of any trace evidence. Document trace evidence material, visual and physical examinations are conducted to determine the following features, to be documented on the worksheet: (DFS Document 240-F104/DFS Document 240-F103) Any trace evidence material present Shape of shotshell Gauge Possible manufacturer/marketer of the shotshell/shotshell case, if needed use reference materials (i.e., ammunition database) and indicate in notes the number assigned to this reference. Ignition system centerfire Description of metal used in hull and primer (magnetic properties) Composition of hull (i.e., plastic/paper; color; ribbed/smooth) Description of headstamp Description of firing pin impression (class and individual) Breech face marks (class characteristics)

Trace Material Examination Evidence recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this material, and if further examination of the material is necessary, remove and preserve a sample of the material. Removal of the material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination of the evidence. Remove material being careful not to damage the evidence Place the removed material into a suitable container/packaging for possible submission to the appropriate section for further examination Record findings and observations on worksheets

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If the trace material IS NOT going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following: For evidence containing blood, tissue, or other biohazards, as practical based on evidence type and size, place the evidence into an appropriate beaker containing a 10% bleach solution (refer to Section 4.3.2) to soak for at least one (1) minute. Use of an DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 35 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

4 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Shotshell Cases/Shotshells ultrasonic bath may assist with loosening debris more efficiently. Care should be taken when using an ultrasonic bath to minimize damage to the evidence. Remove loosened material by rinsing with methanol or water If necessary remove plaster by soaking in a 15% Acetic Acid Solution (refer to 4.3) If necessary remove paint by soaking in alcohol or acetone Use a non-abrasive brush to remove loose material Use Naval Jelly, E-zest coin cleaner or other appropriate cleaner to remove dark stains, as needed Record findings and observations on worksheets

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4.6.1.3 Shotshell/Shotshell Case Gauge Determination 4.6.1.4 Determination of Marks Breech face class marks Extractor marks Ejector marks Resizing marks Chamber marks Anvil marks Magazine marks Ejection port marks Markings on the exterior surface of hull Firing Pin Impression Firing Pin Drag Other marks

Gauge can usually be determined by examination of the headstamp of the shotshell case. If it is not legible on the headstamp, the shotshell/shotshell case can be compared with laboratory reference materials (i.e., ammunition database) or available manufacturer literature and record in notes the number assigned to the reference.

Visual and microscopic examination of the shotshell case may reveal a variety of markings. Types of marks that might be found may be as follows:

As appropriate, compare marks on shotshell case with tests from a firearm or with other shotshell cases (see Section 5). Only the marks necessary to effect an identification or elimination are required to be photographed and/or described in case file documentation as outlined in Section 5.6.3.

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4.6.1.5 Interpretation of Results

For determinations where specimens can neither be associated nor disassociated (inconclusive), all pertinent markings shall be evaluated and documented in the case file as described in 5.6.3.2.

May determine gauge and brand/manufacturer/marketer of shotshell case May determine if there are suitable markings for identification with a firearm or with other fired components May determine possible firearms that could have fired/extracted/ejected/chambered shotshell/shotshell case May be able to identify the firearm in which it was fired/chambered/extracted/ejected Record findings and observations on worksheets Report findings DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 36 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

4 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Shotshell Cases/Shotshells 4.6.2 Wads Examination of wads should include general, visual, physical, and trace examinations, gauge determination, and determination of suitable microscopic marks for comparison. These observations should be documented on a Shotshell Component Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F105).

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4.6.2.1 General, Visual, Physical, and Trace Examinations 4.6.2.2 Trace Material Examination

The initial examination of any wad shall include a worksheet, which shall serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received. Further information shall be added to the worksheet as tests are performed. Examine the wad visually and microscopically for any trace material. Determine if further examination of the material is necessary and consult the appropriate section prior to the removal. Document the findings and observations on worksheets. Once the wad has been examined for the presence of pertinent trace evidence material, visual and physical examinations are conducted to determine the following features, to be documented on the worksheet. (DFS Document 240-F105) Any trace evidence material present Shape of wad Gauge Possible manufacturer/marketer of the wad using reference materials (i.e., ammunition database) and indicate in notes the number assigned to this reference. Description of wad composition

Evidence recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this material, and if further examination of the material is necessary, remove and preserve a sample of the material. Removal of the material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination of the evidence. Remove material being careful not to damage the evidence Place the removed material into a suitable container/packaging for possible submission to the appropriate section for further examination Record findings and observations on worksheets

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If the trace material IS NOT going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following: For evidence containing blood, tissue, or other biohazards, as practical based on evidence type and size, place the evidence into an appropriate beaker containing a 10% bleach solution (refer to Section 4.3.2) to soak for at least one (1) minute. Use of an ultrasonic bath may assist with loosening debris more efficiently. Care should be taken when using an ultrasonic bath to minimize damage to the evidence. Remove loosened material by rinsing with methanol or water Remove plaster by soaking in a 15% Acetic Acid Solution (refer to 4.3) Remove paint by soaking in alcohol or acetone Use a non-abrasive brush to remove loose material Use Naval Jelly, E-zest coin cleaner or other appropriate cleaner to remove dark stains, as needed Record findings and observations on worksheets DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 37 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

4 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Shotshell Cases/Shotshells 4.6.2.3 Wad Gauge Determination Gauge can usually be determined by measuring the diameter of the wad and comparing with laboratory standards or available manufacturers literature.

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4.6.2.4 Determination of Marks 4.6.2.5 Interpretation of Results 4.6.3 Pellets 4.6.3.1 General, Visual, Physical, and Trace Examinations

Direct comparison of the evidence wad to known laboratory references of similar manufacturers in the composition, design, and diameter, which can assist in the determination of gauge size Gauge size can also be determined by measuring the base diameter of the wad and comparing the measurement to known wad-reference measurements Manufacturer data can be determined by locating information stamped into the wad or by comparing the evidence wad to known laboratory references (i.e., ammunition database) and record in notes number assigned to this reference

Visual and microscopic examination of the wad may reveal a variety of markings. Microscopic examination of the evidence wad could reveal markings that may be suitable for identification with the shotgun that fired it. If evidence shotshells are submitted with the evidence wad, it may be necessary to disassemble one of the shotshells for a comparison of the unfired wad with the evidence wad. Record the relevant information on the appropriate worksheet.

The above-mentioned procedure is based on the assumption that the evidence wad submitted has sufficient material available to determine the possible manufacturer and the gauge size. If the wad is mutilated or soaked with blood or other body fluids, the examiner may not be able to specifically determine gauge size. The examiner also recognizes that some manufacturers might duplicate the design of other manufacturers. Record interpretation of results in case worksheets.

The initial examination of any pellets shall include a worksheet. A Shotshell Component Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F105) shall serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received. Further information shall be added to the worksheet as tests are performed.

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Examine the pellets visually and microscopically for any trace material. Determine if further examination of the material is necessary and consult the appropriate section prior to the removal of the material. Record findings and observations on worksheets. Once the pellets have been examined for the presence of pertinent trace evidence material, visual, microscopic, and physical examinations are conducted to determine the following features, to be documented on the worksheet (DFS Document 240-F105): Any trace evidence material present Determine the total number of pellets received Determine the composition of the pellets Determine the number of pellets suitable for comparison purposes Note if pellet sizes all appear to be similar - if different sizes, determine each specific size Compare evidence pellets to laboratory references of known shot sizes side by side until DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 38 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

4 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Shotshell Cases/Shotshells a known shot size is determined. A stereo microscope may aid in this determination. This can be done one size at a time or several sizes at a time; however, if more than one size is used at a time, care should be taken not to mix up the shot. If reference ammunition is used (i.e., ammunition data base), indicate in notes the number assigned to this reference standard. Record findings and observations on worksheets (DFS Document 240-F105).

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4.6.3.2 Trace Material Examination 4.6.3.3

Evidence recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this material, and if further examination of the material is necessary, remove and preserve a sample of the material. Removal of material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination of the evidence. Remove material being careful not to damage the evidence Place the removed material into a suitable container/packaging for possible submission to the appropriate section for further examination Record findings and observations on worksheets

If the trace material IS NOT going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following: For evidence containing blood, tissue, or other biohazards, as practical based on evidence type and size, place the evidence into an appropriate beaker containing a 10% bleach solution (refer to Section 4.3.2) to soak for at least one (1) minute. Use of an ultrasonic bath may assist with loosening debris more efficiently. Care should be taken when using an ultrasonic bath to minimize damage to the evidence. Remove loosened material by rinsing with methanol or water Remove plaster by soaking in a 15% Acetic Acid Solution (refer to 4.3) Remove paint by soaking in alcohol or acetone Use a non-abrasive brush to remove loose material Use Naval Jelly, E-zest coin cleaner or other appropriate cleaner to remove dark stains, as needed Record findings and observations on worksheets DFS Document 240-F105).

Comparison by Weight Determine the total number of pellets received Determine the composition of the pellets Determine the number of pellets suitable for weighing Make note if pellet sizes all appear similar If several sizes are present, determine each specific size Weigh the pellets in grains or ounces Divide weight of pellets by total number weighed Consult known pellet weights in NRA Handbook, Appendix of the Glossary of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners (AFTE Glossary), manufacturers data or other appropriate reference to determine shot size which corresponds to evidence shot and record in notes the reference used The weight of the evidence pellets can also be directly compared to weight of references using the same number of pellets until a similar known weight is obtained. Record the identifier of the reference standard used in case notes. Record findings and observations on worksheets DFS Document 240-F105).

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 39 of 118

4 Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Shotshell Cases/Shotshells 4.6.3.4 Measuring Pellet Size Determine the total number of pellets received Determine the composition of the pellets Determine the number of pellets suitable for comparison purposes Make note if pellet sizes all appear to be similar If several different sizes are present, determine each specific size Choose the best specimen and measure diameter using a micrometer/caliper and record in hundredths or thousandths of an inch Consult known pellet sizes in NRA Handbook, Tables 1 and 2 of Section 4 -Appendices of the AFTE Glossary, 5th Edition or manufacturer data and determine shot size, which corresponds to evidence shot Record findings, observations and references used on worksheets

4.7

4.8

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4.6.3.5 Interpretation of Results Appropriate Appendices Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations References Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Procedures Manual, 2001. Glossary of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, 5th ed. 2007. NRA Firearms Fact Book. National Rifle Association of America. 3rd ed. 1989. NRA Firearms Source Book. National Rifle Association of America, 2006. VA Department of Forensic Science Firearm and Toolmark Training Manual www.afte.org www.swggun.org

It may be possible to determine the shot size and composition of the pellets. Record interpretation of results on worksheet (DFS Document 240-F105).

Howe, Walter, J. Laboratory Work Sheets. AFTE NEWSLETTER NUMBER TWO. August 1969, p.13.

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 40 of 118

5 Microscopic Comparison 5 5.1 Introduction A comparison microscope allows an examiner to identify a fired component back to the firearm that produced the markings on the evidence or identify a toolmark back to the tool that produced the mark. The evidence component is placed on one stage of the microscope, and the known standard is placed on the other stage. This procedure may also be used to compare two unknown fired components or two toolmarks to determine if they were fired in/from the same firearm or were produced by the same tool. Safety Considerations MICROSCOPIC COMPARISON

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

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Preparation NONE Instrumentation Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Appendix A - Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations Procedure or Analysis

Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemicals, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual.

5.6

The procedure steps below do not have to be performed in the order listed; however, all steps should be considered and/or addressed, as appropriate: 5.6.1 Comparison Microscope Set-up Procedure Select the same objective (magnification) setting and ensure that the objectives are locked in place Select the same set of oculars (eyepieces) The illumination (lights) used must be properly adjusted, (oblique lighting is usually preferred) Analysis of Comparisons

5.6.2

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5.6.2.1 With Firearm or Tool as Evidence 5.6.2.2 Comparison Process

Compare the test fires produced from the firearm or tests produced from a tool to determine what microscopic characteristics are reproducing. Document these observations in the case notes.

Compare unknown evidence to either another piece of unknown evidence or a known standard by placing the unknown evidence on one stage and the other piece of unknown evidence or known standard on the other stage. It is strongly suggested that the examiner maintain a routine practice as to which stage is used for known standards. Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 41 of 118

5 Microscopic Comparison 5.6.2.3 Identification/Elimination Not Evident Considerations if identification/elimination is not initially evident Angle of lights Type of lights Use of a different microscope for evaluation Need for additional known standards Position of the evidence, the tests, or both Possibility of casting the tool-working surface for comparison Possibility of using magnesium smoke Possibility of cleaning the firearm or tool and producing new tests Possibility that the firearm or tool has changed Possibility that a different firearm or tool was used The entire unknown should be considered

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5.6.3 Interpretation of Results 5.6.3.1 Identification

As delineated below in sections 5.6.3.1, 5.6.3.2 and 5.6.3.3, photomicrographs or detailed descriptions shall be made of marks used for identification, inconclusive findings and eliminations. Oriented index marks (e.g., blue index mark at 6 oclock) or orientation marks (such as drag mark at 3 oclock; R in R-P at 6 oclock; ejector at 7 oclock) on compared items shall be used for documentation.

Criteria: Agreement of a combination of individual characteristics and all discernable class characteristics where the extent of agreement exceeds that which can occur in the comparison of toolmarks made by different tools and is consistent with the agreement demonstrated by toolmarks known to have been produced by the same tool. Documentation: One or more photomicrographs shall be made of the marks that are used to support the opinion of identification. Photographs that are produced shall delineate the specific item/test #'s for each specimen depicted, the magnification or objective setting and the index orientation. This information may also be handwritten on the note page containing the photograph. If the photograph is taken to demonstrate representative microscopic markings of a series of items, the item numbers having similar detail represented by the photograph shall be delineated. Other marks that are examined, but are not used to support the opinion of the identification, should be documented. However, no photographs or detailed descriptions are necessary for the other marks such as chamber marks, extractor marks or ejector marks.

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5.6.3.2 Inconclusive

Criteria: (1) Some agreement of individual characteristics and all discernable class characteristics, but insufficient for an identification. (2) Agreement of all discernable class characteristics without agreement or disagreement of individual characteristics due to an absence, insufficiency, or lack of reproducibility. (3) Agreement of all discernable class characteristics and disagreement of individual characteristics, but insufficient for an elimination. Documentation: When an item will be reported as insufficient for identification or elimination (inconclusive), mechanism marks that are present shall be photographed to exhibit the quality and quantity of detail suitable for comparison; photographs should be taken of areas that demonstrate best correspondence observed with written documentation for the reason(s) why the marks are insufficient. Photographs that are produced shall delineate the specific item/test #'s for each specimen depicted, the magnification or objective setting and the index

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DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 42 of 118

5 Microscopic Comparison orientation. This information can also be handwritten on the page containing the photograph. For cartridge/cartridge case/shotshell/shotshell case comparisons when an inconclusive result will be reported, documentation of each toolmark type expected to be present and pertinent for determination of an association or disassociation [generally, firing pin, breechface, extractor, ejector, chamber, ejection port swipe, other mechanism marks] shall be made as to the presence or absence of the marking, suitability for comparison and reason(s) why an inconclusive result is reported.

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5.6.3.3 Elimination 5.6.3.4 Unsuitable Criteria: Evidence bears no marks suitable for microscopic comparison. 5.6.4 Documentation of Results Record interpretation of results on worksheet. 5.6.5 5.7 Verifications - see Section 11

Criteria: Significant disagreement of discernable class characteristics and/or individual characteristics. Documentation: When items having the same discernable class characteristics will be reported as an elimination based on differences in individual characteristics, differences in marks that are present shall be photographed, with written documentation for the reason why the marks are eliminated.

When items having different class characteristics will be reported as an elimination, marks that are present shall be photographed or described in detail, with written documentation for the reason why the marks are eliminated. Photographs that are produced shall delineate the specific item/test #'s for each specimen depicted, the magnification or objective setting and the index orientation. This information may also be handwritten on the page containing the photograph.

Documentation: When evidence bears no marks suitable for microscopic comparison, the documentation of the determination of each toolmark type evaluated shall be recorded on the worksheet. For cartridge/shotshell evidence, all pertinent mechanism marks should be evaluated and documented. Representative photographs of the marks possessing the highest degree of detail may be photographed.

Appropriate Appendices

Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B Abbreviations 5.8 References

Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Glossary, 5th ed. 2007.

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Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Procedures Manual, 2001. DeForest, Gaensslen, and Lee. Forensic Science: An Introduction to Criminalistics, New York: McGrawHill.1983. Glossary of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, 5th ed. 2007. Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 43 of 118

5 Microscopic Comparison Howe, Walter, J. Laboratory Work Sheets. AFTE Newsletter. No.2 August 1969, p. 13. VA Department of Forensic Science Firearm and Toolmark Training Manual. www.afte.org

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www.swggun.org

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6 NIBIN 6 6.1 Introduction The National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) is a computerized system for acquiring and storing the images of unidentified bullets and cartridge cases as well as known bullets and cartridge cases. NIBIN images portions of the surface (land engraved areas) of a bullet and the primer/firing pin area and ejector or breech face marks of fired cartridge cases, using state-of-the-art optical and electronic technology. These images are then stored in databases and sophisticated algorithms are used to correlate the images against each other using filters such as caliber, rifling specifications, date of crime, and date of entry. These correlations produce lists of possible matches with the highest score at the top of the list. A firearm examiner can then access the images and compare them side by side on a monitor. If a possible association is found during this screening process, then the actual evidence is compared by an examiner utilizing traditional comparative microscopic techniques. Access to ICD samples is defined in QM 5.3.8. Safety Considerations NIBIN

6.2

6.3

Preparation NONE

6.4

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Instrumentation NIBIN System Stereomicroscope Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls 6.5.1 6.5.2

Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemicals, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual.

6.5

With the exception of Brasstrax, the system calibration shall be checked weekly and adjusted as necessary. Documentation shall be made on DFS Document 240-F115. The tape shall be replaced, as required by the system. The tape that has been removed will be sent via the lockbox or other means to another laboratory to meet ATF security requirements. This shall be documented on DFS Document 240-F117. When problems occur with the system such that Forensic Technology (FTI) is contacted, use DFS Document 240-F119 to track the problem, document the individual(s) contacted and resolution.

6.5.3 6.5.4

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Performance Check 6.5.4.1 6.5.4.2

To ensure that the NIBIN System is working properly, a designated specimen (questioned) shall be entered and a searched weekly against a previous entry of the same specimen (known). A standard search against images entered by DFS shall be used. The correlation list and the split screen printout of the known and unknown images shall be retained in a binder located by the NIBIN System for the assessment cycle. If the known candidate is not on the correlation list, the entry shall be re-correlated. If the known candidate does not appear on the second correlation list, the unknown shall be reentered and correlated. If the known candidate does not appear on the correlation for the second entry, the Section Supervisor shall be notified to research the problem. The problem and resolution shall be documented on the printout for the performance check. NIBIN entries made since the last performance check may need to be researched depending on the identified problem. DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 45 of 118

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6 NIBIN 6.5.4.3 Once the performance check is successfully completed, the unknown specimen shall be deleted from the system.

6.6

Procedure or Analysis

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6.6.2 Analysis of Evidence for NIBIN Entry Case Notes Documentation 6.6.2.1 The following documentation shall be included in the case file. 6.6.2.1.1 6.6.2.1.2 6.6.2.1.3 The unique identifier of the specimen entered into the system Documentation of date and results of the NIBIN correlation

6.6.1

The NIBIN Procedure

Access to the NIBIN system shall occur after successfully completing NIBIN training, receiving security clearance and the issuance of a password by ATF. The NIBIN Procedures Manual (IBIS Training Manual) should be followed in order to make entries into the system; this manual is to be stored next to the Data Acquisition Station.

The firearm examiner should ensure suitability of the items being entered. Bullet images and components from firearms that do not extract/eject cartridge/shotshell cases will not be entered into the system. The examiner must ensure that: Any evidence cartridge case/shotshell case selected for entry into NIBIN must have sufficient individual characteristics to be considered suitable for identification purposes. If, from the same case file, there are more than one identified evidence cartridge case suitable for entry into NIBIN, the examiner should select the best marked item for entry; at the discretion of the examiner, additional bullets/cartridge cases may be entered if individual characteristics are more prominent and /or more reproducible on different tests and/or specimens. Items shall be entered with a unique identifier. If an item of evidence is entered, the item designator should distinguish it from all other items in the case file. If the entry is a test fired component, the item designator shall indicate the specific test that is entered. For example, if five (5) cartridge cases are received as item 1 and designated as items 1A through 1E for examination purposes, the item designator should be entered as item 1A, 1B, etc. For a test fired component, the items unique test fire designation shall be entered. Use DFS Document 240-F116 to document NIBIN entry and results. This document should be maintained in the same location as the NIBIN System.

6.6.3

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6.6.2.2 Hit Confirmation 6.6.3.1 6.6.3.2

The agency information and item numbers of evidence which is determined to be a possible association and requires direct comparison for a more definitive determination

A print out of a NIBIN entry breechface image and associated case information may be included.

Whenever there is a potential association between a current case and two or more laboratory cases that have been previously reported as a confirmed association, only one of the previously associated cases should be requested for resubmission for comparison with the currently active, primary case. A CoA shall be issued for the primary case. A new CoA shall not be issued for the FS Lab # resubmitted for comparison to the primary case. A copy of the CoA for the primary case DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 46 of 118

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6 NIBIN shall be sent to investigators/agencies of the resubmitted case(s) for confirmation and of any previously reported cases confirmed with the resubmitted case. All copied agencies/investigators shall be listed in the "cc:" area of the CoA with the associated FS Lab #.

6.7

6.8

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6.6.3.4 6.6.3.5 6.6.3.6 Appropriate Appendices Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations References The NIBIN Procedures Manual

6.6.3.3

A copy of the CoA for the primary case shall be placed in the case file documentation for the resubmitted case and all associated cases. The firearms case that is created upon return of the evidence in the LIMS system (FACE) shall be "terminated without report" in FACE.

Bullet evidence associated with previous cases may require one or more of the previous cases be resubmitted for comparison in order to determine case-to case association. One (1) report for the current case shall be issued addressing cases that are resubmitted and compared. At the request of an agency, when a firearm is associated and confirmed with fired components, a Supplemental Report may be issued for a specific FS Lab #.

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7 Range Determination 7 7.1 Introduction When a firearm is fired, gunshot residues in the following forms may be discharged from the firearm: RANGE DETERMINATION

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Burnt gunpowder particles Partially burnt gunpowder particles Un-burnt gunpowder particles Vaporous lead Particulate metals Shot pellet patterns

Muzzle-to-target distance determination is based on gunshot residue examinations and/or shot patterning examinations. These gunshot residues along with the morphology of the bullet hole or the size of the pellet pattern can effectively be used in determining the possible muzzle-to-target distance. Clothing and other items may be evaluated for the presence of gunshot residues or patterns of gunshot residues without a suspect firearm. With exception of contact or near contact shots, valid conclusions in muzzle-to-target distance examinations must be reached through tests which are conducted to reproduce the physical parameters related to the incident. For example, if a series of holes is found in a garment indicating a bullet entrance, exit and re-entrance, test patterns should be produced to simulate this incident and compared with the questioned pattern. Typically, clothing or items submitted to the laboratory that do not have a suspect bullet hole (such as suspect clothing, a shirt from an individual with a gunshot wound on their neck, chin, head, etc.) are not examined for the presence of gunshot residues. However, there may be circumstances where conducting an examination for the presence of gunshot residues may be deemed necessary. Range determination evaluations on wounds and from photographs of wounds shall not be reported by DFS examiners. If a distance determination is requested on skin, appropriate test patterns can be fired using the specifications provided in 7.6.10, through review of the autopsy report and consultation with appropriate Medical Examiner staff. Test patterns shall be reproduced as described in 7.6.10.1 for the OCME. With exception of contact or near contact shots (see 7.6.1), elements needed to perform valid muzzle-to-target distance determinations include: Firearm Ammunition involved and component(s) identified back to firearm Questioned pattern

Sufficient ammunition recovered from the incident being investigated must be available to check consistency of gunshot residues produced with laboratory stock ammunition of the same brand and load. If sufficient evidence ammunition is not available, a valid muzzle-to-target distance determination is not possible. An item of evidence can still be evaluated for the presence of gunshot residues; however, the presence of a pattern shall be reported as if a firearm/ammunition is not available for testing. It should be noted that multiple chemical examinations are being performed on an item and the sequence of examinations must follow a specific order, as follows: Diphenylamine Modified Griess Dithiooxamide Sodium Rhodizonate

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7 Range Determination The Diphenylamine test is an optional color test that can be used to indicate the presence of nitrates in gunpowder particles. Nitrates oxidize diphenylamine in a sulfuric acid solution to produce a blue color reaction. This test can aid the examiner in determining whether or not the particles on an item of evidence are gunpowder particles and should be conducted on suspect particles found during the microscopic examination prior to any other chemical testing.

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The Modified Griess test is used in conjunction with other tests in range determinations. The Modified Griess test utilizes a chemical color reaction to help distinguish obscure or faint gunpowder patterns. This test detects nitrites, a product of the incomplete burning of gunpowder, by reacting with Acetic Acid to form nitrous acid. This nitrous acid combines with Sulfanilic Acid and then Alpha-Naphthol to produce an orange-red color reaction. This test is required to be conducted on all distance determination examinations with the exceptions of contact/near contact shots or shotgun pellet pattern examinations. The Dithiooxamide (DTO) test is optional color test that can be used independently and/or in conjunction with other tests in range determination. The DTO test utilizes a chemical color reaction to indicate the presence of copper. The DTO test reacts with copper to produce a dark greenish-gray to nearly black color reaction. It should be noted that the DTO test will also react with cobalt, leaving an amber-color reaction and nickel, leaving a violet-color reaction. This test can be effectively used in determining the physical characteristics of bullet holes including the determination of entrance vs. exit holes. Fired bullets passing through clothing and/or other objects, often leave traces of copper or nickel around the bullet hole. This copper or nickel transfer comes from the surfaces of a bullet containing copper or nickel, and/or the barrel of the firearm. This copper or nickel transfer can be in the form of minute particles, a fine coating of powder particles, or a fine cloud of vaporized copper or nickel. At times this copper or nickel transfer is an obvious ring or wipe around the hole, but is more often invisible. The Sodium Rhodizonate test is used independently and/or in conjunction with other tests in range determinations. This test utilizes a chemical color reaction to indicate the presence of lead, the substrate reacting with lead to produce a pink color reaction. By adding HCl, a violet/purple color reaction will be produced. This test can effectively be used in determining the physical characteristics of bullet holes including the determination of entrance vs. exit holes. Fired bullets passing through clothing and/or other objects often leave traces of lead around the bullet hole. This lead transfer comes from the surfaces of the bullet, the barrel and/or the primer residue. This lead transfer can be in the form of minute particles, a fine coating of powder particles, or a fine cloud of vaporized lead. At times this lead transfer is an obvious ring or wipe around the hole but is more often invisible. This chemical test is required to be conducted on all distance determination examinations where holes appearing to be bullet/projectile holes are located. Safety Considerations Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemical, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual.

7.2

7.3

Preparation

NOTE: ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID. 7.3.1 Sodium Rhodizonate Solution

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Hydrochloric Acid Solution

The Sodium Rhodizonate solution is prepared fresh for each usage Prepare a saturated Sodium Rhodizonate solution by adding Sodium Rhodizonate to distilled water until the solution is a dark orange/tea color

7.3.2

Prepare a 5% Hydrochloric Acid solution by adding 5 milliliters of concentrated Hydrochloric Acid to 95 milliliters of distilled water DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 49 of 118

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7 Range Determination 7.3.3 Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

Buffer Solution Dissolve 1.9 grams of Sodium Bitartrate and 1.5 grams of Tartaric Acid in 100 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

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7.3.4 Acetic Acid Solution 7.3.5 Dithiooxamide (DTO) Solution 7.3.6 Ammonium Solution 7.3.7

Prepare a 15% Acetic Acid solution by adding 150 milliliters of Glacial Acetic Acid to 850 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked with the identity of the reagent, the date and initials of the preparer Prepare a 5% Acetic Acid solution by adding 50 milliliters of Glacial Acetic Acid to 950 milliliters of distilled water, store in an appropriate sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

The Dithiooxamide solution is prepared fresh for each usage Prepare a Dithiooxamide solution by dissolving 0.2 grams of DTO in 100 milliliters of ethanol

Prepare an ammonium hydroxide solution by combining 20 milliliters of ammonium hydroxide with 50 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

Sensitized Blank for Modified Griess Test Add 0.75 grams of Sulfanilic Acid to 150 milliliters of distilled water and mix (step 1) Add 0.42 grams of Alpha Naphthol to 150 milliliters of methanol and mix (step 2) Once both the solutions in step 1 & 2 are prepared, mix equal volumes of them together in a clean photo tray Saturate pieces of filter paper or desensitized photo paper in this solution and air dry Once the now sensitized blanks are dry, store in an airtight plastic container Utilizing the proportions listed above, mix the quantity of each solution desired; Store solutions in appropriate, sealed containers that are marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

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7.3.8 Nitrite Test Strips or Cotton Swabs Dissolve 0.6 grams of Sodium Nitrite in 100 milliliters of distilled water Saturate pieces of filter paper or cotton swabs in this mixture

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7 Range Determination 7.3.9 Dry strips or swabs, then store in an airtight plastic container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

Diphenylamine Dissolve 0.3 grams of diphenylamine in 20cc of concentrated sulfuric acid Pour mixture into 10cc of glacial acetic acid Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

7.4

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7.3.10 Desensitized Photo Paper Instrumentation Scale/balance Stereo microscope Comparison microscope Ruler or tape measure Digital Camera Infra Red (IR) Camera and equipment, if available and as needed Ultraviolet (UV) light and/or Alternate Light Source (ALS), if available and as needed Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls 7.5.1 Positive Control (Modified Griess DAT and RAT)

Purchased photo paper should be fixed according to directions provided by manufacturer to remove silver salts from the emulsion side of paper The emulsion side of this paper is used for all testing

7.5

A positive control for the Modified Griess Direct Application Technique DAT or the Modified Griess Reverse Application Technique - RAT procedure consists of placing a test mark utilizing a Nitrite test strip or swab moistened with 15% Acetic Acid Solution on each of the four corners of each of the sensitized blanks (see 7.3.7) being used for the testing. An equally intense on the four corners of the sensitized blank indicates the presence of nitrites and that the paper has been evenly coated. Result is to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110).

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7.5.2 Negative Control (Modified Griess DAT and RAT)

To check for any matrix effects, a small test mark (T) using a new nitrite swab moistened with 15% Acetic Acid solution shall be placed in an area on the garment well away from any holes/gunpowder particles observed. A small area that is unsuitable for further testing is preferred. This area should be clearly marked with a circle around the mark and identified as a test mark. A piece of the sensitized blank that has been checked as stated above and in 7.5.2 shall be used to develop the nitrites in the area of the T, an orange-red reaction indicating that the matrix has no effect on development of the color shift. If no color shift is observed, repeat this test in another suitable area of the garment. If no color shift is observed in the second test, the Modified Griess test may not be reliable. Results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110).

A negative control for the Modified Griess Direct Application Technique DAT or the Modified Griess Reverse Application Technique - RAT procedure consists of no color appearing on the sensitized blank when a clean test strip or swab that is moistened with 15% Acetic Acid solution is touched to the sensitized blank at the mid-point of each edge of the paper. Result is to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110). Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 51 of 118

7 Range Determination 7.5.3 Positive Control (DTO) A positive control for the DTO test consists of placing a test mark, utilizing a piece of known copper or nickel, on the item to be tested. This test mark must be well away from any holes to be examined. This area should be clearly marked with a circle around the mark and identified as a test mark. The DTO test is to be performed on the test mark. A positive result will be a dark, greenish-gray color for the presence of copper, and a blue-violet color for the presence of nickel on the test mark. The results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110). Negative Control (DTO)

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7.5.4 7.5.5 Alternative Positive Control (DTO) 7.5.6 Alternative Negative Control (DTO) 7.5.7 Positive Control (Sodium Rhodizonate Test)

The area surrounding this test mark should also be subjected to the DTO test. This area should not produce a color change and serves as the negative control. The results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110).

An alternative positive control for the DTO test consists of utilizing cotton swabs dampened with the ammonia solution. One of the treated swabs is rubbed against a piece of known copper or nickel. This swab is then processed with the DTO solution to determine if the test is reacting properly. A positive result is a dark, greenish-gray color for the presence of copper, or a blue-violet color for the presence of nickel on the swab. The results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110).

An alternative negative control for the DTO test consists of utilizing the other treated swab that is rubbed on the item to be tested. This must be well away from any holes examined. This swab is then processed with the DTO solution to determine if the item being tested will produce no color reaction and serves as a negative control. The results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240F108 and/or 240-F110).

A positive control for the Sodium Rhodizonate test consists of placing a test mark, utilizing a piece of known lead, on the item to be tested. This test mark must be well away from any holes to be examined. This area should be clearly marked with a circle around the mark and identified as a test mark. A positive result will be a pink color reaction after the application of the Sodium Rhodizonate solution and the buffer solution. The results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240F108 and/or 240-F110). 7.5.8

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Negative Control (Sodium Rhodizonate Test) Negative Control (Diphenylamine)

The areas surrounding the test mark should be subjected to the Sodium Rhodizonate and buffer solutions. This area should not produce any color change and serves as the negative control. The results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110). Optional: The application of a 5% Hydrochloric Acid solution (either spray or use a cotton tipped swab to apply) to the area treated with Sodium Rhodizonate and Buffer solutions; the pink color should fade and change to a violet or purple if there is a presence of lead. The results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110).

7.5.9

Diphenylamine solution shall be placed into a clean spot well. No color change in the solution serves as the negative control. The results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110). Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 52 of 118

7 Range Determination 7.5.10 Positive Control (Diphenylamine) Diphenylamine solution shall be placed into a clean spot well. A known gunpowder particle shall be dropped into the solution. A blue color reaction will serve as a positive control. The results are to be recorded in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110). 7.6

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Procedure or Analysis 7.6.1 Visual and Microscopic Examination

The evidence shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual. A systematic approach should be used for range determination using the visual, microscopic, and chemical methods, with recording of findings and observations in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110. Patterns produced as a result of chemically processing evidence shall be considered evidence, designated as a sub-item of the item from which they are derived and described on the RFLE, in FACE and on the CoA as Patterns produced from Item __ (Item created at this laboratory).

The visual and microscopic examination of an item for gunshot residue shall include the examination and/or consideration of the following, with the observations recorded in the case notes: Presence of soot and/or smoke (size of pattern); examination with IR camera may be helpful for dark clothing (see references) Presence of particulate metals (shavings of lead, copper, brass, etc.) Presence of partially burnt and/or un-burnt gunpowder (size and density of pattern) Presence of a visible ring around the perimeter of holes (bullet wipe) Location and size of all holes, tears, other damage Presence and location of burning, singeing, or melting Notation of any missing buttons Presence of any possible masking effects Pattern of artifacts surrounding holes Pellet pattern size Presence of an unusually shaped pellet pattern (e.g., spiral, vortex, or donut shaped pellet pattern)

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Sufficient photographs with a 1:1 scale should be taken to document the garment/object overall. Close-up photos of the damaged areas and areas containing gunpowder particles should also be made for documentation before chemical examination. Microscopic examinations of a questioned item shall include documentation of any gunpowder particles observed by producing a clear transparency overlay of the particles present. If the garment/fabric in the area(s) of the holes/gunpowder may have potentially biohazardous residues, then two transparencies should be placed one over the other and the top transparency be used to document the gunpowder. The bottom transparency should be discarded in the biohazardous waste. Overlays produced should be indexed with the bullet holes, buttons, seams and other features so that the overlay can be properly aligned back to the clothing/item being evaluated. Multiple overlays may be necessary to document all pertinent areas of a garment. The overlays produced shall be included as case file documentation. The use of IR, UV or an Alternate Light Source (ALS) for the detection of gunpowder particles may be helpful, particularly on dark and/or bloody garments.

If examination of clothing from a deceased victim reveals no holes for evaluation, the examiner should obtain a copy of the autopsy report to determine the location of gunshot wounds on the victim prior to finalizing a report. If clothing is submitted by an agency and the ownership of the clothing is unclear on the RFLE or the examination reveals no holes for evaluation, the examiner should further investigate to clarify the circumstances of the shooting and ownership of the clothing prior to continuing an examination.

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7 Range Determination 7.6.2 Interpretation of Results Visual and Microscopic Examination Indicative of or consistent with the discharge of a firearm Vaporous soot/smoke Particulate metals (shavings of lead, copper, brass, etc.) Unburned gunpowder (morphology) Melted adhering gunpowder

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Indicative of or consistent with the passage of a bullet Holes in the item Visible rings around the perimeters of holes (bullet wipe) Indicative of or consistent with a contact or near contact shot Ripping or tearing Burning or singeing Melted fibers Heavy vaporous lead residues Possible masking effects Dark background color Blood staining Intervening object 7.6.3

If the above observations support the findings of a contact or near contact shot no comparison with known test fires is necessary, but chemical testing for the presence of vaporous lead is required. Without performing test firing, a contact or near contact shot is interpreted as the shot having been fired with the muzzle of a firearm within approximately one (1) inch of the target. If the observations do not support a contact or near contact shot finding, a working hypothesis shall be formed based on the above observations, to be utilized in the comparison procedure. Record findings and observations in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240F110)

Modified Griess Direct Application Technique (DAT)

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7.6.3.1 Interpretation of Results Modified Griess (DAT)

Place the evidence onto the sensitized blank (photo paper emulsion side up, or sensitized filter paper). The questioned area should be in contact with the sensitized blank. Soak or spray a piece of nitrite-free material (e.g., cheese cloth, paper toweling) with the 15% Acetic Acid solution, and place this over the reverse side of the evidence. Spraying the reverse side of the evidence with 15% Acetic Acid Solution is another option. Apply heat and pressure with an iron until the Acetic Acid Solution treated material is dry

Any pattern of orange-red specks on the sensitized paper indicates the presence of nitrite residues Record findings and observations in examiners case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110)

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7 Range Determination 7.6.4 Modified Griess Reversed Application Technique (RAT) Wipe or spray the side of the sensitized blank that will be in contact with the questioned area with the 15% Acetic Acid solution Place the sensitized blank (photo paper - emulsion side down, or filter paper) over the area to be tested Place a piece of nitrite-free material (e.g., cheese cloth, paper towel) over the sensitized blank Apply heat and pressure with an iron until the Acetic Acid solution treated paper is dry

7.6.5

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7.6.4.1 Interpretation of Results Reverse Modified Griess (RAT) Dithiooxamide Test (DTO) 7.6.5.1 Interpretation of Results Dithiooxamide Test (DTO) 7.6.6

Any pattern of orange-red specks on the paper indicates the presence of nitrite residues Record findings and observations in examiners case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110)

Place three drops of the ammonium hydroxide solution on a piece of filter paper Place the moistened area of the ammonia-treated filter paper over the hole to be tested Place a second piece of filter paper over the first and apply moderate pressure for approximately 5 seconds Remove both pieces of filter paper Place 3 drops of the DTO solution to the tested area of the filter paper that was exposed to the hole Repeat this process for all holes to be tested Both sides of holes should be tested if there is a question of entrance vs. exit

A dark, greenish-gray color reaction, corresponding to the area tested, constitutes a positive reaction for the presence of copper A blue-violet color reaction, corresponding to the area tested, constitutes a positive reaction for the presence of nickel Record findings and observations in examiners case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110)

Sodium Rhodizonate Direct Application Technique (DAT) A systematic approach should be used for the Sodium Rhodizonate DAT.

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Repeat this process on all holes or areas to be tested. Both sides of holes should be tested if there is a question of entrance vs. exit. 7.6.6.1 Interpretation of Results Sodium Rhodizonate (DAT)

Spray the Sodium Rhodizonate Solution on to the questioned area Spray the tested area with the Buffer Solution, noting the color reaction The additional step below can be considered an optional step for confirmation of lead: Either spray the tested area or a portion of the area with the Hydrochloric Acid Solution, noting the color reaction, or With a cotton swab dampened with 5% Hydrochloric Acid Solution, touch selected areas of the item, noting the color reaction.

A pink/violet or purple colored ring, corresponding to the margin of the hole, indicates DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 55 of 118

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7 Range Determination bullet wipe; a larger area of pink/violet or purple colored stain, corresponding to the area tested, indicates a pattern of vaporous and/or lead particulate Record findings and observations in examiners case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110)

7.6.7

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Repeat this process on all holes or areas to be tested. Both sides of holes should be tested if there is a question of entrance vs. exit.

Sodium Rhodizonate Bashinsky Transfer Technique (BTT)

Uniformly dampen a piece of filter paper with the 15% Acetic Acid Solution Place the treated filter paper over the hole or area to be tested Place a second piece of filter paper over the first and apply moderate pressure or apply a hot iron for approximately five seconds Remove both pieces of filter paper and spray the Sodium Rhodizonate Solution on to the tested area of the filter paper Spray the tested area of the filter paper with the Buffer Solution noting the color reaction The additional step below can be considered an optional step for confirmation of lead: Either spray the tested area or a portion of the paper with the 5% Hydrochloric Acid solution, noting the color reaction, or with a cotton swab dampened with 5% Hydrochloric Acid solution, touch selected areas of the paper, noting the color reaction.

This procedure may be modified by spraying the garment or object directly with the 15% Acetic Acid, then Sodium Rhodizonate and buffer solutions and then transferring the developed reaction to a white blotter paper. White blotter paper can also be used in place of the filter paper in the BTT method above. The test mark should be placed on the garment or object prior to processing. White blotter would be placed on both sides of the garment surface in the area of the hole(s) for blotting. After transfer, the white blotter can be re-sprayed for enhanced development of the reaction. If this procedure is necessary to visualize patterns on questioned garments/items, then the same procedure must be used for the test fired patterns for comparative purposes with the questioned transfer pattern.

7.6.7.1 Interpretation of Results Sodium Rhodizonate Bashinsky Transfer Technique (BTT) 7.6.8 A pink/violet or purple colored ring, corresponding to the margin of the hole indicates bullet wipe; a larger area of pink/violet or purple colored stain, corresponding to the area tested, indicates a pattern of vaporous and/or lead particulate Record findings and observations in examiners case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240-F110)

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Alternative Test Screening Tool for Possible Bullet Impact Sites

This is an alternative test useful as a screening tool for possible bullet impact sites (non specific for lead). Dampen Benchkote paper with a 5% Acetic Acid Solution Press and hold the Benchkote paper over the hole or area to be tested for one (1) minute Apply 1 to 2 drops of Sodium Rhodizonate Solution onto the tested area of the Benchkote paper and note color reaction

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7 Range Determination 7.6.8.1 Interpretation of Results Alternative Test 7.6.9 A pink/red-violet color similar to the shape of the hole or mark indicates a pattern of vaporous and/or lead particulate Record findings and observations in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108)

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Diphenylamine Place a small amount of the diphenylamine solution in a spot well Remove a suspect particle of gunpowder from the evidence Place the suspect particle of gunpowder into the diphenylamine solution 7.6.9.1 Interpretation of Results Diphenylamine 7.6.10 Test Pattern Production

A blue color reaction of the gunpowder particle with the diphenylamine solution indicates the presence of nitrates Record findings and observations in case notes (DFS Document 240-F108 and/or 240F110)

A systematic approach should be used in conjunction with a working hypothesis formed from observations based on previous testing (visual, microscopic, and chemical tests) to produce test patterns with the appropriate firearm and ammunition for the purpose of developing a range determination. Muzzle-to-target test patterns produced for distance determination interpretations shall be considered evidence, designated as a sub-item of the firearm from which they are created and described on the RFLE, in FACE and on the CoA as Test patterns produced with Item __ [Item # or firearm](Item created at this laboratory). Muzzle-to-target test patterns produced for comparison with autopsy findings shall be considered evidence, designated as a sub-item of the firearm from which they are created and described on the RFLE, in FACE and on the CoA as Test patterns produced for the OCME (Item created at this laboratory). Ammunition components derived from producing test patterns with laboratory stock ammunition shall be designated as a sub-item of the firearm from which they are created and described on the RFLE, in FACE and on the CoA as Ammunition components from test pattern production using Item __ [Item # of firearm](Item created at this laboratory).

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Ammunition components derived from producing test patterns with submitted evidence ammunition shall be designated with unique identifiers, but shall not be created as a sub-item on the RFLE, in FACE or on the CoA. Sections of submitted evidence materials used for test pattern production shall not be created as a subitem of the evidence item from which it was derived. The report shall indicate the number of tests produced from sections of the evidence item. Before shooting patterns, a blank test cloth shall be subjected to the chemical process being used for the analysis to determine if any contaminants or interferences are present. The result shall be marked as a blank, documented and treated as all other test patterns Test firing should be conducted based on the suspected event that occurred during the shooting The suspect firearm and evidence ammunition having cartridge/shotshell case and projectile components like those recovered from the target/victim should be utilized for these tests; these tests can be compared with tests produced in a similar manner with laboratory stock ammunition DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 57 of 118

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7 Range Determination of the same brand and load to ensure consistency of ammunition; if test patterns produced are consistent, the laboratory stock ammunition can be used to complete the testing; (see 7.6.10.1) Usually, one test should be fired for each piece of target media Tests should be fired in increasing or decreasing range increments until a distance is established, that reproduces the gunshot residue patterns on the suspect item The range would include both shorter and longer distances than what was determined to reproduce the patterns on the questioned item Duplicate test firings should be produced at either the approximate minimum (other than contact) or the approximate maximum muzzle-to-target distance of the projected range Process target material with same chemicals as were used on questioned item If possible, at least one test fire should be made with a portion of the questioned evidence material or a material similar in fiber type and construction for comparison with test target material; the Trace Evidence Section may be requested to assist with this determination; a suitable area (minimal or no obvious blood/body fluids) of the questioned evidence material should be cut from the item and used for test firing purposes; if no suitable material is available, resort to similar material Tests conducted with questioned evidence material or similar material should be mounted on white blotter; any gunpowder which perforates the cloth and penetrates the blotter should be preserved on the blotter paper and documented in case notes; Test patterns should be preserved to ensure no loss of powder or contamination between test patterns; e.g., tests produced on blotter should be covered with clear laminating sheets; after chemical processing, cloth tests should be separated using clean pieces of white blotter paper or similar material and carefully wrapped Document test patterns on the Range Determination Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F110) Compare test patterns with questioned item and document results of analysis on the Range Determination Evidence Clothing Worksheet (DFS Document 240-F108)

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7.6.10.1 Interpretation of Results Test Pattern Production

By utilizing the suspect firearm and appropriate evidence and laboratory stock ammunition it may be possible to obtain a reproduction of gunshot residue pattern(s) and or shot pellet pattern present on a questioned item. Chemically uncontaminated material and one or more sections of the questioned evidence material can be used while producing test patterns at known distances with the submitted firearm and appropriate ammunition. The known test patterns are then processed using the same methods that were applied to the material containing the questioned pattern. Comparing the test patterns to the questioned pattern(s), a determination may be possible as to the approximate bracketed distance a particular firearms muzzle was from the questioned item at the time of firing. Tests shall be produced from submitted evidence ammunition. If no evidence ammunition is available, a muzzle-to target distance determination shall not be conducted. If appropriate evidence ammunition is available, it should be used eventually in the testing protocol for comparison with laboratory stock ammunition of the same brand and load. For comparison of ammunition, one (1) muzzle-to-target distance should be selected for test firing with both laboratory stock and evidence ammunition. Preferably, a distance that produces an approximate pattern size and density of the pattern developed on the evidence should be selected. Duplicate test firing of either laboratory stock ammunition or evidence ammunition, as available, should also be incorporated into the testing protocol. A carefully planned test can be conducted with one evidence cartridge. Similar laboratory stock ammunition would be used to produce a series of tests at various distances, with some duplicates, against white twill jean cloth (or other laboratory target material). An appropriately sized portion of the evidence cloth or similar material would be cut and mounted on white blotter paper for test firing with another of the laboratory stock cartridges at the same approximate distance as one of the previous duplicate test fires. The patterns would be processed and compared. If the patterns produced with laboratory stock ammunition on DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 58 of 118

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7 Range Determination the white twill jean material and the evidence cloth are consistent in pattern size and density, then the evidence cartridge can be used to test fire another target prepared from the evidence cloth at the same approximate distance. If the patterns are again consistent in size and density, the laboratory stock patterns on white twill can be used to interpret a bracket. If the patterns produced at the same approximate distance with laboratory stock ammunition on white twill jean cloth and evidence material are dissimilar, then a search for a test material more similar to the evidence material may be appropriate. If the patterns produced at the same approximate distance with laboratory stock ammunition and evidence ammunition on evidence material are dissimilar, then a search for another box of similar test ammunition may be appropriate. If no further testing is possible, then a muzzle-to-target distance cannot be reported. Test fired components and test fired patterns shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual. Each test pattern shall also be labeled on the front with the Item # of the firearm used, brand and type of ammunition used from laboratory stock ammunition or the Item # of the evidence cartridge, the approximate muzzle-to-target distance, and the date. For tests created from laboratory stock ammunition, the ammunition brand, design and product code from the ammunition box shall be included in the case documentation. After they are labeled and sufficiently dried, all questioned and test patterns produced and developed for comparative purposes shall be documented by digital photography with a 1:1 scale or by color photocopying at 100% enlargement in addition to any other notes that may be recorded. To prevent contamination, the copier surface should be cleaned between each photocopy made of chemically treated test patterns. These copies/photos of the patterns shall become part of the case documentation. After they are labeled and protected with a laminating sheet, patterns test fired for comparison with wounds/photographs of wounds from autopsy findings shall be replicated by photographing with a 1:1 scale or color photocopying at 100% enlargement. A set of copies/photos shall be maintained as case file documentation and a duplicate set will be provided to the OCME.

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7.6.11 7.7

Appropriate Appendices

Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations 7.8 References

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Verification see Section 11

The test-fired components from laboratory stock ammunition, test patterns produced, and results of gunpowder tests/chemical processing tests conducted on submitted evidence/test fired patterns shall be returned to the submitting agency, in a manner as not to produce contamination between test patterns, ammunition components, chemical processing results, and other evidence, in a sealed condition. Case notes shall indicate the container # in which patterns and test fired components from laboratory stock ammunition are being returned and how they are packaged. Test fired components from evidence ammunition shall be placed in a separate container (i.e., a plastic bag, test fire box, for example), labeled in accordance with the QM and as "test fired components used for distance testing" or similar phrase and returned in the same container in which the ammunition was submitted. Case notes shall indicate how the test fired components are packaged and returned.

Alakija, Pauline, Dowling, Graeme P., and Gunn, Bruce. Stellate Clothing Defects with Different Firearms, Projectiles, Ranges, and Fabrics, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1998) 43 (6): 1148-1152. Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 59 of 118

7 Range Determination Alexander, Jason. Effect of Hair on the Deposition of Gunshot Residue, Forensic Science Communications (2004) 6 (2). Anon. (1970). Gunshot Residues and Shot Pattern Test. F.B.I. Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 39, No. 9, p. 7.

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Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Procedures Manual, 2001. Deobald, Glenn. Spiral Pattern. AFTE Journal (1995) 29(3):247. Dillon, John, H. A Protocol for Gunshot Residue Examinations in Muzzle-To-Target Distance Determinations. AFTE Journal. Vol. 22, No. 3, p 32.

Barnes, F. C. and Helson, R. A. An Empirical Study of Gunpowder Residue Patterns, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1974) 19 (3): 448-462. Bartsch, Michael R., Kobus, Hilton, J., and Wainwright, Kevin P. An Update on the Use of Sodium Rhodizonate Test for the Detection of Lead Originating from Firearm Discharges, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1996) 41 (6): 1046-1051.

Besant-Matthews, Patrick E., Thompson, Evan J., Hamby, James E., Wolberg, Eugene, Haag, Luke, Martini, Lance T., Loznycky, Bill, and Gallistel, Tad. The Rifle Shotgun Barrel Effect, AFTE Journal (1992) 24 (3): 246-253. Carroll, James. An Evaluation of Various Griess and Modified Griess Test Protocols, AFTE Journal (2001) 33 (1): 29-36. Chaklos, D., and Davis, A., Visualization of Gunpowder Residue Patterns Using a Digital Infrared Camera and Optical Filters, AFTE Journal, 2005; 37(2): 117-122. Cole, Michael D., Ross, Neil, and Thorpe, James W. Gunshot Residue and Bullet Wipe Detection Using a Single Lift Technique, AFTE Journal (1992) 24 (3): 254-259.

Dillon, John. The Modified Griess Test: A Chemically Specific Chromophoric Test for Nitrate Compounds in Gunshot Residues. AFTE Journal. Vol. 22, No. 3, p. 248. Dillon, John H. A Protocol for Shot Pattern Examinations in Muzzle-to-Target Distance Determinations, AFTE Journal (1991) 23 (1): 511-521. DiMaio, V. J. M, Petty, C. S., and Stone Jr., I. C. An Experimental Study of Powder Tattooing of the Skin Journal of Forensic Sciences (1976) 21 (2): 367-372. Fiegel, F. and Anger, V. Spot Tests in Inorganic Analysis. 6th ed. New York: Elsevier Publishing Co. 1972. Gamboa, Frances A., and Kusumi, Raymond. Evaluation of Photographic Paper Alternatives for the Modified Griess Test, AFTE Journal (2006) 38 (4): 339-347. Gibson, Wendy M., and Glass, Scott A. Rifled Shotgun Barrel Effects on Pellet Patterns, AFTE Journal (1999) 31 (2): 138-140. Giroux, Brandon N. Non-Destructive Techniques for the Visualization of Gunshot Residue, AFTE Journal (2006) 38 (4): 327-338. Glossary of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, 5th ed., 2007. Haag, Lucien C. The Sources of Lead in Gunshot Residues, AFTE Journal (2001) 33 (3): 212-218. Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 60 of 118

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7 Range Determination Haag, Lucien C. A Microchemical Test for Copper Containing Bullet Wipe, AFTE Journal (1989) 21 (2): 298-303 Haag, Michael G. 2-Nitroso-1-Naphthol vs. Dithiooxamide in Trace Copper Detection at Bullet Impact Sites. AFTE Journal. Vol. 29, No. 2, Spring, 1997.

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Kreiser, James. A Potential False Reaction with the Griess Test, AFTE Journal (1984) 16 (3): 9.

Haag, Michael, and Haag, Lucien. Trace Bullet Metal Testing for Copper and Lead at Suspected Projectile Impacts, AFTE Journal (2006) 38 (4): 301-309.

Haag, Michael, and Wolberg, Gene. Scientific Examination and Comparison of Skin Simulants for Distance Determinations, AFTE Journal (2000) 32 (2): 136-142. Hess, Philip A., and Poole, Leslie L. The Validation of Inkjet Photographic Paper for Use with the Modified Griess Test, AFTE Journal (2005) 37 (3): 213-223.

Lau, Leonard. The Substitution of Acetic Acid in Sodium Rhodizonate Test for Lead, AFTE Journal (2007) 39 (4): 307-309. Lau, Leonard. Modified Griess Test as Part of the Examination Protocol in Shooting Range Determination, AFTE Journal (2007) 39 (4): 281-287.

Lekstrom, J.A. and Koons, R.D. Copper and Nickel Detection on Gunshot Targets by Dithiooxamide Test. Journal of Forensic Sciences. Vol. 31, No.4, p. 1283. Lutz, Monty C., and Templin, Reginald H. Some Disinfectants Cause Positive Reaction to Griess Test, AFTE Journal (1983) 15 (4): 35-37 Moreau, Terry S., Nickels, Marvin L., Wray, Jack, L., Bottemiller, Kenneth W., and Rowe, Walter F. Pellet Patterns Fired by Sawed-off Shotguns, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1985) 30 (1): 137-149. Nichols, Ronald G. Gunshot Proximity Testing: A Comprehensive Primer in the Background, Variables and Examination of Issues Regarding Muzzle-to-Target Distance Determinations, AFTE Journal (2004) 36 (3): 184-203 Nichols, Ronald G. Shotgun Proximity Testing: A Review of the Literature Regarding Muzzle-to-Target Distance Determinations Involving Shotguns, AFTE Journal (2006) 38 (3): 192-203 Rawls, Donald D. and Ryan, John P. Modified Fiegel Test for Lead AFTE Journal. Vol. 38 No. 3, p 213-222. Schous, Clara E. A Sequence of Chemically Specific Chromophoric Tests for Nitrite Compounds, Copper, and Lead in Gunshot Residues, AFTE Journal (1999) 31 (1): 3-8. Shem, Robert J. A Simplified Griess and Sodium Rhodizonate Test, AFTE Journal (2001) 33 (1): 37-39. Shem, Robert J. Bleeding as a Source of Lead Particulates on Clothing, AFTE Journal (1994) 26 (4): 269275. Speak, Richard, D., Kerr, Frederick, C., and Rowe, Walter F. Effects of Range, Caliber, Barrel Length, and Rifling on Pellet Patterns Produced by Shotshell Ammunition, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1985) 30 (2): 412-419. Spinder, Travis, Allen, Susan, and Engel, Dustin. Comet Tailing, AFTE Journal (2001) 33 (4): 336-337.

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7 Range Determination Steinberg, M., Leist, Y., and Tassa, M. A New Field Kit for Bullet Hole Identification. Journal of Forensic Sciences. Vol. 29, No. 1, p. 169. Thompson, Evan and Haag, Lucien C. Comet Tail/Vortex Effect, AFTE Journal (2009) 41 (3): 257-267. VA Department of Forensic Science Firearm and Toolmark Training Manual,

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www.afte.org www.swggun.org

Vinokurov, Asya, Zeichner, Arie, Glattstein, Baruch, Koffman, Avi, Levin, Nadav, and Rosengarten, Avner. Machine Washing or Brushing of Clothing and Its Influence on Shooting Distance Estimation, Journal of Forensic Sciences (2001) 46 (4): 928-933.

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8 Physical Examination and Classification of Toolmarks 8 8.1 Introduction The basic objective in evaluating a questioned toolmark is to determine the suitability and classification of the toolmark. In order to compare a questioned toolmark with a suspect tool or another toolmark, it is necessary to conduct a physical examination and classification of the toolmark and the tool, which will help determine what course the rest of the examination should follow. In order to compare a questioned toolmark with a suspect tool, test standards or marks are usually made with the suspect tool. The basic objective in preparing test standards is to attempt to duplicate the manner in which the tool was used to reproduce the evidence or questioned toolmark. Safety Considerations PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF TOOLMARKS

8.2

8.3

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Preparation of Cleaning Solutions NOTE: ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID 8.3.1 Acetic Acid Solution 8.3.2 Bleach Solution

Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemicals, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual

Prepare a 15% Acetic Acid Solution by adding 150 milliliters of Glacial Acetic Acid to 850 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

Prepare a Bleach Solution by combining 10 milliliters of bleach to 90 milliliters of distilled water Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

8.4

Instrumentation Stereo Microscope Caliper Micrometer Ruler or tape-measure Scale/Balance Diode Sputtering System (if used) Ultraviolet light and/or Alternate Light Source (ALS)

8.5

Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations

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8 Physical Examination and Classification of Toolmarks 8.6 Procedure or Analysis The evidence and tests produced shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual. The tests shall be returned to the submitting agency in a sealed condition with the other submitted evidence. A laboratory worksheet utilized for a tool (DFS Document 240-F111) or toolmark (DFS Document 240-F112) examination shall be completed. 8.6.1 General, Physical, and Trace Examinations

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8.6.2 Trace Material Examination 8.6.3

The initial examination of a tool or a toolmark shall include the completion of a worksheet and/or photographs, which shall include the physical description of the tool, object containing the toolmark and/or the toolmark, and serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received. Further information shall be added to the worksheet as tests and comparisons are performed. Examine the tool and/or toolmark visually, microscopically and, as appropriate, use the application of UV light/ALS for any trace material. Determine if further examination of trace material is necessary and consult the appropriate section prior to the removal of any trace evidence. Document the findings and observations on worksheets and/or by photographs.

Evidence recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This trace material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this evidence, and if further examination of the trace material is necessary, remove and preserve a sample of the trace material present. Removal of trace material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination of the evidence. Remove trace material being careful not to damage the evidence Place the removed trace material in a suitable container/packaging for possible submission to the appropriate Section for further examination Record findings and observations on worksheets

If the trace material IS NOT going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following: For evidence containing blood, tissue, or other biohazards, soak or place the evidence in an Ultrasonic bath for at least one (1) minute in a Bleach Solution (refer to 8.3) Remove loosened material by rinsing the tool with methanol or water Remove plaster by soaking the tool in a 15% Acetic Acid Solution (refer 8.3) Remove paint by soaking the tool in alcohol or acetone Use a non abrasive brush to remove loose material

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Tool Examination The tool examination is used to establish the following: Brand and type of tool. Size and condition Class characteristics of the tool Areas of use on the tool Type of tests conducted (if any) The medium used for testing Indexing of test standards/marks

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8 Physical Examination and Classification of Toolmarks 8.6.4 Toolmark Examination The toolmark examination process is used to establish: The suitability of the toolmark for comparison purposes Class of tool that made the toolmark Type of toolmark (striated, impressed, combination) Direction of the toolmark If the toolmark is not suitable for comparison and does not have the same class characteristics as the suspect tool, then the toolmark can be eliminated as having produced the toolmark If the toolmark is suitable for comparison, or the toolmark has the same class characteristics as the suspect tool, the examination should continue

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Methods used to enhance toolmarks for further examination: WARNING! UV protective safety glasses must be worn Test Media:

Dusting the toolmark with fingerprint powder Diode sputtering system, traditionally used for coating Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) specimens Magnesium smoking to reduce glare on shiny surfaces by coating with magnesium smoke to enhance microscopic examination

Short pieces of magnesium ribbon are lit by a flame The object to be smoked is passed over the smoke generated by the burning magnesium If the object collects too much smoke, wipe the smoke off and repeat the process The coating should be light enough to see the color of the item through the coating of smoke

In order to perform a microscopic comparison of a submitted tool with a toolmark, test toolmarks must be produced with the suspect tool. The initial test media must be soft enough to prevent alterations of the tools working surface, and lead is usually the preferred material. Additional tests might require the use of the material used in the original toolmark. Dusting, sputtering, and smoking may be applicable to the questioned toolmark tests produced, and casts. 8.6.5 Casting Casting is a procedure used in a toolmark examination to make a reverse image of a tool or toolmark, which can then be used for comparative microscopic examination purposes. It may be necessary to make a cast of a tool or toolmark. If an item received for a toolmark examination is too large to be conveniently placed on the microscopes stages, a silicon rubber cast can be made of the tool or toolmarks in question. There are also occasions when a cast of a toolmark might be received as evidence. In either case, any test standards made will also have to be cast in order to perform a comparison. Mikrosil, Duplicast, Espe Impregum, Forensic Sil or other types of silicon rubber casting material are similar products and procedurally are equivalent as long as the manufacturers instructions are followed. Mix Mikrosil, Duplicast, Forensic Sil or Espe Impregum as per manufacturer instructions Apply the casting material over the tool or toolmark to be cast When casting material is set or cool, depending on type used, gently tap to loosen the cast from the tool or toolmark, and then lift to remove the cast Mikrosil, Duplicast, Forensic Sil and Espe Impregum have to be pushed or forced away from the tool or toolmark Consideration must be given to placing identifying marks as well as orientation marks on the back DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 65 of 118

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8 Physical Examination and Classification of Toolmarks of the cast, or scribe identifying marks and/or orientation marks onto the tool or toolmark being cast Record findings and observations on worksheets (DFS Documents 240-F111 and 240F112)

8.6.6

Toolmark Tests Produced Toolmark tests may be produced from submitted evidence material or from laboratory stock material and shall be considered evidence. Casts produced from tests shall be treated as tests. These tests should be uniquely marked with sequentially labeled test #s and in accordance with the Quality Manual. Tests produced from laboratory stock material and casts produced from tests or a tool shall be listed as a sub-item of the tool with which they were produced on the RFLE, in FACE and on the CoA. They shall be described as follows: Tests/tests and casts// casts produced with/from Item __ [Item # of tool __] (Item created at this laboratory). Tests/casts shall be returned in an appropriate sealed container and within the container in which the tool was submitted. Tests produced from submitted evidence materials will not be created as sub-items but will be uniquely marked within the scheme of sequentially labeled test #s and in accordance with the Quality Manual. Cast(s) shall be designated as a sub-item of the evidence from which they are derived, listed on the RFLE, in FACE and on the CoA, and described as follows: Cast(s) produced with/from Item __ [Item # of evidence] (Item created at this laboratory). Test Media:

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8.6.7 Microscopic Comparison

In order to perform a microscopic comparison of a submitted tool with a toolmark, test toolmarks and/or casts must be produced with the suspect tool. The initial test media must be soft enough to prevent alterations of the tools working surface, and lead is usually the preferred material. Additional tests might require the use of the material used in the original toolmark. Dusting, sputtering, and smoking may be applicable to the questioned toolmark tests produced, and casts.

Microscopic comparison of tools and toolmark(s) is detailed in Section 5 of the Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual. 8.6.8 Interpretation of Results see Section 5.6.3 8.6.8.1 Documentation of Results

8.6.9 8.7

Appropriate Appendices

Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B Abbreviations 8.8 References

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Verifications - See Section 11

Record interpretation of results on worksheet (DFS Documents 240-F111, 240-F112)

Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Procedures Manual, 2001. Mikrosil Casting Material Information. AFTE Journal. Vol. 15, No. 2, p. 80.

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8 Physical Examination and Classification of Toolmarks Barber, D.C. and Cassidy, F.H. A New Dimension with Mikrosil Casting Material. AFTE Journal. Vol. 19, No. 3, p. 328. DeForest, Gaensslen, and Lee. Forensic Science: An Introduction to Criminalistics. McGraw-Hill: New York. 1983.

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Glossary of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, 5th ed., 2007. Janneli, R., and Geyer, G. Smoking a Bullet. AFTE Journal. Vol. 9, No. 2, p. 128. Department of Forensic Science Firearm and Toolmark Training Manual www.afte.org www.swggun.org

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9 Serial Number Restoration 9 9.1 Introduction Many items manufactured today have serial numbers for identification that are usually die stamped. This process compresses the material in the area immediately surrounding and a short distance below the penetration of the die. Serial numbers are removed and/or obliterated in a variety of ways and may be restored if the removal/obliteration is not taken past the previously mentioned compression zone, by using methods such as polishing, Magnaflux, chemical or electrochemical restoration, or heat restoration. Safety Considerations SERIAL NUMBER RESTORATION

9.2

9.3

9.3.1

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Preparation NOTE: ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID. Frys Reagent Turners Reagent

Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemicals, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual.

To 90 grams of Cupric Chloride (CuCl2) Add 100 milliliters of distilled water (H20) Add 120 milliliters of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

9.3.2

To 2.5 grams of Cupric Chloride (CuCl2) Add 40 milliliters of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Add 25 milliliters of Ethyl Alcohol Add 30 milliliters of distilled water (H20) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

9.3.3

Daviss Reagent

9.3.4

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25% Nitric Acid Solution

To 5 grams of Cupric Chloride (CuCl2) Add 50 milliliters of distilled water (H20) Add 50 milliliters of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

To 75 milliliters of distilled water (H20) Add 25 milliliters of Nitric Acid (HNO3) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 68 of 118

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9 Serial Number Restoration 9.3.5 Acidic Ferric Chloride Solutions To 25 grams of Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) Add 100 milliliters of distilled water (H20) Add 25 milliliters of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

9.3.6

9.3.7

9.3.8

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Ferric Chloride Solution 10% Sodium Hydroxide Solution Hydrofluoric Acid Solution

To 25 grams of Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) Add 100 milliliters of distilled water (H20) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

To 100 milliliters of distilled water (H2O) Slowly add 10 grams of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

WARNING! Concentrated Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) is a particularly hazardous substance and must be handled using appropriate PPE (laboratory coat, thick rubber gloves, and face shield). Calcium gluconate gel must be available in the work area. HF may not be handled when working alone. To two (2) parts of Concentrated Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Add one (1) part of Nitric Acid (HNO3) Add three (3) parts of Glycerol Store solution in an appropriate container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

9.3.9

9.3.10

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Cupric Chloride in Nitric Acid Solution

Aqua Regia Solution

To 75 milliliters of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Add 25 milliliters of Nitric Acid (HNO3) Store solution in an appropriate, loosely sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

To five (5) grams of Cupric Chloride (CuCl2) Add 100 milliliters of distilled water (H2O) Add three (3) milliliters of Nitric Acid (HNO3) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122) DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 69 of 118

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9 Serial Number Restoration 9.3.11 Zinc Alloy Etching Solutions Solution 1 - To two (2) milliliters of distilled water (H2O), add 98 milliliters of Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) Solution 2 - To 95 milliliters of distilled water (H2O), add five (5) milliliters of Nitric Acid (HNO3) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

9.3.12

9.4

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Griffins Reagent Instrumentation/Equipment Scale/Balance Low voltage DC power source UV light source (if 14AM Prepared Bath is being used) Yoke magnets Y-7 AC/DC Yoke electromagnet Stereomicroscope Comparison Microscope Digital Camera Dremel tool, polishing disc, sanding/buffing materials Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls NONE

To 30 grams of Cupric Chloride (CuCl2) Add 30 milliliters of distilled water (H2O) Add 30 milliliters of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) Add 120 milliliters of Methanol (CH3OH) Store solution in an appropriate, sealed container that is marked in accordance with the Quality Manual 8 Record on DFS Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

9.5

9.6

Procedure or Analysis The evidence shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual. Examination and results are to be recorded on the worksheet (DFS Document 240-F106). Initial inspection of the serial number area shall include observations of coating, trace material, character remnants, and the method of obliteration. Initial observations shall be recorded in the notes by documenting and photographing the serial number area. Photographs shall be taken of the obliterated area, as received, labeled with appropriate identifiers as well as the magnification of the objective if taken with a camera on a comparison microscope. If other digital cameras are used for documentation, a 1:1 scale and case specific identifying information should be included in the photograph, if possible. Serial numbers are removed and/or obliterated in a variety of ways and may be restored if the removal/obliteration is not taken past the previously mentioned compression zone, by using methods such as polishing, magnetic or Magnaflux, chemical or electrochemical restoration, or heat restoration 9.6.1 Polishing Procedure The polishing procedure is a desirable method used to remove prior obliteration by polishing, grinding, and filing scratches that obscure the serial number. The polishing procedure can be effective independently, but is more often used in conjunction with various chemical or heat-restoration procedures.

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9 Serial Number Restoration Polish the area of the obliteration using either a Dremel-type tool with a sanding/polishing disc or fine-grit sandpaper Depending on the extent of the obliteration, continue polishing until the surface is mirror-like, removing all scratches If the obliteration is severe, it may not be possible or desirable to remove all the scratches Observations should be recorded in examiners notes by documenting and/or photographing characters developed

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9.6.2 Magnetic or Magnaflux Procedure 9.6.3 Chemical Procedure

The magnetic procedure or Magnaflux technique is used by metallurgists to detect surface or subsurface flaws in iron or steel. Magnetic particles, applied to a magnetized specimen, outline the obliterated characters in a successful restoration. This procedure, in conjunction with the polishing procedure, is an effective way to restore an obliterated serial number in magnetic metal. The Magnaflux technique is nondestructive, and can be applied without affecting other restoration methods. Determine the serial number mediums physical properties, i.e., magnetic or non-magnetic Determine whether the specimen is suitable for testing with Magnaflux by placing a magnet on the area of obliteration The specimen is suitable if it can be magnetized Clean the area of obliteration with the SKC-S Cleaner/Remover by spraying this onto the surface and wiping, allowing to dry before proceeding Apply appropriately prepared 9CM or 7HF Bath to the area of obliteration with a disposable pipette Place a magnet behind the area of obliteration, with the magnetic poles on either side of the area This placement may be adjusted to reveal more or different areas of the obliteration If 14AM (Fluorescent) prepared bath is being used, observe the characters under a black light Observations should be recorded in examiners notes by documenting and/or photographing the serial number area

The chemical-restoration procedure is suitable for restoration of serial numbers in metal. This procedure, in conjunction with the polishing procedure, is an effective way to restore an obliterated serial number in metal. Selection of the appropriate chemical reagent, based on initial observations, may include magnetic media or non-magnet media. Any of the reagents listed in this section may be used for restoration purposes.

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Appropriate commonly used magnetic media reagent choices: Frys Reagent Turners Reagent Daviss Reagent 25% Nitric Acid Solution Aqua Regia Appropriate commonly used non-magnetic media reagent choices: Ferric Chloride Solution Acidic Ferric Chloride Solution 25% Nitric Acid Solution 10% Sodium Hydroxide Solution Hydrofluoric Acid Solution Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

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9 Serial Number Restoration As appropriate, apply the chemical solution to the area of obliteration utilizing cotton tip applicators or swabs that have been moistened with the appropriate chemical reagent or solution and note any numbers or characters that become visible. Observations should be recorded on worksheets by documenting and/or photographing the serial number area

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The electrochemical procedure follows. 9.6.5 Heat Procedure 9.6.6

9.6.4

Electrochemical Procedure

The electrochemical procedure is a form of chemical restoration that is enhanced by the application of voltage that speeds the oxidation process of metal. This technique, in conjunction with the polishing procedure, is an effective way to restore an obliterated serial number in metal. Selection of the appropriate chemical reagent, based on initial observations, may include magnetic media or nonmagnetic media.

The electrochemical technique requires the attachment of the item to the positive terminal of a power supply via the use of metal alligator clips Thoroughly soak the cotton tip of an applicator with the appropriate etching chemical solution and attach the moistened cotton tip to the negative terminal of the power supply via another metal alligator clip, being certain to do so on a moistened area at the base of the cotton tip Turn on the power supply and increase the voltage gradually until the reaction appears Wipe the area of obliteration with the moistened cotton tip, being careful to not touch the surface of the item with the metal alligator clips and note any numbers or characters that become visible Observations should be recorded on the worksheets by documenting and/or photographing the serial number area

The Heat-Restoration procedure is suitable for restoration of serial numbers in plastic. The die stamping, or embossing process, is a form of cold-working plastic. This procedure, in conjunction with the polishing procedure, is an effective way to restore an obliterated serial number in plastic. The heat technique requires the application heat to the area of obliteration utilizing a high intensity lamp or heat gun Continue the application of heat until the plastic in the obliterated area starts to liquefy and note any numbers or characters that becomes visible Observations should be recorded on the worksheets by documenting and/or photographing the serial number area

Documentation and Interpretation of Results

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9.6.7 9.7 Verifications see Section 11 Appropriate Appendices Appendix A Performance Standards Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

Interpretation of results would include full restoration, partial restoration, or unsuccessful restoration. A full restoration would be a total recognition of all obliterated characters. A partial restoration would be recognition of all obliterated characters less than the total being sought. An unsuccessful restoration would be no recognition of any obliterated characters. Notes shall include if the restoration procedure was full, partial, or unsuccessful. Photographs should be taken of results of the restoration and labeled with appropriate identifiers as well as magnification of the objective if taken with a camera on a comparison microscope. If other digital cameras are used for documentation, a 1:1 scale and identifying information should be included in the photograph, if possible.

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9 Serial Number Restoration Appendix B Abbreviations 9.8 References Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Procedures Manual, 2001.

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Knowles, M., Instant Recovery of Obliterated Serial Numbers, AFTE Journal, 1985; 17(3):63. OReilly, W.E., Magnetic Restoration of Serial Number, AFTE Journal, 1970; 2(3):26.

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Laboratory. Serial Number Restoration Handbook. 1999. Brown, Erik W., Serial Number Restoration on Ruger P Series Aluminum Alloy Frames, AFTE Journal 2001; 33(1):57. Collins, John M., Modern Marking and Serial Numbering Methods, AFTE Journal, 1999; 31(3): 309.

Katterwe, H., The Recovery of Erased Numbers in Polymers, Journal of Forensic Science Society, Vol. 34, 1994, p. 11. Klees, Gregory S., The Restoration or Detection of Obliterated Laser-Etched Firearm Markings by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Mapping, AFTE Journal, 2009; 41(2): 184-187.

Kuppuswamy, R. and Senthilkumar, M., Restoration of Vehicle Identification Numbers, Journal of Forensic Identification, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2004, p. 13. Massiah, E. E., Compilation of Techniques and Chemical Formulae Used in the Restoration of Obliterated Markings, AFTE Journal, 1976; 8(2):26.

Polk, Donald, E. and Giessen, Bill, C. Metallurgical Aspects of Serial Number Recovery, AFTE Journal, Vol. 21, No.2, p. 174. Thorton, J.I., and Cashman, P.J., The Mechanism of the Restoration of Obliterated Serial Numbers by Acid Etching, Journal of the Forensic Science Society, Vol. 16, No. 69, 1976. Treptow, Richard, S. Handbook of Methods for the Restoration of Obliterated Serial Numbers. NASA. 1978. Turley, D.M., Restoration of Stamp Marks on Steel Components by Etching and Magnetic Techniques, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 3, May 1987. Wagoner, Andy, Griffins Reagent for Serial Number Restoration in Stainless Steel, AFTE Journal, 1999; 31(4): 497 U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Firearm Serial Number Structure Guide, January, 2007. VA Department of Forensic Science Firearm and Toolmark Training Manual. www.afte.org

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10 Fracture Match Examination 10 10.1 Introduction The process of matching two or more objects either through physical, optical, microscopic, or photographic means, which permits one to conclude whether the objects were either one entity that was broken, torn, or separated, or were held or bonded together in a unique arrangement constitutes a fracture match. The examination may determine whether or not two or more objects were at one time joined and were a part of the same unit. Other related procedures include casting and microscopic comparison. FRACTURE MATCH EXAMINATION

10.2

Safety Considerations

Examinations performed in the Firearm and Toolmark Section are inherently hazardous. These procedures involve hazardous chemicals, firearms, ammunition, and power tools. All hazardous procedures must be performed in compliance with the DFS Safety Manual 10.3 Preparation NONE

10.4

Instrumentation

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Stereo microscope Comparison microscope Photographic equipment Casting materials Other equipment as needed NONE

10.5

Minimum Analytical Standards and Controls

10.6

Procedure or Analysis The evidence shall be marked in accordance with the Quality Manual. A systematic approach should be used for the fracture match examination, with recording of findings and observations in the notes (DFS Document 240-F114) by documenting and/or photographing the separated items. Initial visual inspection of the items submitted would include evidence of:

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Note any trace evidence If necessary, remove and save the material or contact the appropriate section for an examiner to remove and take custody of the material DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 74 of 118

Coatings Method of separation Physical composition Color Dimensions of items Pattern Appearance and/or distortions of the separated edges Cross-sectional contours Incidental striations or scratches Extrusion markings Conchoidal stress lines and hackle marks Trace material

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

10 Fracture Match Examination Visually examine the items submitted to determine if they can be physically oriented with one another Microscopically examine the oriented edges using a stereo microscope and a comparison microscope, as appropriate, looking for the presence of corresponding irregularities in the oriented edges Based on the microscopic evaluation of the objects, determine whether or not sufficient microscopic correspondence exists between the objects to identify them as having been joined at one time as one unit A cast of one of the separated edges can be made for comparison with the other separated edge using a comparison microscope as detailed in Section 5. A cast shall be designated as a sub-item of the evidence from which it is derived, listed on the RFLE, in FACE and on the CoA. Interpretation of Results

10.6.1

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10.6.1.1 Identification 10.6.1.2 Inconclusive

As delineated below in sections 10.6.1.1, 10.6.1.2 and 10.6.1.3, photomicrographs or detailed descriptions shall be made of marks used for identification, inconclusive findings and eliminations. Oriented index marks (e.g., blue index mark at 6 oclock) on compared items shall be used for identification documentation.

Criteria: Agreement of a combination of individual characteristics and all discernable class characteristics where the extent of agreement exceeds that which can occur in the comparison of toolmarks made by different tools and is consistent with the agreement demonstrated by toolmarks known to have been produced by the same tool. Documentation: Photomicrographs shall be made of the areas/marks that are used by the examiner to reach the opinion of identification. Photograph pages that are produced shall delineate the specific item/test #'s for each specimen depicted, the magnification or objective setting and the index orientation.

Criteria: (1) Some agreement of individual characteristics and all discernable class characteristics, but insufficient for an identification. (2) Agreement of all discernable class characteristics without agreement or disagreement of individual characteristics due to an absence, insufficiency, or lack of reproducibility. (3) Agreement of all discernable class characteristics and disagreement of individual characteristics, but insufficient for an elimination. Documentation: When an item will be reported as insufficient for identification or elimination (inconclusive), fractured edges or marks that are present shall be photographed or described in detail, with documentation for the reason(s) why the marks are insufficient. Photograph pages that are produced shall delineate the specific item/test #'s for each specimen depicted, the magnification or objective setting and the index orientation.

10.6.1.3 Elimination

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Criteria: Evidence bears no marks suitable for microscopic comparison.

Criteria: Significant disagreement of discernable class characteristics and/or individual characteristics. Documentation: When an item will be reported as an elimination, differences in the fractured edges or marks that are present shall be photographed or described in detail, with documentation for the reason why the marks are eliminated. Photograph pages that are produced shall delineate the specific item/test #'s for each specimen depicted, the magnification or objective setting and the index orientation.

10.6.1.4 Unsuitable

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10 Fracture Match Examination Documentation: When evidence bears no marks suitable for microscopic comparison the documentation of the areas evaluated and the determination shall be recorded on worksheets. 10.6.1.5 Documentation of Results

10.7

Appropriate Appendices

Appendix A Performance Standards Appendix B - Abbreviations References

10.8

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10.6.2 Verifications see Section 11 Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners Procedures Manual, 2001. Glossary of the Association of Firearms and Tool Mark Examiners, 5th ed., 2007. Kirk, P.L Crime Scene Investigation. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons: New York. 1974. VA Department of Forensic Science Firearm and Toolmark Training Manual. www.afte.org www.swggun.org

Record data and interpretation of results on worksheets (DFS Documents 240-F111, 240F112)

Saferstein, R. Ed. Forensic Science Handbook. Chapter 4. Forensic Glass Comparisons. p. 151-153. Prentice-Hall, Inc. New York. 1982. Thornton, John I. Fractal Surfaces as Models of Physical Matches. Journal of Forensic Sciences. Vol. 31, No. 4, Oct. 1986. p. 1435-1438.

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11 Verification/Blind Verification 11 11.1 Introduction Verification is the independent application of the comparative analysis process to evaluate microscopic examination results where the results are known to the verifying examiner. Blind verification is a verification process in which the verifying examiner does not know the results produced by the first examiner. The purpose of this process is to test the reproducibility of conclusions related to microscopic comparison examinations. The blind verification should not be conducted by an examiner that has been solicited for consultation regarding opinions and/or conclusions. The Supervisor/Group Supervisor/designee shall be consulted prior to having conclusions verified to determine if the case has been designated for blind verification. 11.2 Verification Requirements 11.2.1 VERIFICATION/BLIND VERIFICATION

11.2.2

11.2.3

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Verifications are required on comparative microscopy examinations where the opinion of identification is reached by an examiner. Each tool-working surface identified to another tool-working surface in support of an identification conclusion must be verified. Verifications are required on conclusions that are classified as eliminations based on differences in individual characteristics between items having the same discernable class characteristics. (i.e., same breechface class markings, same firing pin class shape, etc.). Verifications are not required for inconclusive comparison microscopy results. However, if another qualified examiner is consulted for a second opinion, it shall be documented in the case file notes. Number restoration results where characters are developed and reported shall be verified by a second examiner. Verifications are required for distance determination examinations where a distance range is reported.

11.2.4 11.2.5 11.2.6 11.2.7 11.2.8

Verifications are required for clothing examinations where no holes for evaluation are found. Verifications must be completed prior to communicating the information to the contributor, either verbally or in writing. Additionally, the CoA shall not be generated prior to the verification. No photographs or verification by a second examiner are required for evidence classified as unsuitable for comparison.

11.3

Verification Documentation Requirements 11.3.1 11.3.2

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All verifications shall be documented in the verifying examiners handwritten notation(s) on the appropriate worksheet, with their initials and the date. The verifying examiner shall document: the item/sub-item numbers, test designator (as applicable for a known test standards), the specific tool-working surface identified/evaluated (e.g., breechface, firing pin, ejector, extractor, chamber, ejection port) and index mark orientation for cartridge/cartridge case/shotshell/shotshell case evidence; the index mark for striated bullet or mechanical toolmark evidence. The verifying examiner shall document the justification for exclusion as specified in Section 5.6.3.3. The verifying examiner shall document the obliterated characters that have been restored and/or not restored (as well as possible characters) as a result of a restoration examination. DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 77 of 118

11.3.3 11.3.4

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11 Verification/Blind Verification 11.3.5 11.3.6 Documentation for distance/clothing examinations shall delineate the results that are agreed upon between examiners. Differences in opinions regarding verifications shall be referred to the Section Supervisor and notification shall be made to the Physical Evidence Program Manager and/or Director of Technical Services.

11.4

Blind Verification (BV) Requirements 11.4.1

11.4.2

11.4.3

11.4.4

11.4.5

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The Supervisor/Group Supervisor/designee of the section shall designate cases as being subject to blind verification prior to case assignment. The examiner shall not be notified that the case will be blind verified. Each examiner should conduct at least one blind verification examination and each examiner should have at least one of their assigned cases subjected to blind verification within a thirty day period. Regional laboratories staffed with only two examiners shall coordinate with the appropriate regional Laboratory Firearm Section Supervisor/designee for examination of blind cases. Each month, two individuals in each laboratory shall each be designated to blind verify one case originating from one of the other laboratories. The cases selected for blind verification should focus on comparison type examinations (ammunition components or other items requiring microscopic comparison) and if possible contain no more than five (5) items. For cases involving firearms, functioning of the firearm, NIBIN entry and test firing will not be repeated. At the discretion of the Section Supervisor, the BV process may be terminated on a case due to extenuating circumstances and another case selected to meet the BV requirement. An example for termination may be when the RFLE inaccurately reflects the number of specimens contained in the case. Evidence being subjected to blind verification shall be handled in accordance with the QM. The verifying examiner should maintain the evidence until authorized by the Supervisor/designee to return it to the originating examiner or evidence vault. The Supervisor/Group Supervisor/designee shall provide the blind verifier with a copy of the RFLE. The transfer of evidence shall follow the requirements of the QM Section 14.4. When the examiner is the Supervisor, the Group Supervisor/designee shall prepare the documentation, make the case assignment and reconcile the case documentation.

11.4.6

11.4.7

11.4.8

11.4.9

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11.4.8.1

The verifying examiner shall conduct the requested examination and document conclusions as specified in Section 5.6.3 on the DFS Document F240-131 worksheet. Extensive documentation related to the description of the firearm is not necessary as it has been previously recorded by the original examiner. The blind verification process is to focus on the comparison aspect of the request.

Once the verifying examiner has completed the examination, the documentation should be given to the Supervisor/Group Supervisor/designee in the verifying laboratory for comparison with the original examiners case notes.

11.4.10 After review, the Supervisor/Group Supervisor/designee shall indicate the results on the DFS Document 240-F131. If the two examiners are in agreement, interpretation of results (conclusion) are consistent (i.e., Identification, Inconclusive, Elimination) this will be noted by the reviewer who will write results in agreement, their initials and the date of the review. If there is non-agreement of the conclusion in the analysis, differences shall be documented by the reviewer and steps will be taken to reconcile the Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 78 of 118

11 Verification/Blind Verification results. If reconciliation is not possible, notification shall be made to the Physical Evidence Program Manager and/or Director of Technical Services. 11.4.11 The evidence and all case documentation shall be returned to the originating examiner who shall initial and date all additional case documentation provided and complete the case. If the original examiner used mechanism marks for identification that were not used by the blind verifying examiner, the additional marks used in support of their conclusion shall be verified using the normal verification procedure and documented in the case notes.

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12 Quality Assurance 12 12.1 Introduction 12.1.1 The purpose of this section is to provide a uniform Quality Assurance Program for the Firearm/Toolmark Section of the Virginia Department of Forensic Science. It is to establish a baseline or reference point of reliability and system performance. It is expected that the analyst shall report any unacceptable or anomalous behavior of any of the analytical systems immediately to either their section supervisor or the appropriate Instrument Specialist (Primary Operator). QUALITY ASSURANCE

12.1.2

12.1.3 12.2

Reagents 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3

TABLE 1: Common Reagents and Appropriate Check Compounds REAGENT Modified Griess Dithiooxamide Sodium Rhodizonate & Buffer Diphenylamine

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For further detail, refer to Section 21 of the Quality Manual. Chemicals and solvents used in reagents should be of at least ACS reagent grade. Water used in reagent preparation should be deionized (DI) CHECK COMPOUND Nitrites Copper or Nickel Lead Nitrates (gunpowder)

Stock solutions of general test reagents shall be prepared using good laboratory practices as needed. After being made, they shall be checked as appropriate with the compound(s) listed below in Table 1 and will be documented on a Reagent Preparation Log, (DFS Document 100-F122). Reagents shall be checked prior to use in case work, as appropriate. If a reagent does not meet the standard, it will not be used; a new solution will be prepared, checked to determine if it is working properly and documented on the Reagent Preparation Log (DFS Document 100-F122)

12.2.4 All laboratory prepared reagents/solutions will be clearly labeled as outlined in the Quality Manual, 8.3. 12.3 Balances 12.3.1

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New balance installation and maintenance

12.3.1.1 Newly purchased balances shall be performance checked to ensure they are functioning as designed prior to them be placed into service and documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128). 12.3.1.2 All balances shall be checked yearly for accuracy using Class F weights and record in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128). 12.3.1.3 If balance does not function to the performance standard, it shall be taken out of service and either replaced or repaired by an authorized service vendor prior to being placed back into service. 12.3.1.4 After significant maintenance has been performed, conduct accuracy and verification using Class F weights and record the performance standard in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128).

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12 Quality Assurance TABLE 2: Balances and Appropriate Check Weights BALANCE TYPE Top loading ( 1) grain BALANCE EXAMPLES Denver XP600 Denver XL500 Denver XL610 CHECK WEIGHTS 1 ( 0.2) grains 10 ( 1) grains 100 ( 1) grains 1000 ( 2) grains

12.4

12.4.1

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12.3.1.6 Acceptance Criteria: 12.3.1.6.1 The accuracy of each weight shall meet the criteria in Table 2. Comparison Microscopes New instrument installation and maintenance 12.4.1.3.1 12.4.1.3.2 12.4.1.3.3 Move stage micrometer until graduation lines correspond. Acceptance Criteria:

12.3.1.5 Accuracy must be established prior to a balance being put into service after purchase, calibration, maintenance or repair, performance standard certificate shall be maintained in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log. (DFS Document 240-F128).

12.4.1.1 Prior to installation conduct performance check on each set of objectives of microscope to ensure they meet standards and are in compliance with manufactures specifications.

12.4.1.2 Comparison microscopes equipped with the Leica Application Suite measurement module shall be calibrated by a Leica representative. The documentation certificate shall be maintained in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240F128). 12.4.1.3 The performance standard of the comparison microscopes shall be conducted annually using Klarmann Rulings certified stage micrometers. Place stage micrometer on each microscope stage, insuring they are in the same plane with each other and lenses are at same magnification.

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12.4.1.3.3.1 All magnifications of oculars shall be accurate ( the width of graduate line on stage micrometer), and document in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128).

12.4.1.3.3.2 If microscope does not function to the performance standard or is in need of repair, it shall be taken out of service and either replaced or be repaired by an authorized service vendor.

12.4.1.3.3.3 Accuracy and precision must be established when a comparison microscope is placed back into service after maintenance or repair and shall be documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128). 12.4.1.3.3.4 Klarmann Rulings stage micrometers shall be performance checked once every accreditation cycle by an outside contractor.

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12 Quality Assurance 12.5 Stereo Microscopes 12.5.1 Microscopes equipped with reticules in eyepieces. 12.5.1.1 Ensure that the reticle has been installed properly in eyepiece so that it is in sharp focus

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12.5.1.5 Acceptance Criteria

12.5.1.2 Place the stage micrometer on flat horizontal surface in the field of view and ensure that the known standard is in focus 12.5.1.3 Using the reticle and known standard, superimpose the 0.1 reticle over 0.1 on the stage micrometer when the magnification control knob on the stereo microscope is at or near full scale, if possible. 12.5.1.3.1 Mark the correct position for full scale measurement on the magnification control knob on the stereo microscope.

12.5.1.4 Using the reticle and the stage micrometer, superimpose 0.1 reticle over the 0.2 on the known standard when the magnification control knob on the stereo microscope is at or near half scale. 12.5.1.4.1 Mark the correct position for half scale measurement on the magnification control knob of the stereo microscope.

12.5.1.5.1 All magnifications of reticules shall be accurate ( width of graduate line on stage micrometer), and documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128) 12.5.1.5.2 If reticle does not perform to the performance standard or is in need of repair, it shall be taken out of service and either replaced or repaired by an authorized service vendor. 12.5.1.5.3 Accuracy must be established after installation of a new reticle or when it is put back into service after maintenance/repair and shall documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128).

12.6

Micrometers, Calipers, Rulers, Tape Measures and Squares 12.6.1 New equipment installation and maintenance

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.1 inch .01 inch .001 inch

12.6.1.1 The performance standard shall be conducted on micrometers and calipers using certified stage micrometers on a comparison microscope. 12.6.1.1.1 At same magnification place a stage micrometer on one stage and the equipment to be checked on the other stage.

12.6.1.1.2 Ensure the equipment meets the performance standards that are accurate to the following specifications and record findings in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128). ( width of graduate line on stage micrometer). ( .005 inch) ( .005 inch)

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DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 82 of 118

12 Quality Assurance 12.6.1.2 Accuracy must be established prior to a micrometer, caliper, ruler or tape measure being put into service after purchase, maintenance or repair and documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128). 12.6.1.3 If a micrometer, caliper, ruler or tape measure does not meet the performance standard or is in need of repair, it shall be taken out of service and either replaced or be repaired by an authorized service vendor.

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18 5 10 25 100 1/16 1 2 4 6 Square scale accuracy: 1/16 per 36 inches Squareness accuracy: Maximum of .015 per foot

12.6.1.4 Performance standard shall be conducted on rulers and tape length measuring devices 1 foot prior to being placed into service using the Starrett Certified 100 foot metal tape; to be accurate to the following specifications.

Ruler and tape length measuring devices 1 foot shall be performance checked against the calibrated 100 tape and documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log prior to being placed into service.

Starrett 100 tapes and Squares will remain certified unless it has been damaged. If damaged it shall be taken out of service and replaced.

12.6.1.5 Ruler and tape length measuring devices shall remain certified until there is damage or they do not meet the performance standard. 12.6.1.5.1 If measuring equipment is damaged, it shall be taken out of service and either replaced or repaired. 12.6.1.6 Micrometers and calipers shall be performance checked annually and documented as delineated in Appendix A. 12.6.1.7 Performance standard checks will be conducted on new or repaired measuring devices prior to placing them back into service and information documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128). 12.7 Arsenal Weights 12.7.1

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Arsenal weights shall be accurate to the following specifications 5 pound weight 2 pound weight 1 pound weight pound weight pound weight pound pound 2 ounces 1 ounce 1 ounce 12.7.1.1 Arsenal weighs shall remain certified unless they have been damaged. If weights are damaged they shall be taken out of service and replaced

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DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 83 of 118

12 Quality Assurance 12.8 Shore Durometer 12.8.1 Performance check using Shore Test Block (60 2 durometer). 12.8.1.1 If durometer does not meet standard it should be taken out of service and either replaced or repaired by outside vendor. 12.8.1.2 Performance standard checks shall be conducted on new or repaired Durometer prior to placing it into service and information documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128). 12.8.1.3 Drop test examinations performed on firearms.

12.9

U.S Department of Justice General Rifling Characteristics Software 12.9.1

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12.8.1.4 Check rubber mat with durometer. 12.8.1.5 Ensure mat meets standard (85 5 durometers) prior to conducting test. 12.8.1.5.1 Record findings in case notes (DFS Document 240-F107).

12.8.1.5.2 Durometer shall be performance checked once every accreditation cycle by an outside vendor and be documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128).

Performance verification shall be conducted for each revision of this software. Test design, data and results of testing shall be maintained by the Section Supervisors and made available on the firearms section shared folder at: \\Dfsfile1\fx all labs\FBI GRC Search 2010.

12.10 NIBIN System Performance Check 12.10.1 See Section 6.5.4 12.11 Reference collections 12.11.1 12.11.2 12.11.3 Reference collections of data or materials used for the identification, comparison or interpretation shall be fully documented, uniquely identified and properly controlled. In-house reference collections shall only be generated, edited, or modified by a firearm/toolmark section supervisor or designee.

12.11.4

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Specimens of any in-house reference collection shall be uniquely identified by placing an individual identifier/inventory control number either on the specimen itself or on the container/vessel in which it is stored. A listing of all specimens with their identifier shall be maintained in an electronic format (FACE or Access, e.g.) along with the documentation of the important characteristics of each. The documentation of in-house reference collection specimens shall include the characteristics of each specimen which have been established to be important insofar as their application to casework is concerned. Reference collections within the firearm/toolmark section are properly controlled by limiting the personnel allowed to make changes to the collections and by limiting users to personnel within the firearm/toolmark section. A list of all firearm/toolmark reference collections and corresponding unique identifiers is maintained and is available to section personnel on the firearm/toolmark network drive. DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 84 of 118

12.11.5

12.11.6

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

13 Estimation of the Uncertainty of Measurement 13 13.1 Scope 13.1.1 The Department will develop processes and collect data for the implementation of the below listed policy ( 13 in its entirety). The Department will conform to the timely implementation of this policy congruent with current accreditation guidelines. ESTIMATION OF THE UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMENT

13.1.2

13.2

Documentation 13.2.1

13.3

Estimating the Uncertainty of Measurement 13.3.1 13.3.2 Uncertainty Budget

13.3.3 13.3.4

COPYRIGHT 2012 VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE

An estimation of the uncertainty of measurement shall be determined for examinations in which a critical quantitative length measurement is reported on the CoA. In the firearms section, the critical measurements requiring an estimation of the uncertainty of measurement include barrel length and overall length determinations for long guns where the barrel and/or overall lengths have been shortened.

The expression of uncertainty shall be recorded in case notes. All calculations related to the estimation of the uncertainty of measurement for critical measurements shall be maintained in the case file in which the measurements are made.

Estimations of the uncertainty of measurement shall be conducted and documented using an uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget for a given procedure shall include both Type A and Type B uncertainties. Since the uncertainty of measurement is only an estimate, generally uncertainties shall not exceed two significant figures. To be conservative, calculations used to estimate the uncertainty and the final combined uncertainty should be rounded up. In order to combine the uncertainty, the units of uncertainty values should be measured in the same units.

13.3.5 13.3.6

13.4 Type A Uncertainties 13.4.1 13.4.2 13.4.3

13.5 Type B Uncertainties 13.5.1

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Type A uncertainty is best determined by historical data of a large number of repeated measurements.

Type A uncertainty results from measurement values being scattered in a random fashion due to laws of chance, thus has a normal or Gaussian shaped distribution.

The firearms section relies on the use of repeatability and reproducibility studies to establish the historical standard deviation for barrel and overall length determinations.

Type B uncertainty results from the inherent biases in the measuring system. Uncertainty may be reduced by optimizing the method or measuring system, but can never be completely eliminated.

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13 Estimation of the Uncertainty of Measurement 13.5.2 Examples of some of the Type B uncertainties within the Firearms Section include the following: 13.5.2.1 Using a non-marring rod and NIST certified T squares (Starrett DS-7 and/or A14 squares), measure barrel length and over all length of a firearm following the procedure in section 1.6.6. The uncertainty of measurement is associated with the accuracy of the measuring devices. For barrel length, the uncertainty associated with the DS-7 Square is applicable. For overall length, the uncertainty associated with both measuring devices is applicable.

13.5.3

13.5.4

13.6

Combination of uncertainties

13.6.1 Uncertainties are combined using the Root Sum Squares technique

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13.5.4.1 13.5.4.2 Ucombined = (U12 + U22 + U32 + U42 ....) 13.7.2.1 13.7.2.2 The coverage factor for 95% confidence is k = 2 The coverage factor for 99.7% confidence is k = 3

Uncertainty associated with Certificates of Calibration or Accuracy on T squares is usually reported at 95% confidence level (k =2) and should be divided by 2 for use in uncertainty calculations. Type B uncertainties resulting from measurement bias typically have an equal chance of falling within a range and therefore follow a rectangular or random distribution. With rectangular distribution, the range (a) of the outer limits is used to estimate the standard deviation () using the equation = a/3.

For example, a T square has a scale accuracy of 1/16 (0.0625) per 36 inches at 95% confidence limit. The calculated uncertainty associated with this measurement is 0.0625/2 = 0.03125/3 or 0.018 inches.

13.7

Determination of confidence 13.7.1 In order to determine the expanded uncertainty, the combined uncertainty is multiplied by the coverage factor (k) using the equation Uexpanded = Ucombined x k 13.7.2 For routine measurements with a large amount of historical data (n>30)

13.8

Reporting the estimated uncertainty of measurement 13.8.1

13.8.2

13.9

Sample uncertainty of measurement budget for barrel length determination.

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Common sense should be used when reporting the uncertainty of measurement. Since the uncertainty of measurement is only an estimate, it should be rounded and limited to two significant figures. Reported measurements should only be quoted to a precision consistent with the uncertainty. For barrel length and overall length determinations, the estimated uncertainty of measurement shall be recorded in case file documentation and as specified by Department policy.

Uncertainty Budget Section: FX Laboratory: Central Method: Barrel and overall length determinations Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 86 of 118

13 Estimation of the Uncertainty of Measurement K corr 2

Source of Uncertainty (Barrel Length) Repeatability data ( 0. 0.056 inches) Type B-Calibration uncertainty Starrett DS-7 scale accuracy ( 1/16 in = 0.0625 in)

Value (units) 0.056 in

Distribution Normal

Divisor 1

Uncertainty 0.0 56 in

Starett DS-7 squareness (0.015 in.) Starrett A14 square squareness ( 0.0005 in) N/A for barrel length measurements

Combined uncertainty (type A and B) = ( 0.056 + 0.0173 + 0.00432) = 0.05899382 Expanded uncertainty = 0.05899382 x k (2) = 0.117987641 rounded to 0.12 (95%)

13.9.1 13.9.2

13.10 References

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rectangular rectangular 3 3 3 rectangular A barrel length was measured at 15 inches.

0.0625/2 = 0.03 0.015/2 = 0.0075 0.0005/2 = 0.0025

0.0173 0.0043 0.0014

The uncertainty of the measurement is 0.12 inches, which is converted to a fraction and rounded to the nearest 1/16 inch. The reported value is 15 in. inch. Incorporating the value for the Starrett A14 square (0.0014) into the combined uncertainty equation for overall length provides an uncertainty at 95% confidence of inch.

Barrentine, Larry B. Concepts for R&R Studies, ASQC Quality Press, (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) 1991 Minitab 15.1.1.0, product licensed to Department of Forensic Science cj76.

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DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 87 of 118

14 Report Formats 14 14.1 Introduction The following report formats shall be used to the extent possible when reporting results to ensure consistency within the section. It is recognized that report statements cannot be provided to address all situations and, therefore, these statements should be considered example wording to follow. When drafting report wording for evidence types not listed or when specific examples do not appear for a particular type of evidence, look first to existing wording that may be applied to the current situation. The use of the terms brand and caliber within report statements is left to the discretion of the examiner. Optional wording and clarifications are placed in brackets [ ]. If a situation is so unusual that appropriate report wording is not available in the manual, it is expected that the examiner will consult with their Group/Section Supervisor for wording that may have been previously applied to the situation, other Section Supervisors, the Physical Evidence Program Manager and/or the Director of Technical Services. The CoA shall include in the report statement the types of examinations that were conducted to reach the stated conclusions. At the examiners discretion, a statement can precede the other report statements providing the pertinent examination types that were conducted rather than within the report statements. Examples follow: 14.1.1 14.1.2 Items 1 and 2 were examined and analyzed using microscopy [ex. Item 1 is a firearm and Item 2 is cartridges; Items 1 and 2 are cartridge cases and/or bullets] REPORT FORMATS

14.2

Firearm Functioning 14.2.1

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Firearm with Detachable Magazine 14.2.1.1

Item 1 was examined, Items 2 and 3 were examined and analyzed using microscopy and Item 4 was examined visually, microscopically and processed chemically. [ex. Item 1 is a firearm, Item 2 is a bullet, Item 3 is a cartridge case, Item 4 is a shirt]

The Item__ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety feature(s) functioning properly and test fired [using/with] the submitted magazine. [optionally, for all function examinations, at the discretion of the examiner, a separate sentence may be used to indicate that the firearm was test fired with the submitted magazine and/or a submitted magazine is/is not the type for use with the submitted firearm] The Item__ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety feature(s) functioning properly and test fired. The Item __ / [submitted] magazine is the type for use with the Item __ firearm and was used for test firing Item __.

14.2.1.2

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14.2.1.3 14.2.1.4

The Item__ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun was examined, found to be in operating condition with the safety feature(s) functioning properly and test fired [using/with] a magazine from the laboratorys firearms reference collection. [optionally, a separate sentence may be used to indicate that the firearm was test fired with a laboratory reference magazine] Item __, a __ [brand, model, [caliber], action, type, serial number] was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety feature(s) functioning properly and test fired. The Item ___ magazine is a type for use with the Item ___ pistol and was used for test firing purposes. [This report format can be used when describing the firearm in the body of the report].

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14 Report Formats 14.2.2 Firearm without Detachable magazine 14.2.2.1 14.2.3 The Item__ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety feature(s) functioning properly and test fired.

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14.2.3.1 Flintlock 14.2.3.2 Replica 14.2.3.3 Flare Gun 14.2.3.4 Pellet Guns/Air Guns 14.2.3.5 Black Powder/Pyrodex

Non-Standard Firearms

Item 6, a flintlock, smoothbore musket of approximately 62 [caliber], has a functioning flintlock mechanism (with flint), a priming pan, and an unobstructed barrel and flashhole. Therefore, it would be expected to fire if properly loaded. Item 6 is an instrument that was designed and made to expel a projectile by means of an explosion.

14.2.3.2.1 Item __ is a Japanese manufactured replica of a Beretta Model 1934 semiautomatic pistol. This replica is not capable in its present condition of firing a cartridge containing a projectile.

14.2.3.3.1 The Item __ flare gun was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety feature functioning properly, and test fired.

14.2.3.4.1 The Item __ air pistol was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety feature functioning properly, and test fired with the submitted magazine.

14.2.3.5.1 As received, the Item __ rifle was loaded with one (1) 50 caliber sabot/bullet, three (3) 30 grain Pyrodex pellets, and one (1) fired primer, which were removed from the rifle and designated as Item ___. The Item __ firearm was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety features functioning properly, and test fired. Two (2) 50 caliber lead bullets, two (2) size #209 shotshell primers, and four (4) Pyrodex pellets from laboratory stock ammunition were used for test firing purposes. The resultant ammunition components are being returned as Item ___ and should be maintained for possible future examinations.

14.3

Test Fires/Tests and Disposition (NIBIN and Comparison) 14.3.1

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14.3.1.1 14.3.2.1

Disposition of tests produce from submitted evidence ammunition shall be reported in the CoA as follows: [number ( )] of the Item[__] cartridges/shotshells were used for test firing purposes. The resultant ammunition components are being returned with the other evidence and should be maintained for possible future examinations.

14.3.2

Disposition of tests produced from laboratory stock ammunition shall be reported in the CoA as follows: [number ( )] cartridges/shotshells from laboratory stock ammunition were used for test firing DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 89 of 118

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

14 Report Formats purposes. The resultant ammunition components are being returned as Item ___ and should be maintained for possible future examinations. 14.3.3 Disposition of tests produced from submitted evidence ammunition and laboratory stock ammunition shall be reported in the CoA as follows: 14.3.3.1 [number ( )] cartridges/shotshells from laboratory stock ammunition and [number ()] of the Item __ cartridges/shotshells were used for test firing purposes. The resultant ammunition components from laboratory stock ammunition are being returned as Item ___. The test fired ammunition components should be maintained for possible future examinations.

14.4

Resubmission of Test Fired Ammunition Components obtained from Evidence Ammunition 14.4.1

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14.4.1.1 14.4.1.2 14.4.1.3

Statement to clarify differences in description of evidence in the CoA when previously submitted evidence cartridges and components are resubmitted for comparison and possibly additional test fires are conducted: [Number ( )] of the Item __ cartridges listed above were previously used for test firing purposes and were resubmitted as [ammunition/ bullet and cartridge case] components. .Item ____ is the subject of a previous firearm laboratory report dated _________. When resubmitted, Item ____ contained the Item ____ firearm, _____ (number) of the Item ___ cartridges and ammunition components obtained from test firing ____ (number) of the Item ____ cartridges. The Item ___ firearm is the subject of a previous firearms laboratory report dated ___________. When received, Item __ also contained ammunition components previously test fired in the Item __ firearm. The Item ___ firearm was re-test fired with the submitted magazine and [number ( )] cartridges from laboratory stock ammunition. The additional resultant ammunition components are being returned with the other evidence as Item __ and should be maintained for possible future examinations. [This will apply only to those cases where test fired components were considered reference].

14.5

Trigger Pull -Trigger pull values will be expressed by spelling out the number as well as numerically; for example, twelve (12) pounds. All weights will be reported as approximations. 14.5.1 14.5.2 14.5.3 The trigger pull of the Item__ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun was determined to be approximately three and one-half (3 ) pounds single-action and approximately fourteen (14) pounds double-action. The trigger pull of the Item__ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun was determined to be approximately three and one-half (3 ) and fourteen (14) pounds in single and double-action, respectively. The trigger pull was determined to be approximately six (6) pounds for the right firing mechanism and approximately two (2) pounds for the left firing mechanism. [double barrel firearm]

14.6

Barrel/Overall Length -Barrel and overall length values will be expressed by spelling out the number as well as numerically; for example, twelve (12) inches. All values will be reported as approximations. 14.6.1 Format for the reporting of a shotgun with a shortened barrel/stock:

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The Item__ firearm was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety feature(s) functioning properly and test fired [with/using the Item __ magazine, if applicable]. The barrel of this shotgun has been shortened to an approximate length of ____inches. The stock has also been shortened making the overall length approximately ______ inches. The Item__ shotgun is a smooth bore firearm originally designed to be fired from the shoulder and is capable of firing, with a single function of the firing device, a projectile of approximately ___ [caliber] or shotshells containing various pellet loads. Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 90 of 118

14 Report Formats 10 Gauge 78 Caliber 12 Gauge 73 Caliber 16 Gauge 67 Caliber 20 Gauge 62 Caliber 28 Gauge 55 Caliber 410 Bore 41Caliber

14.6.2

14.6.3

14.7

Non-functioning Firearm/Instrument 14.7.1

COPYRIGHT 2012 VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE


Format for the reporting of a shotgun with a shortened barrel: Format for the reporting of a rifle with a shortened barrel/stock:

The Item__ firearm was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety feature(s) functioning properly and test fired [with/using the Item __ magazine, if applicable]. The barrel of this shotgun has been shortened to an approximate length of ____inches, making the overall length approximately ______ inches. The Item__ shotgun is a smooth bore firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder and is capable of firing, with a single function of the firing device, a projectile of approximately ___ [caliber] or shotshells containing various pellet loads.

The Item__ firearm was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety feature(s) functioning properly and test fired [with/using the Item __ magazine, at the discretion of the examiner]. The barrel of this rifle has been shortened to an approximate length of ____ inches. The stock has also been shortened making the overall length approximately ______ inches. The Item__ rifle is a rifled firearm originally designed to be fired from the shoulder and is capable of firing, with a single function of the firing device, a projectile of approximately ___ caliber.

As received, examination of the Item__ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun revealed that it was not in operating condition [or was not operable] because of a missing/broken _____ {striker; firing pin; recoil spring, for example}. Part(s) from a reference firearm were used to replace the missing part(s) in Item___. The Item___ pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun was then test fired [with/using the submitted magazine, as applicable and at the discretion of the examiner].

14.7.2

As received, examination of the Item __ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun revealed it not to be in operating condition [or not operable] due to corrosion. After cleaning/oiling, etc. the Item __ pistol/firearm type was test fired [using/with the Item __ magazine, as applicable and at the discretion of examiner] Examination of the Item __ firearm revealed it was not in operating condition [or not to be operable] due to corrosion. After [repair, cleaning/oiling, etc.], Item __ was not functional and, therefore, it was not test fired. Item ___ is not designed nor can it be readily converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosion of a combustible material. Item ____ is not designed nor can it be readily converted to expel a projectile.

14.7.3

14.7.4 14.7.5 14.7.6

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When fully loaded, the Item ___ firearm is capable of containing ____ cartridges.

The design of Item __ is not consistent with being a firearm capable of firing cartridges containing projectiles.

14.8

Magazine/Cylinder Capacity 14.8.1 14.8.2 The capacity of the Item __ magazine was determined to be ____ cartridges/shotshells.

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14 Report Formats 14.9 Firearm Parts 14.9.1 The Item __ magazine is consistent in design and all discernable physical characteristics with a magazine [in the firearms reference collection/file] from a U.S. Government Model 1911 / 1911 A1 semiautomatic pistol or one of the numerous commercial variations chambered to fire the [caliber] 45 Auto cartridge. Item __ is consistent in design with a striker found in a Raven Model MP-25 [caliber] 25 Auto semiautomatic pistol in the [laboratorys] [firearms] reference collection/file.

14.9.2

14.10 Unfired Cartridges

14.10.1 No examinations were conducted on the Item __ cartridges.

14.10.2 Examination revealed that the Item ___ cartridge(s)/shotshell(s) is/are a type for use with the Item __ pistol/revolver/rifle /shotgun. 14.10.3 The Item __ cartridge(s) were microscopically examined for the presence of misfires. None were noted. 14.10.4 Microscopic examination of the Item __ cartridge(s) for the presence of misfires revealed none. 14.10.5 The Item __ cartridges were microscopically examined for the presence of misfires. An indentation/impression which is consistent in appearance with a misfire/light firing pin impression was noted on one (1) of the cartridges. 14.10.6 The Item __ cartridges were microscopically examined for the presence of misfires. One (1) of these cartridges exhibits an indentation/impression which was identified as having been produced by the firing pin of the Item __ firearm. 14.10.7 The Item __ cartridges were examined for the presence of misfires. One (1) of these cartridges exhibited a misfire, which was analyzed/compared microscopically and identified as having been produced by the firing pin of the Item __ revolver/pistol/shotgun/rifle. 14.10.8 Examination of Item 1 revealed it to consist of five (5) Remington [brand] and six (6) Winchester [brand] [caliber] 38 Special cartridges, which are a type for use with the Item __ revolver. 14.10.9 Item 1, a Remington [brand] [caliber] 9mm Luger cartridge, was microscopically examined and found to exhibit an extractor [ejector] mark which was identified as having been produced by the extractor/ejector of the Item __ pistol.

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14.10.10 Item 1 consists of ten (10) Remington [brand] [caliber] 9mm Luger cartridges. One (1) of these cartridges was disassembled for examination purposes. The bullet and cartridge case components are similar in design to the Item _____ bullet and Item ____ cartridge case. 14.10.11 Item 2 contains thirty-one (31) CCI [brand] [caliber] 40 Smith & Wesson cartridges. Item 3 contains ten (10) Federal [brand][caliber] 7.62 x 39mm cartridges, fifteen (15) Speer [brand][caliber] 9mm Luger cartridges, and fourteen (14) CCI [brand][caliber] 40 Smith & Wesson cartridges. One (1) each of the Item 2 CCI [brand]cartridges, Item 3 Federal [brand]cartridges, and Item 3 Speer [brand]cartridges were disassembled for examination purposes. Each of the disassembled cartridges was found to contain a cartridge case, bullet, primer, and propellant component. 14.10.12 Item 1 is a Speer [brand] [caliber] 38 Special cartridge. The Item 1 cartridge was disassembled for examination purposes and [was] found to contain a cartridge case, a bullet, a primer, and a propellant component. Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 92 of 118

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Two (2) cartridges from laboratory stock ammunition were used for testing purposes, are being returned as Item __ and should be maintained for possible future examinations.

14 Report Formats 14.10.13 One (1) of the Remington [brand] cartridges was disassembled for examination purposes and the resultant primed cartridge case was subsequently test fired. This cartridge was found to contain a cartridge case, a bullet, propellant, and a priming component. 14.11 Fired Ammunition Components 14.11.1 Bullet Classification/GRC additional GRC List examples are in 14.11.17

14.11.2 Identification of a Bullet to a Firearm

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14.11.1.1 Item ____, a [caliber] ____ full metal jacketed bullet [bullet type/style], was fired from a firearm having a barrel rifled with ___ lands and grooves inclined to the _____ [right/left], and exhibits markings that may be suitable for identification with the firearm from which it was fired. Firearms that produce general rifling class characteristics like those present on Item ___ include, but are not limited to, firearms [type of firearm- semiautomatic pistols/revolvers/rifles] with the [brand] names ______, ____, ______, _____ and _______ chambered to fire [caliber] ______ cartridges. 14.11.1.2 Item __ is a [caliber] __ class [bullet type - jacketed/lead,etc.] bullet which was fired from a firearm having a barrel rifled with ___ lands and grooves inclined to the ____ [right/left] and exhibits markings that may be suitable for identification with the firearm from which it was fired. The general rifling class characteristics present on Item___ are produced by firearms which include, but are not limited to, [S & W, Taurus and Ruger, for example] [brand] revolvers chambered to fire [caliber] 357 Magnum and/or 38 Special cartridges.)

14.11.2.1 The Item __ bullet was examined/compared microscopically and identified as having been fired from the Item __ firearm/revolver/pistol/rifle.

14.11.2.2 Item ___, a [caliber] 9mm Luger bullet consistent in design with a Winchester Silver Tip hollow-point bullet, was examined microscopically and identified as having been fired from the Item 1 pistol. 14.11.3 Elimination of a Bullet to a Firearm 14.11.3.1 Because of (a) difference(s) in caliber and/or class characteristics, the Item__ bullet/bullet jacket was eliminated as having been fired from the Item __ pistol [firearm type]. 14.11.3.2 The Item __ [brand, caliber, type] bullet exhibits [has] the same [similar] general rifling class characteristics as those produced by/with [as those present on tests produced with] the Item __ pistol/firearm type. Microscopic examination revealed sufficient differences [dissimilarities] in individual characteristics to eliminate Item ___ as having been fired from Item __. [the Item ___ firearm [firearm type].

14.11.4 Cannot Identify or Eliminate a Bullet to a Firearm (Inconclusive) Reasons must be Qualified in Report 14.11.4.1 Examination of the Item __ bullet revealed it to exhibit the same [similar] general rifling class characteristics as those produced by the Item __ pistol [firearm type]; however, because of the lack of sufficient suitable corresponding microscopic markings, it was not possible to identify or eliminate the Item___ bullet as having been fired from the Item __ firearm [firearm type].

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14.11.5 Same Rifling Class Characteristics No Marks Indicate Fired From a Firearm Reasons must be Qualified in Report 14.11.5.1 The Item __ bullet exhibits [has] the same [similar] general rifling class characteristics as those produced by the Item __ firearm [type]. Examination revealed no corresponding Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 93 of 118

14 Report Formats markings which indicate that Item __ was fired from Item __ in its present condition; however, due to the lack of sufficient dissimilarities, it was not possible to definitively eliminate Item __ as having been fired from the Item __ pistol/firearm type. 14.11.5.2 The Item __ bullet exhibits similar general rifling class characteristics as those produced by the Item __ firearm [type]. However, microscopic examination revealed no significant corresponding microscopic markings which indicate that the Item __ bullet was fired from the Item __ firearm in its present condition.

14.11.6 Elimination of a Bullet to a Bullet

14.11.7 Identification of a Bullet to a Bullet

14.11.8 Cannot Identify or Eliminate a Bullet to a Bullet (Inconclusive) Reasons must be Qualified in Report 14.11.8.1 Examination revealed that the Item __ bullet exhibits [has/possesses] the same [similar] discernable class characteristics as the Item __ bullet; however, due [because of] to the lack of sufficient suitable corresponding microscopic markings, it was not possible to identify or eliminate these bullets as having been fired from the same firearm.

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14.11.6.1 Because of a difference in caliber and/or class characteristics [differences [dissimilarities] in class characteristics], the Item __ bullet was eliminated as having been fired from the same firearm as the Item __ bullet.

14.11.7.1 Items __, __ and __, each a [caliber] ____ bullet/bullet jacket [bullet type/style], were identified as having been fired from the same [or from one (1)] firearm having a barrel rifled with ___ lands and grooves inclined to the right/left. Firearms that produce general rifling class characteristics like [similar to] those present [exhibited] on these items include, but are not limited to, firearms with the names ____, ____, _____, ____ and ____ chambered to fire caliber __ cartridges.

14.11.9 Unsuitable for Identification with a Firearm 14.11.9.1 Examination of the Item __ lead fragment/bullet jacket fragment/bullet/pellets [evidence type] revealed it not to be suitable for identification with any firearm due to the lack of sufficient appropriate microscopic markings for comparison. 14.11.9.2 Due [Because of] to the lack of sufficient appropriate microscopic markings for comparison purposes, the Item __ cartridge case/shotshell case is not suitable for identification with any firearm.

14.11.10 Cartridge/Shotshell Case Classification

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14.11.9.3 Due to damage and the lack of sufficient appropriate microscopic markings for comparison, the Item __ bullet/Item __ cartridge case/shotshell case is not suitable for identification with any firearm.

14.11.10.1 Item __ is a _____ [brand, caliber, gauge] cartridge case/shotshell case which exhibits [has/possesses] microscopic markings that may be suitable for identification with the firearm in which it was fired. 14.11.10.2 Item ___, a _____ [brand, caliber, gauge] cartridge case/shotshell case exhibits [has/possesses] microscopic markings that may be suitable for identification with the firearm in which it was fired.

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14 Report Formats 14.11.10.3 The Item ____ cartridge case is a ______ [brand, caliber, gauge] cartridge case, which exhibits microscopic markings that may be suitable for identification with the firearm in which it was fired. 14.11.11 Identification of a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case to a Firearm

14.11.12 Elimination of a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case to a Firearm

14.11.13 Cannot Identify or Eliminate a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case to a Firearm (Inconclusive) Reasons must be Qualified in Report 14.11.13.1 Item __, a [brand, caliber] cartridge case/shotshell case, exhibits the same discernable class characteristics as those produced by/with the Item __ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun; however, because of the lack of sufficient suitable corresponding microscopic markings, it was not possible to identify or eliminate this cartridge case/shotshell case as having been fired in Item __. 14.11.14 Identification of a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case to a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case 14.11.14.1 Items __ and __, each a [brand, caliber, gauge] cartridge case/shotshell case were identified as having been fired in the same firearm. 14.11.15 Elimination of a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case to a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case

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14.11.11.1 The Item __ cartridge case/shotshell case was examined/compared microscopically and identified as having been fired in the Item__ firearm/pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun [firearm type]. 14.11.11.2 Item ____, a ____ [brand, caliber, gauge] cartridge/shotshell case, was examined/compared microscopically and identified as having been fired in the Item ___ firearm [firearm type].

14.11.12.1 Because of differences [dissimilarities] in class (caliber/gauge) characteristics, the Item __ cartridge case/shotshell case was eliminated as having been fired in the Item __ firearm/pistol/revolver/ rifle/shotgun. 14.11.12.2 The Item __ cartridge case exhibits [possesses/has] similar [the same discernable class] class characteristics as tests produced with [as those produced with/by] the Item ___ firearm [firearm type]; however, microscopic examination revealed sufficient differences [dissimilarities] in individual characteristics to eliminate Item ___ as having been fired in the Item ___ firearm [firearm type].

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14.11.15.1 Items __ and __ [The Item __ and __ cartridge cases] exhibit [possess/have] similar [the same discernable class] class characteristics; however, microscopic examination revealed sufficient differences [dissimilarities] in individual characteristics to eliminate them [Items __ and __] as having been fired in the same firearm. 14.11.15.2 Because of (a) difference(s) in class characteristics, the Item __ and __ cartridge cases/shotshell cases were eliminated as having been fired in the same firearm. 14.11.15.3 Item __, a [brand, caliber, gauge] cartridge case/shotshell case, exhibits extensive surface damage and physical characteristics that are indicative of the effects of exposure to weathering. Item __ lacks marks suitable for identification with any firearm. Because of differences [dissimilarities] in class characteristics, Item __ was eliminated as having been fired in the same firearm as Items __, __, __, and __.

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14 Report Formats 14.11.16 Cannot Identify or Eliminate a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case to a Cartridge Case/Shotshell Case (Inconclusive) Reasons must be Qualified in Report 14.11.16.1 Item __ , a [brand, caliber] cartridge case/shotshell case, exhibits the same discernable class characteristics as those present on the Item __ cartridge case/shotshell case; however, because of the lack of sufficient suitable corresponding microscopic markings, it was not possible to identify or eliminate Items __ and __ as having been fired in the same firearm.

14.11.17 Shotshell Projectile Components

14.11.18 List of possible firearms

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14.11.18.1 Cartridge Case: 14.11.18.1.1

14.11.17.1 The Item ___ pellets are consistent in design [consistent in design, size and weight] with Number __ lead shot pellets. 14.11.17.2 The Item ___ wad(s) is/are consistent in design with a ___ [component type- Remington [brand] [Gauge] Power Piston combination wad; Federal [brand] Triple plus wad; Winchester [brand] over powder, filler and shot collar wads, etc.] 14.11.17.3 The pellets and wads contained in Item __ are consistent in design with the components contained in the Item __ [brand] [gauge] shotshell(s). 14.11.17.4 The Item __ [brand] [gauge]shotshell case exhibits markings on the hull which indicate that it was originally loaded with number 6 lead shot pellets and (a) wad(s) having a design like those contained in Item __. 14.11.17.5 Item __ is consistent in design with [components of a] a __ [brand] 12 Gauge __ [rifled slug, saboted slug, etc.].

Item___, a ____ [brand] [caliber] 9mm Luger cartridge case, exhibits markings that may be suitable for identification with the firearm in which it was fired. The markings present on Item___ produced by firearms which include, but are not limited to, _____ [listing of brand(s) of pistols] chambered to fire [caliber] __ cartridges.)

14.11.18.2 Bullet: 14.11.18.2.1 Item___, consistent in design with a [caliber] 9mm Luger [caliber] full metal jacketed bullet (jacketed hollow point bullet/WinClean jacketed soft point bullet/Hydra-Shok [brand] jacketed hollow point bullet, etc.), was fired from a firearm having a barrel rifled with ___ lands and grooves inclined to the ____ [right/left] and exhibits markings that may be suitable for identification with the firearm from which it was fired. Firearms that produce general rifling class characteristics like those present on this bullet include, but are not limited to, _____ (list of pistols/rifles) chambered to fire [caliber] ___ cartridges.

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14.11.18.3 Bullet and Cartridge Case(s): 14.11.18.3.1

Firearms that produce general class characteristics like those present on the Item___ cartridge case(s) and the Item____ bullet(s) include, but are not limited to, ________ (list of pistols/rifles) chambered to fire [caliber] __ cartridges.

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14 Report Formats 14.11.18.3.2 Firearms that produce general class characteristics like those present on the Item___ cartridge case(s) and the Item____ bullet(s) include, but are not limited to, ________ (list of pistols/rifles) chambered to fire [caliber] __ cartridges. Due to the lack of sufficient suitable individual corresponding characteristics, it was not possible to determine whether or not the Item __ bullet originated from the Item ___ cartridge case/one of the Item ___ cartridge cases; however, the bullet design of Item _____ is consistent with bullets commercially loaded into cartridge cases like Item ____.

14.11.19 Multiple Case Associations/ Cross-Comparisons

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14.11.19.3 Comparison examinations were conducted with the following results:

14.11.19.1 As requested, the ___ Items _____ from FS Lab # __________ (your agency case # (other PD agency case #), subject of a firearm laboratory report(s) dated __________) were compared with Items ______. Microscopic examination revealed..

14.11.19.2 The [number ( ), for example, three (3)] [caliber] _____(designate caliber if you have multiple calibers, for example, 9mm Luger) cartridge cases submitted as Item(s) ____ and ____, under FS Lab #_______ , subject of a firearms laboratory report dated ______, were previously reported as having been fired in the same firearm as the following: The Item ____, ____ and ____, the ____ [brand] [caliber] cartridge cases submitted by your agency (case # _____) [other agency, (case #), subject of FS Lab # _______ firearms report dated _____________; [list all relevant cases]

Because of differences [dissimilarities] in class characteristics, the Item___ cartridge case(s)/bullet(s) were eliminated as having been fired in/from the same firearm as the _______[number ( ), for example, three (3)] [caliber] _____ [designate brand, caliber if you have multiple brands, calibers, for example, 9mm Luger] cartridge case(s)/bullet(s) submitted as Items____, FS Lab #______, by _____[agency, agency case #]

14.11.19.4 As requested, the items listed above [FS Lab # YYY] were compared to evidence submitted under FS Lab #XXX, your agency case # (other PD agency case #), subject of a firearms laboratory report dated ________. The Item___ cartridge case(s)/bullet (s) submitted under FS Lab # XXX were microscopically compared and identified as having been fired in/from the same firearm as the Item _____ cartridge case(s) listed above. In addition, the Item ___ cartridge case(s)/bullet(s) from FS Lab # XXX have been previously reported as having been identified to Items _____ submitted under FS Lab # ______ (your agency case #_____/other PD agency case #_____).

14.12 Toolmarks

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14.11.19.5

The Item___ cartridge case(s)/bullet(s) were identified as having been fired in/from the ____ (brand, for example, Hi-Point), model_____ [for example, model C] caliber_____[for example, [caliber] 9mm Luger], pistol, serial number _____ previously submitted by _____ (agency, case number) under FS Lab #_________, subject of (a) firearms laboratory report(s) dated _____.

When describing toolmark(s) produced or present on an object, at the discretion of the examiner, the word toolmark(s) may be written consistently within a CoA as toolmark(s) or tool mark(s). When describing a toolmark examination, the word will be written as one word toolmark(s). Measurements reported will be expressed by spelling the value and numerically in parentheses; for example, one-fourth (1/4) of an inch.

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14 Report Formats 14.12.1 Identifying Class Characteristics of a Toolmark 14.12.1.1 The toolmarks exhibited [present] on the Item __ [item description, for example, safe door] were made by a __________ [tool type, description, for example a prying type tool with a flat-bladed tip, approximately one (1) inch in width] and exhibit markings that may be suitable for identification with the tool with/by which they were made.

14.12.2 Identification of a Toolmark to a Tool

14.12.3 Elimination of a Toolmark to a Tool

14.12.4 Cannot Identify or Eliminate Toolmark to a Tool (Inconclusive) - Reasons must be Qualified in Report 14.12.4.1 Toolmarks present on the Item__ [item description, for example, piece of wire] exhibit [possess/have] the same discernable class characteristics as those produced with/by the Item__ [tool type, for example, wire cutters]; however, because of the lack of sufficient suitable corresponding microscopic markings, it was not possible to identify or eliminate the Item__ (tool type, for example, wire cutters) as having produced the toolmark(s) on the Item__ [item description, for example, piece of wire].

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14.12.2.1 The Item __ toolmark was examined, compared microscopically, and identified as having been produced by/with the Item __ [tool description for example,].

14.12.3.1 Because of a difference in class characteristics, the Item__ ,__ and __ toolmarks were eliminated as having been produced by/with the Item__ [tool description, for example screwdriver]. 14.12.3.2 Toolmarks present on the Item__ [item description, for example, piece of wire] exhibit [possess/have] the same discernable class characteristics as those produced with/by the Item__ [tool type, for example, wire cutters]; however, sufficient differences [dissimilarities] in individual characteristics were observed microscopically to eliminate the Item__ (tool type, for example, wire cutters) as having produced the toolmark(s) on the Item__ [item description, for example, piece of wire].

14.12.5 Cannot Identify or Eliminate Toolmark to a Toolmark (Inconclusive) - Reasons must be Qualified in Report 14.12.5.1 The Item __ toolmark exhibits [possesses/has] the same discernable class characteristics as those present on the Item __ toolmark; however, because of the lack of sufficient suitable corresponding microscopic markings, it is not possible to identify or eliminate items __ and __ as having been produced by the same tool.

14.13 Ejection Pattern Analysis - Results should be reported in general terms unless asked by the requesting agency for more specific information. All distances and angles shall be reported as approximate values, and expressed by spelling out the value with a numerical representation in parentheses; for example, twelve (12) inches; six (6) degrees. 14.13.1 Using the Item [_] firearm, the Item ___ cartridges/shotshells and ammunition like the Item [_] cartridges or shotshells, an ejection pattern test was conducted. The Item [_] firearm was held in the normal manner at shoulder height (approximately 58 inches above the floor) with a firm grip in the examiners strong hand. The Item [_] firearm was found to eject cartridge/shotshell cases to the right of the firearm at a minimum angle of approximately 6 degrees forward of a line perpendicular to the ejection port and a maximum angle of approximately 39 degrees rearward of a line perpendicular to the ejection port, with a minimum distance of approximately 44 inches and a maximum distance of approximately 101 inches.

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14 Report Formats Ten (10) [number used from evidence] of the Item __cartridges and fifteen (15) cartridges from laboratory stock ammunition were used for testing purposes. The resultant laboratory stock cartridge cases/shotshell cases are being returned as Item ___ and should be maintained for possible future examination. 14.13.2 Using the Item [_] firearm, the Item __ cartridges/shotshells and ammunition like the Item [_] cartridges/shotshells, an ejection pattern test was conducted. The Item [_] firearm was held at shoulder height (approximately 58 inches) and fired cartridge cases/shotshell cases were ejected to the right front of the shooter at an angle of approximately 60 degrees. The distance from the ejection port of the firearm ranged from approximately 16 feet to 32 feet.

14.14 Drop Testing/Mechanical Testing Numerical values shall be reported as approximations and expressed by spelling out the value with the numerical value in parentheses; for example, twelve (12) inches. 14.14.1 The Item __ firearm was examined, found to be in mechanical operating condition with the safety features functioning properly, and test fired with the Item ___ magazine. A drop test and a jar-off test were conducted using the Item ____ pistol loaded with a primed cartridge case. The Item ___ pistol did not discharge during these tests. 14.14.2 Attempts to fire the Item __ firearm without a pull of the trigger were unsuccessful.

14.14.3 The Item __ firearm is capable of firing without a pull of the trigger if [it receives a blow to the _____), (the hammer is allowed to slip while cocking), (etc.).] 14.14.4 The Item __ shotgun was examined and found to be in mechanical operating condition. The manual safety was found to function properly during normal handling of the firearm. Drop tests conducted with the Item __ shotgun, with the manual safety in the off position, revealed it could fire a shotshell in either barrel if dropped from a height of approximately twelve (12) inches. During the drop testing procedure, the left firing mechanism became inoperable, which prevents further cocking of the left firing mechanism; therefore, further drop testing using the left firing mechanism could not be conducted. 14.15 NIBIN Examinations 14.15.1 An image of the cartridge case from Item __][or the Item ___ cartridge case] was entered into the NIBIN system. No associations were made at this time; however, searches will be conducted periodically as new images are entered into the database. 14.15.2 An image of the cartridge case from Item __ [the Item __ cartridge case] was entered into the NIBIN system. The image is similar to an image which was entered in connection with FS Lab # (or other laboratorys Lab #) submitted by _________ (agency, case #). Please arrange to have the evidence resubmitted to this laboratory for direct comparison and a more definitive determination. 14.15.3 An image of the Item __ cartridge case [or cartridge case from test firing the Item __ firearm] was entered into the NIBIN system. An association was made between this image and an image of the Item __ cartridge case submitted under FS Lab # ___ (your agency case # _____/other agency case # ___). Subsequent microscopic examinations were conducted and the Item __ cartridge case (was identified, could not be identified or eliminated, was eliminated) as having been fired in the same firearm as the Item __ cartridge case submitted under FS Lab # ___. 14.15.4 An image of the Item __ cartridge case was entered into the NIBIN system. An association was made between this image and an image of the cartridge case from test firing the Item __ pistol submitted Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 99 of 118

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Ten (10) [number used of evidence] of the Item __cartridges/shotshells and fifteen (15) cartridges/shotshells from laboratory stock ammunition were used for testing purposes. The resultant cartridge cases/shotshell cases are being returned as Item __ and should be maintained for possible future examinations.

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14 Report Formats under FS Lab # ___ (your agency case # ___). Subsequent microscopic examinations were conducted and the Item __ cartridge case [was identified, could not be identified or eliminated, was eliminated] as having been fired in the Item __ firearm submitted under FS Lab # ____. 14.15.5 Multiple FS Lab #s that have previously been confirmed and a new association is made and confirmed with evidence from one (1) FS Lab # that was returned for comparison:

14.15.6 An image of the cartridge case from test firing the Item __ firearm was not entered into NIBIN because of the lack of sufficient suitable markings. 14.15.7 A NIBIN search could not be conducted due to the lack of sufficient suitable markings on the cartridge case. 14.15.8 A NIBIN search was not conducted, because revolver type cartridge case images are not being entered in the database. 14.15.9 A NIBIN search was not conducted because bullet images are not being entered at this time. 14.16 Distance Determination Examinations 14.16.1 Reporting of Ammunition/Test Patterns used for Distance Testing 14.16.1.1 The number of tests produced (evidence and lab stock ammunition and materials) shall be spelled out as well as numerically; for example twelve (12). 14.16.1.2 Analysis of distance tests produced from ammunition submitted as evidence shall be reported separately from comparison tests in the CoA as follows:

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14.15.5.1 An image of the Item [1A] cartridge case was entered into the NIBIN system. An association was made between this image and images of cartridge cases previously entered from the following FS Lab #s: Item [1], FS Lab # [A] (agency, agency case number), subject of (a ) firearms laboratory report(s) dated ______; Item [2], FS Lab #[B](agency, agency case #), subject of (a) firearms laboratory report(s) dated____; Item [3], FS Lab #[C](agency, agency case #), subject of (a) firearms laboratory report(s) dated ___. Subsequent microscopic examinations were conducted between Item [1A] and the Item [1] cartridge case submitted under FS Lab # [A], and these two (2) cartridge cases were identified as having been fired in one (1) [the same] firearm. Additionally, Item [1] from FS Lab # [A], Item [2] from FS Lab # B and Item [3] from FS Lab # [C] have been previously reported as having been fired in the same firearm.

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[Number ( )] of the Item __ cartridges/shotshells, __ (number) pieces laboratory stock material and ____ (number) section(s) of the Item ____ garment were used for production of test patterns. The test patterns produced using/from laboratory stock material are being returned as Item ____. The resultant cartridge/shotshell cases are being returned with the evidence. The test patterns and ammunition components should be maintained for possible future examinations.

14.16.1.3 Analysis of distance tests produced from laboratory stock ammunition shall be reported separately from comparison tests in the CoA as follows: [Number ( )] cartridges/shotshells from laboratory stock ammunition, ____ (number) pieces of laboratory stock material and ____ (number) section(s) of the Item ____ garment were used for production of test patterns. The resultant cartridge/shotshell cases and test patterns are being returned as Items __ and ____ and should be maintained for possible future examinations.

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14 Report Formats 14.16.1.4 Analysis of distance tests produced from ammunition submitted as evidence and distance tests produced from laboratory stock ammunition shall be reported separately from comparison tests in the CoA as follows: [Number ( )] of the Item __ cartridges/shotshells, [number ( )] cartridges/shotshells from laboratory stock ammunition, ___ (number) pieces of laboratory stock material and ____ (number) sections of the Item ____ garment were used for production of test patterns. Test patterns produced with laboratory stock ammunition and laboratory stock material are being returned as items __ and __. The resultant cartridge/shotshell cases and test patterns are being returned with the evidence and should be maintained for possible future examinations. The

14.16.2 Muzzle-to-Target Determinations

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14.16.2.2 At/Near Contact Shot (With or Without Firearm)

14.16.2.1 Muzzle-to-target distances will be expressed by spelling out the value with a numerical value in parentheses; for example, twelve (12) inches. All distances will be reported as approximations.

Examination of the Item__ shirt [item # and description] revealed a hole in the upper left chest area. The area around this hole was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues). Residues and the physical characteristics of (ripping or tearing, melted fibers, heavy visible vaporous lead and/or soot/smoke residues) were found, which is consistent with this area of the shirt having been at or near contact with the muzzle of a firearm at the time of firing.

14.16.2.3 Intermediate Shot Pattern of Residues Found (With Firearm and Ammunition, components identified) Examination of the Item__ [item # and description, for example jacket] revealed the presence of a hole in the upper right arm area. The area around this hole was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues), and a pattern of residues was found. [Microscopic and chemical examination of the area around this hole for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues) revealed a pattern of residues.] Using the Item__ firearm (designate type, i.e., revolver, shotgun, pistol, etc.), the Item __ cartridges and laboratory stock ammunition like the Item__ cartridges, the Item__ bullet and the Item___ cartridge cases (if applicable), test patterns were produced at approximate muzzle-to-target distances of [list distances, for example, six (6), twelve(12), twenty-four (24) and thirty (30) inches.] The residue pattern found on the upper right arm of the Item___ [item # and description, for example jacket] is consistent based on pattern size and density with having been produced at a distance between approximately _____ [approximate distance, for example approximately twelve (12) inches or approximately two (2) feet] and _____ [approximate distance, for example approximately thirty-six (36) inches or approximately three (3) feet].

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14.16.2.4 Intermediate Shot Pattern of Residues Found (With Firearm and Evidence Ammunition, components not both identified, but class of other component is consistent and ammunition is consistent; for example, a Glock firearm where the bullet is not identified) Examination of the Item___ jacket revealed the presence of a hole in the upper right arm area. The area around this hole was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues), and a pattern of residues was found. [Microscopic and chemical examination of the area around this hole for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues) revealed a pattern of residues.] Using the Item__ firearm (designate type, i.e., revolver, shotgun, pistol, etc.), the Item __ cartridges and ammunition like the Item__ cartridges, test patterns were produced at contact

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14 Report Formats and approximate muzzle-to-target distances of [list distances, for example, six (6), twelve(12), twenty-four (24) and thirty (30) inches.]. Based on these test patterns, it was determined that the Item___ firearm and the Item___ cartridges produced residue patterns consistent in size and density with the pattern found on the upper right arm area of the Item __ jacket at a distance between approximately _____ [approximate distance, for example approximately twelve (12) inches or approximately two (2) feet] and _____ [approximate distance, for example approximately thirty-six (36) inches or approximately three (3) feet].

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14.16.2.5 Intermediate Shot Pattern of Residues Found (With Firearm and No Evidence Ammunition, components may or may not both be identified, but class of other component is consistent with test fires and determination of type of ammunition is possible) Examination of the Item___ [Item # and description, for example blue jeans] revealed the presence of a hole in the lower front area of the left leg. The area around this hole was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues), and a pattern of residues was found. [Microscopic and chemical examination of the area around this hole for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues) revealed a pattern of residues.] If ammunition having bullet and cartridge case components similar to Items ___ and ___ [bullet and cartridge case components] is recovered and submitted for testing with the Item ___ firearm, a muzzle-to-target distance determination may be possible.

14.16.2.6 Distant Shot No Pattern of Residues Found (with Firearm and Evidence Ammunition, Components identified Maximum Distance Determination) Examination of the Item__ jacket [item # and description] revealed the presence of a hole in the upper right arm area. The area around this hole was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues), and no pattern of residues was found. [Microscopic and chemical examination of the area around this hole for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues) revealed no pattern of residues.] Lead bullet wipe was detected, which is consistent with the hole having been produced by a bullet/projectile. Using the Item__ firearm (designate type, i.e., revolver, shotgun, pistol, etc.) the Item ___ cartridges and ammunition from laboratory stock like the Item__ cartridges, the Item__ bullet and the Item__ cartridge cases (if lab stock ammunition used), test patterns were produced at approximate muzzle-to-target distances of [list distances, for example, six (6), twelve(12), twenty-four (24) and thirty (30) inches.] Based on these test patterns, it was determined that the maximum distance at which a pattern of residues would be expected to be deposited from the muzzle of the Item__ firearm using the Item__ ammunition and detected on the Item __ jacket was approximately __ inches/feet, barring the presence of an intervening object.

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14.16.2.7 Distant Shot No Pattern of Residues Found (with Firearm and Ammunition (bullet/cartridge case) components not both identified, but class of other component is consistent and ammunition is consistent - Maximum Distance Determination) Examination of the Item__ jacket [Item # and description] revealed the presence of a hole in the upper right arm area. The area around this hole was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues), and no pattern of residues was found. [Microscopic and chemical examination of the area around this hole for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues) revealed no pattern of residues.] Lead bullet wipe was detected, which is consistent with the hole having been produced by a bullet/projectile. Using the Item__ firearm (designate type, i.e., revolver, shotgun, pistol, etc.) the Item ____ cartridges and laboratory stock ammunition like the Item__ cartridges, the Item__ bullet and the Item__ cartridge cases (if lab stock ammunition used), test patterns were produced at approximate muzzle-to-target distances of [list distances, for example, six (6), twelve (12), twenty-four (24) and thirty (30) inches.] Based on these test patterns, it was determined that the Item __firearm using the Item ___ DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 102 of 118

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14 Report Formats cartridges will deposit a pattern of residues that would be expected to be detected on a target at approximately __ inches/feet, barring the presence of an intervening object. 14.16.2.8 Lead Wipe Present/Residue Pattern Not Found (No Firearm or No Ammunition)

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14.16.2.9 No Residues Found (No firearm/ammunition);No Bullet Wipe

Examination of the Item___ blue jeans [Item # and description] revealed the presence of a hole in the lower front area of the left leg. The area around this hole was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues), and no pattern of residues was found. [Microscopic and chemical examination of the area around this hole for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues) revealed no pattern of residues.] Lead bullet wipe was detected surrounding the hole which is consistent with the passage of a bullet/projectile(s). The absence of a pattern of residues is consistent with this area of the jeans having been beyond the maximum distance at which residues were deposited from the muzzle of the firearm at the time of firing, barring the presence of an intervening object.

Examination of the Item__ [Item # and description, for example shirt] revealed the presence of a hole in the left shoulder. The area around this hole was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues). No residues were found. It is therefore not possible to definitively associate this hole with the passage of a bullet/firearms projectile.

14.16.2.10 Shot Pellets - Pattern of Residues Found (With Firearm and Ammunition, components identified) Visual and chemical examination of the Item ___ jacket [Item # and description, for example jacket] revealed the presence of a shot pattern in the upper right arm area. Using the Item__ firearm (designate type, i.e., revolver, shotgun, pistol, etc.) the item ___ shotshells/shot cartridges and laboratory stock ammunition like the Item__ shotshells/shot cartridges, and the Item__ shotshell cases/cartridge cases (if applicable), test patterns were produced at muzzle-to-target distance of approximately three (3) feet, six (6) feet, nine (9) feet, twelve (12) feet and eighteen (18) feet. [list distances as shown] The shot pattern found on the upper right arm of the Item___ jacket is consistent based on pattern size and density with having been produced at a distance between approximately _______ [approximate distance, for example six (6) feet] and _______ [approximate distance, for example fifteen (15) feet] from the muzzle of the Item ___ shotgun/firearm at the time of firing.

14.16.3 Condition of Clothing (Blood Soaked; Decomposed)

14.16.4 Clothing with No Holes (Suspect Clothing/ Victim Clothing)

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Examination of the Item ___ clothing determined it to be unsuitable for further examination.

Examination of the Item __ clothing revealed it to be in a state which may hinder the value of other visual, microscopic and chemical examinations.

Examination of the Item__ shirt revealed no holes consistent in appearance with bullet holes. As requested, the area of the collar was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues), and none were found.

Examination of the Item__ shirt revealed no holes consistent in appearance with bullet holes. As requested, the area of the collar was examined microscopically, and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder and lead residues (gunshot residues). Sparse gunpowder and lead residues were found on the left collar area, indicating that this area of the shirt was within the maximum distance at which residues were deposited from the [area of firearm, e.g., muzzle/cylinder] of a firearm at the time Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012 DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 103 of 118

14 Report Formats of firing. [Note: if firearm, ammunition and components available, maximum distance determination could be conducted and reported] Examination of the Item ___ shirt revealed no holes consistent in appearance with bullet holes, but a gray colored smear was observed on the chest area. Microscopic and chemical examination of the area of the smear for the presence of gunpowder particles and lead residue (gunshot residues) revealed the presence of lead residues, the origin of which are indeterminate. No gunpowder particles were found. Visual examination of the Item ___ shirt revealed no holes consistent in appearance with bullet holes, but a discoloration was found on the right sleeve. This area of the sleeve was examined microscopically and processed chemically for the presence of gunpowder particles and lead residues (gunshot residues) and none were found.

14.16.5 Patterns Produced for Comparison to Wounds/Wound Photographs

14.17 Fracture Matching

The reporting of fracture match results falls into 3 categories: identification, elimination or inconclusive. 14.17.1 Identification:

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[#of] test patterns were produced using the Item __ pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun/firearm, (and) ___ [# of] the Item __ cartridges and ____ [number] cartridges from laboratory stock ammunition at contact and approximate muzzle-to-target distances of six (6), twelve (12) and eighteen (18) inches. These test patterns and the resultant cartridge cases/shotshell cases are being returned as Items __ and ___. The test patterns should be provided to the OCME for evaluation with autopsy findings.

The Item__ (designate object, i.e., glass/plastic/metal) was identified as having been at one time joined and a part of the Item__ (designate object).

14.17.2 Inconclusive: Reasons must be Qualified in Report Because of the lack of sufficient suitable corresponding microscopic markings on the Item __ (designate object, e.g., glass/plastic/metal), it was not possible to identify or eliminate it as having been a portion of the Item__ screwdriver (designate object). Because of the lack of sufficient suitable corresponding microscopic markings on Items__ and ___, it was not possible to identify or eliminate them as having been, at one time, joined and portions of the same item tool (designate object). 14.17.3 Elimination:

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Because of (a) difference [differences/dissimilarities] in class characteristics, (surface features, color, width, construction, etc.) Item __ and Item __ (designate objects) were eliminated as having been portions of the same object [describe object].

Because of (a) difference [differences/dissimilarities] in the microscopic features of the fractured edges, (surface features, color, width, construction, etc.) the Item __ and the Item __ lens pieces (designate objects) were eliminated as having been at one time joined with one another.

14.17.4 Disposition of tests produced: [# of] casts produced of the Item__ glass/plastic/metal (for example) object are being returned with the evidence and should be maintained for possible future examinations.

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14 Report Formats 14.18 Number Restoration- These statements would apply to other markings that may be obliterated/restored/determined. 14.18.1 Full restoration:

14.18.2 Partial restoration:

14.18.3 Unsuccessful restoration:

14.18.4 Suggested wording for determination of serial number when metal plate on the frame is missing: 14.18.4.1 The metal plate containing the serial number on the frame of the Item __ pistol is missing; however, characters on the slide and barrel read____________. The serial numbers present on similar firearms in the laboratorys reference collection indicate that the characters present on the slide/barrel of the Item __ firearm correspond to the serial number.

14.18.5 Suggested wording for determination of serial through hidden numbers:

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The obliterated serial number on the Item__ pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun was restored to read ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___.

The obliterated serial number on the Item__ pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun was partially restored to read ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, ___. [The third character could be a __ or a ___.]

Attempts to restore the obliterated serial number on the Item__ pistol/revolver/rifle/shotgun were unsuccessful.

14.18.5.1 The serial number of the Item __ firearm was determined to be __, __, __, __, __, __, __.

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Appendix A Performance Standards APPENDIX A ARSENAL WEIGHT: Shall be performance checked by an outside contractor to be accurate to the following specifications: PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

Arsenal weights will remain certified unless damaged. If damaged the equipment will be removed from service and replaced. BALANCES:

All balances will be cleaned and certified annually by an outside contractor.

They will be checked annually, documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128), to be accurate to the following specifications: 1 grain 10 grains 100 grains 1000 grains .2 grains 1 grain 1 grain 2 grains

DROP TEST:

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5 pound weight pound 2 pound weight pound 1 pound weight 2 ounces pound weight 1 ounce pound weight 1 ounce Place test block on flat horizontal surface With durometer in vertical position, press it down until full contact is achieved Hardness reading should be equal to test block tag 60 2 duropoints using (Shore Test Block) If Durometer does not meet performance standard remove from service and either replace or repair

Shore Durometer performance check to be accurate to the following specifications:

Rubber mat: Place on concrete floor and check performance prior to conducting tests, to be accurate to the following specifications: Place durometer in vertical position on rubber mat; press down until full contact is achieved Hardness reading should be 85 5 duropoints (Shore A), if mat does not meet performance standard remove from service and replace

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Durometer will be performance checked once every accreditation cycle by outside contractor MICROMETERS, CALIPERS & STAGE MICROMETERS: All micrometers and calipers will be performance checked annually, documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment

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Appendix A Performance Standards Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128) and certified with Klarmann Rulings stage micrometer to be accurate to the following specifications: .1 .01 .001 width of graduate line on stage micrometer .005 .0005

Klarmann Rulings Stage Micrometers will be performance checked once every accreditation cycle by outside contractor. MICROSCOPES:

All comparison and stereo microscopes to be cleaned, performance checked annually, documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128) and certified with a pair of Klarmann Rulings stage micrometers to be accurate to the following specifications: All magnifications of oculars of microscopes width of one graduate line on stage micrometer

SQUARES:

Starrett DS-7 Square

Starrett 14A Square

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Accuracy: Squareness Accuracy: 1/16 per 36 Maximum of .015 per foot Squareness Accuracy: .0005

Performance check by outside contractor prior to being placed into service and will remain certified unless it is damaged. If damage is noted it, will be removed from service and replaced. TAPE MEASURES/RULERS: Starrett 100 foot tape will be performance checked prior to being placed into service and to be accurate to the following specifications: 100 feet 25 feet 10 feet 5 feet 18 inches 6 inches 4 inches 2 inches 1 inch 1/16 inch

All tape and ruler measuring devices >1 inch will be visually checked against the Starrett 100 foot tape prior to being placed into service and documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128). Length measuring equipment will remained certified unless damaged. If damaged, the equipment will be removed from service and replaced. These standards will remain in effect unless obvious damage is noted, which would indicate the necessity to recalibrate the damaged standard. Equipment not within performance standard will be taken out of service and either is replaced or repaired. The new or repaired devices will be performance checked and documented in the Firearm/Toolmark Equipment Maintenance Log (DFS Document 240-F128) prior to being placed into service.

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Appendix B Abbreviations APPENDIX B ABBREVIATIONS

The following is a list of the abbreviations/annotations/acronyms commonly used by examiners in the Firearm/Toolmark Section. This list has been generated to assist in the interpretation of case file notes and is not a standardized list of required abbreviations. Abbreviations are not case specific and may include punctuation.

AMMUNITION MANUFACTURERS Abbreviation A-MERC C-B CBC CCI ELD FED FC FN GFL I IMI Nny PMC PPU R-P REM REM-UMC S&B S&W UMC W-W WCC WIN

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Description American Ammunition Company Cor-Bon Companhia Brasileira de Cartuchos Cascade Cartridge International/Omark Industries Eldorado Cartridge Company Federal Federal Cartridge Corporation Fabrique Nationale dArmes de Guerre Giulio Fiocchi Independence Israel Military Industries Yugoslavia Pan Metal Corporation/Eldorado Cartridge Corporation Prvi Partizan, Yugoslavia Remington Arms Company Remington Arms Company Remington Arms Company Sellier & Bellot Smith and Wesson Union Metallic Cartridge Company Winchester-Western Western Cartridge Company Olin Corporation (Winchester)

AMMUNITION RELATED Abbreviation AMMO BC BP BR BT BUL CC, CCASE CTGS, CART(S) CAL CANN CMS CU D

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Description Ammunition Base to cannelure Black Powder Brass Boattail Bullet Cartridge case Cartridge(s) Caliber Cannelure Case mouth seal, color identification Copper Diameter

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Appendix B Abbreviations FB LF LS MC NI From base Lead free Lacquered steel, case finish Metal cases Nickel

BREECH BOLTFACE CHARACTERISTICS Abbreviation

A C, CIR G, GRAN O P, PAR S X

BULLET BASE TYPE

FLT CYL SPA MPA DPA CON TRC DIM PRO CVX FSR OPN OB JS BO BS GC OP

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Description Arcs Concentric circles/spirals around Granular Other Parallel (any direction) Smooth (no traces) Cross-hatched Abbreviation Description flat base (no recess in base) cylindrical-concave recess in base shallow parabolic recess medium parabolic-shaped concave recess deep parabolic concave recess conical shaped concave recess truncated conical shaped concave recess concave recess in base w/ small concave dimple concave recess in base w/ small convex protrusion convex base (conical or parabolic) flat base with recess, step like RP open base, boattail lead, solid, jacketed: base open jacketed; base solid boattail; base open boattail; base solid gas check open base, plastic base wad

BULLET CANNELURE TYPE Abbreviation K S

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Description knurled smooth

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Appendix B Abbreviations BULLET COMPOSITION Abbreviation LSW LCA BCL CCL NCL CMC AMC BLC ALU STL ARM CHP PL PLS SHT ALO NYC Description lead (swaged) lead (cast) coated lead (brass) coated lead (copper) coated lead (nylon) metal cased (cu/brass) metal cased(al/ni/ni-plated) black talon aluminum jacketed steel jacketed (plated or unplated) armour piercing (KTW type) copper jacketed - hollow point Plain Lead plastic Shot Alloy Nyclad

BULLET NOSE TYPE

PT RN FN TRHP TPHP HSHP BLC SFHP GS FNSP GD GN SXT NB MS ST FNJ EP XT WCL TUB GG HP SP PSP SOL

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Abbreviation Description Pointed (conical or spitzer) Round Nosed Flat-nose Truncated hollow point Tapered hollow point Hydra-Shok hollow point Black talon/ranger Starfire hollow point Glaser safety slug Flat-nose soft point Gold dot Golden Saber SXT (Winchester) Nosler Ballistic tip MagSafe Silvertip Flat-nose jacketed Expanding point-Winchester 25 Auto XTP Hornady WinClean (Br jacketed soft point) Tubular (PMC type) Gold/Guardian Gold - MagTech Hollow Point Soft Point Pointed soft point solid

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Appendix B Abbreviations JSP JHP HP LHP LRN L-SWC MIS SWC TC WC jacketed/Semi-jacketed soft point jacketed/Semi-jacketed hollow point hollow point(non-jacketed bullet) Lead hollow point Lead round nose Lead semi-wadcutter miscellaneous Semi-wadcutter Truncated cone wadcutter

BULLET TWIST TYPE

R L

BULLET TYPE

AP BEB CNCS CN CWS FMC FMJ GM GMCS J LPB NPS PL SJ TMC TMJ

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Abbreviation Description Right Left Abbreviation Description Arming Piercing Brass-enclosed base Cupro-nickel-clad steel bullet jacket Cupro-nickel bullet jacket Copper-washed steel, case finish Full metal case Full metal jacket, or full patch Gilding metal bullet jacket Gilding metal clad steel bullet jacket jacketed Light pointed ball-flat based bullet Nickel-plated steel Plain lead Semi-jacket Totally enclosed metal case Total metal jacket

CALIBER

Abbreviation AU S L LR LUG MAG NOM PARA, P SPL

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Description Auto Short Long Long Rifle Luger Magnum Nominal Parabellum (example: 9mmP) Special

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Appendix B Abbreviations CARTRIDGE CASE MARKS Abbreviation BF, BFACE BFI BFM CHM FPI FP, FPIN EJT EXT FPAS EJPM IMP MLM PFB PS SDM SSM Description Breech Face Breech Face Impression Breech Face marks Chamber Marks Firing Pin Impression Firing Pin Ejector Extractor Firing Pin Aperture Shear Ejector Port Marks Impression Magazine Lip Marks Primer Flow Back Primer Shearing Slide Drag marks Slide Scuff marks

CARTRIDGE TYPE

RF CF SC SS

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Abbreviation Description Rimfire Centerfire Shot Cartridge Shotshell

EVIDENCE PACKAGING/TRANSFER Abbreviation/Symbol ADM BPB BPWP BX CONT, C c EN, ENV EVID HH I, IT MEN PB, PAB PKG PLB PPU RECD RTN S Description Admin Storage Brown paper bag Brown paper wrapped package Box Container Containing Envelope Evidence Hand-to-Hand Item Manila envelope Paper bag Package Plastic bag Personal Pick-up Received Return Sealed

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Appendix B Abbreviations SUB W W/ W/O WPWP YEN Submission, submitted White With Without White paper wrapped package Yellow envelope

FIREARM DESCRIPTION Abbreviation

S P R, REV B C I A D L G

FIREARM TYPE

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Description single shot pump (Slide Action) Revolver bolt action Carbine semiautomatic Automatic Derringer lever action gas or air Abbreviation Description Shotgun machine gun pistol (handgun) Rifle submachine gun or machine pistol Carbine

S MA P R B C

FIRING PIN CHARACTERISTICS Abbreviation S P X C, CIR G A O

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Abbreviation Description Drag mark out of firing pin impression.

Description smooth (no traces) parallel (any direction) cross-hatched concentric circles or spirals Granular Arcs Other

FIRING PIN DRAG

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Appendix B Abbreviations FIRING PIN IMPRESSION SHAPE Abbreviation C, CIR H, HEM R E, ELLIP O Circular (flat base) Hemispherical Rectangular elliptical (Glock/SWD) other/irregular Description

FIRING PIN IMPRESSION SHAPE RF Abbreviation

C, CIR H, HEM R, RECT S U W V B D L Z O K

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Description Circular (Flat Base) Hemispherical Rectangular Semi-Circular U-Shaped Wedge Chisel or Pointed Bar Double Left-Slant (Rectangular, Chisel) Right-Slant (Rectangular, Chisel) Other/Irregular Kidney Shaped Abbreviation Description 10 Gauge 12 Gauge 16 Gauge 20 Gauge 28 Gauge 410 Bore

GAUGE

10GA 12GA 16GA 20GA 28GA 410B

METALLIC FINISH

Abbreviation N B A O P S S/STEEL T

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Description Nickel Brass/copper Aluminum (plain) Other All Plastic Exterior Steel, copper colored finish Stainless Steel Steel, olive colored finish

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Appendix B Abbreviations K G Black Steel, gray colored finish

MISCELLANEOUS Abbreviation/Symbol ACP 5L 5R ADJ SIGHT AMB SAFETY ASSOC AUTO B/C BLD BOT BR BV CAP CHAR, CHARS CHEM CIR COLL COMBO COR, CORR DA DAO DIF, DIFF DIST DBL DMME DX EA ELIM ENT EQUIV ER EXM EXT FP FA FR FRAG FX GEN APP G1, G2, G3, G4, etc. GI, GIMP

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Description Eliminated Positive or Identification (for comparison data) Automatic Colt Pistol 5 lands/grooves (left twist) 5 lands/grooves (right twist) ADJUSTABLE SIGHT AMBIDEXTROUS SAFETY Association Automatic Because Blood Bottom Breech Blind verification Capacity Characteristic/Characteristics Chemical examination or test Circular Collection Combination Corresponding or Correspondence Double-action Double-action only Difference or different Distance Double Digital and Multimedia Evidence Section Drug Analysis Each Eliminate/Eliminated Entrance Equivalent Evidence Receiving Examination Exit Fingerprint Firearm From Fragment Firearm/Tool Marks General appearance Groove impression number designations Groove Impression

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Appendix B Abbreviations GRC GP GR(S) GRIP S GSR GWD HD H/STAMP I ID IDENT IRREG I/S HE HF HH INC INCL ID, ID, IDENT ID IT, I INSUFF INDENT L1, L2, L3, L4, etc. LI, LIMP L/S L<G L=G L>G LAB LAG LB LT LWD LX, LP MBM MAN MAG MAG CAP M M&P MOD MK ME MFR Na Rho NC NEG NOM General rifling characteristics Gunpowder Grain(s) Grip Safety Gunshot residue Groove width Head Headstamp Incendiary Inside Diameter, Identification Identification, Identified Irregular Inside High Explosive Hydrofluoric Acid Hand to hand Inconclusive Inclusive/Including Identification Inside diameter Item Insufficient Indentation Land impression number designations Land Impression Left side Lands smaller than grooves Lands equal grooves Lands larger than grooves Laboratory Land and groove Lock box Light Land width Latent Prints Marked by me Manual Magazine Magazine Capacity Magnetic Military & Police Model, Modification Mark or marked Medical Examiner Manufacturer Sodium Rhodizonate No conclusion Negative Nominal

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Appendix B Abbreviations NS O/ O/U OA OAL OBLT OCME OD O/S PD POLY QX or QD R/S REF REP RES RESP RX or RXN SA SAF SE SEP SIM SOLN SN, SER NO SS SUFF SX TE TF TM TX U/ UK U/S VIS X-COMP Not suitable Over Over/under Overall Overall length Obliterated Office of Chief Medical Examiner Outside diameter Outside Police Department Polygonal Questioned Documents Right side Reference Representative Residue Respectively Reaction Single action Safety Security Separate Similar Solution Serial number Stainless Steel Sufficient Forensic Biology Trace Evidence Test fire Toolmark Toxicology Under Unknown Underside Visible Cross compare

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RIFLING TYPE

Abbreviation S, C P M

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Description standard (conventional) lands and grooves polygonal microgroove

Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 117 of 118

Appendix B Abbreviations SERIAL NUMBER LOCATION/ FIREARM PARTS Abbreviation BBL TRG STK REC TS MAG TG, T/GUARD BLT FOR BLG GRP BUT FGR BGR RSR LSR ROR LUR RUR UTG LTG LFR RFR CRN FRM RSS LSS U/S USR ULS URS FRC CYL TOS BCV TOR LGP SLD RGR RSM BS UST YOK LR LGR Description barrel trigger stock receiver topstrap magazine trigger guard bolt forearm barrel lug grip butt front of grip back of grip right side of receiver left side of receiver rear of receiver left upper receiver right upper receiver upper tang lower tang left side of frame right side of frame crane frame right side of slide left side of slide underside underside frame, front of trigger under left side plate under right side plate frame at crane cylinder top of slide bolt cover top of receiver left grip panel Slide under rt. grip panel Right side of magazine well backstrap Under top strap yoke Left side rail under left grip panel, on frame

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Firearm/Toolmark Procedures Manual Issued by Physical Evidence Program Manager Issue Date: 6-February-2012

DFS Document 240-D100 Revision 6 118 of 118