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Preface

Producing the materials for this textbook involved a long process of surveying students' needs, writing up the results, making detailed revisions to the material based on the surveys, and responding to the reactions and comments of students who used a trial version of this text. It has taken more than four years to complete this project. Our labor has been rewarded, however, because this book is based on our that will enable original plan to produce the ideal textbook-one students to learn Japanese smoothly, while also enjoying lively games and helpful illustrations. We have an extensive list of people to thank for the completion of this textbook. First, our sincere thanks to Chiaki Sekido of the Publications Department of The Japan Times for seeing this book through the publishing process. Particular acknowledgment goes to Kyoko Tokashiki who helped in the production of Lesson 1 and following, to our 1 colleagues and trainees in the Asian Studies Program of Kansai Gaidai University who attempted the triaI version and made invaluable suggestions, to Kaori Tajima for her illustrations in the trial version, to Judy Okawa for translating, and to the teachers whose heartfelt guidance encouraged us throughout the process. Finally, we would also like to express our gratitude to the foreign students at Kansai Gaidai University for providing us with the opportunity to write this book.

IkbV33
&

Greetings N ~ W Friends

6
10

rlawtw&?~5 b t.26 Lwt:

Shopping
Making a Date
The First Date

30

A
&iE

a&

Trip to Okinawa

96

!39a

z5

%~zF@** PI$-

b 3 /v@--H

A Day in Robert's Life


Family Picture

x 14
f32

LjS I Z b

Barbecue
Kabuki

150
170

a~lo~~~%#&@?s
60 BT
& T L ~

Winter Vacation Plans After the Vacation Feeling Ill

190

% l l ~ + # & D& 2 W
Bb

210

Hiragana

2 52

Katakana
Daily Life

257

262

Travel

270

My Favorite Restaurant
Mary's Letter
Japanese Off ice Workers

276
282
287

Sue's Diary

The Folktale Kasajizo

298

%]

1s ~ F ~ E ?Ef ? % s@ -5
2%

Looking for friends Tanabata Festival

304

3 10

3< b V d
3 b>/v2

Japanese-English

316

<

Eng lish-Japanese
Numbers

329
342

%83%

Conjugation Chart

*-.&
>*.a_

&&k

l 3

(=;t; Y > Japm

3~%(~&Y3~Japanese $$&(+&%k~ty) & Mr./Ms. Yarnamoto (book; basis)

(5)

$ $

, :

Introduction
i . .

*'

Aim and purpose


GENKI: An Integyuted Course i E L m m z t u ~ n Japa~ese a textbook for beginners in is the study of the Japanese language. Students can complete the elementary-level study of Japanese in the 23 lessons of this text, which is divided into two volumes. The book is designed mainly for use in university and college courses, but it is also effective for high school students and adults who are beginning to learn Japanese either at school or on their own. Hopefully, students will have at least a basic knowledge of English, because grammar explanations are given in English. GENKI: An Idegrated Cogrse i Elementary Japalzese is a comprehensive approach n to developing the four basic language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) in order to cultivate overall Japanese-language ability. Much emphasis has been placed on balancing accuracy, fluency, and complexity so that students using the material would not end up speaking accurately yet in a stilted manner, nor fluently yet employing only simple grammatical structures.

Structure o the textbook f


This textbook basically consists of three sections: Dialogue and Grammar, Reading and Writing, and the Appendix. A detailed explanation of each part follows.
AbDiaIogue and G r a m m a r The Dialogue and Grammar section aims at irjnproving students' speaking and listening abilities by learning basic grammar and increasing vocabulary. The Dialogue- and Grammar section of each lesson is comprised of the following components:

@Dialogue The dialogues revolve around the lives of foreign students living in Japan, their friends, and their families, presenting various scenes that students are likely to face in their daily lives. By practicing natural expressions and ulizuchi (responses that make conversations go smoothly), students are able to understand how sentences are connected and how some phrases are shortened in daily conversation. Because the Dialogue section of each lesson covers a lot of new grammar and vocabulary, students may feel it is too difficult

to understand at first. Don't be overly concerned, however, because the grammar and vocabulary will gradually take root with practice. Dialogues are recorded on the accompanying CD. Students are encouraged to practice regularly by listening to the CD and carefully noting pronunciation and intonation. *Vocabulary The Vocabulary section presents all the new words encountered in both the Dialogue and Practice sections of each lesson. Words that appear in the Dialogue are marked with an asterisk ( * ). Words are listed according to their function in Lessons 1 and 2, and by parts of speech in Lesson 3 and following. In addition, all words presented in the text are also found in the Index at the end of each volume. Words found in the VocabuIary section of each lesson appear frequently in subsequent lessons, thus students are encouraged to learn them little by little each day. After Lesson 2, commonly used kanji equivalents of some words (Joyo Kanji) are aZso listed, but students are not required to memorize them. This textbook does not indicate a word's accents. The accent of a Japanese word varies considerably, depending on the region, the speaker's age (including the generation gap between speakers), the word's paradigmatic form, and its connection with other words. Therefore, don't be overly concerned about the accent, but try to imitate as closely as possible the intonation heard on the accompanying CD.

*Grammar
Grammar explanations are detailed, so that students can easily study them on their own. Students at school are expected to read the grammar explanations before each class. This section also fully explains the items found in the Practice section that follows. Necessary explanations for the grammar and vocabulary that are not found in the Practice section can be found in the Expression Notes at the end of each Grammar section.

@Practice This section includes questions related to what was taught in each section of the lesson, providing students with both basic practice and application. By answering the questions sequentially, students can naturally build up their Japanese-language ability. The exercises with only one answer are marked with @ and recorded on the^^, allowing students the opportunity to practice on their own. The last part of the Practice section contains Review Exercises, which incorporate aspects of the lesson as a whole. For example, some questions combine various topics covered in the lesson, and some call for the creation of new phrases based on what was learned in the Dialogue section.

Introduction 4

Q)

@Supplement Finally, some lessons include additional or supplementary information, This includes expressions related to the topic of the lesson, as in "Time and age" in Lesson 1, or expressions suitable at certain times or places, as in "At the station" in Lesson 10. Words introduced in the Supplement section are found in the Index of each voIurne.

B b Reading and Writing


The Reading and Writing section aims to foster comprehension and writing ability by learning Japanese characters and by providing opportunities to practice both reading and writing. Hiragam is introduced in Lesson 1, followed by k a f a k a ~in Lesson 2, and a kanji in Lesson 3 and following. From Lesson 3, each lesson contains the following components:

.Kanji list Each new kanji introduced in a lesson is contained in a list, each with about 15 kanji. This makes it easy to memorize a few each day, rather than be overwhelmed with so many at once.
Q serial number

(2)kanji

(4)reading

(5) compounds including the kanji

$.->
(book; basis) i5z
(2)meaning

(* 2) . (~&=/d) Japanese

ka ci&k~ Japan
L L * ~ (9& 6 2 2 A) A

Mr./Ms. Yamamoto

6) order stroke

(6) total strokes'

Among the readings shown in (4) and (5), himgunla indicates the kwt'yomi, or Japanese readings for a kanji, while katakana indicates the on'yomi, or Chinese reading. Both kun'yomi and o ~ ' y o m i sometimes altered in compounds of two or more kanji. For are example, the ordinary pronunciation of % is "gaku," which becomes "ga(k)" when the kanji is used in the word $45. Such derivative readings are also included in.(4)and () 5. Although some kanji have many readings, only those readings that are useful at an eIernentary level are included. Shaded readings and words in each lesson should be memorized. The others are for reference, so students don't need to memorize them. A practice sheet for each kanji is provided in the Reading and Writing section o the Workbook. Students should practice f

writing the kanji repeatedly, according to the stroke order shown on the kanji list in the textbook.

.Practice GENKI 1 consists of kanji practice, readings for comprehension, questions about the content of the readings, and writing practice. Kanji practice indudes various types of questions, such as having students reconstruct a kanji from its various parts or make new words by combining kahji. By tackling these problems, students will realize the goal of practice-to become more proficient in their use of kanji. Basically, the readings are short and deal with subjects familiar to the students. They are easy to understand if the student has learned the vocabulary and grammar taught previously in the Dialogue and Grammar section. When readings include new words, a corresponding word list is provided. Finally, composition topics are given for writing practice. GENKI 1 contains readings for comprehension, questions about the content of the 1 readings, and writing practice. The readings employ various styles of Japanese, ranging from letters and fables to essays and advertisements. With a knowledge of the previousIY learned vocabulary, grammar, arid kanji, the readings are easy to understand but grow longer and more difficult in later lessons. Word lists are provided for newly introduced vocabulary. Finally, composition topics are introduced.

C b Appendix
Volumes 1 and 2 both contain an Index. The Japanese-English Index, in hiragana order, lists words found in the Vocabulary and Supplement section of each lesson. The number next to a word indicates the lesson in which the word was introduced. In the English-Japanese Index, English equivalents to Japanese words are arranged in alphabetical order. Also included in the Appendix are tables of verb conjugations as well as sound inflections of the expressions related to numbers.

Orthography and font


The basic text is written in kanji and biragum. Kanji is used for the most commonly used characters, those that appear in the official list of Joyo Kanji. Hiragma is used instead, however, when the Joyo Kanji equivalent would not be necessary for beginning students of Japanese.

Introduction 4

lo

So that students can easily study the Dialogue and Grammar section, the pronunciation of every kanji is indicated in hiragam. However, to lessen the burden on the students and allow them to study on their o m , Greetings and Lessons 1 and. 2 are represented in hiraganu and kutakam, as well as by romanized forms. It is best not to rely too much on the romanizations, but use them only as a learning aid. Students study hirugam and kutakum in Lessons 1 and 2, respectively, of the Reading and Writing section. Students study kanji from Lesson 3 in the Reading and Writing section, where pronunciations of the kanji already presented are not indicated in Riyuguna, in order to promote t h e students' increasing acquisition of kanji.

The Japanese in the basic text is set mainly i the Textbook font, which resembles n handwriting and serves as a good model for students. Students will encounter a variety of fonts used for Japanese materials, however, arid should be aware that the shape of some characters differ considerably, depending on the font used, Note especially that with some characters, we find two separate strokes in one style are merged into a singIe
stroke.

Example:

Textbook font

Mincho font

Gothic font

Handwriting

(
k

Japanese Writing System

There ark three kinds of charactersin Japanese: hiragam, htakana, and kanji.' AU three characters can be seen i a single sentence. n

Hiragcam and k a f a k ~ m i e the alphabet, represent sounds. As you can see i the above l,k n example, hiragam has a roundish shape and is used for conjugation endings, function words, and native Japanese words not covered by kanji. Kafakunu, which has rather straight fines, is normally used for writing loanwords and foreign names. For example, the Japanese word for "te~evision" written in kcafaku~ F L t+(terebi). Kanji, or is as Chinese characters, represent not just sounds but also meanings. Mostly, kanji are used for nouns and the stems of verbs and adjectives.

1. Basic Hiraana Syllables There are forty-six basic hiraganu syllables, which are listed below, Once you memorize this chart, you will have the skill to transcribe all of the Japanese sounds.

'There is another writing sgstem c l e ald and so on.

(Roman lettend which is used for station names, signs,

Japanese Writing System 4

I@

"ThesybbIes L , G , and 7 are romanized as shi, chi, and ha, respectively, which is closer to the English pronundation. * * % is d o pronounced as "wo." s

The romanization is given fox general pronunciation reference.

2. Hiragma with Diacritical Marks


You can transcribe 23 additional sounds by adding diacritical marks. With a pair of short diagonal strokes ( * 1, the unvoiced consonants k, s, t , and h become voiced consonants g, z, d , and b , respectively. The consonant h changes to p with the addition of a small circle

(7.

If
pa

zP
Pi

A:
Pu

4
Pe

1%
PO

*G (ji)and 3 b u ) are pronounced the same as -t' Gi} and Y Cm), respectively, and

have limited use.

3 Transcribing Contracted Sounds .


Small -P, @, and 1 follow after letters in the second column (i-vowel hiragam, except I \) and are used to transcribe contracted sounds. The contracted sound represents a single syllable.

4. Transcribing Double Consonants There is another small letter 9, which is used when transcribing double consonants such as ff and pp.

Examples:

75.7

? =

kaBa
sa&u

(won)

cf- 6 '

5 7 is.
t i - 1' 3

(writer)

hama

(leaf)
(magazine)

s.9 L

zaghi

Note that double consonant n's, as in sanfielz (3 years), are written with h, + a hiraganu with an initial n sound ( 3,, G a,h,or @). :
Examples:

3 h kt h s a z m (3 years) & k, h L t anmi (guide)

5. Other Issues Relating to Transcription and Pronunciation

k Long Vowels

When the same vowel is placed one right after the other, the pronunciation of the vowel

if

kata (shoulder)

Japanese Writing System 4

I@

becomes about twice as long as the single vowel. Be sure to hold the sound long enough, because the length of the vowel can change one word to another.
.k;C$&
j LL %

3 X/ o b m a n (grandmother) cf. S I T ? obasun (aunt) 3 ojijsan (grandfather) cf. 6 3 X/ ujisan (uncle)


sMi
(number)

33c

The long ee sound is usually transcribed by adding an \ to an e-vowel himgma. There are a few words, however, in which 2 is used instead of &..

&~\hf

ggu

(movie)

oncaan (big sister)

The long oo sound is in most cases transcribed by adding an . to an i u-vowel hiragam. There are, however, words in which the long vowel is transcribed with an %, for historical reasons.
h&hu

(law)

(ten)

B. Pronunciation of XI A, "n" is treated like a full syllable, in terms of length. Its pronunciation varies, however, depending on the sound that follows it. Japanese speakers are normally not aware of the different sound values of h. Therefore, you do not need to worry too much about its
pronunciation.'

C. Vowels to Be Dropped The vowels i and u are sometimes dropped when placed between voiceless consonants (k, s, f, p , and k), or at the end of an utterance preceded by voiceless consonants.
Example:

T3TT

s(u)kr'des(zl) (I like it.)

20ne variety of the h pronunciation merits discussing here. When it is followed by a vowel or at the end of an utterance, X, indicates that the preceding vowel is long and nasalized. (Nasalized vowels are shown here with a tilde above vowel letters. You hear nasalized vowels in French words such as "bon," or the English interjection "uh-uh,"as i "no.") n kLh&~\ rZai (romance) 13A ha (book) Fallowed by pz, t , d, s, and z sounds, A is pronounced as "n." f;LP mna (woman) Followed by m, p , and 6 sounds, A, is pronounced as "m." 2X1 I3 sampo (stroll) Followed by k and g sounds, /v is pronounced as "ng" as in "song." 2 &;?* nacagga (comics)

D. Accent in the Japanese Language Japanese has a pitch accent: all syllables are pronounced basically either in high or low pitch. Unlike the English stress accent in which stressed syllables tend to be pronounced longer and louder, in Japanese each syllable is pronounced approximately in equal length and stress. The pitch patterns in Japanese vary greatly, depending on the region of ~e country.

Examples: & 2

.a_._ - .

sa

32%

(morning)

._--m@--e
na
tu

(name) (high)

-kiXka-..
z

'The syllables Y , 4 , and Y are romanized as ski, chi, and tsu, respectively, to give a closer English pronunciation.

Japanese Writing System 4

1 6

*9Gi) and Y Czw) are pro! nounced the same as 9 Cid) and % b), rewectivel~1 and have limited use.

The pronunciation of katakum and its combinations are the same as those of hiragam, except for the following points.

( )The long vowels are written with -. 1

Examples:

;Ir-

kaa
saki

b~)
(ski)

Zq-

x9 $-1t

su,h
keeki

(suit)
(cake)
(ball)

bamr

When you write vertically, the Example:

-- mark needs to be written vertically also.

(2) Additional combinations with small vowel letters are used to transcribe foreign sounds that originally did not exist in Japanese.

Examples:

3'4

T\u'?'~-7

harowiin

(Halloween)

(highway) haiwee 3 . 2h4 9 x 4 1 3$ ~ % 4 1 ~ 3 $ - 9 mineruruwoutua (mineral water) -

23

9x1)-

sherii
jgemusu

(sherry)

9~

YiL-AX

(James)

;f=
77
7 4

.f-=YY
77'.Y23>

chekku

(check)
(fashion)

fasshm
firipi~

74')k0;/
2771
fi1)7$lb=7
2f-7

(Philippine)
(cafe)

7r
7

kafe
kariforunia

(California)
(party)

74
4

paatii
disuko dyuuka

7-423

(disco)
(Duke)

71

73-7

(3)The sound "v" is sometimes written with T. For example, the word "Venus" is sometimes written as E-f X or 3 4 3- 2 . "

Greetings -

New Friends

10

XkAYTT
Question Sentences noun1 Q> noun2

~ & C, ~

h
Shopping

29
30

fiLI%a
2%

Taz E;h ZD/~D/&~)/E@ noun E h O noun

z z * z &+Z noun B noun L + & 9


-h/-ck

FZ

7-@
B<+<

Making a Date

54

Verb Conjugation Verb Types and the "Present Tense" Particles Time Reference Word Order Frequency Adverbs The Topic Particle Id:

-1

The First Date

72

Describing Where Things Are Past Tense

( 5 )ID +z j A Trip to Okinawa 4 1 ###RE


Adjectives E 3 (&)/S G b > ( a ) T Degree Expressions

96

-3Lt k//--$t~-3&\
Counting

1 (

nlo-bahl~-a

A D ~ in Robert's ~ i f e Y

114

L1?51;%-

Describing Two Activities


--&. 6;

7-(
+

SEa~qsFamily Picture
&T<
LQLh

132

%&q2 b 3 T-31A $g
Te-forrns for Joining Sentences verb stem t ~ < 5 Counting People
41

(-8

1 - 6 3Short Forms Uses of Short Forms


3 t verb Q fis?@3 TT
$3

Barbecue

150

fCTfih and f l 8 BE al:

( T Kabuki )
Past Tense Short Forms Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adjectives

170

) (
Comparison

~ a a a Winter Vacation plans s~ &


3\@Bf
rl\

190

adjective + a 25 zr3htz/k+ztzh

( m )
-z ?
-Tz 9-Tz 9 3 %

ARM the vacation

210

-z

kf?ql& noun A Je noun B

@R*m@95x'
L

Inthe Japanese Class

225

mu?

-0d5Wfu

SSl-b

Expression Notes

@S42,%5/&!l;b-;k3 $ k 5 $ I ; t l b > R L ~ T T G LFL./ T , 8 L ~ T %T/fzf.Ll&/X.h~R 3 b l T ~ 9$ @ & 2/ 5 % 3 'TTf-;Sl Pronunciation of M Numbers Giving one's telephone number + k h e b l "d Referring to the person you are talking to Japanese names 17 0(--%><?23t1 L (-$)Z5P On thepronunciation of number words Big numbers 39

@E</%6 % & ~ k rl < O X 0 3 2 . . IaSBEl+ BLQt L C d.A~aX,


@KL&
$ g { / ~ k l
*P#P(G)

64 82

104 122 141


160

"
L

2-5 b

@-*a
@%% kTfga)@hs& 9 % $&s-----. L LGb @ i2 in negative sentences $2
L
L

LF %

198
iZ

F 4 /1 7*

@&

i id: Z

217

&L

153

p J

G r e e t ings

Good morning. Ohayoo gozairnasu. Good morning. (polite) Konnichiwa. Good afternoon. Kon banwa. Good evening. Sayoonara. Good-bye. Oyasurninasai. Good night. Arigatoo. Thank you. Arigatoo gozairnasu. Thank you. (polite) Surnirnasen. Excuse me.; I'm sorry.
lie. Ittekimasu. Itterasshai.
'

Ohayoo.

Tadairna.
0 kaerinasai.

Itadakimasu.
Cochisoosama.
Hajirnernashite. Doozo yoroshiku.

No.; Not at all. I'll go and come back. Please go and come back. I'm home. Welcome home. Thank you for the meal. (before eating) Thank you for the meal.
(after eating) How do you do?

Mice to meet you.

61$.d;j/$g#&jb Ohaym is used between friends and family members, while oleayoo g o z c is used~ ~ ~ between less intimate acquaintances, similarly with Q&CI~OO and arigaioo gomimasu. The rule of thumb i : if you s
are on a first-name b&is with someone, go for the shorter versions. If you would address someone as Mr. or Ms., use the longer versions. To give a concrete example, the social expectation is such that students are to use the longer variants when they speak with a professor.

&&5%6)There are several good-bye expressions in Japanese, the


choice among which depends on the degree of separation. Sayoomre indicates that the speaker does not expect to see ~e person spoken to before she "turns a page in her life"; not untiI a new day arrives, or until fate brings the two together again, or until they meet again in the other world.

CJP&, % k e Jaa, mata (between friends, e z r p d h g ta see each other again fairly m n ) L 3 h t 1 L S 8, Shiiureeshimasu. (taking leave from a professor's office, for exampIe) GagT 8 %-Po Ittekirnasu. k v i n g home)

$&$eh S b

u d e a means (1) "Excuse me," to get another person's attention, (2) "I'm sorry," to apologize for the trouble you have caused, or (3) "Thank you," to show appreciation for what someone has done for you.

L I L \ Z ) I i primarily "No," a negative reply to a question. In the k s dialogue, it is used to express the English phrase "Don't mention it," or "You're welcome," with which you point out that one is not required to feel obliged for what you have done for them.

L ~ = ~ : ~ . = , L + L I / L \ . = , ~ $ Z T / ~ ~ C L L I & / Sb ~ \ Z ~ % & C \ ~ Ittekbnasw and i t m h i i a common exchange used at home when a family member bwsa s
leaves. The person who leaves says iftekimmu, which literally means "I will go and come back." And the family members respond with itt~mshaa', which means "Please go and come back." Ta-a and okare~ used when a person comes home. The person are who arrives home says tadaima (I am home right now) to the family members, and they respond with o M a s a e ' (Welcome home).

Act out the following situations with your classmates.


1. You meet your host family for the first time. Greet them. 2. It is one o'clock in the afternoon. You see your neighbor Mr. Yamada.

3 . You come to class in the morning. Greet your teacher. Greet your friends. 4. On a crowded train, you stepped on someone's foot. 5 . You dropped your book. Someone picked it up for you. 6. It is eight o'clock at night. You happen to meet your teacher at the convenience store. 7. You are watching T V with your host family. It is time to go to sleep. 8. You are leaving home. 9. You have come back home. 10. You are going to start eating. 11. You have finished eating.

&k51/L

\%2 &t%

New Friends

Mary, an international student who just arrived in Japan, talks to a Japanese student.

'

7
Mearii

-j-A3*,L0 ~ \ 3 3kLrTT&xo
Sumirnasen.

Irna

nanji desu ka.

2 f z 1-j Takeshi
b25

t:
'lit

I 2
Arigatoo

I=

tl i A T T o
t"S*L\$-j-,
gozaimasu.

Juuniji han desu.

It711-: 9
Mearii

kc? L :
Takeshi

bh~hj?&

lie.

?="tL.:
Takeshi
a h 8 j I ) I I

A&,
Ano,

9
i3

1.p

j -h3(

ryuugakusee desu ka.


' +-%' I

-WITTjtra,
gakusee dew.

$7+:
Mearii

Z L 0 7 y ~ * - j - ? 3 ~ 6 q sa + l - b w - j - o $ {
E. e
Arizona daigaku no

t if t : =
Takeshi
Mearii

Ti ; T-j-hx, * A i
Soo desu ka.

Senmon wa

B LC3 2 & T T h a ,
nan desu ka.
ninensee desu.

Nihongo desu.

Ima

Mary: Excuse me. What time is it now? Takeshi: It's half past twelve.
Mary: Thank you. Takeshi: You're welcome.

Takeshi: Urn . . . are you an biternational student? Mary: Yes. I am a strident at the University of Arizona.
Takeshi: I see. What is your major?

Mary: Japanese. I am a sophomore now.

ano ima

urn.-.
now English ~lansuage)
Yes

eego
Ee

gakusee .-.go kaokoo


gogo gozen . . . sai

student language ex. IT [3 t L" (mi&& go) Japanese language high school
P.M.
AM.

. . . san
...j i

. . . years old
Mr,/Ms. - . . o'clock ex. L s% W (khiji) one o'clock people ex. l.2 EZ A U h.(aihorejipz) Japanese people teacher; Professor . . .
major That's right. college; university

. . . jin
sensee

senmon soo desu


daigaku

denwa tcrrnodachi namae nan/nani Nihon . . . nensee hai


han

telephone friend name what


Japan

. ..year student
yes

ex. t *l %I

L \ (&binwee) first-yearstudent

half ex. ?=lZki&(n&iAan) half past two

foangao ryuugakusee watashi

number international student I

* Words that

appear in the dialogue

ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY

C o u n t r i e s
Ameri ka

lgirisu Oosutoraria Kankoku Sueeden Chuugoku

US-A. Britain Australia Korea Sweden China

kagaku ajiakenkyuu keezai kokusaikankee kon pyuutaa jinruigaku seeji bijinesu bungaku rekishi

science Asian studies economics international. relations computer anthropoIogy pslitics

business literature history

kaishain kookoasee shufu daigakuinsee


daigakusee

bengoshi

job; work; occupation doctor office worker high school student housewife graduate student college student lawyer

okaasan
otoosan

oneesan oniisan
irnooto
otooto

mother father older sister older brather younger sister younger brother

"It is 12:30." "I am a student." "My major is the Japanese language." These sentences will all be translated into Japanese using an appropriate noun and the word desu.

@
$2

Juuniji han desu.

9 I= U 1.3A/ TT0

(It) is half past twelve.

* L \ T - F O

(I) am a studat.
(My major)

Gakusee desu.

tc C3X. z*T-3-0
Nihongo desu.

6 the Japa~leselanguage.

Note that none of these sentences has a "subject," like the "it," "I," and "my major" found in their English counterparts. Sentences without subjects are very common in Japanese; Japanese speakers actually tend to omit subjects whenever they think it is clear to the listener what or who they are referring to. What are we to do, then, when it is not clear what is being talked about? To make explicit what we are talking about, we can say:

t3 b= G3h Z*TT,
wa

is the Japalaese kanguage.

nihongo desu.

stands for the thing that is talked about, or the "topic," which is later in Where the sentence identified as nihowo. For example,

+&XI SI h,4 . 3
Senrnon w a

it t 3 h/ nihongo desu.

:*TTa

(My)major ds the Japanese langwzge.

Similarly, one can use the pattern X wa Y desu t identify a person or a thing X as item o

Y.

bk Lt2

X-

Watashi wa Suu Kimu desu.

- +AT?,
I t -

I am Sue Kim.

9 3 L f i S " I 3 *L*~\TTo
Yarnashita san wa
n A
9 6 .

Mr. Y a w h i f a i a teacher. k

sensee desu.

$7')--3LlA
Mearii san wa

7%1)3FJ13'b-c--Fo
arnerikajin desu.

Mary i s an American.

Wa is a member of the class of words called "particles." So is the word lzo, which we will turn to later in this lesson. Particles attach themselves to phrases and indicate how the phrases relate to the rest of the sentence. Note also that nouns like gakwee and sesee in the above examples stand alone, d i k e their English translations "student" and "teacher," which are preceded by "a." In Japanese, there is no item that corresponds to "a,"nor is there any item that corresponds to the plural "-s" at the end of a noun- Without background situations, a sentence Iike gakusee desu is therefore ambiguous between the singular and the plural interpretations; it rnay mean "We are/you a d t h e y are students," as well as "I am/you are/she is a student."

It is very easy to form questions in Japanese. Basically, all you need to do is add ka at the end of a statement.

Ryuugakusee desu.

9 a =,PSf( * L ~ T T ,
(1 am) an iatemtGmnl sturEenf-

@ 3 5: - @ L Y F & ~ ' Ryuugakusee desu ka.

<

(Are you)

aH

i ~ t e m a t i o ~ student? al

The above sentence, Ryzcugakusee desu ka, is a "yes/noW question. Question sentences may also contain a "question word" like nun2 (what). In this Iesson, we learn how to ask, and answer, questions using the following question words: nun.; (what time), namai (how old), nannensee (what year in school). Note.carefully that the order of words in a sentence may be quite different from what you find in your language.

* h % &la Q'a'hTT-h~,
Senmon wa
nan desu ka.

(+i?hS,&Ll)
(Senmon wa)

;Z~\Z*TT,
eego desu.

What is your mior?

(My major) is Eytglish.

'It is not customary to write a question mark at the end of a question sentence i Japanese. n 'The Japanese question word for "what"has k v o pronunciations: =an and naai. Naa is used immediately before dmu or before a "counter" like j (o'clock). The other form, mmi, i used before a particle. i s Nani is also used in the combination nanl;jin (person of what nationality).

2
Ima

fa'X/L*TTha,
nanji desu ka.

( b w
([ma)

kuji desu.

CTTO

What time i it now? s


Mearii san wa nansai desu ka.

It is nilae o'clock
Juukyuusai desu.

97'.j-3ctli Qx/%~~TT75~, 4rp3 9 \ T T , C:'rgj


How old are you, Mary?
I'm nineitem years old.

QPthk*~ - p ; t r a . h~
Nannensee desu ka.

bchk*~\T-$-,
Ninensee desu.

What year are


Denwa bangoo wa

yo=

i college? n

T & btfA 2" 9 t3 3 &TT75*,


nan desu ka.

Ia 6 a 7 3 4 3 ~ ~ ,
lchi hachi roku no nana san yon san desu.

W7uat i your Eekpkose amber? i

It is 186-7343.

No is a particle that connects two nouns. The phrase Toozai daigaku nu gakusee means "(a) student at Tozai University." The second noun gukmes provides the main idea" (being a student) and the first one T ~ o z a i daigdku makes it more specific (not a high school, but a college student). No is very versatile. In the first example below, it acts like the possessive ("x's") in English, but that is not the only role no can play. See how it connects two nouns in the following examples.

f r l - f k S h a TLblXLt"?
Takeshi san no

Tukeshi's phone number


a college profasor

denwa bangoo

f3\75${a * ~ L * L \ ,
daigaku no

sensee

i t l 3 h r"n $75." ( * L \
nihongo no
gakusee

a student o f fhe Japanese lamuage

l=i3L,Ql f s b ~ &{z
nihon no

@college i~ Japan

daigaku

Observe that in the first two examples, the English and Japanese words are arranged in the same order, while in the last two, they are in the opposite order. Japanese seems to be more consistent in arranging ideas here; the main idea always comes at the end, with any further description placed before it.

3Here is what we mean by the "main idea." In the phrase Tukeshi san m dmwa Bangoo (Takeshi's phone number), the noun &wa bawgoo (phone number) is the main idea, in the sense that if something is Takehi's phone number, it is a phone number. The other noun Takeski san i not the main idea, s because Takeshi's phone number is not Tak&.

noun, 03 noun,

further restriction

main idea

A phrase of the form "noun1 m noun? acts more or less like one big noun. You can put it wherever you can put a noun, as in the following example:

i d
Takeshi san no
okaasan wa

Z
kookoo no

-+ / v - t t ~ \ l ~ ~ , ~ O
sensee desu.

Takeski's mather is a high school teacher.

Expression

N o t e r a

8Db Ano indicates that you have some reservations about saying what you are going to say next. You may be worried about interrupting something someone is currently doing, or soundkg rude and impolite for asking personal questions, for example.

[3tl/ZZb Both Rai and ee mean "yes" in response to yes-no questions.


Compared to hai, ea is more conversational and relaxed. In more informal situations, ula is used. Hai is also used to respond to a knock at the door or to the calling of one's name, meaning "Here," as follows. (Ee cannot be replaced in this case.)
Teacher: 7: 5 2 3
Sumisu san?
T A f

Mr. Smith?
Hwe.

Student: Mtl,
H ai

E3TTlj\b Soo

desu ka acknowledges that you have understood what was just said. "Is that so?" or "I see."

Pronunciation of 1% b The particle t;t. is pronounced "wa," not "ha." It should be written with ki. All other instances of "wa" are written with b.

bf TI - c L@

Watashi no denwa bangoo wa san narra no hachi roku roku nana desu.

Z 3 & 37-8667TB,

M telephone wuwber i 37-8667. y i


There are a few exceptions, such as kow~~zkkim (good afternoon) and kmbomwta (good evening). They are usually written with 5, tv tZ 'It;- and 7 i2 -

h,if&g.
Plumbers b Many number words have more than one pronunciation. Refer to the table at the end of this book for a general picture.
13 -ED and

I
2

3
4

5
6 7 8

9 10

are both commonly used. t~%,butpronouncedas I Y iIn b s 3 & & (oneminute)and t 1 ~ 2 ~ t l (one-year old). tZ all the time- When you &e reading out each digit separately, as when you give your phone number, it may be pronounced with a lung vowel, as tZl.1. "dX,all the time. The part that follows it may change shape, as in 3 A&&, instead of 3 A&&. L h, is the most basic, but fourth-year student is k ; B a X i - F t h and four o'clock i d; U. In some combinations that we will later s kam,it is read as L (as in 'L.fi%?, April). The part that folIows this number may hange shape 'too, as in k. &&A. 2 all the time. When read out separately, it may be pronounced with a long vowel, as c-'3 . ?3 < , but pronounced as 5 9 in 5 9 &A. Q t is the most basic, but seven o'clock is L Ei C. e t3 G , but usually pronounced as 6% -7 in iA d:-;, &X. and $23 3 tl. 3 o 5 is the most basic, but nine o?clockis < C. L@4, butpronouncedas C g q in Cv~&."X/and ~ 9 3 5 . 1 . U

tf 5

Giving one's telephone number b The particle .pro is usually placed in between the local exchange code and the last four digits. Therefore, the number 012-345-6789 is zero icki xi, saa yon go no, roku nana hachi kyuu.

@hreLlbThe word s e ~ s e e usually reserved for describing somebody is


else's occupation. Watashk wa s a m e desu makes sense, but may sound slightly arrogant, because the word semee actually means an "honorable master." If YOU (or a member of your family) are a teacher, and if you want to be really modest, you can use the word kyooshi instead.

&hr b Sun is placed after a name as a generic title. It goes both with a given
name and a family name. Children are referred to as chan (and boys in

,:I ..

..-

. :'. pa&culaf as kurr), rather than as sax. Professors and doctors are usually referred to with the title sensee. S m and other title words are never used in reference to oneself.
,

Referring to the person y w are talking to b The word for "you," anaba, is not very commonly used in Japanese. Instead, we use the name and a title like sun and sensee to refer to the person you are talking to. Therefore, a sentence like "Ms. Hart, are you Swedish?" should be:

I\-t. SLEk x ~ 3 - ~ Y L ~ T ~ ~ ~ ,
Haato san wa sueedenjin desu ka.
I d k t

It & t

r6

instead of

I\-

b 3 & , &;fcf..i3 ~ 3 z - r " Y V h / T ? h ~ ~


sari,

i T / "

Haato

anata wa sueedenjin desu ka.

Japanese names b When Japanese give their name, they say their family name first and given name last. Usually, they don't have middle names. When they introduce themselves, they often say only their family name. Here are some typical Japanese names.
Family name S t ?
Satoo

Given name Men Women

v5t

Hiroshi

w4 r
Yuuko

TT-3
Suzuki

~ 1 % 4

&("a
Megumi

lchiroo

fz $1 1 L 2
Takahashi

i?;tXI

Kenji

m.5 3
Yuuki

blk-5 Itoo

2 341.4
Masahiro

Kyooko

BkSr

ii
Q h

(Numbers)
-F~/+LL\
zero

ree

t"rg j L ~ S ;
juuichi

3kL"@J5
sanjuu

Uqji:
juuni

LhU*?
yonjuu

3XI
san

L*@j 3tL
juusan

L*L+@j
gojuu

kk / L / ( 1 )
yon ?-*
C

L"r95LAJL'@.9 L
juuyon
juushi

&<C@3
rokujuu

shi

(yo)

r*.p:*
juugo

QQC*?
nanajuu

go

roku

r@eJ?d juuroku
t"@3QP,./L'@?L G
juunana

!dGrt$?
hachijuu

QQ/L%
nana

3rs-iL"@3
kyuujuu

shichi

juushichi

1.3 G
hachi

t"*.s",&
juuhachi

vs {
hyaku
juuku

Ct9-j 3 @ ? / ' C @ ? t
juulcyuu

Izrt-P?
nijuu

A. Read the following numbers. @ (a) 5


(f) 8

(b) 9
(9) 2

(c) 7
(R) 6

(d) I

(el 10
(j)

(i) 4

B. Read the following numbers. @

(a) 45
(f) 100

(13) 83
(8138

(c) I9

(d) 76

(el 52

(h)61

(i)24

(d97

C. What are the answers?

(a) 5+3

tb) 9+I

(el 3+4

(d) 6 - 6

(e) IO+9

( f ) 8-7

(9) 40-25

@ l;f

(Time)

8
L>&

t=

ShC
sanji

ichiji

niji

,
I

il:
?dl2
rokuji

a
1I 2
yoji

z"U
goji

t&U
shichiji

tit% t"
hachiji

( C
kuji

t*=lt'
juuji

E
I

:">
L'@;l~%t'
juuichiji

T (J
C@?tcU
juuniji

@
L\%
ichiji han

c l3tL

A. Look at the following pictures and answer the questions. @


Example: Q : & \ 3 tdhL"T'P$ko
h a
nanji desu ka.

A :~~GL't&X,TTO
Ichiji han desu.

B. Answer the questions. @

Example: Q : Z
Cozen

1
irna

3hhTThao
nanji desu ka.

Tookyoo wa

A : r"*h 3 hL'-lvT,
sanji desu.

7:00 P.M.
7 Nnrr Vnrlr

3 :0 0 ~ ~ ~ .

1 :00 P.M.

5. Bangkok

3. Nairobi
9: 00 P.M.

WL-

6. Sydney

4:OO A.M.

1 /

8. Rio de Janeiro
3:OO P,M.

@ Thral%hZj (Telephone Numbers)


A. Read the following people's telephone numbers. @

Example:
a , d j 7 1 \

f:
YarnasRita

283-9547

E=Ga%$/v4, $ 4 3 ;1''1hQQ
ni hachj san no
kyuu go yon nana

1. $ 7 9 Mearii

951-0326

2. f z i t 3
f i

Takeshi

3. 2Suu

4.

a/\'- p
Robaato

? l I B Y

B. Pair Work-Read

the dialogue below with your partner. @

A : TX/b

*:

3 63 Q hTTdxo
nan desu ka.

Denwa bangoo wa

B : 283-9547T$,
Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu.

A : 283-9547TTh0
Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu ne.

B : i i t b l , +?I TTo
Hai, soo desu.

C. Group Work-Use the dialogue above and ask three classmates their telephone numbers.
name

telephone number

Q lzlzhzlD

A$< (Ll
+

Translate the following phrases into Japanese using (n (no).@

Example: student of the Japanese language


1. my teacher

dL 13

nihongo n o

t"Q < 21'l

L\

gakusee

3. my name 5. Mary's friend


7. teacher of the Japanese language

2. my telephone number 4. Takeshi's major 6. student of the University of London 8. high school teacher

Look at the chart on the next page and describe each person using the cues in (a) through (e). @
Takeshi san
Suu san
Robaato san

Yamashita sensee

(a) nationality

Example: % 7 '1 - 3 '


Mearii san

&',

h I b

% 7 J ) - S h i A 7 %) f i h L ? T 0 '
Mearii san wa amerikajin desu.

91

bj

i.

A h ' ) +

(6) year in school


g , %,

1.

L + & ? L .

Example: $ 7 )Mearii san

% 7 1 1 - ' I h t 3 GZ&~+?L\TT,
Mearii san wa ninensee desu.

(c)age
Example: % 7 " ] - $ h+ 9 7 ' 1 * $ ! ~ ( 3
Mearii san Mearii san wa
ar,&
7 ~ 7

a h

1 r \

c@?J@ ?~ L ~ T T O 3
juukyuu sai desu.
& ' l F t a '

(d) school
& 5 h 1 I h
w A l r 3

Example: % 7 1 J - 2 t L
Mearii san

%7'11-3A13 79 'l*-?k.+~\$~<
Mearii san wa
Arizona daigaku no

75s ( ~ & c \ T - $ - ~
gakusee desu.

(e) major
h h 9 I h

Example: 7

- A

$ 7 ' -3 h 3 + X I $ 1 C
Mearii san no senmon wa

n b 1 i k

CCC~~L~T?~
nihongo desu.

Mearii san

I
Nationality
Year Age
School

I
American

(
2nd year
19

,4$"L;t;WL
Kirnura Takerhi

Japanese

Kim, Sue Korean (6.A z { U A)


kankokujin

Smith, Robert

L~:+-/,/%-L\
Yamashita sensee

British ( 4 7'1x u " )


igirisujin

Japanese

4th year
22

3rd year
20

4th year

U. of Arizona Tozai Univ.


Japanese

Seoul Univ. U. of London , Tozai Univ.

Major

history ( j k 3 L)
rekishi

(xx=-y-)
konovuutaa

: b r r

computer& i t :

(r9;r.x)
biiinesu

business z r r ? ?

(Japanese teacher)

B. Pair Work-Ask
9 , d j

and answer questions using the given cues.


1 i >
& a h ? $ .

Example 1: 9 7 ' ) - 3 h / 7 9 ' I f i U L


Mearii san
d h ~ q r

amerikajin
*

Q : %r'J-L4,la
Mearii san wa

7%'ltJ~:'h'il"Tdx,
amerikajin desu ka.

& & q h -

: 2 2 , %-jTTo
Ee,

soo desu.

w % r ' I i \

Example 2: % 7'1 -3 h / S h . h / v - @ ~ \
Mearii

san

sannensee

: $7'3 -5ktd: 3 X , # 3 t L * b ~ T - T 7 5 * 0
Mearii san wa sannensee desu ka. lie, ninensee desu.

h i , 1 r 3

A : L\L\Z, t=iklX/*~~T-$-*

Mearii san
* & ' J t '

Arizona daigaku no

gakusee

2. $7'1--$h/~%;4a&*L'
Mearii san

ichinensee
nihonjin

3.

t2"z

Cj L L / C = t S h C &

Takeshi san

4. k't?L s X//tct3/vtf~\itr'(
Takeshi san Nihon daigaku no

a 6 "

*b\

gakrrsee

5. k"rLtS,'L'@531.s3
Takeshi san
T
i

2L'

6. X - - 3 ~ / Z ~ . s - ~ 2 ~ ~
Suu san
i

juukyuusai
; i

5 2 - h

sueedenjin

7. X - 3 A n
SUU san no
Rohaato san no
. 3 U & Z

L/if~\3*."L\ (economics)
senrnon

keezai

senrnon

bijinesu

9.

Up$-

b ?!X//&&h+3~\
sari

Robaato

yonensee

z , i f h L :

10. U P T - ~ ~ X / / ~ C ~ @ ~ C ~ ~ ? ~ L ~
Robaato san nijuuissai
nihonjin

11. 9 3

tf~+hL+?~\/~=iahCL,
Hawai daigaku no
sensee

Yamashita sensee

Yamashita sensee

A. Look at the chart below and describe each person with regard to (a) and (b). 1. i 5 h * & 3 i &
okaasan

2. ~ E C L \ $ X ,
oniisan

(a) occupation/school
a d j ' l t s

Example: f ; Z i 3,4,
otoosan

z'+I)-S/vO
Mearii san no

S L j $/,,I2 ;b'r\Lrb\/vcl,
otaosan wa

kaishain desu.

h . 6 1 1 '

Example:
otoosan

%711-Shag r - 5 ) / Y c ~ L / , L ' a i ~ a ~ $ W f ,
Mearii san no
otoosan wa

yonjuuhassai desu.

Mary's host family

sr.isx/
otoosan

3h
okaasan

oniisan

lrnooto

(father)
&%L\

(mother)

Occupation/ School

e k \ k kaishain

t *"L
shufu

L:? @{ L
daigakuinsee

Z j Lj-@h\
kookoosee

(works for a company)

(housewife)

(graduate student)

(high school student)

6. Answer the questions using the chart above.

1. S Z j SXIt3
Otoosan wa

15a~\te~\X/To$75h,
kaishain desu ka.
nansai desu ka.

2.

s r 5. 2 A t i & F ~ ~ L \ T - T - ~ * ~
Otoosan wa

3. SiP& 3 /"4a
Okaasan wa

*A+kc\'C'$is.,
sensee desu ka.

4. S+dj 3
Okaasan wa

5 2 ~hT-f-h*, %
nansai desu ka. kaishain desu ka. nansai desu ka.

5. i tc~>$.X,bd % hxL\ t +WL:,-ebT~~,


Oniisan wa

6.

sG=~\shEa k S ~ ~ T - T h ' , Q
Oniisan wa

7. L \ Z, j Z 13
lrnooto wa

EL\$; ( -ktkhTTbx,
daigakusee desu ka.
nansai desu ka.

8.-

L\%

Ij Z tA ~ & S L \ T + - ? ~ ~ ,

lrnooto wa

@ 2 &@a fib b I$ 3 (Review Exercises)


A. Class Activity-Ask
Example questions:
;f; 3 5
*

five classmates questions and fill in the chart below.

2 t i ? (What is your name?)

Onarnae wa?

33

f z hao (Where do you come from?)

Doko kara

kimashita ka.

L rZ '

(occupation) id
nan desu ka.

2 A TTfi',

Shigoto wa

fbCt/&lX,*~~Tj-~'.
Nannensee desu ka.

Q ~ 3 ~ q - j - $ ~ ~
Nansai desu ka.

* h i t hita QLT-F;S~,
Senrnon wa
nan desu ka.

Name

Nationality

Occupation/ School

Age

Major, etc.

B. Self-introduction-Introduce yourself to t h e class. Example:


;1

I d C b 3 L T 0 %7Y Hajimernashite.
A ' )

~ h -

bT T O

7 1)

Mearii Haato desu.

j f : ~ h $ z

Arizona daigaku no
ninensee desu.

<

5; { *L\T&
gakusee desu.
Senmon wa

L ~ Z
Ima

!~#~XI*L\T-~-, *h/#,Al2 tcC3hz*Tj-,


nihongo desu. yoroshiku.

L:'~P ~ Q ~ $ c \ T" . F .," k 5 L ( . ~ Z ?T


Juukyuusai desu.
Doozo

C. Class Activity-Ask

your classmates what their majors are, and find someone

who has the following major.


Example: Q : *h%hlafa'&T$hao
Senrnon wa
Nihongo desu.
nan desu

ka.

A : i:!3A Z*TTO

name
1. Japanese

2. economics
3. English
4. history 5. business

ITime / A g e
Time hours
kh'f;

minutes

I 2

~ h - 3 ~ : : ~

II 12

L'r9j~\-d."h
juuippun

ichiji

lPPun

d=LaX,
nifun

Ct-Fji=LsA
juunifun

3ht
sanji

3 ,4,-.2X/
sanpun

13

b 3 StLwi:A
juusanpun C:'rg ttYi:X/ Juuyonpun

Lr
yoji

4
t

k kli:h
yonpun

14 15
16

3k

*: goji

5 <*,LA,
gof un

Y@5z*eiatL
juugofun

4 { C
rokuji

6 57d:L
roppun

L"u9=75~+i."k
juuroppun juunanafun

LGU
shichiji

7
8

322-X/
nanafun

17 ~ ~ 5 . ~ ~ v i ~
hachifun
juuhappun

13% tJ
hachiji

t d ~ d ~ t t / l d t : ~ L X , 18 C ~ ? l d ~ w i ~ A / '
happun

(t"
kuji

9
10

,4rgj,iaX,
kyuufun

C @ 9 li%visA,
juuhachifun

Ck#9e2L
PPPU~

19

L a ? 3q$wi-L
juukyuufun nijuppun

C@?L\g3C
juuichiji

20 tcc :'7L,,j:tt

rg j C u
juuniji

30 SL,12*7ei:A
sanjuppun

Age

~&SL\TT~*,/SL\{~~T-~~, (Howoldareyou?)
Nansai desu ka. Oikutsu desu ka.

-The counter suffix -- 3 t b is used to indicate "-years old."

I
2

L > ~ $ L \ issai

icSc\
nisai

SX/SL\
sansai

kX/$b\
yonsai

'For 20 years old, t;t

if

~"SL\
gosai

9
10

$@j?w
kyuusai

5(%>
rokusai

C @ 7 3 ~ 1
jussai

7
8

QQ?L\
nanasai

[I

Ur9?~\-=,5~\
juuissai

i3-33bh
hassai

20

t;f;7"r%*
hatachi

t; ~hatachils usually used, although i= t @ 7 3 I (nil'msai)can be used. i '

a
1

Mary goes to a flea market.

h b j ? t \

% 7 l ] - :

TA3*tt,
Sumimasen.
:

rhia
Kore wa

L\(h

-r~h~,

Mearii
2

ikura desu ka.

qjfita L L ~ F A L L T ~ - ,
Sore wa
sanzen en desu.

Mise no hito
# A I

' I

r b

% ~ j - :
Mearii

~
wa

Takai desu ne.

c~. bj, ha z~ ~~ t a \ { ,c; ~ j - - h > , :. '( ~ ~ u \ ~ L


Jaa,
ano tokee wa

ikura desu ka.

A*a)'CTZ :':
Mise no hito
&3

&&l2 3 A e t t L * t h
Are

sanzengohyaku en desu.

< ;2hTT,

'1

1,

%7")-:
Mearii

k 3 TTh., &$LS f < h . ~ \ T $ & ,


Soo desu ka.
Are rno

takai desu ne.

a G ) ? * Tp f :
Mise no hito
* & ' I t >

*
Kore wa

&

T 2~ T T k o h ~ P

senhappyaku en desu yo.

7 % 7 l ] - : Mearii

EP&, + c 3 Z I j t \ 2
Jaa,
sono tokee

( t : 3 b ~ ~
kudasai.

A man finds
8

wallet on t h e ground.
r b t d -f:ihcr,
Kore wa dare no
Watashi no

Lh2L't.W
Shiranai hito
& & ' l i h

3c\,iaTT
saifu desu ka.

%Ti)-:
Mearii

b?zLG3 $ ~ \ ~ i a T - j - ~
saifu dew.

a&> ! h" I

Z2"~*~\& -j-,

Arigatoo gozai masu.

@ After shopping, Mary goes to a restaurant.


I

5'~-b
Ueetoresu

i L L Z f z - ?

k X :

~ \ ( , q I rasshaimase.

L+L\~-@~ZL-~ %=
Menyuu o

Z"-j Fo
doozo.

2 3 4 5 6

7 8

W o r d s

T h a t

* r#t * .ih * a j %h
* Y h

P o i n t kore
sore

this one

are

that one that one (over there)


which one

dore
kono

a * %a !
Z

this . . .
that . . .

sono
a no

z-0
* ibf t Yr * 7't'r$z
F o o d

dono
aso ko
doko

. . . (over these) which . . .


that over there

dare

where who

* ~.L\LL\

oishii
sakana

delicious fish pork cutlet meat menu


vegetable

tonkatsu
niku

menyuu
yasai

enpitsu
kasa

pencil.

umbrella

kaban

kutsu

saif u
jiinzu

bag shoes wallet


jeans

jisho

dictionary bicycle
newspaper
tape

jitensha
shinbun teepu

tokee
toreenaa

watch; clack sweat shirt

* Words

that appear in the dialogue

nooto

notebook
pen hat; cap

Pen
booshi

hon

book

P l a c e s
otearai
kissaten

restroom cafe

gin koo toshokan


yuubinkyoku

bank library post office

Counf r i e s
Amerika

Igirisu
Kankoku

U.S.A. Britain Korea


China

Chuugoku

keezai

economics computer business history

konpyuutaa bijinesu rekishi

okaasan

otoosan

mother father

M o n e y

M a f t e r s
ikura

* L\( 1 ;

how much

. . . en
takai

. . . yen
expensive

E x p r e s s i o n s * L \ & - L + L \ ~ * irasshaimase Welcome (to our store) * (- & ) -j-( . . . 0) onegaishimasu. . . , please. ( . . . O ) kuda~ai Please give me . . . * ( - 2 ) < f<S&\ * t"~a&, jaa then . . . ; if that is the

* (-4) -P ?9 ! * Z*? %

. . 01

doozo

doorno

case, . . . Here it is. Thank you.

What do we do when we want to talk about things that we do not know the names of? We say "this thing," "that one," and so forth- In Japanese, we use kwe, sore, and are.

t&la
Kore wa

LX

b-c$-hS,

Haw much is this?


Tht

ikura desu ka.

5Aeh2&T$,
Sore w a
sanzen en desu.

~ 3,000 yen.

Kore refers to a thing that is close to you, the speaker ("this thing here"). Sore is something that is close to the person you are talking to ("that thing in front of you"), and are refers to a thing that is neither close to the speaker nor the listener ("that one over there").
&+Ltd
Are wa

kJ7L;LQl +=/TTD
watashi no

x.

pen desu.

ZjklA
Kore wa

bkta
watashi no

~ 7 T j - ,
pen dew.

+h12
Sore wa

btz

watashi no

L@ K ~ T T ,
pen desu.

There is also an expression dore for "which." Here we wiIl learn to use dore in sentences like:

rs"ktT-j-&~,
Dore desu ka.

Which one i it (that you are talking about)? s

In this lesson, we will not explore the full extent to which the word dore can be put to use, because there is a slight complication with question words like dore, Question words like dwe and mni cannot be followed by the particle wa. Instead, you must use the particle ga and say:
Z*&hz & Q f = c ? ~
~ o r e g a anata no

*>feTh',
pen desu ka.

i L

Which m e is yoiw pen?

If you want ta be slightly more specific than kore, sore, and are, you can use kmo, s m o , and a m together with a n m . (Note here that the re series must always stand alone, while the m series must always be folbwed by a noun.) Thus, if you know that the item in your hand is a watch Ctokee), instead of:

Zt-lAd
Kore wa

hTT&-o <

How much

jS

this?

ikura desu ka.

you can say:


Z9Z&fW2
Kona tokee wa

L \ ( hT-j-&~o ikura desu ka.

HOW much i this watch? s

Similarly, if you are talking about a watch that is held by the person you are talking to, you can say:

+ a r t-$~lta x / - t ~ . ~ x / ; ? _ ~ ~ ~ - j - ~ ;
Sono toke wa
sanzen en

That watch is 3,000 yen-

desu.

And if the watch is far from both the speaker and the listener, you can say:

& ~ r ) Z d ; f ~ \ 13&-85Lz*lP+ RLTT, 3 (


Ano tokee wa

That watch over there is 3,500 y m .

sanzengohyaku en desu.

If you already know that one of several watches is 3,500 yen but do not know which, you can say:

z * 9 r c 3 ~ \ 6 ~h ~
Dono tokee ga

sanzengohyaku en desu ka.

~ ~ / t + v + ( ; ? - ~ /~- ~ ~ fwi ~ ,~ w r ~ u

c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u

Since dono is a question word, just like dore discussed above, we cannot use the particle wa with it; we must use ga.

To summarize:

zfi (fa-->
33% (kt-) (13~)
(fj;-)

Z @ noun (Ig--)

close to the person speaking close to the person listening


far from both people

53 noun (la--) 0 63 noun (I$--) 0


noun

(fi5--)

unknown

In Lesson 1, we learned how to say things like Mean? san no denwa bangoo (Mary's phone number) and Takeshi san no okaasa~ (Takeshi's mother). We now learn how to ask who something belongs to. The question word for "who" is dare, and for "whose," we simply add the particle no.

z$%tai r L h * t % t l T T h a o P' n #
Kore w a

+&la Z s r L o $ * I f A t f ,
Sore wa

dare no

kaban desu ka.

Suu san no

kaban desu.

Whose bag i s this?

That is Sue's bag.

We: will learn just one more ko-so-a-do set in this lessan: koko,soku,u s o h , and doko are
words for places.
7 -

LL

here, near ww .

?EZ
$;kZ

EZ

fhere, mar you over there where

You can ask far direti~rms saying: by

TkS,2*A,
Surnirnasen,

Ljp?ilF'A,41 ( I 3 Z * Z T T - ~ > E x m e me, where is fhe post ~


yuubinkyoku wa doko desu ka.

office?

If you are close by, you can point toword the post office and say:

(@jZP*h$a { (3) &%tTT,


(Yuubinkyoku wa)

(The post office 5,)right over there.

asoko desu.

We will learn how to give more specific directions in Lesson 4.

In Lesson I, we learned how to say "Item A is this, item B is that." We now learn how to say "Item A is this, and item B is this, too."

f=CTL 2 u

Takeshi san wa

it

nihonjin desu.

tzx/c~,-c+"p,

Takahi is a Japanese person.


Mkhiko i s Japanese, &.

& % r s A %i=~3ArLT-f0
Michiko san m r nihonjin desu.

Note that these two sentences are almost identical in shape- This is natural, as they both claim that a certain person is Japanese. The second sentence, however, is different from the first in that we do not find the particle wa in it. We have mo instead. Mo is a particle that indicates that that item, too, has the given property. One thing that you should watch out for is exactly where the particle is placed. In English, the word "too" can be placed after the sentence as a whole, as in the example above. Not so in Japanese. In the above example, mo must directly follow Michiko san.

-.---.
3

!A[ ( . iB. - . i ,
8

.----. ,
8 8

r a

TF, [ x i ?To
s
.

.-. ..A

.----*

A is X. BMisX.

4'

two items shared property'

To negate a statement of the farm X w a Y desa, where Y is a noun, you replace h 2 with ja apdmsn.

a &

Ji33E3Sttd h P ( i t ~ \ t " + & 9 3 - t S - h ol k & Y a m d a i s ~ o f a s t d ~ n f .


Yamada san w a

gakusee ja arimasen.

'We cannot use nao to describe a situation like the folIowing: Our friehd, Pat, has dud citizenship: Pat is a Japanese, but at the same -time, she is an Americart To describe the second half of this situation, we cannot say, P ~ t t o m ~ m & a j k desas, because the sentence would mean that Pat, in addition to sdmebady that has been mentioned, is an American- Neither cari we say, Pcaifu wza d a i b z m dem. (Japanese speakers would say, Patto ma amdajivt dma nrkwases.) 'n the dialogues, there are two sentences that end with d m , which call for special attention: Are m I tdad dmtl we (That one too is expensive), and Oishii desas yo (It is delicious). These sentences cannot be negated by replacing d m with ja a n h s e ~because taka%' okhii are not nouns. Are n%o takai , and ju ~ ~ n w b p eand oiskii ja a d m are therefore not grammatical. Instead, m e would have to say tt f ~ k a a r i m m and uishikzr a?+mmm.We will learn about the conjugation pattern of adjectives in k Lesson 5.

Ja in ja arimase~ a contraction of dewa. In written Japanese, the uncontracted form is is more common; thus, the above sentence more likely appears in writing as Yamada sari wa gakusee dewa arimasex.
affirmative: negative:

( X I$) Y F T o
(X

X & Y. X i~ isnot Y.

1 ) Y 6 8 9% P Q 2 e v

Statements often end with the tags ne or yo, depending on the way fhe speaker views the interaction with the listener. If the speaker is seeking the listener's confirmation or agreement to what has been said, then ~ z s ("right?") could be added.

')-$&a - t k h % h & ,i:X/hs( TTita, 3


Rii san no
senmon wa

r b

Ms.Lee,yourmaj~risliterature,~ght?

bungaku desu ne.

sh13 i Kore wa

L'*&;&, 3a*x/h,

This is mt meat, i it? s

niku ja arimasen ne.

Another particle, yo ("I tell you"), is added to a statement if the speaker wants to assure the listener of what has been said. With yo added, a statement becomes an authoritative decree.

Z h h > - l a S753QCeh!J 3 W d 0
Tonkatsu wa
sakana ja arimasen yo.

Let me assare you. "Tozkatsu" is not faSkt.

xrx;cshta . ~ T - ~ J Z L L T - ~ - . L ,
Surnisu san wa

i > F ' l T

igirisujin desu yo.

(In case you're wondering,) Mr. Smith is Brifish.

u.&SIfA,

E x p r e s s i o n NO*.$@)

(-&)<EeLlb ( . . . O) k z d h a i is "Please give me X." You can use it to request (concrete) items in general. (-&)ifi&fiqL\b%yb( . . . 01 megaishimmu too is a request for item X. When used to ask for a concrete object, ( . . . 01 onegakhimu sounds slightly more upscale than ( . . . o) kudcasai. Jt is heard often when ordering food at a restaurant ("I will have . . ."I. ( . . . 01 o n e g a i s h h u can also be used to ask for "abstract objects," such as repairs, explanations, and understanding.
is used when an offer is made with respect to item X. In the dialogue, the restaurant attendant uses it when she is about to hand the menu to the customer. It may also be used when a person is waiting for you to come forth with item X; a telephone operator, asking for your name, would probably say Onanaae o doozo. (0is a politeness marker. Therefore onamae is "your honorable name.")
0) doozo

(-%)EjFb ( - - -

On the pronunciation of number words b Note that the words for 300, 600, 800, 3,000 and 8,000 involve sound changes. "Counters" whose first sound is h, like h y a h (hundred), generally change shape after 3, 6, and 8 Some . counters that begin with s, like sen (thousand), change shape after 3 and 8. Refer to the table at the end of the volume.

Big numbers ) In addition to the digit markers for tens (juu), hundreds (hyaku), and thousands (sen), which are found in Western languages as welI, Japanese uses the marker for tens of thousands (man).Thus 20,000, for example, is niman (=2 x 10,000), rather than rtiiuusm (=20 X 1,000). While the next unit marker in Western languages is one milfion, Japanese describes that number as 100 x 10,000, that is, hyakumun. More complicated numbers can be considered the sums of smaller numbers, as in the following examples.
z-xv

234 567 = 23 x 10,000 4 X 1,000


&3-

I C93 3A s

h/

(nijuusanman)

5X

6~ 7

100 10

3 < C tg~ 3
8Q

br A,%!& =Up <

(yonsen)
(gohyaku)
(rokujuu) (nana)

@$3I; (Numbers)
I
100
200

?Ye<
hyaku
sen

10,000

t L
ichiman

t:v.i-.
nihyaku

<
<

c=*X,
nisen

20,000

4x3 A
niman

30,000 3 / t 3 / L
sanbyaku
sanman

400

1kV+
yonhyaku

40,000 k k 2 &
yon rnan

500

L*Vr.
gohyaku

<
G<*A
rokusen

50,000 Z*3. A
goman

60,000 6

rappyaku

rokuman

<

700 Q Q V + {
nanahyaku

QQ*#4,
nanasen

70,000 Q Q 3 A
nanaman

80,000 C;;S2;3k
happyaku
hachiman

600 3 ~ ~ 5 V . t . {
kyuuhyaku

woao

52

kyuuman

A. Read the following numbers. @

B. Look at the pictures and answer how much the things are.
. . -=

Example: Q :
Pen wa

L l ( bT-$-$xo ikura desu ka.

Hachijuu en desu.

Ex.

X,

C. Pair Work-One

of you looks at picture A and the other looks a picture B t

(p. 50). (Don't look at the other picture.) Find out the price of all items.

I , C Example: A : R / V 0 7d L
Enpitsu wa

< & TT &',

ikura desu ka.

I3 : ve

Hyaku en desu.

< 2&T3-0

Picture A

A. Items (1)through (6)are near you, and items (7) through (12) are near your friend. Your friend asks what these things are. Answer the questions. Pay attention to Z h (kore)and %h (sore). @
Example 1: Your friend :
Sore wa

Q AT-j-$k,
nan desu ka.

You : Z
Kore wa

-esTT,
pen desu.

^ :

x.

Example 2: Your friend : : (3 3 /Y Tf )z


Z l r 2 Q

Kore w a nan desu ka.


A

You:
Sore wa

PL-j--T--$o
toreenaa

desu.

6. Look at the picture and tell what each building is. @


Example:
Q

:
Are wa
Are wa

X/Tj*a,
nan desu ka.

A : AhtA Z

L a h*h'T$,

toshokan desu.

Ex.

C. Pair Work-Point out five things in the classroom and ask your partner what they are using L f i (kore),5;tz(sore), or &fi (are). Refer to the picture on p. 53
for the vocabulary.
Example 1:

Example 2:

A : & h i 3 QLT-j-fia,
Are wa
nan desu

A : +jh.tl
Sore wa

QXIT-f*~,
nan desu ka.
%

ka.

:
Are wa

Zif~\T-"p,
tokee desu.

B :t

wa

~x=j-,
pen desu.

Kore wa

D. Pair Work-One

of you looks at card A and the other looks at card B (p. 51). Ask and answer questions to find out the price of each item. Use ZC5, (kono),c D t

(sono), or

(ano)appropriately.
Kono hon wa

Example: Customer : L a &a ti L ( L; TT h x , k


ikura desu ka.

Store attendant : i=+?ttVe z AT?,


Nisen

hyaku en desu.

<

Card A

Part I. You are a store attendant. Tell the customer how much each item is.

Part 11. You are a customer. Ask for the prices 'of items (1)-(5).

Pair Work-Point at each item below (picture A) and ask whose it is. Your partner will refer to the picture B (p.52) and tell you who it belongs to.

3 Example: A : Z kz 4
Kore wa

fsfic3
dare no

hx ti. TT&.,
kasa desu ka.
kasa desu.

B : $ 7 ' 1 - $ A @ ha5TT,
Mearii san no

n h l i b

Picture A

Switch roles with your partner.

@B%ft";shr% tjRIZhrl;hPf
Look a the pictures below and describe each picture. @ t

Example:

Ex. Japanese
Father
3 ~ ~ ~

S Z i S h t A G113X/t'h/T%
Otoosan wa

Mother
~ ~ ~

nihonjin desu.

Sh*&3hS i
Okaasan mo

nihonjin desu.

(1) second year

(3) 22-years old

Mary

Tanaka

Takeshi

Robert

(4)

zG\ fL
tokee

(5) vegetable

(6) U. of London students

A. Look at the chart on the next page and answer t h e questions. @


ExampIe:

Q : 9711-$At3
Mearii san wa

a h & ? c r

1~13X,cX/-p$-$a,
nihonjin desu ka.
& a h 1 r ) .

A 2
lie,

. C - i S X . C / Y L ' p & q a * ~ o p$I,fic/&T-j-,


nihonjin ja arimasen.
Amerikajin desu.

1.
2.

Ak-? t 9 h t 3
Takeshi san wa 4 I B t: Z

-f;@

i:C +

L'hCTh*,

chuugokujin desu ka.


& & ' I d .

Dl<-- 3 At3 j . Robaato san wa

7 % 73 UX/*C*-j-&.,
amerikajin desu

ka.

3-

0 3 L f;*XI*~\l2
Yamashita
4 1 K h Y

fill"; ( ~ ~ T - g - 6 . 0
kankokujin desu ka.

sensee wa

4. a)<- 1. 3 A o
Robaato san no t i

+!-A,%Ar2 ~ = & z & ~ * - p j - ~ ~ ~


senmon wa

nihongo desu ka.

5. X - S h Q l
Suu
sari

+FL,& Al2 C - f ~ ~ F w p j - h ~ ~
senmon wa

no

keezai desu ka.

6. f ~ 4 - f L 3 /;id
Takeshi san wa

F ~ l t < b \ $ <(

$. { *rlT-j-&h, .
gakusee desu ka.

Toozai daigaku no

7. 9 7 1)

r h h 1 L 1

- 5 x/ta

n2

& & E X .

F =/~"<LW d 2 ( +k~>Tlrf-lr*, { Q I
gakusee desu ka.

Mearii san wa

Rondon daigaku no

8. i= C L 3 A 3 t z i Q k * ~ \ c i l " * k ~ , ? j E
Takeshi san wa
ninensee desu ka.

9. 2 - 3
5 E h

-f i

xlta L ~ ~ ; & A + ? L \ T T & ~ ~


ichinensee desu ka.
Y

Suu san w a

10. a / < - - 3 h i d k
Robaato san wa

tah*~~TTh~,
yonensee desu ka.

Nationality

American

Japanese

Korean
Seoul Univ.
computer

British

Japanese

School
Major
Year

U. of Arizona Tozai Univ.


Japanese
history

U. of London Tozai Univ. (Japanese business


teacher)

2nd year

4th year

3rd year

4th year

B. Pair Work-Ask your partner whose belongings items (1) through (7) are. Your partner will refer to the picture on t h e next page and answer the questions.
* & I ) b l

Example: A : Z h G d % 7 ' ) - 3 h @SL\,<~TT$~,


Kore wa

Mearii san no
Mearii san no
1
6.

saifu desu ka. saifu ja arimasen.


saifu desu ka.

lie,

A :
Kore wa
9

'I-~&cT)S~h,iXrfh~,
Rii san no
b>

B : 2 2 , ')-SLa ~ L \ L S T - $ - ~
Ee,
Rii san no

saifu desu.

&

97')Mearii

ajz
Yoo ko

@b

&a@ #"Lh@ 3 1/

(Review Exercises)

A. Role Play-One student is a store attendant. The other is a customer. Use Dialogue I as a model.

B. Role Play-One student is a waiter/waitress. The other student goes to a restaurant. Look at the menu below and order some food or drink, using Dialogue II as a model.

Pair work @ C.
Example: A : 2 XlV9 tA t: ( l; T T h a ,
Enpitsu wa

ikura desu ka.

Hyaku en desu.

Pair Work @ D.
Example: Customer : z 13

6 3

l\ (

6 TT f i x o

Kono hon wa

ikura desu ka.

Store attendant : C=+X/iY+ ( Z hTT,


Nisen hyaku en desu.

Card B

E. x

(3)

Part I. You are a customer. Ask for the price of items (1)-(5).

Part 11. You are a store attendant. TeIl the customer how much each item is.

Pair Work @)
Example:

A : LkLba fs#'L@ h'sTTi3',


Kore wa
K l & ' l t >

dare no

kasa desu ka.

6 :%7'1-3/La
Mearii san no

&+TTo
kasa desu.

Picture B

-f 5

2Suu

Takeshi

Mearii

Robaato

Yamashita sensee

Iln t h e

C l a s s r o o m

Useful Expressions

b 5 3 3 I# k, 1.
Wakarimashita.

I understand./I understood.

&?$%!I
@=I

Wakarimasen.

a%&,
rJ
bh7-C ( ~ itte kudasai.

I don't understand./I don't know.


S S L ~ ~

Please speak slowly.


Please say it again.

Yukkuri

& 9 ~6 Z*
Moo ichido
I

~ f I{

f2-3L

L ~

jtte kudasai.

G17Z 37T(?S3hl
Chotto
matte kudasai.

Please wait.

?-ba$g%

Making a Date

Mary and Takeshi are talking.

@ On Sunday morning, at Mary's host family's.

Takeshi: Mary, what do you usually do on the weekend?

Mary: Let's see. I usually study at home- But I sometimes see movies. Takeshi: I see , . . then, would you like to see a movie on Saturday?
Mary: Saturday is not a good day. (lit-, Saturday is a little bit [inconvenient]

- .. )

Takeshi: Then, how about Sunday?


Mary: That's fine.

Mary: Good morning.

Host mother: Good morning. You are early, aren't you?

Mary: Yes, I'm going to Kyoto today. 1 will see a movie in Kyoto.
Host mother: Good. Around w h t time will you come back?

Mary: Around nine.


Host mother: How about dinner?

Mary: I will not eat.

Host mother: I: see. Well, have a nice day.


Mary: Good-bye.

Enterfuinment a n d Sports

movie music magazine sports date (romantic, not calendar) tennis TV video tape; VCR
Foods and Drinks

s 3 t-f
* t3XI

ak, 5 Z"II h

$fi%@x
i%% %%

3-tX/
Y%&t&
&@I@

bf-eakfast sake; alcohol green tea coffee dinner


hamburger

$
Places
t1 5

lunch water

* 9%

home; house home; house; my place language Iab school

Time

&5 bi L k
L \9

* 915
*
Z h23*."h

* L@929 * r'k-iilP * l t G k 5v
* Words
that appear in the dialogue

morning tomorrow when today at about tonight weekend Saturday Sunday

3 k\tr& 3 t\t$X/
U - v e r b s
*
L\

4tE

every day
every night

-@a

* ha&&
'4 ("
a$ )'

1 Q 33

to go (destinatian t I % /) to go back; to return (destination i= to listen; to hear (- 2 to drink (-4) to speak; to talk (hng?cage 2 l T ) to read (-2)

to get up

to eat (- % ) to sleep; to go to sleep to see; to look at; to watch

I r r e g u l a r V e r b s b * -jt-g * + L ~ L ~ T &% % T G

<

to come (destinatks 1 ~ / 2 ) to do (-4) to study (-2)


good
early

A d v e r b s ;ti 3 9 4- negative -E +?* k 4- negative

&%

* f;~\ft\ * Gdr7Z

A*

r3r"3 k<
E x p r e s s i o n s

Q.;T

not much not at all usually a little sometimes often; much


&.

* T 1a T2 * T& * z*? TjW

+=,

That's right.; k t me see. hut How about . . . ?; How is . . . ?

G
1 i% 3

I$3

Verb Conjugation
Verbs in Japanese conjugate, or take various shapes. In this lesson, we learn three forms: (1) the "dictionary forms," ( ) the present tense affirmative forms, and (3) the present 2 tense negative forms.' There are two kinds of verbs that follow regular conjugation patterns, and an example of each is beloiv.

verb bases

ru-verb tabe
(to eat)

u-verb

i k

dictionary forms
present, affirmative

E< (to 90)


LI

&<bb

present, negative

&<a@h
t;

5SZT L)

stems

i 4

&-;. 4 belongs to the group of verbs called the "ru-verbs." RZL-verbs so called, because are you add the suffix ru to the verb base (tabe, in the above example) to form the dictionary form. For the two long forms we learn in this lesson, you simply add the suffixes mnszc and masen, instead of Y U , to the bases. We learn four ru-verbs in this lesson:

Another major group of verbs is called the "u-verbs." The dictionary form of an a-verb like f i { can be broken down into the base (ikin f i e above example) and the suffix u. The long forms like $T 1 3 -if and 6 3 h, then, are formed with the base plus suffixes 3 i m s u and imasen. You may find the u-verb conjugations sIightly more difficult than the ru-verb conjugations, because of the extra vowel i. We learn six u-verbs in this lesson:
I 1

1>

I%

h he use of the t r "dictionaxy forms" is by no means restricted to listings in a dictionary. They also em
appear in various constructions in actual sentences. We will learn their uses in later chapters. Don't be misled by the names given to the long foms too; the "present tense" in Japanese can indicate both the "present" and the "future." We will return to this issue in Section 2 below. For the moment, we will concentrate on the foms, not the meaning of these verbs.

In later lessons, we will have many opportunities to refer to the parts like $k< and E 3 , t which come before 3 T and 3 * A in the long forms. For the sake of ease of reference, we will call these parts (same as bases with ru-verbs, and bases plus i with a-verbs) "stems."
Ir

In addition to ru-verbs and u-verbs, there are two "irregular verbs." Note that the voweIs in their bases are different in the short (dictionary) forms and the long forms.
irregular verbs

dictionary forms present, affirmative

35 (to do)
l/S*

< Q (to come)


$25 3beh

present, negative
sterns

tBeh b

These two verbs are also used to form compound verbs. In this lesson, we learn the verb &S 96 , which conjugates just like the verb -;f 8. *L?'i? It is important to remember which verb belongs to which conjugation class. It is a good idea, therefore, to memorize each verb as a set: instead of memorizing just the dictionary form, try to memorize the dictionary form and the present tense affirmative, like ;T;i- < $7 3 f T. This is especiaIly important with verbs that end with the hiragam b , because they may be irregular verbs like 3- b and ( 6 , or ru-verbs, or u-verbs whose bases just happen to end with the consonant r. If you know the verb classes and the rules that apply to them, you know why it is wrong to say X IL 1 3 9 and XHir 4 -f.' d'*
L L
t l

verb bases
long forms
stems

EB (= a ru-verb) B mi

fiz

(= an u-verb that ends with 5)

kaer

W,d$/Sbt% P W
E! a9

$S!9%6/IIbD$Wh, %I'T h'x

E3 u 7i'X

'Things are not as bad as you might expect after reading the above paragraph. The key lies in the second from the last syllable in a dictionary form. The irregular verbs set aside, if you see the vowels a , o, or u right before the final 4 , you can be absolutely sure that they are a-verbs. (We have not learned any such verbs yet.) Unfortunately for us, the logic does not follow in the other direction; there are m-verbs and u-verbs that have the vowels i and e before the final 4 . 2 5 has the vowel e before 4 and is a ru-verb. n- L 8 , on the other hand, has the same sound sequence, but is an u-verb. ' R
I>

In this lesson we learn about a dozen v e r b that describe basic human actions. Thew are often called "action verbs," and the "present tense'' of these verbs either meam (I) that a pezs'son habitually or regularly engage in these activities, or (2) that a person will, or is planning to, perform these activities in -the future.
Habitual actions:
1 often watch TV.

% 7 I)

-3 kI3 Z 3 ~ "1 3 $ c"b3X/ 2 i


A

f:

3 -kkxl, Mary sometimes doesn 't eat breukfarf.

Future actions:

1 will go to Kyoto taorrow.


Sue will nof return home today.

Nauns used in sentences ~rnerd1y must be foll.2awed by gar&icIes, which indicate the relations that the nouns bear to the verbs.' Ia this lesson, we learn four particles: T kc, , ", and 8 . .

The particle Tindicates where the event described by the verb takes placee4

HS%T*2%&&T0 r L *&X-ISX. 1
-i G z T t / Y $ R f To
L,

I will read books i the library. z


I will watch TV at home.

(L The particle G= has many meanings, but here we will learn two: (1) the goal toward which things move, and (2) the time at which an event takes pIace.

(I) goal of movement I will lzot go to school today.

1 milk retarn home.

3 ~ spoken language, particles are often "dropped."We will learn more about such cases in Lesson 15. n "In later Iessons, we will be introduced to verbs that require particles other than T to express location.
-.

- -- - -

(2) time

I will go to Kyatu on Sunday1 will go to bed at elmera.


(Some time words stand alone, without the particle C tagging along, which will be : discussed in Section 4 below.) Approximate time references can be made by substituting 2"5 or r'5 1: for t:. Thus,

L'm-illij U

-+-%<*& (I=)Ef o T h

I will go to bed at ubout ekeves.

4 The particle 2, too, indicates the goal of movement. The sentences in (1)above there-

fore can be rewritten using

instead of I:. Note that this particle is pronounced "e."

Note that may replace the particle it only in the goal-of-movementsense. The particle 4: for time references and other uses, which we will learn about in later lessons, cannot be so replaced. The particle 2 indicates "direct objects," the kind of things that are directly involved in, or affected by, the event. Note that this particle i s pronounced "o."

I l i s t e ~ tapes. to'
I watch TV.

You need the particle br with U) the days of the week like "on Sunday,"and (2):numerical
time expressions, like "at lo:&,"
and "in September."

1 get up at l0:42.

I will go buck i September. n


You do not use the particle C: with (I) time expressions defined relative to the present moment, such as "today" and "tomorrow," (2) expressions describing regular intervals, such as "every day," and (3) the word for "when."

1 will c m e t m r r o w . 1 watch TV ezlery ewming.

When will you go? You normally do not use : G with (1) the parts of a day, like "in the morning" and "at night," and (2) the word for "weekend." Unlike words like i L f z and 4P!! above, howh 3 rxrrx. ever, these words are sometimes followed by G:, depending on styles, emphases, and personal preferences.

I read the newspaper i the morning. a


What will you do on weekends?

You can use 2 I= present tense negative verb, plus the question particle) to the extend an invitation. It should be noted that its affirmative counterpart, 2 TBs,canlzot be so used. Thus a sentence like &5TlatLQ :t 3 33. can only be construed as a question, U5 not as an invitation.

What do you say to having lunch with me?


Sou~ds great.

Wikl you play temzis with me?

Um,it's slightly (zmmoenimffor me

nt thiq

mmmt).

J a p a u e sentences are fairly flexibie i hearrangement of ekments that appew in them. n Generally, sentences are made up of se~esai noun-particle sequences followed by a verb QP an adjective, which in turn is often fallowed by a sentence-final particle such as a=, &, ou k . Among ihe noun-partick sequences, their relative orders are b a large extent &ee.

A typical sentence, therefore, looks like the following, but several other arrangements of noun-particle sequences are also possible.
L

bf:L

?ii

T
Y

Lkd-X.

topic

time

place

a+zg :
1- 13X,

%BL$T,
+32?

object

verb

1 will study Japanese a'= the &raw today.


*f:L

w a

dt:

4=%tv5 3 % Lt; U

topic frequency

time

goal

5.5

wo
verb

I ofken go back home at around s e v a .

You can add a frequency adverb such as -&El (everyday), k ( (often), and Z 3 ~ ' 3 3 (sometimes) to a sentence to describe how often you do something.
r,l-tj

1 smtimes go to a coffee shop.

--/-'

In thisjesson, we also learn two adverbs which describe how izfrequmt an activity or an -._ -event is; +??A+Fk (never; not at all) and 2 3 ' (not often; not very much). These adverbs 5 I anticipate the negative at the end of t h e sentence. If you use *X/+frt or 2 2 1, in other 5 words, you need to conclude the sentence with 1*A.
I do mt watch TV at all. Takahi dues nut sfudy much.

As we saw in Lesson I, the particle M presents ~e topic of one's utterance ("As for item X, it is such #at. .."). It puts forward the item that you want to talk about and comment an, You may have noted that the topic phrases in sentences such as % 7 '1 - 3 ttME%ik SLh&ict> TT ( M a r y is a third-year student), and &&L *A,&& B +S?T ( M y major is Japanese %~3SBE3id ItL 2 4: language), are the subjects of those sentences. A topic phrase, however, need not be the subject of a sentence- We see three sentences in the dialogue of this lesson where rmonsubject phrases are made topics with the help o the particle kt. f

rrr 'I --%A, s s r a t = t ~ L t~\ ~ ~~ ~ T Mary, mhuf do jorr usually do FIE^ we~kmd?
bj33

~ ,

I'm gozng to Kyoto todoy.

+s3 Ea3@c=.SSji3g-, 3 x
I l i Z
t>

In the above two examples, C promotes time expressions as the topic of each sentence. Its d effects can be paraphrased like these: "Let's talk about weekends; what do you do on weekends?" "Let me say what I will do today; I will go to Kyoto."

RZ*ldAfld ? rr/v How about dinner?


In this example, Id is used rn directing the listener's attention and thereby inviting a comment or completion of a sentence. You may also note that the broached topic, R t*ld rzd, A, does not stand in subject relation to the verb, but is rather its direct object.

~s!/-b

Expression

Notes@)

fi</%S When you move to a place where the hearer is, you say "I'm b Ll < coming." in English. However in the same situation, SEAEf33 T is used in L Japanese. SfFB is a movement toward the place where the speaker is. 5 <
L,

is a movement in a direction away from the speaker.

<

CI

speaker's viewpoint)

5 & 3 &b G dr 3 2 literally means '<alittle,'' "a bit," "a small amount," as in % k 7 2 < F S t s IPIease give me a Little) and 3 r 7 2%-T ( f Z S c l %

(Please wait for a moment). It is commonIy used for a polite refusal. In this case, it means "inconvenient," "impossible," and so on. Japanese people don't narmdy reject requests, suggestions, or invitations with t 3 t 3 A (No), because it sounds too direct.
A : *@ElfJ t~%fi@E% %!tLfi~p Will YOU seg a movie on Saturday? EL3 ft3s A l3 :*EEli&. t3&-3k0 Saturduy i not convmimts F k 3 FI (i. Saturday is a little bit*) lt,

;ncv

L93

P r a c t i c e
I%tb

@ZKP*Z~%T ha
k

A. Change the following verbs into

-23 and --bI?h. @

B. Look at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues. @
(a) Add the appropriate verbs to the following direct objects.
Example:

$k% 7- L

%%PS$k3To . 3.
> < -,

Ex. %% r;< L

(1) 7

coffee shop/3:00

college/every day

(b) Add the place to the above sentences.


Example: library
+

E!/%@-c="%%T L ??s-43 To YLrd.A Y 2

C. L w k at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues. @


Example: go to the post office
+

%@6i i=e 3 To 3 WjWX.3r


t b

Ex. go to the post office

(I) go to the library

( ) come to school 2

(3) come to the coffee shop

( ) return home 4

(5) return to the U. S.

Sunday

tomorrow

D. Pair Work-Make
Example:

questions, using verbs we have learned in this lesson.


"c-t

El~@T%S~S4$.T6~o
L

8 : 2 2 , % & 2 - j - , / ~ \ ~ \ 2a, A $ * & , % a

E. Pair Work-Guessing game


Ask questions and find out the items your partner has chosen.

1. Before you start, both of you will choose one item in each row of the table and mark it. 2. In each row, using the verb and one of the four items, make a yes-or-noquestion sentence and find out which item your partner has chosen. 3- You can ask at most two questions with one verb. If you have guessed correctly the item your partner has chosen, you score a point. Your partner will not give away the right answer when you ask a wrong question. 4. When you have asked questions about all the verbs in the table, switch roles with your partner and answer their questions. 5. Tabulate the score. You win the game if you have scored higher than your partner.

Example: A

: %Eice?i#$dh, I : ' t > ~ v E ,e &*,Lo 3 3 A :%&*-fi3f T 5 7% 3 rx


At-:
j
I N

L.

6
--I373 3 i,

la L h, f i 3 2 To (A guessed what B marked, therefore A won.)


I.

post office
TV sake

school movie

coffee shop
video
water

library

-2K3-P
A

cartoon(2 h.69
coffee

-2eka2-p rn

green tea
newspaper
study

--i2%&3-T L
--%La?

book date

magazine
telephone

Japanese book
tennis

A. Look at Mary's schedule and answer the following questions. @


Mary's S c h e d u l e
A.M. get up ....................... .......................

7:30
8:OO

....................... .......................
....................... .......................

eat breakfast
go to school eat lunch drink

8:30

....................... ......................

12:OO

..............................................

3:00 P.M.
4:OO

coffee

....................... .......................

play tennis

.............................................

500

go home

6:30
7:OO

eat dinner
watch TV

....................... .......................

....................... .......................

........................ .......................

8:OO

study

1 :30 1

go to bed

13. Pair Work-Ask


Example: A

your partner what time they do the following things.


U
%

: fi% 3 2 T$ao 4% 1 r,.&


Your partner's s c h e d u l e
time
............................. ............................

............................. ............................

1
)
)

get UP

............................. ............................

eat breakfast
go to school

............................. ............................

.........................................................

)
)

eat lunch
go home

,.................. ..................

........... ..........

go to bed

C. Look at the pictures in I-B (p. 65) and I-C(p. 66), and add the time expressions

to the sentences. @
Example: 2:00
+

=%i=B%@?*??%&$T, :C L ' r L 1h.k M/Y rt

@ ~-k-anasvhn\ a
A. Make suggestions using the cues below. @

Example: drink coffee

- k - 5? & A 3
0

a',
3. play tennis 6. talk at a coffee shop

I. see a movie
4. eat dinner 7. drink tea at home

2. come to my house 5. study in the library 8. listen to the music

B.

Pair Work-Ask
1

your friend out for the activities in the pictures.


;

Example: A : f&Eh 2

2 +?k h.,
7

B : L \ L \ T T ~ j /j A, G k ,

Z.---.-,

Ex.

Baa*esaaq [=%ah a
SLI

How often do you do the following activities? Answer the questions using the expressions below. Example: Q

: *&%h3T.hxo 1tX a

: 22. 1 < :I% A 2 - $ - o / ~ ~ b ~ 29%&3*h* . I

@ 2 &&(nsg(Review Exercises) %LhrL@3


A. Answer the following questions.

B. Tell your

classmates what your plans are today/tomorrow/on the weekend.


i - i
1:

Example: 4 8 L A = ~ l = L L G = ~ 3 Z ~ , ~ Z H ~ @ C B + % B & ~ & L ~ T ~ 3 %


U

u~mc

I*

5X. t

Y C 16.k

I lih :

: -v/vfi

C. Class Activity-Find someone who . . .


name

I. gets up at 7 o'clock.
2. eats breakfast every day.

3. speaks French.
4. watches T V at home.

5. listens to Japanese music.


6 . plays tennis.

D. Suggest to a classmate that you do something together over the weekend. Use Dialogue I as a model.

?na7@7-bThe First Date


A
7yLl

Z E -E ~ D i a l o g u e a
Mary goes downtown.

@ In the evening, at Mary's host family's house.

@ On the phone.

Mary: Excuse me. Where is McDonald's?

Stranger: It is in front of that department store.

Mary: Thank you.

M w : I'm home.

Host father: Welcome home. How was the movie?

Mary: I didn't see it, Takeshi didn't come.

Host father: Oh, why?


Mary: I don't know. So, I went to a bookstore and a temple alone.
Host father: Were there a lot of people?

Mary: Yes. I took many pictures at the temple. I also went to a department store. Here's a souvenir for you.

Host father: Thank you.


Host mother: Oh, Mary, you had a phone call a little while ago.

Takeshi: This is Kimura.

Mary: Hello, is this Takeshi? This is Mary. Takeshi, you didn't come today, did you?

Takeshi: I went there, 1 waited for one hour in front of the B2iagen-Dazs place. M r : Not Hiiagen-Dazs, McDonald's! ay Takeshi: McDonald's . . . I'm sorry!

N o u n s
Activities

r~wv
75Xk\

t fi

97.x
People and Things

part-time job shopping class

A 2 a'f=
L

YOU

*
L z+$

dog souvenir

TI3 h

* LetL
- 3 <i ?

bz
/C)

Places

* -.

1XXTL~

* l3A?

Time

* $73 * --U&hL cf. L \ G 13'h X k


* Words
that appear in the diaIogue

-</f
u'z
%Tb
2-ff-

child rice; meal picture; photograph desk letter cat bread person

temple
park supermarket

ri2h

1 .

v*d: ")\I"
iS; .? Jb

26

l/xl.32

department store bus stop hospital hotel bookstore town; city restaurant

$a3

yesterday a Tittle while ago


hour

one hour

last week when . . . ; at the time of . . .

c--a)
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

to meet; to see (a person) (person 1 = ) there is . . . (-$*)

tobuy (-2) to M t e (person 1- thkg to take (pictures) (- 2 ) to wait (- 2 to understand (-fix)

$1

(a person) is in (place: 4 )

. . . ; stays at . . .

A d v e r b s
--("E;LI

a n d

O f h e r

* Z*&,&~$L\ * f?h x b * f = {3 L
-Z

E x p r e s s i o n s about (approximate measurement) I'm sorry.


so; therefore

* Z"-i L T * V Z q T * %t%t
L o c a f i o n

many; a lot together with (a person) why alone

HeIIo? (used on the phone)

W o r d s

A 3*
ZPt:

*
&
3C.

right

(-a)
(-n)

* 3 2
j

a 3

t5

4E G

fd -ha

left front back inside on

(--@I
(--a)
(ma)

92

+.

L f=

under near
next

I %
% Z.
7

(-a) (--a) (---a)


( A Y- B ~ 3 )

L L

between there
here

X -hP 21 9 17 T means "there is/are X (nonliving thing)." The particle hr introduces, or presents, the item X. You can use & 9 1 3-when you want to say that there is something at a certain location.
There's a McDonald's aver there.
Note that B 9 f P is different from other verbs we have seen so far on the following three counts. One, it calls for the particle 41,rather than for the place description. Two, the place description usually comes at the beginning of the sentence. Three, the thing description is usualIy followed by the particle ;3.', rather than 13.

You can also use 6., 1 3 9 to say that you have or own something-'
1 dm't have a TV.

Do you hawe time?

We also use i 1 3 I$ when we want to say that o7a event will take b
There will be an exam m Tuesday.
#5

L f z M a *%c 03 5t 7 2 i:hr $5 3 $ ,# I t& i


i :

There will be no Jupamse class tomorrow.

When you want to present a person or some other sentient being, rather than a thing, you need to use the verb ~ 1 T . Thus, 2 ~

'Note the difference between: 7 L Y E & 9 3 +2 (I don't have a TV), the negative version of 7 I/ UVaR 1 f rf , and tt 7 7. L C + W 3 3 *tL (It isn't a TV), the negative version of .? L 'In a minor detail which we will not discuss any further here, when ;k, I9 ?f is used in the sense of an event taking place, the place description is followed by the particle T, like normal verbs and unlike the other uses of & 9 1 Note also that some time expressions (such as E3 5 &I)come with the particle 1:, 3 and some others (such as W L f ~ ) not (see Lesson 3). The rute applies to the & 1 3 T sentences as well. do 3Note that the same verb "is"in English comes out differently in Japanese: There is an i~temutimal stdmt over there. i5 Z t 1: 'kbi*'<*. 5% 1 3 T, Q 9Y Mary i ala i i e t e m t h a l student. s % 7 '1- 3 tt i3 8 % ! kT . . F -f + c , 2 f and & 9 1 T are strictly for descriptions of existence and location, while TT is for description of an attribute of a person or a thing.

a.

%s+*Z<+C>

There's a% i n t e ~ t i o n a l student oaer there


Thwe &/are . . .

person fig

Ll ZT

We learned in Lesson 2 that' to ask for the location of item X, you can use the word Z+Z (where) and say X td Z* Z Trtfhh. Where's McDonald's?

In response, one can, of course, point and say:

-7

7 C j - I L Y la

i6.F:
L

MrDonoM9s i s

over there. right i h w g near youright hen?.

In this lesson, we will learn to describe locations in more detail. More specifically, we learn to describe the location of an item relative to another item, as in "X is in front of Y." The Japanese version looks like X 12 Y @MITT. d l

( 7 7 F ~ - I L F ~ Q H * I ~ - b a%-cT0 &~ ) aa It's ifi frolzf o f that department storeOther useful words describing locations are as follows:
location words

- as
Ut-2! 3

'

- fo the right o f
to the left of
k frmi! of behid
Xis
inside

3%
XktY03<

5% C l k 51%~

em5..
X I2 Y & Z DSLlETT,

onlabone ~ d e rbeneath l near next to X is betwgn Y u ~ 2. d

5L5 &' T Z l - 0 h

Y.

sm3@@%?a 9 TT0 za
3: Ai
r L ~ d - X .

The baxk i next to the library. s


3 E T -7*1b 3 @TTT,
L f:

The umbrella i under the table. s

L X b 7 >t2Tt/'-

j Z%EaaTTD ,
Cf~ir.X,
fit,,?

The restaarant i betwez the department store? and the hospital. s

One can use any of the above location words together with a verb to describe an event that occurs in the place. To use these phrases with verbs such as &-f 6 and EFg, one will need f : f the particle T.

hkL

$~ia~\-/i";.9*>;1~7um-c% - 3 k e % G 2 L f z o 7 3 i3 1 waited for Mary i fymt o f fhe ffgag~n-Dms n phce.

The past tense foms of verbs look like the following, where -- stands for the stem of a verb.
affirmative
negative

present tense
past tense

-3s

-2Wh

--%tk

I did wo2- stvdy Jzpanese yesterday.


The various details of formation of the long forms that we Iearned in Lesson 3, like the rol-verblu-verblirregularverb distinctions, all apply to the past tense fonns as well.

*3oth X XY ~9Z

Another word for "near" that i also commonly used is t;ZY < . s fb 1) T$ and X MY 0k L TT describe situations where two items (X and Y) are found side by side. For a Y Q 9 sentence to be considered appropriate, items X and Y need to belong to the same category; two people, two buildings, and so forth. In contrast, an item can be 1 E. in relation to another item even if they are quite distinct. The tekphone i by the restrom s 0%%f;rak 4 L nkLT3, x'd31at.r V ~ L : Q ~ T + (odd) , 7-X. h

The past tense versions of "X C Y I

TT" sentences look like the following.


negative

affirmative
present tense

- 7 3

past tense

-TLk

--GSZE!~~@~ --~+&!9$t%~tk~

IMP: Yamtzshzta was. a studmf at Tozai U~iversify.

+3 Lfi+b,LYt*

LT*&~3*BA*a*3TLf..* Y BC( Xsx


% <

That was not a Japanese movie-

atj#-~E;;ta~a@EL"e&- c L 7 " r . I) a e x l i IXX. : d '


;ti'

Bxgmssion~of quantity in Japanme me rather different h m those in English. In f Jmanesb if mu want to add a quantity word like 1 i 3 to the direct object o a " : serrtmce, rau ean either pHce it befare the noun, or after the particle 2 .

F32t: {
$At3S@T
b*L
323

L*L&

f:

< SAFS&
L+L/"

$$% 3

2 L f;,

I took maxy pictures i~ Kyoto.

The duration of an activity is expressed with a bare noun, like U 5 L . Such a noun stands P4. alone (that is, not followed by any particle) and usually appears immediately before the verb.

-*

% r 1 ~ - " r ~ i a + r ~ t z i L' t Is x /tk,e r ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ er ~ b h-/,

Mary waited for Takeski there for an hoar.


For an approximate measurement, you can add
( h .
x7

after -eC C 6& . h B

'As was the case with the present tense L' s & 1 3 %?A, written language would more likely have T ; $5 Ct ' 3 * h t L f = , insteadofthecontractedfom L'rh !!3+ktLTLf=. I 7 As we learned in Lesson 3, for "at about a certain time" we have another word z'&.

hf-L

? A t 2 3 ~j a+s$E*ila7 C ~ L Y & % Lf:,~ , L I: IIL? >X. L. d" , -;LW I studied Japa~ese about three hours yesterdayfor

1 speak Japanese d English.


1 went to Kyoto & g
Osaka.

The other meaning of Z is "together with"; it describes with whom you do something.'

%7'J-3X/E32-2&Y@~l=fi,3.aT,
-4-k:

Mary will go to Korea with Sue.

<

I*

We learned in Lesson 2 that we use the particle % in reference to the second item which shares a common attribute with the first. You can also use $ when two or more people perform the same activity.

I w m t fo Kyoto yesterday.
P A

L k+?&+i~>-

*% 3

c3 3

I.+? Z

3% i=?fr * 3 3 t 7"z,

Pmfesso~ Yamashifa wmt to Kyoto yesferday, too.

Or when someone buys, sees, or eats two or more things.

Mary bogghf shoes.

Mary bought a bag, tooIn both cases, t directly marks an item on the list of things or people that have something in common. Observe that $ replaces the particles 12, dr, or 2 in these sentences.
You can also use t when you go to two places, do something on two different occasions, and so forth.

8 ~ o can use Z to connect nouns only. We will learn about connecting verbs and sentences in Lesson 6. u '"With" as in "with chopsticks" requires another particle. See Lesson 10.

1 went to Kyoto last week.

1 wmt to Osaka, too.


u p s -

5 3 h l d &f% Ei 3V k
f t G l i if

E = r P - - 7 4 --t=$f?
Ii

3 Lfzo

Robert went to a party on Saturday.


H % H I . ~ t r f - ? d --t~$733 fzo L , He went fu a party on Sunday, foo.
L

We put $ after the particle t= in these sentences. More generally, particles other than d2, 55 and ?? are used together with &, rather than being replaced by it.

..

Expression

Notes@

X is often used in the sense of "across (the street) from X" or X bx "opposite X." You may also hear another word that is used in the sense of across, namely, X 8 Q fiht1. If something is b&ind X, or farther away from a street and cannot be directly seen because of the intervening X, in addition to calling it X OB 5 , JL you can also describe it as being X a)5 5 .

/& 3 ) In t h e dialogues, we observe Mary's host father saying L 3 , and her host mother saying 21 . k 3 is like the incredulous "what?" that 3
3

you use when you have heard something that is hard to believe. 3 is used when you have suddenly noticed or remembered something. The small -;, at the end of these littIe words indicates that these words, when pronounced, are very short.

=eB* b % (half) appears after the unit word like @E. Thus, ''two hours E
and a half" is X@Bi+ rather than I + U 3 B i . C C *,%l2b9 I CtA C ;
1Z LfJhElu
@A2

*A

% b% b & t b L is "hello," which is used only i telephone conversab n tions. Some people use & t % L when they place a calI. Some other people
use it when they receive a call.

1
nh,
'Ll'

L93

P r a c t i c e

( T ' A $ 2 ~9 &
ELI iY<

A.

Look at the picture and tell what you see, using & D b t or Llbb.

B. Answer t h e following questions.


1. & Q ~ = ~ ~ & z I ~ + @ L Z 3 T * ' O 1.3 2h2& 1
26
1:

[i,L

2.

A Pd:tz@%i=$3$f~\3 %&', rtx 3. ; f i Q k a ~ s I z ~ l s r3T&xo 3 h Wg: i &i:


4: 3

4. $ Q f L u l + & t ~ ,
3

5.

El 3 ~ / v+ 5'( C ~ F?hx,* ~ L ~ ~ X * I: itU 7 ~ \ " icR;trr;til 3 3 p-**, t t L '

kll

6. t c3&Z (classroom) GI t:&L?)'l\ 2


33 L T i

?$lo

7.

@E %l r3 ;:-LA

(zoo) I=+T$Qc\3 h a o T
01:

8. & Q k a B(country)
< t=

9.

t-R&'i&, Thh0 93 kt: 25 Q f t o?gt=m75r& 3 -?a>, 3


r>;i
Qr:

C. Look at Takeshi's schedule for the week and answer the following questions. @

club activity
party

5 -3 7" '
~ f - ?4

test

F X

D. Pair Work-Write down your next week's schedule and ask each other what plans you have on each day of the week.
Example:

A : ,A q j >< Ccflh:& E 3 ,-..'.--

9 a-j-h.,

Your Schedule

Your Partner's Schedule

om r ~ i g e z ~ m
& L a hX/v

A. Look at the picture and tell where the following things are. @
Example:
E L r h.l,
+

negt2kT *.A 7t ,fi:< :


y
i

E@EI.AXtl

Lr

Look at the picture and tell where the following things are. @
Example:
+

IfX.

2. 7 9 .r ;

b (racket)

C. Pair Work-Ask

and answer questions to find where the buildings are.

One student looks at map A. The other student looks at map B (p. 93). Don't look at the other's map.
Example: A : % l t3 E
z 3 i5&

L TT$h,

-%.

B : * Hi ~i~~ - ~ ; T I L @9 T?, ~ , . fa z
Ask where the following places are.

A. Look at the information about Prof. Yamashita 25 years ago and answer the questions. @ Twenty-five years ago, Prof. Yamashita was twenty-two years old senior at a college good student his major-Japanese history
Example:
Q :
9 9 Lf:Q/v-tC~\

T %* G A** d

f:~bhr{etx

(college student) T L T:

$a,

B. Pair Work-Guessing game Ask questions and find out the prices your partner h a s chosen.
i

I. Before you start, both of you will choose one price in each row of the table and mark it.

i 2. In each row, use the item and one of the four prices, make a yes-or-no-question
sentence and find out which price your partner has chosen. i 3. You can ask at most two questions with one item. If you have guessed col-rectly the price your partner has chosen, you score a point. Your partner will not give away the right answer when you ask a wrong question. i i 4. When you have asked questions about all the items in the table, switch roles with your partner and answer their questions, i

5. Tabulate the score. You win the game if you have scored higher than your partner.

Example: A : h ~ 7 5 1 1 % t L 1 ~ ~ 5 p J T L ? : & ' ,


: :
Z L X L

B : LlL\L, -::3 *fXlI ,U, + & r ) 4


A : L>t,$AH: F q T L f z & ' , - - Z -B:
idkh.

3~tLTLfz,

%?TTo

C. Pair Work-Suppose you got one thing as a birthday present and choose it from the items on the next page. Your partner guesses what you got. Answer your partner's questions.
Example:

B : 7t-k?2 bt$-hhlbh-il-Lkha,

A : 22, & l l f A T L f t ,

L \ L \ R , hxt%X. C + & 3 2

L Lo

Qaaelrmzb% bt=fix
[f3&3ZF
t6T

A. Change the following verbs into -3 L,k and - - b I 2 h F L . k


Example:
fz "= &
+

?=".=.&
1. ~ 3 Q - j - 2 . 6 a - 5
9 - 3 3

f= 4 2 ?Z w2ea-c+/vfz
5. ( 6 6. 3 3 7.

3. ab; 4

g$&

8. h h ' 6

10.1:& 1 1 . W b

12.la6

14.hxL;5 15.Qlb;

B. The pictures below show what Mary did last week. Tell what she did. @

Example: $ 7 ' ) $ / v ~ d f i Q 1 = f l g % t % S $ L 3 L f = o ~
7

r L b d.X.

<A315

Ex. Monday

(I) Tuesday

12) Wednesday

(3) Thursday

in the library

at home

at a coffee shop
(6) Sunday

(4) Friday

(5) Saturday

at a friend's house

in Kyoto

at a department store

C. Look at the pictures in 6 and answer the questions. @

D. Look at the pictures above and answer the questions. @


Example:

Q :$7') -3hi3fi%ElW ~c@J?? L If713 2: 4

3 Lfzhx,
" ~ ~

A :~
1. $ 7

I: L A h.rL

*&Lbi

L~ t *to 2 '

--3ttl27k%~3 Q i t L 3 L f = a h , ttH& V'


T t b l i

2 - % 7 ' )--3X/EAA%l3I=@$
d.+i

L 3 Lt=&*o 3. $ 7 1 1 - s ~ , t a ~ h 9 v t ~ g 4 . ~ t ) ~ t h > , ,3 ~ X 4. % 7 1 ) - - 3 h / t 2 ~ \ 9 R ~ \ 4 @ 2 t 3 L?:hXo 6. he, ~.J~ 5 . $7'1 -$X,i$&qm ~ c Z " ~ T ~ R Z * Lf=dao L ~ B ~ ~


U:
0: 1
<L\

3bli V

1IX,

f:

E. Pair Work-Ask
7

what your partner did on Monday, Tuesday, etc.

Example: A : a % B t=R& 3 LL=hh, L V rlr:


B

:~.=.xetaL~~~

Pair Work-Using

the expressions below, ask your partners how often they did the

following activities when they were a child or in high school.


Example:

A : 3 j % 3~ % /- S Er 3 L { *$?%A 3 L n + iiit a : I
Y

A. Compare sentences (a) and (b), and change sentence (bj using 5.
Example: (a) ~ \ ~ / T - # - t ; f : = T 5 R T ~ ,
1:

hk+<%&
+

(b)3-k-13=BP3TTo
1: V y 4 2 L

x-k-&=XaTTo
I:
i " ~ < i / ~

1. (a) tzC-fL3X,t;j;%$l-t2R~\3e o L
L
ITlr

fi.

L $ h I i h 1 1 T k 2 E ~ \ L?:";. 3 2 - (a) G Y P - b 3X,1J134+32%f&L3TO : 3 <A,$ij (b) % P ' I - S k 1 d f l $ - Z 2 % % L 3 T 0 Ilk : 3. (a) t=13 L 3 &X/lazk% El t: 7rt~i.i 2 L 3 "g-, b L5 V '
(b) f.1f
d.
1:

<&>l+

Z'

4 . (a) I r 7 ' 1 - 3 A t 3 3
(b)

$iTEI~Si23L2T0 122% 7 l l- 3 A i i F % T B * % 2 3 L 2 f o 2 : ' s i 1iX .: :ic


1:1zX,:
i:

5. (a) (b)

&L7"z,

%7'r)- - 3 X / t i f - = 1 ~ L 3 k t ~ + ~ ~ ~ ~ ,
A
h

LLz. 97'1 - 3 L , i a x - s x , i ~ 4 ~ \ ~ ~ ,

6 - (a) *,LLq,-j

%a,LL 414T3 $-+?AT f:, L


IrtllL.
i,

(b) 3033. XIL.LIL k:E3a*x/TLfi0 LL ,,

B. Describe the pictures using 6. @


Example: &*%X/liF%T7fo
-?*&ti d < <+ f L *

m+ 2 t t %&TTo L k
Q* d ' (
y b .

student

go to a party

(5)

@)

&@Cl@g (Review Exercises) hrLw5 h

A. Answer the following questions.

B. Pair Work-A

and B want to play basketball together. The following is A's schedule for this week. (6's schedule is on p. 93.) Play the roles of A and B with your partner. Ask each other what the other is doing and decide on what day you will play basketball. Example: A's Schedule

Pair Work @ C.

Map 8

Ask where the following places are.

Pair work

@ B.
B's Schedule

Example:

Days

Months
b\ch29

(-8)

January

L %75;3
Id G &:( 7f S 9
@

(-Ira)
( ~fi ) k

July

C~h'7 ( = A ) 3hhi'7 ( ~ f i )
L h Z 7 (mj) :fit9 (&A> 6 h 2 9 (*I>

February

August

March
April May

(ha)

September

C q~ j h p 9
U@i

( f - f i ) d c t o b e r j L $ $ 2 9 (+-- )-November , 1
6 7 ~(-+s )-December ~ 5 3 fi

<

June

Time Words
Day

Week

Month

Year

i2X Z L ~

+th@&b?
(%Q

a)

Ct754f9 3
(=-baEI

$a?X

8)

the day before yesterday the week before last the month before last the year before last

3 ~ 1 3 wa) (
yesterday

I e ~ ~ r p j

(%a)-tfhIf-;,(%fl) 314%L(isF)
last month
this month

last week

last year

'1 .3

(+a) ~ / , ~ (n S ) r&tr7(+fl) + i

t Z L (WF)
this year

today

this week
~,\.\~rp 9

(%a)~ - , L \ I - ~ T (iffa)
next month

~L'~X.(~PSF)
next vear

tomorrow

next week

5 L; ~ h j f a h (&*+) the day after tomorrow the week after next the month after next the year after next

h37-C

31;~\t~p5

(%*a)

(.$%a)

~df-3

'cp$%fiR?JA Trip to Okinawa

@ Robert and Ken are vacationing in Okinawa.

@ At the post office.

@ On Monday at school.

Robert: Nice weather.

Ken: Yes. But it is a Little hot. Robert: Wow, beautiful sea!


Ken: Let's swim. *
*

Ken: What kind of sports da you like, Robert?


Robert: I Iike surfing. Shall we do it together tomorrow?

Ken: But isn't it difficult?


Robert: No.

Robert: Excuse me. How much is a postcard to Britain?


Person at the post office: 70 yen.
Robert: Then, two 70-yen stamps, pIease. And one SO-yen stamp, please.

Takeshi: Robert, thank you for the postcard. Did you enjoy.the trip?

Robert: Yes. The sea was very beautiful in Okinawa.


Takeski: Good. I like the sea very much, too. Was the airline ticket expensive?

Robert: No, it wasn't so expensive. How was your date, Takeshi? Takeshi: . . .

sea

postal stamps ticket surfing homework food birthday


test weather drink

postcard bus airplane room I (used by men) holiday; day off; absence travel

new

hot (weather)

hot (objects) busy (people/days) large interesting frightening cold (weather-not used for objects) fun small boring old (thing-not used for people)

* Words that

appear in the dialogue

easy (problem); kind (person)

$L

inexpensive; cheap (thing)

disgusted with; to dislike (-&<) beautiful; clean healthy; energetic quiet


fond of; to like to hate

(-5')

very fond of; to love lively

handsome not busy; to have a lot of free time

to swim toask (person G-) to ride; to board (-- 1:) to do; to perform (- 2

to go out
A d v e r b s * L h q L k tC

a n d

O t h e r

E x p r e s s i o n s together

4% EZ

* -?hfiab
f z ~ h r

a 9 *.i:

and then It's okay.; Not to worry.; Everything is under control. very what kind of . . . [counter for flat obi ectsl to ((a place); as far as (aplace); (a time)

There are two types of adjectives in Japanese. One type is called " kl-adjectives,"and the other type " 3 -adjectives," L \ and fa' are their last syllables when they modify nouns.

3
Z

L6

1
2 1

2E 3 L .
k

1 saw an interesting mode yesterday.

b L Y &?k a scary teacher 5k P I \ A T% 3 Z b % T +i Lf:+?&ttl.


tfX*QLt

Professor Yamaskita i s a sea0 teacher.

1 fi b 2 TJ& a beautiful pictgre LrLL


I took a beautifa2 picture i Kyoto. n

Z%
If/., I
+f/vQ~~

an energetic teacher
7;%5 12X % ;Pd 3 & TTo k
If& 3

C3 Lf:+?L+?i>

.ttA,Qzr

Professor Yamaskita i i

energetic teacher.

Japanese adjectives conjugate for tense (present and past), polarity (affirmative and negative), and so forth, just as verbs do. The two types of adjectives follow different conjugation patterns.
LI-adjectives &\-adjectives change shape as follows. You wiII want to be very careful

here, because the pattern is rather complicated.


S%b3L\
present

aff ir rnative

negative

8%b3L+lT$ It ik interesting-

S%t5<&9dt?h, It is ~ o interesting. t

past

It was interesti7ag. I was not interesting. f

It is interesting (and confusing) that the idea of past tense is encoded differently in the affirmative and the negative polarities: (iG % L 3 )-- is "past affirnative, " hi 9 f= TT while (i5 % t 4 ) { & 9 2 # A T*L R is "negative+past.l" I

Unlike verbs, adjectives conjugate fairly regularly. The only irregularity worth noticing at this stage is the behavior of the adjective k \ L \ (good). The first syllable of t > L l is changed to 1 in all forms except the dictionary form and the long present tense affinnative form.'
L\L\ (irregular)
present
past

affirmative

negative

LILITT

&<&!I%eh,
-

&;b\=)ftTT

d;<bSm32hrTL,k

a-adjectives The conjugation pattern of 3-adjectives is much more straightforward. It

actually is exactly the same as the conjugation table of TT which follows a noun, as discussed in Lesson 4.'

Zsi(a) fflu b
present

affirmative

negative

ZSTT ffhbShe i healthy. s TI;%TI/f= wfu d She was healthy.

past

ESiLaS!I3tZtv Mlu + ! She i not healfhy. s n;ZE*;fS93tZhTLk Wfu 3 She was not healthy.

The final syllable 3 is dropped in these long forms of 3-adjectives.

'Some speakers follow a more regular conjugation, where C-if' is inert in both polarities. For these ,; .- 3 1 : r j speakers, the chart looks like the following:
I

affimative

negative

--%

but they are much less frequently used than and ~ 1 k l T ' f ' 'As with tl-adjectives, some speakers prefer an alternative para-, such as the foIlowing: affirmative negative -T$ --U.rQb\f"gpresent - I i?: T--t'~fb&*~f:T-$ past

present -b xTT -{ 2 b l T - T past T --{;'dh's,IF:T$ 'There actually are alternate forms, I r \ and d: hT+,

L\Lx

In this lesson, we learn two Q-adjectives that am very important from the grammatical point of view. They are %Q ) (to be fond of; to like), and 3 4 L 1 f 3 a') (to be disgusted $ (I f with; to dislike). The meaning of these adjectives is relational, and you need two terms: a p e r s o w like or dislike something on the one hand, and a person or a thing on the other hand that is liked or disliked. In sentences, these two terms usually appear with the particles 4 and fif , respectively.' 3

The item that is liked or disliked can also be a person. You may want b be cautious using these words in reference to your preference for a specific person, Lowever, because 3 TT is usually taken to be an admission of one's romantic interest.5

Let us note three more things about 3r5 3 ( G) and 3 h L ( 3 ) before we go on. One, if you T like or dislike something (or somebody) very much, you can use the intensified forms of 33 3 TP and 3 b L \T$, namely, A% 3 TT and A 3 h 6 \ TT. These forms are more T t common than the combinations of Ef 3 ( fd: ) and 3 b r ( ) and the degree modifier % + Z T $, to which we wiIl turn shortly.
L :f>

Two, when Japanese people want to say that they neither like nor dislike something, they usually say: I fieither like nor dislike (it).
Three, you can use H 3 I'd: and 3 L; L \ Q as modifiers of nouns. For example, you can say f things like:

41n contexts where you are contrasting two or more items, the particle CA is used instead of $5 Thus, 1 like vegetables, but I don't like meat. 3 3 3 ,: <.- I 3 h T o 5 In the expression of romant~c familial affection, the complex particle a)Z Z 7' can replace . Thus, or 5 . ' 2

r+r--t

~ s ~ r a % ~ yt-$-h4 e ~ t ~ . s~ a S =%7l1-5ttd:3?1TTO
Takeshi is in Zooe with Mary.
-f

This is pnu favode T V program.

If you want to say things like "very hob.''and "a little hot," you eaxl add "degree adverbsn like Z T $ (very) and % I 9 2 (a. little; slightly) before adjectives.

vRG@l$ % 3 f i ~ \ L f z o ZT T Y3%b 5.k

TP,sea was wry bearutifd i Okkaawa. n

Instead of having Z T t added to them, % 1 (GI and 3 L; L 1 ( 3 ) have their own inten-r sified forms, A33 3 ( 3 ) (like very much) and A 3 b L \ ( Q ) (hate). -r
r:t.
j: 't
b

7LzC?LStt13~-k-75~A%3TT~
73.

Tukeshi likes coffee a lot.

+ t . $ x / t A f d : - r S j $ f A 3 C;b\TT, M . Kina hates nutto (a Japanese fermented soybean delicacy). s


f<i >

Take a long farm-of a verb and replace the ending with 3 L x 9 or 3 L x 3 3' and you will get the Japanese expression far "let's . . .," which you can use to swgest a plan of
action.

-&i43l&%T%%L2
r k - t

Let's study z the Zzbrary together. z

Z l+.l:X,

+L"i

L L 30

*%&T3-k-2&&3 3 9 3 -iA

r?

L.k $7F*

Shall we drink coffee at a coffee shop?

There are two important things you should b o w about cPunting items inJapanme. One, we use different n r r m k wards for different kinds of items; the words used for connting people are different from the words used for counting books, for example. Two, number wards often came wFter, rat be^ than &&re, the items cwrmted in a sentence. Lee bought three stamps.

The number word, Z&, .is made up of the numeral 5 and the "counter"&. This counter '1X.b~ ?A 5il is used for sheets of paper and other flat objects. There will be other counters in later lessons-for people, for books, for sticklike objects, and so forth.

Expression

~ o t o s @

is used when we describe people and is not used for places. When you want to say that Tokyo is busy, you shauld use tz SP*>($l.
1
LWtF
LIQ*

bLl/IZ$!??tf

(a)bK t4

fz b ' 3 X,t$.KLtlTF, 3 L
553~3

argue ~ ~ ' F T T .

Takeski is 6 ~ . Tokyo i busylkiuek~s

Note that the sentence below is also acceptable, s k c e the subject "I" is omitted i the sentence. n

HEElt2KLelTT, =BEEii;t;(Wt3)KLt~TT0 3 a wl r r a E B + ~ a bnL cw l I am busy on Sunday.

P r a

t i c e

A. Change t h e following adjectives into the affirmatives.


Example:

k &'
44k32
+

f=h*~\-T'j-

bTA3TT
~

1.

q - j - ~ h

2. ~ 5 - w 3 . S
L\L\

~ . G ~ L S 5 L 9~ 2 1 ; ~ ~ \ L ~ .
&

6, L \ + & ' L L \ 7.
11.

8.

tThxQ 9.

10.

?#'LL~?

era 2

B. Change the following adjectives into the negatives. @

Example: ??&>

? T < 9 2*A
V ~ C + W I ~ * A

Iraa

C. Look at the pictures below and make sentences.

Ex.

D. Answer the following questions.

E. Pair Work-Make

affirmative and negative sentences with your partner.

Example:

3 h \ 'd: L + & g o @ g [ i 3 h ~ r T t ! ,~ o + l i 3 3 h \ . h U ( . % 9 . f i ,? ~
L&t<B

a*Ao

#t :

--r

F. Pair Work-Make

your own sentences on the topics below using adjectives,

and tell your partner.

A. Change the following adjectives into the past affirmatives. @ Example: f: &' L
+

t;$*hx7fzTT

tTX/3TLJi

B. Change the following adjectives into the past negatives. @


Example: ?
+

tfXI3Q

-+

-PT{&93*tLTLk -+?k3C..i-.;&,3 + t h T L f z 3

11.
.. .

iez

, ,;r ;g;, 6il. I; ' ic


, 1

zra % r'
ry:

C. his

is ~ h & R ~ b & r i and make sentences. @


Ex. Okinawa-hot 1. food-not expensive 2. food-delicious 3. hotel-not big 4. hotel-new 5. restaurant-not quiet 6 . sea-beautiful 7. surfing-interesting

Ai$,

.di!

'8,

*.. ,

- ,'2

?:

q-:.,,

ddhh about the trip to Okinawa. Look at the memo


Example:

d.w

*-PI c,;ji/ip 'J.,-.$ie,.... . = .;;~.h,. !


JIU

i+J% I d s iP-3 f z T-j-o


&?Gh
A 7

D. Pair Work-Use

t h e chart below and practice a dialogue with your partner, substituting the underlined par3s. A and B are talking about A's vacation.
Example: A is Robert.
+

A :~~1.c.;.P~tc~I2Lfz,
C-f

63Qh

1'

B :

jT $ . h x ,
h-?

P.i T t T z h b ,

A :.L'T%~*~-=I~T*~
very hot
scary

Ex. Robert
(1) M a r (2) Takeshi

went to Okinawa
saw a movie

stayed home ( 3 %

ZI

very boring

(3) Sue
(4) Mr. Yarnashita

went to a party
went to flea market ( 7 '1 -? -9 Y E )

not fun
not cheap

() br:"rt 5

A. Look at the pictures and make comments on them.

Example: @%
L lit,

&~'\G3T'ifk
7:fi.
Y I+\,

Ex.

B, Answer the questions using the given cues. @


Example: Q : % 7 ' )-$/LiA?f*hQa'XT$-h', Ut !

Ex. % 7 I)

kind

beautiful

interesting

energetic

A. Pair Work-Choose the items from the following categories and ask your partners whether they like them.
Example: A : 37'1-3hi3&Jr~'%3TT6'~
1:

1. Foods: meat/ 3 7 Z 'j (fermented beans)/ice cream ( 7 4 x 7 'I

-A )

4. School Work: test/~apanese class/homework

5. Drinks: sake/green tea/coffee

* If you neither Iike it nor dislike it, you can use


B. Answer the folIowing questions.

3-TZ 1 b & \ T 2 1 d *&. h 3

@ xL\ htE Ia~ A ~ I , ~ A ~ R


A. Change the following into b L a 3 sentences. @

B. Pair Work-Make follow-up suggestions using 2 L A5&.


Example:

%\.\T?bo
2c

-+

A :S

t. c

~ h T - f h ~ +e

S82&A3
D

L L- 3

&>o

B:%jL3Lk?.

@ &bJaRw fit%
LO3

(Review Exercises)

A. Pair Work-Ask

your partner the following questions.

1. Were you busy last week? 2. Were you fine last week?

3. Was your high school big/old? 4. Was your watch cxpensive? 5 . Is your bag new? 6. Is your room small/clean? 7 Is your teacher kind? .

B. Glass Activity-Show and tell


Bring pictures you took on a trip. Explain to your class where you went, what

you did, how it was, etc. And later, other students will ask in detail about the trip.
Example questions:

C. Role Play-Using Dialogue I[ as a model, buy some stamps and postcards.

@5 Uh, 3&<

A t

t h e

P o s t

O f f i c e
Cam YOU tak-e care o f thk, please?
Give me fhree 50-yen stamps, please.

Usefu, Expressions

t k t , %;@c> b?dZ

L 3 T,
?&Ark

~z+3 P J Q # Q z ~ ~ { ~ L Z ' ~ L \ ~

' t*/;C-Gs C &L\hxhx 2 ?hx, a 9

Him

maay days

will it take?

It will be 150 yen.


Anothef 100 yen, please.

Useful Vocabulary
aPrf

gw
td 6i

counter

postcard parcel

stamp Z 7 1 57*3 A aerogramme 7


37

<

4. E

;- 7 92 ,

L.3 L t

He

letter
surface mail

&2EL :i ( i V
%t% t i Iih

airmail insurance
registered mail

@ E M! i.QV'L

8%
h.1 Zrh

8s +
{f;9

special delivery

Stamps

Postcard

t l p ",I ',

A t

a P h o t o S h o p
Excuse w. like a reprznt, plmsa. I'd

Customer :
Shop

T & ~ * L , % ~ i L Si? B I L ~ L ~ T , % f C
t2 L h, % X d j '1 5 L ~\T~75*, :if:( Cerfuinly. Would the glossy fiaish be all right?
E;1:~1,

cIerk :

Customer :
Shop clerk : Customer :
Shop clerk :

Yes.

PZgme fill z yoar name uad telephone number here. n

z z l =2Z % TL. % IS ;* - %a h C ~ @ ~ ~ L 2 T o Z .b L & i % 3

~ ' \ 3 Ta3T 5, 7*
W h m will if be ready?

I - Z J L & ~ 133-35; 13 @s%TT, 3 Cmi z 11% iX, U L A It will be ready at three o'clock on the 15th.
Please brim thzs receipt.
2 a 13 # 2 % $ # $ 9 5 u n. rtk &

T37 < f
tl*<

<

Customer :

;h&.')3

Lf:, E F , S @ L \ L $ T O

All ri&ht T h a ~ k you. Shopclerk:

#!19;tr~Z?Z*~~\4Lf=,
Thank you very much.

Useful Vocabulary

%3@L 5 1

reprint

%i E R IfLF

development glossy finish

%?rrQ L
:if:(

%iR& 9 :if:<

mat finish
panoramic
slide

7 9 197

z5-f

1
(

7'12). I-fL J! hz
24;EtlV Y
j b \

print

Sfl
%%

negative
film

date/time something is ready 7 .F IL A


24-print roll
Th.lj

1
I

battery
receipt

.& \#% T 2 % 3 -disposable I 1


7

camera

91 3 & 2 % V 5. It&

jy-bshCT)-FJ
A
tPL1

A Day in RobertYs'Life
u e

i
a

in the class.

@ After class.

@ On the bus.

Prof. Yamashita: Robert, pIease read the next page.

Robert: . . . Prof. Yamashita: Robert, please wake up. You cannot sleep in the class.
Robert: Mr. Yarnashita, I forgot to bring the textbook.

Prof. Yamashita: Please bring your textbook with you. We use it everyday.

Robert: I understand. I'm sorry.

Sue: Robert, you had a hard tirne today. Robert: Yes. May I borrow your notebook later, Sue?
sue: Yes. Robert: Thank you. I'Il return it soon.
Sue: Robert, we will have a test tomorrow.
Robert: Really?

Sue: Yes. You were absent from the class last Friday. (That's why you didn't know about it.)
Robert: Well then, I'll go home and study today.

Old woman: Excuse me. Does this bus go to the city hospital?
Robert: Yes, it does. Take this seat, ma'am.
Old woman: No, thank you. I'lI get off soon.
Robert: Is that so? Then, shall I carry your bag?

Old woman: Thank you.

% ha&

S&
gag

* i%C2#53,4,
#SViaG

hl k C * ,4~5h*t1

ST

t&t@?
* tkkUi*l9 WL

%?w ,+a
iW%%f!%
;k

* 93-

money grandmother; old woman bath kanji; Chinese character textbook this week Municipal Hospital next video game electricity train

baggage page window night next week

next year

tough (situation)
U - v e r b s
E&, -?LC

2 %

~ \(Q 3 ~2.5c i a ~ ~ & l

to play; to spend time pleasantly , { % to hurry %;B,gttA& totakeabath to return (things) (persm C thing & ) t to turn off; to erase (- 2 ta die to sit down (seat 1:) to stand up to smoke
.j;

touse to help
* Words that
appear in t h e dialogue

(me)
bemm/tmk 2 )

(I) to be absent (from

.. .)

k-4)
(2) to rest

FPV 6 %3 b
qd'f

to open (somethhg] (to teach; to instruct (persm k= f h i ~ g ) 2 to get off (- 2 ) to borrow (persora it thiag & 1 to close (something) (%2 1

b T h b 5 &hi) b

toturnon (-%) %%3? haCf b to make a phone call (perso# I t ) to forget; to leave behind 6&%

(-2)
I r r e g u l a r

V e r b s

9h-C 4
* & 9 f <6
A d v e r b s

T
%7 7
&

to bring (a person) (- 2 to bring (a thing) (- 2 )


E x p r e s s i o n s

a n d

O t h e r

* & K T sq {

4RT i@ {

-&a&

l?-3Z$T-f

* l3&Z 5 T?ha
@7{

+3 Tp

later on (do something) late because . . That would be fine.; That wouldn't be necessary. right away
Really? slowly; leisurely; unhurriedly

' ,

making requests (". . . , please.") = giving and asking for permission ("You may . . ./May I: . . ."I stating that something is forbidden ("You must not . . ."I forming a sentence that describes two events or activities. ("I did this and did that.")

The conjugation paradigm of te-forms is fairly complex, as we need to learn separate rules for ru-,u-, and irregular verbs. Furthermore, the rule for %-verbs divided into five is submles. First, with m-verbs, the rule is very simple: Take & off and add T.
ru-verbs

S a Il q

B z <
f;

U-verbs come in several groups, based on the final syllable of their dictionary forms.
u-verbs with final

3 , 3,and b

'As we discussed in Lesson 3, some verbs that end with the hiragana S are m-verbs and some others are u-verbs. The rule of thumb for determining which verb is which is to examine tke vowel before the frnal 4 syllable. If the vowel is n, o, or u,the verb, without any exceptions, is an u-verb. If the vowel is either a' or e , the verb can be either an u-verb or a m-verb. Statisticdly speaking, there are many more m-verbs, than u-verbs in the i and e m camp, but there are many important verbs in the minority, m such as A b (to enter), and % 5 Ito return). IS. d% .

{ : -. . }
.a m om ...Urn

.ways

.-verbs

{. .

.*-im = often, but not always, m-verbs + em1

As far as k-forms are concerned, we observe that u-verbsthat end with d will have a small 9, m-verbs that end with $ do not.

+
al is *u-verbs with final

t s
ShC &-

u-verbs with final 6,13, and & I

s3 d A-

<

There is an important exception in this class:


u-verbs with final

<

%< *Au-verbs with final 3

+ +

ZLIr
ZL7 Biz

3-T
The irregular verbs T & and follows.
irregular verbs

< 6 , and compound verbs built with them, conjugate as

TZi

t7

Note that te-forms and stems (the foms you find before 3 ?) are totally different constructs in the a-verb camp. A common mistake is to assume that the simple paradigm 3 9) covers the u-verbs also, thus corning up provided by the ra-verbs (&KT and 6 with unwarranted forms such as x 4 2 .\ f (see -%L 3 5 f ) and x %& f (see % A4. TI. It is ~ h & I I probably easier, at this stage of learning, to memorize each verb as a set, as in % < 6h . Q 3 T-TiW\T, than to apply the conjugation rules on the spot. Refer to the verb conjuga6tion table at the end of this volume.
f;

-*

Use a verbal & - f m together with 2 "please do . . . for me.


FS

< E3 1% to make a polite request ta mother perwn

3ri

Please listen to the-tape thaf goes with the tatbook.

% f+ t r a , F - 7 % M b ~ \ +&

(33 L l 0

TA$*L, 3;d; r%;?_-c7"i3~\, { kL Excuse me. Pleuse teach me a little. (= Tell me, I need your advice.)

A verbal ie-form plus % i xb \TT means ''you may do . , . ," which describes an activity that is permitted. To ask for permission, you can turn it into a question sentence, -- -C &
~lb\T-ifBS.

May I see the textbook?

Yes,

you

may.

To deny somebody permission to do something, you can use the te-formplus i2 I \ l-f 2 %

h.
No, you m y not see the textbook.
,

Describing Two Activities


You can use a tiifam if YOU want to combine two or more verbs, as in decribing a sequence of events or actions f"I did this and then I did that"). In other words, the te-form does the work of "and"with verbs. (Note that two verbs cannot he joined by E, which only connects n o w . )

1-1.6?E3T, ~ ' - L 2 - f 0 5I will borrow her notebook


land

xerox i. t

21f you are talking to a very close friend or a member of your family, a te-form, by itself, can be used as
a request.
*r

E5?aF1l-fT0 h

Opm the widow, will

you?

-+ma, * s $ i = s asta ~ i . ; , ~,
?Say

I got ap at six a d sfudied

5 < L-

L;

+c313

Let's go to the cafeferia ondf=haoelmch.

Li(Ti

&~~ &9i=?f7 , & k L * t & & @ ' t k 3 . 7 U.6 r>

The te-form of a verb can also be used to connect a verb more "loosely7'with the rest of a sentence. In the first example below, the verb in the te-form describes the manner in which the action described by the second verb is performed. In the second example, the te-form describes the situation for which the apology is made.

1\*rct=%7<(:, &*Gt%T3 T o $ n
~-I\L+
rr

I go to work by bus. (I take a bxs to work.)


3

I am sorry for not bringkg in the textbook. (I left the book at home, and I ant sorry.)

@++B%&tLT, T&$*X/, f L r b3

In Lesson 5 we lcamecl F t a j d* meaning "let's .,. ." 3 L -a -i h- i alsa used in the sense s of '^'let do. . . ,"in offering assistance. If you see somebody having a hard time o p e me the lid of a bottle, for example, you can offer help by saying:

C$Lr4") W:L
-

.*9 3 t
p~

? J;ra*

1'8 do it.

-%

'h explanation clause: may d m precede the sitxiation clause. Thus the first example above,mnaIsa be Te
paraphrased as : & L k ? X F 8 ' & 9 dJdlh. * Q,CA+J&1L33, L We will diseu5s this furtfier i Lesson 9. n
;.LU;L-&3ri

Or to a person who is carrying a heavy bag:

R@&R't;$t a b
7

Shall I carry your bag?

Expression ~ o t s r a
,-

i!E< / E-E \ b Although both Btl and S F < mean "late,"they have different L B st 8 'f and 2Z C is an adverb. B b l modifies nouns usages, since Bt h is an adjecbve s+ =l.p or works as a predicate, and B < modrfies verbs. SF
A: 3@4--@t~XF9L7~, Iwenftobedlatmeo'cbckyesterday. w9 C k2 B : Bl.~T-T;Ba, If's hte.
*?

LrpSt 7

B Z t z i 2 . +@Z+*3&23T. B
Cwi C
B

Sf

L ~ $ Y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ & ~ ~ T ~ On weeken$ I get ap momd 10:UO


Bb

and eat k t e Breakfasf.

P D 3 , s<s3f z * t Be h
MP

I went to bed late yestwduy.


Me

You can also apply this rule to F < /F tl.

Z 3 6 b .F5B is normally used with & 9 # . " 3 , as i E'5b&!l;6,9k3 n


(Thank you very much), or with $&&*A, as in E-5 $3+AP3?h, (I am very sorry/Thank you very much). When used alone, it is an abbreviation of E4 8 ;$i '3 $ 2 3 or Z3 B T&P%kR. Therefore, when you want ta show your gratitude or regret, you can just say E 5 h instead of saying a long sentence. F 4 B functions in many ways, depending on the situation. Some people use E 3 6 as "hello"or "good-bye,"

S F Many words that begins with k can also be used without it. % i such n
words simply adds smoothness and nuance of social refinement, without changing the meaning of the words.

Example :

g$

ERE 4.3

RE9
nh
%E

L@5

P r a c t i c e
fSL1

!("pb" d*6M137<
Z

A. Change the following verbs into te-forms. @


Example:

36
.

37
3.

2.h.j

LC
1

4. hL (

5. ( b

6. $ 9

7. &
13.

8. Z 6
1

9 3 6
15. 7 . 4 52

l l . ~ \ { 12. & b

L LI

8. Let's sing a te-form song! (Battle Hymn of the Republic) @


J l * h3 $577 2 7

39-r

YzJ

Y9-C

LC
ha{

;.Ah
75a~hT

h i :

L a
1fL-C L \ + C

LLT
k\?bhT

khfd
)2.

u-verb k-form

$74

/ T { v

L\T

(repeat twice)
'jf

L T u-verb te-form

C. What will you say when you want someone to do the following things?
Example: to speak slowly
+

@ 7 { J! 3 L 7
I l ta'

< f 3 3 Z.

\ ,

1. to calI you tomorrow

2. to write a letter

3. to open the window


5. to teach you kanji 7. to wait for you
9. to go to a hospital
11. to bring a friend

4. to drink tea

6. to bring a drink
8. to come with
12. to stand up
YOU

10. to return your book

D. What would you say in the following situations?


Example:
arr

??

h?

< f?3
(1)

ho

Ex.

E. Pair Work-Make your own request, such as "Please stand up" and "Please take a picture," and ask your partner to act it out.
Example: A : 3 - k - 2
0

T' < '233

>,

B pretends to drink coffee.

A. You are staying with a host family. Ask your host family for permission to do the following things. @
Example:

Y
K

5 - L l s ' $kK T % ~ , h ~ \ T - j - h ~ ,

B. What would you say in the following situations? Make sentences with --T%t\
LITq;h\.

1. You are in dass. You realize you need to go to the bathroom as soon as possible. 2. You are in class. You feel sick and want to return home.

3. You have forgotten to do the homework. You are sure you can bring it in tomorrow. 4. You want to ask your teacher something, but you cannot phrase it in Japanese. 5. You want to smoke in a coffee shop, and there is someone sitting nearby. 6. You are at a friend's house, and suddenly remember that you need to make a phone call. 7. You have run into a celebrity. Conveniently, you have a camera with you. 8. You have arrived at a classroom. The air is stuffy. 9. You and your friend are in a dark room, and you feel somewhat uncomfortable.
C. You are a strict parent. Tell your child not to do the following things using the

cues in A. @
Example:

?bW??R& k

~ i - L $k , % T E ~ t \ ~ ? ~ ~ A / . 2

D. Tell the class what we can and can't do at school and at a host family's house.
fz Example: %%?T 1% t 2 %7 T t;f
d:~;?

9-

I if \

$2

b 7 Y E 'I - (host M

3 -@ bo 9 Gcr"$fi-k;RZb=A-z~ % t h b \ T T , T ) %is 3 . 6 lit\

@ as% ~ E ~ T , J - ~ - E E R ~ B $ B m
$ 3

A. Look at the pictures below and combine the pictures using te-forms. @

Example: $d&i3 T ,
6%
tj

~-k-??&&aT, n

Ex.

6. Change the following into te-forms and make the rest of the sentences.
Example:
lit
+

A? %

%&$T, h 3 i+
2-

$ $ ~ ~ % A ~ ~ .
LL;:X,

I. &f-:%m5
4-

W=e{
I 3

&T:.% I=*$
Lf

=I % b=%4 h+* 5. SB,% Gch%


i 4 .
lit?

%*2%9 & t & L r 6. AYt3T {


3$ i
Ersb:<
I,

@I\";(EIu3bd0 ~ ~ h 3 % ! l $ ~ h ; b \ 6 0 a h'h
1 ;

A. Add reasons to the following sentences.


-

Example: ~ ~ Z E t 3 k 3 3 - P ' ~ 2 ~ X E = 3 k 3 3 . T O %Bn7&%h3*&hxb.


+

U h.X.

1. kSt33i%TL%2
WALni
Pl%-X,

3. ; ~ ~ Q I L ; C F ~ = / G C ~ ~
I\

&m&&GR2*h, 2 & L 3 n -,j y y x - m a a L ~ Z , 4. ~ = c-f


2.
k

5. (name of a friend) fi'A8


f . ~ b

-f

3 TT,

B. Pair Work-Ask

each other why you think the following.

Z*, (name of a movie) 2 R 3 To k 4. 3 c?) 9 (name of a restaurant) i c e 3 3 L t z 5. G*breth*h& 3 a *A,, 6. ~ + i ; f : a + ~ 2 ~ ~ t ~ - t s r ; / , %I~C~X, KL>ri 7. ~~, (name of a place) &I% 3 3 To &L>Llp3
3.
L ~ j l 3

.
f:

't,

l,

&a).

13& Z

II

8. I ; r % $ 2 Z ~ ~ a ? ,
L' TXILc
h*

Pair Work-Propose

to do the following things, using

t Lb 9f1?

@ $ &bJCDR# (Review Exercises) ;nhJ L@3


A. Role Play-Play the roles of A and B with your partner.

Example:
Example-A You are short of money and want to borrow some money from your friend.
Example-B You are going on a trip tomorrow. You don't have money to lend to your friend.

1-B

You have a date tomorrow and want to borrow a car from your friend.

You just bought a brand-new car and don't want anyone to use it.

2-A You Iost your Japanese textbook, but you need to study for a test tomorrow.

You have a big test in Japanese and need your textbook to prepare for the test.

3-A You are asked to return your friend's video today, but you forgot to bring it. You want to return it tomorrow.

3-B
You asked your friend to return your video today. You need it today because you want to watch it together with another friend.

You are now in your friend's house. You see a cake that looks very delicious. You love cakes.

4-B You just baked a cake for your mother's birthday. Your friend is in your house now.

B. Answer the following questions.


1.
2.

-+Sol%,Qi: 2 L 3 t h x ,
CCvLlpi

(~nswer with

"%

T - "1 ,

lni17

3.

4.
5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

lo. 1. 1

?#@3,d : ( his J & L s L f z c , E (~nswerwith"~~.~.") r3 @g@TR2 b b a ~ \ 1 3 3 * h $ ~ ~ tT L L I ? Y X , 21: g * a + T k l f z 2R7 7 % ~ ~ ~ ~ T - $ h X 0 f/yL+ t**. T AFt=rn&%3-c33Tfix0 i t k { %* r t3kJ ! 2 ThL a *a,%-3B2S$L3L k f i A o +?/dm+ hf FWM. r ~ - A P a v ti~;ps., c a L Y b r3 3 #L m er k ( S 6@ L L & + E L Lifi$%o , \~ -b T EISB-r-k { *24% '3 2 " p h z Ll*/" l3.L ilZ - C t
t;'r\8(
C*(f;'rl

7~;'

t; ?7-7fW-&2d-6+,
r-t

Usekr! Expressions

39TCW
I
I

AS

;&I:#&%

k o straight)

(turn right)

(turn left)

- 7 a a E %2% t-&7F% 0.z AS f


at,

LJLZi

=-s,i
2.t

QIB2&4:@;tr2& u: fl 2
iibt~

(turn right at the first signal)

(turn left at the second corner)

S~r)&@l S 3'@ c k*d i b 1 kt; &'t-'l6'b


htj

(cross the street)

(left side of the street) (right side of the street)

Directions

3k
3k

(north)

(west)

(east)

M,= i-,

(south)

A : 364&*A/,ibb3-AI @f?%~bY=C.t-&*, rp
Excuse me, where zs a gosf offie?
B: 3

9T cfiq T, A Q H n QIB2&i=&&'7 T Z +r ~r 2 ( f : 2 ~ \ , @jEG iAsa&i@l 9 2 -T1 t= vpiLF/V3~:( A% kYQ'b


I,

Go straight and twm right at .the third comer. The post office is on the rzght

side o f the strget.

: Z* j % ;Bj 9 hrtS 3 2 " 5 + k \ f Thank you very much.

To

* a'$&CI)'f'E -Family Picture


errr
%

@ Sue is showing a picture of her family to her roommate, Michiko.

@ A phone rings in Sue and Michiko's room.

Michiko: Is this your family picture, Sue? Sue: Y s e. Michiko: Which is you?

Sue: This. I was wearing gIassses when I was in high school. Michiko: You are cute.

Sue: This is my father. He works for an American company.


Michiko: H e i t l and handsome, Is this your elder sister? s a l Sue: Yes. M y sister is married. She lives in Seoul now. She has one child. He i three years old. s
Michiko: I see. Oh, there is a cat. But he is a little fat.

Sue: Yes, because he eats a lot.

Robert: Michiko, what are you doing now?

Michiko: I'm not doing anything especially. I am looking at Sue's pictures. Robert: I see. I have an interesting video, so if you like, would you like to come to see it?
Michiko: That sounds good. Is it all right if Sue comes with me? Robert: Of course. Michiko: We'll come right now.

(my) older sister

apartment younger sister song younger brother man older brother older sister woman company family hair brothers and sisters country; place of origin car convenience store cafeteria; dining commons (my) father T-shirt
eye

glasses

bright; smart; clever (conjugates like L 1L 1) great-looking (conjugates like l\ L \)


cute

tall short (stature) long fast short (length)

* Words that

appear in the dialogue

a - a d j e c t i v e s

th-@7(2Fb)
i-l(Q)

%R#

E$'l

kind convenient
to sing to put on (a hat) to get to know

I know I do not know to live (-lzTATk\3 TI to put on (items below your waist) to gain weight to be on the heavy side

to put on (glasses) to put on (clothes above your waist) to work for

(--czTz~~,L\\~)
to lose weight to be thin

to get married
A d v e r b s

(-

a n d

O t h e r

65
* 3 I= $ I negative

E x p r e s s i o n s but not . . . anything [counter for one person


two people

--t=A * V Z 9

--A
--A

;at= 9
* + C l f negative 7 * $CSA * dt;7!l57?:h

ZA
4'1 C =

not . . . in particular

of course if you like

A v e ~ b d &-farm," when f&w& by the helping; verb lf ing:'


(a) an action i progress, or n

&

TS,

meam e i t h ~f the fallos~

(b) a past event that is cmnectd with fhe presmt.


Which of these two senses a given verb is used in is to a large extent determined by the semantic characteristics of the verb. The verbs we have learned so far can be roughly divided into three groups based on their semantics.

(I) verbs that describe continuous states (2) verbs that describe actinities that last for some time (3) verbs that describe changes that are more or less instantaneous
We have not seen many Group 1verbs. So far we only have 2 % and I 18. The te-forms 3 of these verbs are never used together with the helping verb I \ % , so we will have nothing to say about them in this section.

Many verbs belong to Group 2. They include verbs such as $c< Q , % 2 and GFT. When i, f : 1 3 the te-form of a verb in this group is followed by the helping verb b l5,we have a sentence describing azz action i progress. n
Sue is studyi~g right now.

Tcalgeshi k readiw a book in EzgZzSh.

You can also use a --T T sentence to describe what a person does by occupation. The first example below therefore has two interpretations: one, you are teaching English right at this moment; and two, you are an English language teacher (but are not necessarily in class right now).

'The distinction between 6 4 and aBj -3 that we learned i Lesson 4 does not apply to this helping verb n ---IL 1 4 : you can use 7 ~~9both for living things and for inanimate objects.

% 7 l I- ~ x I G ~ B ~ ~ ~ % % L T ~ ~ ~ - F ~ 1: M A z <,L3~3 Mary studies Japanese- /Maw is studying Japcame m . )


Verbs in Group 3 describe changes from one state to another. If you get married, or W% It?:& T 4 , for example, your status changes from being single to being married. With these verbs,' 71 4 indicates a past occurrence of a change which has retained its significance 3 until the present moment. In other words, T 1 .I& describes the result of a change.

Professor Yamashifa i s rnamkd.

Mkhiko is seafed near the widow.

Here are some more examples o verbs that are commonly used in the -- f f work.
+$70\&
&

6 frame-

~
fit2

tz~< 3 , 4 L, e 9 T ~ e -~ - ~ ~ ~ $

(has)
3

Sue has a k t of money. o


P 3 Lt:+t/v+?t.

*-3cilL\&
L

t ~ ~ 3 ~ iL a0 x 3 z 2 ~ ~ s T~
i t ,

(knows)

Professor Yamashifa knows Engkhh.

.;.r

A&

-+

.i. Z

A7-c~\&

(is overweight)

b L s h 1 i G a - 5 , r Jktl7 . c c ~ \ 3 - P 0 . T m is a little overweight.


M yomger Brother is very thin. y

-p*%

-+

T * T b G

(is thin)

'Among the verbs we have learned so far, verbs such as $ 3 8 ,-5-r(, %&, F b , bh-8, &;?%If &, *&, to *,nnz,19'1 1,~9 %, ~~f { z , g h - ~& , ' ~ . ~ B T s 9 4 6 , 24 h ' na,%.t, *?, , Goup>. In most cases you can determine whether a v c b belongs to Group 2 or 3 by check& if the verb allows for a phrase describing duration, such as -%a. Compare, for example, r. % L s* O Q ~ A S ~ ~C- % M 1 ~ % = % & L ~ a b,o o k f o ~ a o z h u r y e ~ f e r c l Q y . + I~mdZ X I&-3 ?Tt l a L k, (Ungrammatical,much as the English translation "I died for an hour" which ML .* L *-A, L is also odd.) t Group 3. a ? i thus belongs to Group 2, and t31n Lesson 9, we will observe that this resalt of a chazzgg reading is actually not restricted to verbs in Group 3, but can be associated with those in Group 2 in certain contexts. 4Note that the sentence does m mean Professor Yarnashita i getfiw married. i s

ar,

I+

<

tte2.L

.5z

IAOG

4.&13&

:Les pin03 arro ' I I E ~Buo~ sley o y dpOqatuos aqymsap o~ ~

But i fact it would be far more natural in Japanese to say: n

Tm

hQs . m hair. ? g

(=AS for T m ,he has limg hair.)


This applies not only to discussions of the length of one's hair, but to descriptions of a person's physical attributes in general.

Perm A has a body part which is

...

In idiomatic collocations, we also have:

Sentences )
In the last lesson, we discussed the use of verbal fe-rorms to join sentences. L 1- and 2-adjectives and CSf after nouns also have te-forms, which can be used to combine two elements to form longer sentences.

The te-form of an L >-adjectiveis formed by substituting ( T for the final L 1. The k-form of a Q-adjectiveand a noun+ t T sequence is formed by adding T to the base or the noun.
+T

ELI
LJLI
tf/v

irregular :
&-adjectives:
noun

+ TT:

%(a] e

+ + +
3

S<T P 7
&<7

ZST whrs-

B*ATT E EhGh

HsAT WluLhIZ

hij~a&-=*EA*{ T. $ W L L \ T * ,
The food a that res.fawant i s linmpmsiue & delicious. f
r**
f:
to,

tt

;liahl3~\3$%%T, L 5 b \ T T o 7 L J If& $ That person is always g~irernefic & fun to be with.


AT%%tdBT;PXT, n/ V+W& LC b ~ \ T - k & C ~Z \ he is ahout forty years old. Professor Y a m h z t a is a Japuness
r ~ t ~ e ~ . e ~ \ a=ti~.r+

verb stem iI Z f i L . 1

If a person m o m to mother glace in arder to do something, we can dem-ibe their movement and J purpose this way: h

destination of movement

( ] ithe purpose of m :

m n t [Z

1);:

! F

The purpose of movement can either be a noun Eke R t\%? (shopping), or a phrase d. bo consisting of a verb, Its abject; and 511 forth, Verbs describing the purpose of a movement must be in their stem fsnns. Stem, as we lezuned in Lessan 3, are the part you get by removing 3 T from the verbs' preserkt tense long forms.
stems:

3x5 35

. )

i6 z

+ etrn

p(ff)
etc.

The. "counter"for people is A, but "one person" md "two people" are irregular: --A I:& V Z ') &d =A*"
b* '1 .

one person two people three people four people five people six people seven people eight people nine people

ten people To count people in a class, for example, you can add --Aaftex the noun and the particle I:& hr, and say:

~~4)?3~t~(ld)~fis.-~~h~3~Yh~-X~~&~
AtzL

UX,

dC{Qla

There i s om Swedish studmt i our class. n

VZ I

The place expressions are often followed by :4 1 instead of i: in this type of sentence. 3

lan/-b
Zr3) B& z.e a*
call."
z Ilb

Expression

Nofes(g)'

means "to play," "to spend time pleasantly7"or "to pay a social

When I was a child, 1 often pkcayed with f h d s . Yozc must not play around B < ST&LTtd;t~4jZ+?X/, SF ht until late. 1 wmt to Tokyo to have fan E ~ @ B % ~ ~ E S ~ Z BL f ~ Z G S t> 3 UL *At03 Lw3g.9 W*r;l 8F . h t weekend. Phase come and see us. 3 % ~ Z B V E S I F T 2 tl, ~ 3
F#Dtl$, k
ts
26
abF
bkL

< EE% kBU3 L f z e

S t

<

Note that "to play" as used below requires different words. Sports: to play tennis F L X % = to play basketball r f X 9 Y 1 %?= . Games: to play video games T P FY- A @ = to play cards r 7 2 7 ' Music instruments: to play the guitar ?3 - 62%u '

e s

S g
nh

ba3

P r a c t i c e

@N%LTLI%~-~~
A. Look at the pictures below and answer the questions. @
Example:
Q

: % ~ ] ) - 3 k ..t , A B $- I L ~ ~ T ~ ' ~ : L
*

.-

B. Pair Work-What were you doing at the foIlowing times yesterday? Be as specific as possible (where, with whom, and so on).
Example: 2
F.TUI.

A : tf%kf t"5fi 2 -. ..
-

,- L

,.

Q!:

T L 2 L t z hbO

C. Class Activity-Let's play charades. The teacher gives a sentence card to each student. One of the students mimes the sentence. AII other students guess what the person is doing and raise their hands when they recognize the action. The person that gets the most points is the winner.
3 ~t Example: Rq 2 &if% T % ~ l$ rf-o\
t:
Ti*.

i R

.%A

@ &?te/v~t'z % ~ T LhxZ ~ A* ~ \ &5


Li
t i :

A. This i Sue's family. Answer the following questions. @ s

Example: Q : ~ X 3 h t 3 ~ L I . ~ & X / T ~ \ 3 ~ h ~ ,
+

A : j % X 3 k l A = x - ~ - ~ Z @ & TTo$ ~ L\
%

Father

lives in N.Y.

works for an American company

48 years old

Mother Sister Brother

high school teacher

45 years old
27 years old

works for a bank; married lives in Seoul lives in London student; not married

18 years old

B. Pair Work-Ask

about your partner's family and fill in the blanks below.

@) mmh/v[&B@TL\bq (Describing People) E A. Look at the picture and answer the questions. @
Example:

:9 3 Ilr~3h/E3~*T~\&T75'o A : EW, ~ s L t a . i . * - r : ~ \ a ~ T,
Q
i ?

P*

t:

B. Look at the picture below and describe each person.

C. Class Activity-One student describes another student without mentioning the


name. The rest of the class guesses who the student is.

A. Make sentences using two adjectives. @

L SXI - ~ - h ~ g ~ h, Z /\ L hh ~ ~ = Y 4 . TI\"-p - $ y $ % 7 ' a '../..* 3 ~ >


3. j z t j
: : t .

LY

c, A

5. $fi%$$ (Bullet Train) - .- L \/f!?$11? 2 <x. L &75.A+fI,


i" ?

'1

6. 2-3&
7.
WZL
(

~Z&~L\L~/$XQQ &,+* LA+? $ A @ ~ a ) X X5Q/d:F+.hhQ rL-

!?A 5

B. Looking back on your childhood, make sentences using the given cues. @
Example: my next-door neighbor - tall & kind

1. my town

quiet & nice

2. my teacher - big & scary 3. my house - old & not clean


4 . classes - long & not interesting 5 . my friends - kind & interesting
6. school 8. myself
- lively & fun
- small

7. homework - difficult & tough


& cute

Describe t h e following items using two or more adjectives.


Example:
my
+

roommate
hf:L
bf:t

$LOIL-L%-~
$Lmlb-L%

Li:r\T.6, - b l3$X%TTTF, - 2 6 G=~\TTo L


(roommate) I I W T f ; %
L h-QI
/"it7

1. my hometown

2. my country

3. my Japanese class 5 . Japanese people

4. one of my family members 6- people of my country

A. Sue is going to the following places to do the things below. Make sentences like the example. @

Exa

- 75'.,i= 3 (Kabuki)

-% Fb & A

-3 kI;t;g@i:hll:=3k 2RC=E Sri Z

B. For what purpose would you go to the folIowing places?

Pair Work-Ask

your partner the following questions.


-0
Q

ExampIe: A : ~ Q l % ~ G = ~ ~ h h ~ # T A ~ ~ $ ~ i 5 ~ ,
VY

2,Ll:'L

2. ~

--

X ~ ~
UX.

(nationality)

fr~cr~.

~ -,a ~ p - 5 ~ t~ At L

A. Answer the following questions.

6. Class Activity-Show

a picture o your family to the class and describe it. f

I
I

I
Father

1. Someone Else's Family


& tX S L , : -i
I

11. Own Family A: Formal Situation B: Informal Situation

I
I

X .-,
->
L

&XSL
ci
I

1 Mother
I

Older brother
I

Older sister

G !=.. 3 h E S@(;fi4k
r22

X. @ h
hI :
rl

k;X,FtShi i3%3iL
I;II

f l. f

Younger brother

xir

$$A
&A/* L*LL %<f

f;r+t: %
,,.;if

Younger sister
Husband Wife
Grandfather Grandmother

,,2+r

*SX, r"& x
LnCA g<

'(See below.)

1
1
!: + 1 3 I

@I" P,$
n,'i.:5

3i

*(See below.)

'
%t2&2,4,

$B x
t
.i.

j%C~\3,&

%tS&i,L
[I

1 Child
>'?

%?%A .

I 1

? J

%a3

*Depending on each person, several words are used for spouses, e.g+,for husband, T S L Q , i % a h , a n d f o r w i f e , 3 r B , 7 4 7 , h a 4 4 t L ,a n d s o o n .

1
I

A : B 1 ~ ~ ~ 0 f j X ? ~ l d H m 0 l dS ~ i o~ f ~ N 2 e y , M r .Tanaka? h ~ i y w a
t: T h ,
Y 9
$&?rr

B :[formal]

X i 2 5 Cbi,?4L\ T T o +& % I
t: i

My father .is 50 years old

Cinformall i X 3 A ii5+% TTo %


. ;
I+'-$LI

Where does your older brother live, Mr. Tanaka?

Note that you can use ;k;i-,' 5 h and ;f;% 2 tt when you talk to your older brothers X, r and sisters, The younger brothers and sisters are called by their names.
. h

Younger brother: Older brother:

6 .X,5 A, FJ ? ik 5 5 ,
I .

Hi, B g Brother. i

Q!:

What is it, Taro?

p-<+7

- Barbecue

@ At school.

@ Robert is cooking at the barbecue.

Michiko: Takahi, would you like to have a barbecue party tomorrow?

Takeshi: That's nice. Who will come?

Michiko: Sue and Robert will come. I think Mary will come, too. Takeshi: How about Ken? Michiko: Ken said he had a part-time job.

Takeshi: Too bad. Shall I bring something?


Michiko: I think nothing is needed.

Michiko: You are good (at cooking). Do you like cooking, Robert?
Robert: Yes, I often cook at home.
Michiko: Shall I help you with something? Robert: Well then, cut the tomatoes, please. * * Robert: Shall we start?

Michiko: Don't drink yet. Mary said that she would come.

M a n : I'm sorry for being late.


Everyone: Well then

. . . Cheers!

the day after tomorrow rain office worker camera karaoke air this morning this month job; work; occupation college student disco weather forecast place tomato summer something
party

barbecue chopsticks winter homestay; living with a local family every week next month

skillful; good at . . . clumsy; poor at . . . famous

(w&~) (-fir)

it rains to wash to say


.. . .

Words that appear in the dialogue

to need (-dP) to be late (for . . . to think to cut to make to take (something)

(-I.=)

t'6 U 6 R b
%bfi6

to stare (at . . . ) to begin

to drive (- T? to do laundry to clean

A d v e r b s

a n d

O t h e r

E x p r e s s i a a s

?)?A 5A-J
* i3hA,12P~~

&fT

* y&ibA, (Tph) * 3 f5 negative

B%(TTh)

* k&QT

uh-uh; no uh-huh; yes Cheers! (a toast) That's too bad. not . . . yet all (of the people) together

f3h,

I%5

In this and the next lesson, we will learn a new paradigm of conjugation, which we wiIl call "short forms. Before we start worrying about their meaning and how they are used, let us first see what they look like. It should be obvious why they are called short forms. We will list the already familiar "long forms" to the right in the table below.
1
"

b s e n t tense, affirmative

short forms

long forms

1
1

verbs:
L\-adjectives:

,
I

&-adjectives:

noun

+ Tg:
short forms long forms

Present tense, negative

verbs:
td-adjectives:

noun

+ Tq:
-

The following rules summarize how short forms are constructed.


p p

Verbs and I,\-adjectives

in the affirmative (a above)

3 same as their dictionary forms &-adjectives and noun + T q in the affirmative (b above)

replace

77 with E

L\- and a-adjectives and noun

+ r$

in the negative (d above)

rrpace&~dtihiwiihfdli

'Various names have been given to this paradigm. They include "pIain forms," "informal forms," and "direct style." Long forms, on the other hand, are often called "polite forms," "formal foms," and "distaI style."

As noted in Lesson 5, the adjective L > L \ is irregular. Its negative short form is k

<3

~ ~ .

Verbs in the negative need to be analyzed in more detail, because 7%-, u-, and irregular verbs conjugate differently.
Negative short forms o verbs (c above) f
ru-verbs: Take the final 5 off and add

at\.
*a
5< % a&
d

5 k

& a L l It
sh a I ;i * L ?'

U-verbs: Take the final -u off and add -anai.

=<
i i '

+
s

7<

33 m
G3 * E&S1 L %& &
irregular verbs:

%&&L\
Rig:

+ +
j

IT%&L1 %hvLLI
3<

+
+

ejr-,aL\ *

V J ~

lwd3zL1 d

EaaL\ L

+ FbaLI
LZXLI

9'

I&?JL? ' h

gzj
exception:

z a ~ i

&.a

Wrn

With verbs in the negative, the following three points are worth noting. (1)The negative short forms of verbs that end with the hiragalza ? are -- b td:I instead J \ 2 of --$Q~:L\, f2) The vowel changes with the irregular verb < 4 . f3) The verb $J B in the negative is l \ .

We now turn to discussion of how we utilize short forms. In this lesson, we will learn to use the short forms in the following four contexts:
*In represented, or quoted, speech ("I think . . . ," "She said . . .") a I n casual conversations, as signs of intimacy In making negative requests ("Please don't . . .") (See 3 on p. 1 7 ) 5.

A.

2Thissuggests that the bases of verbs like R 3 and % i actually end with the consonant w. This consonant remains dormant when the base is [illowed by the vowel i, thus we have 3 5t, where w is lacking, but it surfaces with the vowel a following, 3T A .b This mystery consonant also explains why *the te-formof such a verb has the small 9, like verbs whose bases obviously end with a consonant, just such as Z 5 and 99.
d '

I n expressing ideas like "I like doing

. . ." or "I am good at doing . . ."


(See 4 below.)

Quotations To quote a person's utterances or thoughts, you use a clause ending with a

predicate in the short form, plus Z S 7 T L 1 L f: (They said ". . ."I, kf ,E! L I 3 T ((I think 2 ti, that . . ; ), and so forth. L is a quotation particle, which does the job of both the English word "that" in indirect quotation and of quotation marks (" ") in direct quotation.

a
0

Z-$,Lli, & L7?%s6xh6 Z % ~ T L > ~ Lk', L lix. Sue said that there would be an exam tomorrow.
\ I

($LIrit) ?:I? L 3 h i d % 7 ]I - s L h W I h?:L 1 think Takeshi likes Mary.


i

e z ,< ~ ~-k4 \ a
i ;

Casual conversations Two people who are close friends or family members speak with short forms at the end of sentences, using them as a sign of intimacy. The use of long forms, in contrast, tends to imply the speaker's intention to "keep a proper distance" from the listener. Short forms, then, are like talking on a first name basis, while long forms are like using "Mr." and "Ms."
It may not be easy to decide when it is appropriate to switch to short forms. First of alI, Japanese speakers are often very conscious of seniority. A year's difference in age may in many cases totally preclude the possibility of establishing a truly "equal" relationship.

3Note that the present tense in Sue's original utterance is preserved in Mary's report. 4To say that you &'t f h i ~ k something is the case, it is more common in Japanese to say it like-$bl (I think that something is not the case) than-- l ,Fi1,125 + ? (I don't tksak). Therefore: : .A 2,E b1Z
bt

(%L~)$~~)-SAI~)F;~?LPL;~P@~~;JP~~~~,B~~ST~
think Mary likes ~ a k e s h (=l think Iw"a"ry doesn't like Takahi) f

+ h 3

ft;&'t

Second, license to use short forms is not mutual; senior partners may feel perfectly justified in using short forms while expecting their junior partners to continue addressing them with long foms. Thus if somebody who is older, say, your Japanese language professor, talks to you using short forms, they would be greatly surprised if you should return the favor.

Here are a few observations on the grammar of short forms as they are used in casual conversations. .In the casual conversational use of short forms, question sentences do not end with the question particle but with rising intonation alone. T h e I ending of 3-adjectives and noun CT constructions (b in the previous sec? tion) is usually dropped.

In casual conversations, C d -i i t L .

and

2 are often replaced by the less formal

.j

and

To request that someone refrain from doing something, one can use a negative verbal short form plus t { fF 3 I..
2

z -c*F&$$&(, L l T Q
LPLL
Z

< fZ3

L, l ,

PEeme don't take pictures here.


negative short form

+ T <Tz"eL\

Please dm't

...

Short forms are used in constructions where verhs and adjectives are to be treated as nouns. Thus M L t2--$s"3$ 3 TTf 3 b l-iI" T can, besides describing your preference for 8 * items denoted by nouns, such as $3, also describe your preference for activities, such as h swimming, drinking coffee, and studying Japanese. Add to a verbal short form to express the idea of "doing x."
l

I don't like clea~z.czrag y room. m

(5%EA)3E2@%-P4@h45bbW-P, hi'i -.r


+ - ? <

"To be good/bad at doing something" is --9~~13--I-3 good a t . . . and -&zT+T? (is Uii f f : 5 (is bad a t . . . ).

UY<.-

3 Li3++3Z!24+6 - CTJ&'L+TT~
Iri ' I
7 (

Robert is good at cooking meals.


1

L ' i i -f

k C L 3 kla~z%%-if~1'T4-I"To j . (2% -. r:
-

Takeshi is not a good speaker o f English.

person

(a

activity (verb) G l ) ~

like doing . . . doesn't like doing . . . i good at doing . . . s is pour at doing . . .

It is a common mistake to use the te-form of a verb in such contexts, misled by the association between --S L~ b and the verb in the -ing form in English.

Consider what n b $ tt l3iT,%h tcfi 3 3 t f= means. This sentence of course is about Z*f1 Robert and describes what he did. It is likely to be uttered when the topic of Robert has already been breached. Grammatically speaking, (I) the noun ol{- I- stands as the subject in relation to the verb 4 ( (he was the person who performed the going), and 7 (2) the noun is, per the function of the particle id, presented as the topic of the sentence (us for Robert, he went to Okinawa).
f8,>

What if we both know that somebody went to Okinawa recently, and I know that it was Robert, but you don't. I will say:

ROBERT went to Okinawa.

'To describe one's skills or Iack thereof, we also often use a different set of expressions, namely, --h2Z { LxTT (is comfortable with . . . 1 and --71rzl:75'.ilf P (is uncornfortabIe with . . . 1. 4 , % T { * T o I am good atlcmnfortable with speaking Japanese. z
hf:L

*
5 ,

,A%

This sentence means that Robert went to Okinawa, which in English would be uttered with an extra emphasis on the name Robert. His identity is the new piece of information provided by this sentence. It is one of the functions of the particle 15." to (1) present the subject of a sentence in a way such that (2) the noun will "fill in the blank on the information sheet.
"

The "blank on the information sheet" is a question word like f z h and FJ. The above sentence will fill in the blank left out by:
Q [Z

t?i#%754iPR $37 2 L fz $', 3


f;_i%$,

Compare: X

-$+%t tfi 3 3 L f z dao U6 3 Q h


I\

Who went to Okinawa?

As we learned in Lesson 2, a question word that is the subject of a sentence is never followed by the particle lat, but always by the particle h2. As we have seen, a noun that will provide the answer to such a question is also followed by the particle h'.

Z * n Y 7 ; r h 4 S %LSL\T*T~~)>,, Whkh class is (fhe most) interesti~g?


S * ~ O ? ? X & ' ; ~ ; &L & L \ ~ * * o
i: I X / L

Japanese class i. s
( 2 ~ ' , 7 - 3 ~ - C + ) i F ; ' ; f i h ~ & d ~ ~3 ' . - C ~-$-hh, 2hht k \a Who wears glasses fin this class)?

& T % % t ~ ~ & & ~ # a\ 3 To 2 ;t)*dfCC L Lf:+&.ttt> Professor Yamashif does. a


rt 2

The word for "something" is m;b-, and the word for "anything" in negative sentences is h: l

Hz & * tlr
"Some" and *anyM in:
positive statements

$iIhx
aE

questions
negative statements

@fix
sl;:
alL

@% l negative

something a~ythiw? nof . . . anythiw

These two words are used in places where the particles 13, 75<, and 2 are expected. In these contexts, they are used on their own, without the help of particles. We will learn in Lesson 10 what to do in cases where particles other than these are expected.

%&2N$*87 3 3 L fzo x
2
k

The cat has brought something.

4% tJ-Rba&<3 .: a Biz f;
L\L\&.
all

t7LZ?Po
f:

Did the cat eat anyfhing?


' h

%13m%+t^;:3*hTL.fto

No, the cat did nof eat azythizg.

-Fa b Most irregular verbs are compounds of nouns and the verb T8 . If
you have learned an irregular verb, therefore, you have also learned a noun.

verbs %%3-& -A323 to study

nouns
+"Sx-3

study

ex. E l & $ o ) ~ i 2 % L ~ l T % IZA. z - A *s *a Japanese language study is fun.


: (

NBT& 9k.j s
to cook

HE! 9di 9
cookilzg

ex.

o2f-

E P t L O l ~ l 2 f i Lb3TTo b~
d

Robert's cooking is good.

Some of these nouns can be used as the "object" of the verb 9.3.
bPL

$L kiH$zaB%%L3 Lk,, I studied Jopanesa tLfX.zxAs~7Compare: $h i2EI&s%BBL$.t k o bf:L c IZAUF 4 " 3 ~ 3


?

TLt3LSA6&~BaBR% LT<, tz Tukeshi cleaned his room. P SicCompare: ?' t? t 3 k t&3E f:RR L t L t<,
.-.P

+5L

/-\

: i~/

r Short Forms
Example:

A. Change the affirmatives into negatives. @

h' (

$lh' ? L

B. Change the affirmatives into negatives. @

@ Informal Speech
A. Answer the following questions in informal speech, first in the affirmative, then in the negative. @
& .

Example: Q : .k

< @. 2 &* , r:
% .. d'i

8?
?A,
& G Q b ~ o
f<

A : ?A,

* - - G o / ?

t:

B. Answer the following questions in informal speech, first in the affirmative, then
in the negative. @ Example: Q : 3% ?
ish- 3

A : 5 A, Z%,o/? A, Z F ~ J + % ' L ~ ~ 3
If& 5

If&

A. Make a guess about Mary, using --tBLlLf. $35


Example: good at Japanese

1. often cooks 3 . doesn't smoke 5 . doesn't go home late at night 7. often goes to see movies
9. 11. 13. 15.

likes Takeshi a good student not scary not a freshman

busy 12. not tall

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

drives a car listens to a Japanese language tape every day doesn't drink alcohol much not married

14. not quiet

B. Make a guess about the person or place below and answer the following questions.

Picture A

Picture

C. Make a guess about the following things, using --&EL\%$.


8%

I . the weather tomorrow 2. the next test 3. what your classmates will do tomorrow

A. Report what the following people said, using - - t Zi = Z L \ t Lf;. @ L


Example:

% 7 ' ~ - / ~ f l l d 8 T & ~ ~ ~ T ~ o
:,&If7
I

.i' f)

%7"1--3htJBZZ-;,ril~\3 t . 6 ~ ~ ~ EX. A : +aCd*rt L L \ Z ~ ~ - C L \ ~ LLI* :&It-? +7i:


Q :
i>
\

II

B. Pair Work-Ask

your partner the following questions. Take notes and report to

the class later, using

--&FTTLI% bt;.

What would you say when you want someone


Example: not to look at your photo
+

...
{ f? 3 L io

% ? ?? r, 3
not not not not not

I. not to speak English


3 . not 5. not 7. not 9. not 11. not

to to to to to

come to your house smoke forget start the class yet erase the blackboard yet
( 2 I%A)

2. 4. 6. 8. 10.

to to to to to

calI you
go

sleep in class stare at you be late

<

A. Tell what Mary is good/poor at, using L~P 7 d or T q T t . l T t


. \

Example: tennis (good)


+ ,

%~'J--$~IAY=X~:~_~~+T-$,
ci+
7

swimming (poor)
+

r '1 -3 hl;t*(aa7Sf7;+T-j-,
2
7 :

1. French (good) 3. cooking (good) 5. speaking Japanese (good) 7. driving a car (good) 9. writing love letters (good) (77b9-)

2. 4. 6. 8.

video games (poor) making sushi (poor) taking pictures (good) eating with chopsticks (good)

B. Pair Work-Ask

if your partner likes to do the following activities.

Example: studying

1. eating 4. doing shopping 7. doing cleaning 10. taking a bath

2. sleeping 5. playing sports 8. doing laundry 11. driving a car

3. 6. 9. 12.

singing studying Japanese cooking washing a car

* If you neither like it nor dislike it, you can use $f 3 T& 3 h i \ T% W 1 I *A.

A. Use the table below and answer the questions. @

Example: Q : ffd'L2~'d

XAT?6xo
UX.

Robert

British American

Mary
Sue

Korean Japanese

Takeshi

is good at cooking is good at skiing is good at singing is good at swimming

went to Okinawa last weekend does not cook had a date last weekend went to Tokyo cooks last weekend sometimes always eats at had a date last cafeteria weekend

cooks often

doesn't like cats likes dogs likes cats doesn't like cats

B. Pair Work-Use

the table above and ask your partner questions with Ehtii.

A. You went to a party but did nothing there. Make sentences using the cues.
Example:
. '

f -7 4

- b e 3 L 1z 6'. =3
i

(eat)

1. ~ f - 7 4 -I=?f3 3 Lf.:hS, (drink)


I r

2.

fi 7;573-Y&'& 3 L Ah.", (sing) 9

3- 7 - b W & ' & 9

3 tf:&.'. (watch)

4 . fJ % 7 '

2%- T L \ L-fz7fii', (take) ~ 5 . @ A /t,tz+~\3 L ? Z & ~ (talk) 3 , A 6. 2 f - 7 4 --i=@3 3 t f z h 2 , (do)


P

B. Answer the following questions.

Example: Q : 3

'j @RZE3 X/
I fX.

'61:

A : 1 3 ~ 1 ,Z/pY.;r?-f

3 3 L 7i 1 5 . , (spaghetti) & @ 3 3 Lk, <


7 (
7

A. Interview one of your dassmates about any future plans and report to the class.

6 Pair Work/Group Work-You .


points and fill in the chart.

are planning a party. Decide on the following

C. Class Activity-find

someone who . . .

I. likes to study Japanese


2 hates to do cleaning .
3. Iikes to sing

4. is poor at driving

5. whose mother is good at cooking

D. Pair Work-A and B are making plans for a one-day trip with two other friends C and D. A knows C's schedule and B knows D's schedule. Play the roles of A and B. Discuss your own and your friend's schedules using --&E=ZL\Sbfz, L\ and find out which days all four of you are available.
Example: A : ~ * E l C ~ P ~ TTha,
Uni6

< L:T

B : L\c\;Z, EL\$@~c?T~ 3 -f,


b-

LO

bl

Unili%l:&

12, Z+3 TT6*0


k
k k

A : $AGJ.,
b: fL

FJt L 3 * k , T k , C ~ X , h ' & 9 2 W , I = f i { ZZ9-C 2: 4 1 '

~4Lk,

Student A

1
A's schedule
16
17
I8

1 9

20

21

22
29

study

quiz

party

23

24

25

26

27

28

part-time job

C told A that he would . . . 18th: go to see a movie 24th: meet friends

26th: go to Osaka to have fun

Student B

B's schedule
16
1 7

18 25

1 9
26

20 27

21
tennis

22
29

shopping
23

work
24 28

work

D told B that she would . . . 19th: do a part-time job 27th: go to eat Japanese cuisine 28th: go to Kyoto to see temples

b\,3<*- Kabuki
L
&

~ D i a l o g u e g

Mary and Takeshi are talking.

@ During intermission at a Kabuki theater.

@ At a concession stand.

Takeshi: Mary, do you like Kabuki?

Mary: Kabuki? I don't know it well. But Robert said it was interesting.
Takestti: I got two tickets for Kabuki, so would you like to ga to see it?
Mary: Sure. When is it?

Takeshi: On Thursday. From 12~00 16:OO. to

Mary: It was beautifuI.

Takeshi: The people who appear are all men. Mary: Redly? Takeshi: Yes. BY the way, did you already eat lunch? Mary: No, I haven't eaten it yet.
Takeshi: Then, shall we go to buy it?

Takeshi: Excuse me. Two box lunches, please. Vendor: Here they are.
Takeshi: And then, one tea and one coffee.
Vendor: That is 2,800 yen. Thank you very much.

good child

color boxed lunch

spa; hot spring Kabuki; traditional Japanese theatrical art guitar

g
%Pikk

medicine to take medicine concert

4-EZ 42 7
$$$&

near future essay; composition exam


Shinkansen; "BuIlet Train" ski

#-%&$

%I

last month
word; vocabuIary piano

.E W

illness; sickness

blue red

black lonely white


young

mean-spirited

to dance (somethind ends

(-dc)

* Words that appear in the dialogue

b=L?d Z & 6
l3~'2& V(

XR1ScaBj Q *$ 6

@<

to be popular (something) begins (- BS) to play (a string instrument or piano) to get (from somebody) (person t t h i w 2 )

to memorize (1)to appear; to attend (2) to exit (- 2 )


I r r e g u l a r

(- ) : 4

5 h Z * j -33
3 x/lx? 6
A d v e r b s

V e r b s Z%-f4

to do physical exercises

&?WZJ
a n d

to take a walk

O t h e r

E x p r e s s i o n s
from

* 'v&~C; * -tf-'V * ZZ6-P * &A3 * %$


N
U

. ..

34F

by all means

by t h e way all already


S

b e r

[used to count small items)

* VY3
* ,i9it;7 A77
1-37

-9

z-3
27

one two
three four five

m-3
57 k7 -k9
rk 3

Lh

k77

six,

239
p39
tL69-3

seven
eight nine ten

h7

3-

a
1
'

Past Tense Short Forms

We will now contirlue the discussion on short forms, which nre started in the last lesson. Here we will learn the past tense paradigm of short forms.
-- -

Past tense, affirmative


verbs: Lbadjectives: Td-adjectives: noun
a : + Jhfe

compare with:

pbh? d kb
fP;f3IlL\

I
I

+ TT:
~bt6fP~f;~ 2 h % t \ < Z X ~ ~ \ T7zb % h \ ~ +d h b 7cb t LF ~9l;-~tdh\3t' fi'<ttLI

Past tense, negative

I
I
1

verbs:
LI-adjectives:

%+;5tsL!
h';hlI< t6L\

&-adjectives:

I . -

noun

+~

b :

%h'GI;;ZKf6L\ LF F%Lrf&p 7Y<*LI

I
I

Kelow is a brief discussion on the formation of past tense short forms.


-

Verbs in the affirmative (a above)

1
'

3 replace T / P in te-forms with k / f 2


I,\-adjectives in the affirmative, and all categories in the negative (b above)

!
L

+
.

replace the final L\ with

h\3ft

$-adjectives and noun

+ T b in the affirmative (c above)


_ I

3 replace f2 in the present tense short forms with 7?7fz


--

The two irregularities that we noted earlier are observed here once again. They are:

Short form predicates in the past tense can be used in the same way as the present tense forms, which we discussed in Lesson 8.

In represented, or quoted, speech


X-3,&[3., * % a % & h s & 2 $ x i ? f b h f : Z s 9 T ~ 1 2 Lfzo Y:3 Y 3 Sug said that she wore (had worn) glasses i high school. a
6%

($.Ed) b A 3 h d 5 ' 9 3 f ; Z , % L \ ~ $ , C ink T m did it.


f ;

In casual conversations

RC*iAL,> *Sf< ? Have diHne/yef?


If X.

A.

@x+=o

~ h - h z l hdid ~ ~ ,~

Note that in Japanese the tense of the original utterance is preserved when it is reported. If you are reporting somebody's utterance in which the present tense is used, you must also use the present tense inside the quote. Thus, if your friend Sue said 4, E $W & % l r.9 Ir11X.Z -X, 5$ L ril L 13 T, using the present tense, your report will be:
$17

X - ~ A I & H ~ % ~ & % L ~L f~ o ~ ~ Y S ~ T ~ ~ ~ z b: HX, : - i X . t r i Sue said that she was studying Japanese.
15

The short forms of verbs can be used to qualify nouns, much like adjectives can. In the example below, the phrase & Z T 5 % A, h c 1 \ ((readinga book over there) is used as . 2 13X. 1 a qualifier for the noun ?F &.

+?L\

1 & + tT$42%kT~\G [F&ta&%rx i ~ T , 3 IIX. a


*:( Y L .

The studelet lwho i readkg a book over there1 is Michiko. s


The following table shows various forms of noun qualification. The phrases in the boxes qualify the noun f+ (person) to their right. Example 1 is a straightforward adjectival A example. ~ x a r n ~2l contains a phrase describing a person's attribute (Lesson 7), example e 3 has a verb in the short form (Lesson B), and example 4 has a 3-adjective, which is relational (Lesson 5).
Y

2A qualiying phrase l k this, which has a sentence-like structure of its own, is technically known as a ie
"relative clause."

u persun [who is interesting1

a persim lwho has long hair1 a p e m n who wears glassed a perso*


adjectives and verbs used as qualifiers

1 I who likes cats 1

noun

Here are more examples of verbs used in descriptions of people.

(Who id the persm taking pictures over there?

People who do physical exmc&es mery day (are healthy.)

( I like) people who

do mt smoke.

(A letter c a m fmm) a f r i e d who got married last year.

Consider first the following pair of sentences in English.


Zelda has lost her key. Zelda lost her key. These two sentences present the same fact, Zelda losing her key, in different ways. The first "present perfect" example describes the event as something that is connected with the present: hearing the sentence, one will understand that Zelda is still without her key. On the other hand, the second "simplte past" example describes the event as something that is independent of the situation at the present moment; we do not know whether Zelda is still looking for her key or has later retrieved it.
In Japanese, past tense forms do double duty on the affirmative end of polarity, but the past tense and the T L 1 4 construction share the work on the negative end. Thus in the

affirmative, the past tense is used both with words like 3 present) and t i ("already," connected with the present).

3 (disconnected from the

?At33a,3%5%2 Ld- tk, La<f:it I did the hamework yesterday.


bt:L

and

$L,ld%?j~&~&~?zo Ln(t:r> I have already done the homework.


hf:L

With the negative, the past is used to talk about a finished time period like 3 -5 , but T L 1 & is used if your intention is to talk about how things stand now ("not yet7').

3.At$3@.i%SSB2 3 - @ L T t k o t ~s<f:r, 1 did not do fhe hmework yesterday.


bt:~

and

+&I-

$ L i d 3 f?@B% T ~ ~ ~ - + k h 0 L I have not done the homework yet,


~ ~ ( f < r h

3E-7313i2h

have mt

. . . yet

This use of -iI & \ 5 can be found both with verbs describing cha~ges and with verbs describing activities, as defined in Lesson 7.

~ - 3 h E 3 3$533 ccr~\3*&0
Sue has not woken UP yet.
k i

(change)

$2.12 3 t<& L*13A, ?i TL v& tz I havea't eatgn lunch y e t


hf:L

3*Ao

(activity)

We learned in Lesson 6 that

;Ira&

added to a sentence means "because."

M L

q ~ i a ~ ~ r * t a ~ ~ e - ; . ~ *~t L i ~ . ~ f ~ ,T z T T ~ ~ ~ , ~- t t =
Bjs
\ * t

I didn't have brhkfast. (Became) I was busy.

In this lesson, we learn to incorporate the explanation clauses in the statements themselves, rather than adding them as separate sentences. You can simply transpose the "explanation+ 6% " sequence to the beginning of a sentence for which the explanation is b offered.

= (situation), because (explanation). = (explanation), fherefore, (situation).

I will study this eve~ing, beccame we will have an encam tomorrow. (= We w l have aft exam tmorrow, therefore, I will study this evming-) il

&Lf=SR&pib6-hab, : L I A X L3ri ~Alf+R%Bt3Td L it& AM L

9S&h7khaL;, *haCf2+thTLfto ?tT We didn't go out, because i was cold. t ( = I t was cold, therefore, 1 didg't go ouA)
Note that the resulting order of elements resembles that of a "therefore" sentence more closely than that of a "because" cIause in English.

Before the conjunction hS6 , you find both the long and short forms. Thus the 75% 1; clauses in the above examples can be rewritten as i L SRhP& 3 T h xi3 and Sh.9ft TThh 9 L IiX. 2 th .' The long form before 2~ b is more polite, and is frequently found in request and suggestion sentences.

Let's go to see Kabuki 1 have tickets.

&G:3a!a%d2;fj9 &T&lL;,-->$1:RC-$T3a L k 3 . 3x k
. i :
i\?L
1\

'The long form before z k i3 is inappropriate when the entire sentence ends in a short fom, however. Thus it is inappropriate to say:X S ha7 f" TTh3I;, &hhlf23'7 k c
$2
T

,$!#El P r a c t i c e
h
Lw5
: 1

Short Forms Past

A. Verbs

(a) Change the following verbs into the past affirmatives.


Example:

75' (

haL \?=

(b) Change the following verbs into the past negatives.

Example: 5'. (
1. & &
3. 1 ( i

-hihi%$'7 ?..

2- T-c&
lo. (

3 - Tt2
7 . 9 { &

(to throvi away)

4. Itrhd? b
8. *X/k ( T 6
12. $ A , Y ~~5

6. t d U 2 b

9. i$lbq

11. ~ 1 5
15. h x k ? , $

13. S i 3 2 6

14. 9 f z - j

16. q'if-;t;'

B. Adjectives and Nouns

(a) Change t h e following into t h e past affirmatives.

Example: 7"z -ha L 1

+ +

~ ~ P S ~ r 3 ~ 7 ~ ~

G?X,3 2
$<(*L\

-.f,L3f?3fz
&'*(*L\f;*<f<

-+

(b) Change the following into the past negatives.

@ Informal Speech
A. Using the cues below, make questions about yesterday in informal speech. How do you answer those questions? @
Example: ?- t W & 3, b
k +

Q : 4@.jTLY2R?:?
k.

A :3
1.
2.

h, E7t=,/.j 9 A, R Q $ x qf z , k k

t0Y2&*8
f :

&*T& SA, (3' 3. BS@T$i?% 9 & z L / " fZ/v h1

4. ? G ? ? % E T &
+-i

5.
7.

i&TH=T6 ' I
9x3
Y

6 . &??Gi:&?
C
A
f;X.Z'

S32%2& B11
<

8. $%&I*
hf?li

9.

S%i:%%2rSx13$ d. F < T/L h


2 F ~ - Y - ~ f ~ ~
-2

10, ~
11.
12.

*.

.7f $'A % % b j .&

13.

2giy*bzfi< h+ %%T$ i/Lri


Ir

14. F'47:ztTgb
.Y G

Make questions about childhood in informal speech. How do you answer those
questions? @

Example: Z% Irk I
+

Q :T E a e .
:rt

Zf R tE 7 i ? ? z ~ / c

A :

5 XI,

Z%t57
Ifd 5

t=,/-j A, X a U e Q h x 9f:, 5 IT& 3

@Z%f2.ot=tE~ltd lfh d %%
A. Make a guess about the childhoods of the people below. @

t Example: 2 %, T* ?z hso
ITX. 3

Q : L o3ACATiEa%,
ur

%%T t f ~ l f k 3 : IdLh, Z R I ? ' =Z4%Ll&To t~ ~ if/" 3 st


;rt
r3

6 ' ~

L\L\&,

Z ~ ~ : ' Q & ~ ~ ~= ~Z \ 3 -3 U ? Z ,0
IT/"

i4 b

(a) 7F > f l Z 3 L j T (about ~ a d o n n a )

(b) E~*Z@%*~Z~L\Tyour Japanese teacher) (about I I z WhWL!

6. Choose one classmate and guess what they were like as a child using the

following characteristics.

A. Pair Work-Ask

your partner the following questions about his/her childhood and report to the class using --&EgTL\ZLfi. 11
Example:
L\

:ib Q L ? ' :

B. What would these people say/have said? Make up your own quote for the

following people.
Example:

'

30

jf ( :

s & +g C ? L f = z $ - ; , ~ ~ ~ \ @ L
I 5

Ex. 3a71t';lz%~Z'*- ? / f 9 1 L (1)

7~9"/> I I ~ F Z - ~ ~ X ' ) (2)

(4) @ 1[my] mother)


1 3

A. Look at the picture below and answer the questions.


Example: El
f:
+

3
35 7.

Q :E3+3hiiZ*QlAT?ha,
fz

of i.

vr

A : b&rib2$*l-f.lil~\&hTT,\L - - f - 2 % T ~ l \ ATT, f i ~b
vz
L5
4

rP Y

B. Pair Work-One

of you looks at picture A below and the other looks at picture B (p. 188). Ask each other questions and identify all the people in the picture.

Example:

k L5

A : $; B

L 2 3 h i d ~''C?lh"i.'~fi', Pr_:~ ~ ~ " ~ R T L G A T T , A z


L'

Picture A

Ask which of the people are the


following:

1.

f-zs -3

2. 3 k j L
3. ~:-L\$C+

4. L . i r

C. Class Activity-Descri be your classmates. The class is divided into two groups, A and 6.Each member of group A acts out

something and freezes in the middle of doing so. Members of group B answer the teacher's questions, using --TLl5APT. Take turns when finished.
U&

Example: Teacher : T 4
(32

7 3 A, C i F~AT"p;tra, Dr
jL:/<
It

Student : *$Z$ZLTi:L\bATT,
r

A. Answer the following questions using bk--?IL\bl2h. @


Example:

Q :&j&
Y'S

X/ ?? &< 2
f:

L ?=fia,

B. Pair Work-Ask
+A,

if your partner has done . . . yet.


f:

Example: 352 6 2 &< 4

1.

H#Mk:*%n L
t;h-%/,
i i l l

2. : i g t c X b

3 . LvbY ?. (Lesson 10) ??% L' -f-%% d


4.
75';:

3 -2R k c 8 (
A
li

5.
(a name of newly released movie)

&W,b
h

6.

3{

(a name of newly released CD)

7.
(a name of current best-selling novel)

& 7 ,

+* v76
a

A. Match up the phrases to make sense.

B. Complete the foltowing sentences adding reasons.

1.
2.

&> b ,

%&75WL*&& "I 2 * A o Ak -I
1:

hXL;. Et*%%%i%
(TX-

z '

</,,3~

L T ~ : T o\ ~ L

3.
4.

sfixb, QA,CIP~ wL m 7~ 1 3 t~ x 3t 7 1 t ~ ~ ~ 5 ~ m i 3 c>+e d r '


h S L ; , 3~3?FR21*&4.3 k o L i r i
Q ~ T Z

mgefr3cnag

;(zhrbwJ5

A. Role Play-One of you is working at a fast-food restaurant. The other is a customer. Using Dialogue IU as a model, order some food and drinks from the menu below. Be sure to say how many you want.

B. Answer the following questions.


2, T 9 - 2 % ( 9 h z k . f T - P h h ,
U

c= 7 kJ

3 . %&c3h3*3Tj-r3>,
4.

~9 t a w , ?A 6. &q@S*El (birthday) I ~ f l & ~ & , L \ $ t k - h h , & 3 1 h& f=h.Lii d Qt: T:t-Ltzm$ Tt b b 3 t k 6 x 0 r* 7. +B. 9 ~ x r a + m = w t4 t ? z $ ~ , ~ + t : , % b $ha, 3 93 31 i &'?LC 1iu Q/" r 8. T T Y ~ ~ ~ t 9. f%a%. k < &Ti& z sv+3 f<h>, L r L rt he
5.
{
IT
bt

E!%@e, < S 2 f k A 2 3 - h ~ ~ k 5 rl
3
7
0 ,

%f

-f

i ;

1.P

10. z''AQEa b k - T - W + 9
t'p,

11. + ~ o i $ ~ ~1 ~ s Lt r , cX,r . Lllh. CTh. 12. &3?=9ETIJ. Z % 2 X $ - ' Y ~ ~ J . % ~ ~ 9 3 - f * h o &


{ 1:

,ge -w,

T b d

T6ao

IIX,

Pair Work @ B.

Example:

k L2

picture B

Ask which of the people are the following:

There are two kinds of words for colors.

Group 1: LI-adjectives

I
1

X~J> <&
h Q-

black
red

3 w 5 k h
3
597)

yellow

fi b i SLX 84 8g
L r,
&
%+\\&

white blue
brown

These words become nouns without the r>.


red bag

I like red the best.

Group 2: nouns

I
I
(

* ', 7* - 2 % 1 )
F>7
%$/;/,b~.t-?kt\&

green

a3 %3

% 7 I3 & kTr.6

light blue

1 I

pink
silver

There words need


=I '

a in order to make noun phrases.


green sweater

>B/7*1]>Ql-k-9-

Here are some words related to colors.

You look pale..


bhck a d white picture

Mary hQs Blo&

hair.

&#&(n-f;z Vacation Plans Winter *


"srs,

ifww

&

Ft"r

@ At a travel agency.

Mary: It is getting cold.

Takeshi: Yes. Mary, what will you do at winter break?


Mary: I am planning to go to Korea or Taiwan, but I haven't decided yet.

Takeshi: That's nice. Mary: Which do you think is better, Korea or Taiwan?

Takeshi: Mm . . . I think it is warmer in Taiwan. But Sue said that the food was deTicious in

Korea.
Mary: I see. B the way, are you going somewhere, Takeshi? y

Takeshi: I won't go anywhere, I don't have money, so I will stay here.


Mary: Is that so? Then 1' 1 buy some souvenir for you. 1

Takeshi: Wow, thank you.

M a y : I'd like to reserve a plane ticket from Osaka to Seoul. Travel agent: When is it?
Mary: December 19.

Travel agent: We have a morning flight and an afternoon flight. Mary: A morning flight, please. Can I me a credit card? Travel agent: Yes.
Mary: How long does it take to Seoul?

Travel agent: About one hour.

Nouns

2 3 3

fall

L\LP 2.3
g&5ifa%%

doctor station ~3ch person face


season

3 429
* ? k = s ~b73-F ;~

ZZt
? b y & -

./ ;

* '7

4&b\hX-3
*$*L\

bhx-c=) T"2 { 4 r r+i3

credit card this year soccer shirt life; living world subway gloves barber's
spring

rs a

J$>',!I

pants

VL9 * VXI

2,&I

+,4@5
v p i #~\t'k

* k*(
i k\&P-=l ;

beauty parlor flight ship; boat baseball celebrity reservation next semester apple

3 &2*

Warm

slow; late cool (weather-not used for thin& cold (thing/~eo~le) sleepy

* Words that appear in the

dialogue

easy; simple

t o take (amount of tirne/moneyl

(no particle) to stay (at a hotel, etc.)

(- 1 );

to become
to pay

to decide
I r r e g u l a r

V e r b

;izhL@iTB
A d v e r b s

&ET6
O t h e r
9 ~ b - C

to practice
E x p r e s s i o n s on foot best or for . . . months in . . . time; after . . . these days for . . . weeks b y (means of transportation); with (a tool) how; by what means

a n d

& & 'f%T . .


t\%l%k

--+I$

which which how much; how long . . . years (do something) early; fast

In Japanese, adjectives have the same shape in noncumparative and comparative sentences; there is no alteration as i "great/greater." The idea of comparison is expressed n by adding something to the nouns that are compared.

A tDMjjbt

B @' property),

= A iS more @ r ~ e r M B. than

You can ask for another person's opinion on two things in comparative terms.
A t B

t ~=?3~133~;hf k (pro~ert~), = Befween A and B, which i m r e s


ri

(property)?

XCX Z

~ L \TT&a, Which zs cheaper, koing by) bm or (by) $rain?


~ L L F

e* Z Z''9 3; 9C3 j V

yr
\

In comparison among three or more items, the degree qualifier


[(class of items)

S; 1%

k is used.

a271 A tiiL18lbh (property).


A i the most (property) [ a m g ( a class of items)]. s

~ ~ Z

75 L -. 7~2 Z p ?

- >3*n+T1~ : & ~ ~ ) ~ L \ ~ ; E % X / & $ ~ , L + ~ " S Z , S L ~ =


2 73.
3 :

3 -f+,

Cri 3 '

H&

Betwee% Pavarotti, Curreras, and Domingo, who do you think ZS the best si~ger?

'In red life, the phrases A 1% i h.' and B I 1 often appear in the reverse order, making it very easy to be misled into believing the opposite of what is actually said. Don't rely on the word order, therefore, to decide which item is claimed to be superior. Listen carefully for the words n 3 3 4' and 1 1. C 'There are several alternates for Z-9 t;@ 13 i . They are: ft;b C 5 , F 7 &, and f% 41. Any one of 3 these can be used in question sentences seeking comparisons between two items. Y ' 7 3; a d Z+T f3 e) (3 5 are slightly more colIoquia1 than r'S; b and If% b mi3 =I .

I."J.'RY.?.F

hi~\3;t%X/&-h'.k+T~o if: U r i ?"

Pavarotti is best, naturally.


are Note that the words 43 i and Y-;1% not used in statements of comparison among three or more items. Normal question words like fzh, Z*&, and a(- are used instead.'

When a noun follaws an adjective, and when it is clear what you are referring to, you can replace the noun with the pronoun CT), one." You can use a to avoid repetition.
(I

$ . A . ~ & , ~ k ~ - k - 9 - - ~ $ + 9f b 3 < -5 C I haw a bkack sweafer. I h ~ o e a


hf;L

-f0

*bW%%-3
ha.

9 me, . d

to.

0 4T

(a=*-5'-)

c*

S L ~ F S ~ R W I a LTZ,~ - ~ - $- \ ~ \ a -~ ix t t ; , (@=%$I CE ~ a w &lq


U L l
? F

I wmf to buy casa inexpmsiue dictionary, bgt there were no goad mes.
+

," ,

Lk

LI-adjective

&-ad jeclive

1+

noun

Ll-adjective
%-adjective

Similarly, a noun following another noun can be reduced. Here, a sequence of the form "noun, cF) J I Q U ~ ~ ' ' wi1I be reduced to "noun, fl." You simply omit the second noun.

t t-LtdX- 3 Aahh'tbA/TT&x,
1s this Sag3 &?

~ l t \ i i ,*&Lt2%T1) -3

ha

T90

No, that
4ZCflU

is Mary'sp.

7 % I J f i m 7 4 ~ 7 ~ ] - A a t &?H*4) 3j k 3 SL~LL~TT, Americm ice cream is more dekicioas fkaa Jupawse m.

3The tendency is to use Y h when a list of items is presented, and to use IbJ when a group is referred to r* ,collectively. Compare: 1A,z*Zsih*Az 3 { bLtTa+T. YhLJr\GCdA333C?h4, =,+. -t Whkh do you like best, apples, tangeriaes, m cham-es? < f<% n + T FJifJz~~.fjt%X/%5TThho a . -r m a t fmiF";Eo yoG'iike best?

9 follows verbs in the present tense short forms to describe what a person is planning to do in the future- You can also use a verb in the negative plus 9 t 1 to describe what you me planning z o t to do, or what you do nof intend to do.
9$

verb (present, short)

+ 3% f: 9

@ i ~ t e n d do . . . ) to

1 z&md to play f m ~ i with Tqkeshi thik weekend s


9 2 Lf;++/t+r,

(3t.1d)S$.t-k13 L ~ X I Z T - C - X ? ? - $ - &T-j-,% '7 - ~ ~ bGL L.+ja7

&-F*&t3& L k A T t = * Q ~ ~ . 33 TTQ S %L,&*{ := Professor Yamushifadoes mt intmxd to come to schol tommow.

& + Q W , t ~ f i ( 3 S 1T L k i - f Y , Xah" l 3 2 ~ ~ 7 f z 3 ~ f i;3 3 - @ k . T L i ? ~ , 1 . Ti) k -IX: 2 We were plawna'~ vbit a tempk, baf we diih't, became .the weather was no f good. to
I'

LT

The verb 3 5 means "to became," indicating a change. 3 8 f ~ l l a wnouns and both types s of adjectives.

nouns:

9 %\L-PLG

3 SRHKZx5
fplItrpClh-

fo become a company enaplqyee

St86dyzyzng Japaaese h g u a g e is fan %ow (fbugh it was like fortare hefore). the

B*ZGF)&B&~%L %!I L f z o { 3 I: [EX, : 3 La,

With L\-adjectives,the final r \ is dropped and ( is added, as in their negative canjugations. A common mistake is to expand the pattern of 3-adjectives and nouns and u s :t with \-adjectives. It is wrong to say, for example, X @ $-L 11: Q 8.
W. 3z

When an adjective is used with ta' 6 , a question axises whether the sentence describes an absolute change (ex. "it has become warm, hence it is not cold any longern)or a relative change (ex. "it has become warmer, but it is still cbld"). 3 6 sentences are ambiguous in

isolation. If you want to make clear that you are talking in relative terms, you can use the pattern for comparison together with 'b & .

Mary has become-befferi i - ~ a p a i k t h a ~ e before.

In Lesson 8 we learned the Japanese expressions for "something"and "not . . . anything," 4Ff2~and r, 2,. As you must have noticed, these expressions are made up of the question word for things, .*i: plus particles h* and S . Other expressions for "some" and "any" in PT, Japanese follow this pattern. Thus,
1:
It

something

3: 1

someme

fz+h$' -

somewhere
mf anywhere

Y Z fi* -

not a z y t h i ~ g Q-:1

xot aflymP: 7"Sh-

tl" LS

As we noted in Lesson 8, these words are used by themselves, where particles 43, $5 or 2 would be expected. It is, then, interesting to observe how these expressions interact with other particles, such as i:, 2, and C. These particles appear in the places shown with underscores above. Let us look at some examples.
L\L\;?_,

rf'~-~t7,4 T L T Z . ~~L
c

Did

you go

a~ywhere?

No, I didn't go anywhere.


L\L\;~_,

~3&7Ft',&L 2 L iF= f i s o d Did you see anybody?

t:fit~$&t~3~LTLfr, R

No, 1 d i d ~ 'see aaybody. f

rnd. L 2 Lfz75%, gid you do artything?

LWL,

a$t a*tt-cLI-=,
2* 1:

No, 1 didn't do anything.

You can me the particle Zt with nouns that describe the means of transporktian and the instruments you we.
We eaf our meals with chopsticks.
Let% talk i Japanese. n

I went to the station by bus. I saw a m v i e on TV.

;f%&q%cfl@15f&g%Tfi'******b We sometimes use t ZhJ 2 z uv

7 and tf E at the 5 ' end of a sentence when we want our partners to treat what we have just said as a given, common ground to buiId upon. These words often indicate the speaker's intention to give her partner a chance to react and speak up. By relegating the right to speak to one's partner, they also contribute to the politeness of one's utterance.

In the dialogue, the travel agent lays out the relevant information on the table; there are two flights, one leaving in the morning and another in the afternoon. 6s attached to her sentence indicates that she wants to build upon, and move forward with, these pieces of information. Instead of asking the obvious question, namely, r 'lij 6 aft1tlT?ds, the agent chooses not to finish her sentence, and lets her customer come forward with an answer immediately.

!RE! nh

Lm5

P r a c t i c e

A. Look at the pictures below and answer the following questions. @ Example:
Q

: ~ ...$ Z I ~ X ' Z % ~ K I [ ~& rii+& ~ ~ T T h i o Z . ? . , A : @+o,t2 j$cr;xa 9 :&L\TT, -. ,


-,
7.

.n

L-:

.- ,

.Il,

Picture (a)

(a)
Z Z'%

b 9 1 2 3 2 l~r ~ S ~ l T - j - i ~ ~ ~ a 2. $fi$qR,#l z %* z Z+%b a 1 2 9 & ~ s ~ \ T T $ ~ o LXd./V+?A, TALC 2 3. #fie>#$ Z Z*G i Pli3 5 & ' % $ ~ h T ? h ~ , ZY S Z , L/~$./~+L, rf 4. Z$ Z y C A Z Y h i Q I J ~ i &2T$~\Ctha,, ,
1. $&$$$$!Y)GZ
L L.+.x.+~.L
T "L I
3 ?

,;a

Picture (b)

Picture (c)

B. Pair Work-Make questions using the following cues and ask your partner. When you answer the questions, add reasons for your answers, if possible.
Example:

E/* .;.*
7

(% 3)
T
27
J.@

A : Ez*? z * G ~ - , ( Q ~ I ~ ~ ) & ~ ~ ~ T T & ~ O


t

6 :E

ta.-i

~ c-hx(+k 9 )e3T"Po Ji.VP ~ ( o rkX % % S % 3 T $ , / $27 Z - & 3 ~ L ~ T T , ) S 7 T


2

.;,W

.;.rb

A : r - 5 l/?-i?T6L~

4 7

%*?~<'II?

!zlH 3 z /
1

El *$+39I : I

(i3 ) 3 5
( ~ k t ' l )

@~/%.5=i.#%? 0i3 ) 3 ; . lP : i

E3*93/F4 I: 1ik (62


6.A

'Y (Germany)

i%F/?5 a?9 i '

(7S~&f<'x.)

<&?

3 3 7 r t ' 7 ~ + - 7r - / ; t y ;

n->

(~E$'L\L\) &fS
(%&#+%)
o.n I ;

?.55rt*= i ~ 5 ? " / - s * F > - f


%/$AA : - (83 ) I T

a;$;a+/%Qf=ama+ (gjt,.~\) : . $f;S;


I1I3,L

a*a*i%/&Qfzama&i& (fA~ELo r % L k \ ) i :i -. 7:1

4+\xd.7

1:

A. Look at the pictures on the previous page and answer the questions below.
Example:
Q :t
Qd.

T, Y.*#'Ldf L \ & i y k;z+ ~ \ T T & ~ ~ $

A : *%&&?k\%
L&iJ-/L4&L,

lTtL*~\T-fO :
F

Picture (a)

Picture (b)

Picture (c)

8. Answer the following questions.


Example:

ex%/% 3 t: Lo -r
-+

- 3
to
25 7.

Q : *<rna+T,
fz

rn7SS~\% la'&% 3 T-P&,


QiI

A : $LhP~\-f;Ea*X/%3T-$-,
i

C. Group Work-Make a group of three or four people. Ask each other questions and make as many superlative sentences as possible about the group.
Example:

t
2

* T,A 3

I~~L%L\T+T, bd% B 3 X / h 2 W i 13k%+hP&b\T-fo f:d. CS/L$i'~\Gl%kL ({ 9 7 ~ I t t & & - j - ~ t: t5 * +

D. Class Activity-First form pairs and make comparative and superlative question

sentences with your partner. (You should know the answers.) Then ask ques-

tions to the class. The rest of the class answer the questions.
Example:
-3.

?&

Y l.x L X .
9 3 f;

b Z Z*% b e)C3 5 ; s ~ & L \ - c " - $ - ; ~ ~ ,


f;h.

f; B d .

3A ZAB3
'It'13

Z% & @ I 3 9$s35~hT?hho
a% h.

9 ' 7 z a * T + a f : ~ $ ~ ~ ~ % i 2 A ~ T2L 9 * #\
h.h

~T&~~

@ % ~L ~ ~ + T F z - ~ ~ L ~ ~ ; E ~ ~ . I J ~ ~ L \ T $ <
Q d.i,

Qh.

%il

@ ZihJ2+h(nT6 ;hkL
A. This is a refrigerator in a dormitory. Tell whose each thing is, using 10.@

B.

You are a customer. Look a the picture and tell which you want. t
Example:

Store attendant : Z*C b


Customer :
7

t --.hC~h~\TThxo

&~\(n7 " P s ~ \ ~ { @ &


% ~ h
3

A. You are planning to do/not to do the following things next week. Tell what you will/will not do using -7%9723. @
Example: a@Eltt+@&d2-% Y) TTo
lT?Ai

LF

b.

cf7L i. V

EX.to read books


(2) to do exercises

(1) to practice the piano

7b$ El U:
J i r 1 ?

(3) to do laundry
(4) to write letters to friends

ft k i a t u;
-

(5) not to go out


(7) not to study Japanese
(9) not to go home (11) not to get up early

(6) to eat dinner with friends


(8) to stay at a friend's

l r % l i UC

(10) to clean a room

B. Answer the following questions.

@ h f i l \ ( ~ t a : 2 bk D
A. Describe the following pictures. @

Example:

3$LL\

3;kZ~\t=a Lik, L' 3

Ex.

~#'LL\

6. Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms.

A. Look at each picture and explain how to get to and from one place to another. @
Example:
Ex.

5 '%&*bR&U T'h%Z$TB3 2 To i 3 r'


T&Le

AwxA
8 hours
B. Use the same pictures and describe how long it takes. @

IL

1week
,

L 8

Example:

f ; $ ' b - %3R d Tl-37Sx&x97 , 3 5 r,m>;:A

C. Explain how you get from your house to schooI.


Example:

? % & x b F % RU~? hTi .b $ Z ~ T ~ $.A%?jad'q 3T0 Z?-o J&k2 5 - -L 1 .;-A

A. The chart below shows winter vacation plans for Mary and her friends. First,

answer the following questions about Mary's plan.

Mary
Robert

will go to Korea by plane 3 weeks with Sue will go back to by plane 2 weeks London will go to Tokyo by bullet 3 days with a friend train
by boat

will stay at will do shopping and Sue's house eat Korean foods

will meet friends


will stay at will play at a hotel Tokyo Disneyland

Ken

2 months doesn't know will take pictures with pengui~ls(4 T 2)

Takeshi will go nowhere

How about t h e others' plans? Make pairs and ask questions.

6. Pair Work-Talk

about your plans f r the upcoming vacation. o

C. Role Play-One of you works for a travel agency and the other is a customer. Using Dialogue I[ as a model, make reservations for the following tickets.
(1) From Nagoya to Los Angeles
Jan. 1

1 person

smoking seat

( ) From Tokyo to Paris 2


(3) From Osaka to Rome

Feb. 14

1person

window seat

Apr. 18
Aug. 20

2 persons
4 persons

aisle seats
nonsmoking seats

(4) From Tokyo to Bangkok

smoking seat = *@%

f 7*/"+!5

aisle seat = SSB'J


9 3 5 d:h

*3
3/y%/ylt?i

window seat = %$@'3

1Ydih

+k3

nonsmoking seat = %%%

Iil'

5R T z3
S t a t i o n
local express super express
Types of Trains

A-t t h e

+Fa 9e 3
1 9 .
i
t.s

h ? C i

R& z-kpi
Destination

-fi 3
I\

-3Z3 b If? &

... serving . . . areas


bound for

Types of Tickets and Seats

%$% C r i L T-LIX.
b-t > T !+A, = J

(boarding) ticket

coupons
commuter's pass
vouchers; zone tickets student discount
reserved seat

T t > 3 I?/y
+kc>

%3X% 9 tfX,

&:( h7

M! #g53% L
- r l b i t

El @ i * f &%
U

general admission seat nonsmoking car


round trip

%@* ?/viL.Cc
5 A,
9.fi-t tj

%%a s <
J?S
Places in Stations
n4E~@ ra~+x

one way

track number . . .

% % % q % if 3 W L
7

i 1 :

ticket vending area


gate
platform

*m T An C%
ti5

exit entrance
stairs

s1r)

21.t-37

k$& ?!!A,
b

&--A
lfi\i&

C%X/%3i

first car; front end


car; tail end

3%

kiosk

3;tf ,4,,qE5 -last


iC

Miscellaneous Public Transportation Terms

S9&2 6.
0

transfer

clp

RlJ-

next (stop), . . .
departing first

*X.lI7

%%

:2 k% L ti7
@*

departing second

zL

Lm7T-Xr

last train

Announcements

3 % Q < %1i3 LL 3 - $ *C %WzS T '3 I T&L+ d\l ;kid-- I=& z 2 3 3 373


L

We will be leaving soon. A train is arriving.


Next (we'll stop at)

-- * n - r 7 S f )I woL;X,B { E ~ L \ m
7* -

. ..

tXpi

The doors are closing. Please be careful.

,I

Useful Expressions

t c3 %* la&%& I= Jk3 9
TX/L.r
A i A l f h

a T7F,

Does this train stop at Akihabara?

sEtmeT-j-dxo LsiTL QL U
z ;3ri

What time is the last train?

2 T(Q%zJi$8j *g* @ k ?? - t3 $.-One reserved ticket to Tokyo, please. L 4r>+&3 r > % hd-' Fs!l;trr.5rFr 3 -j2 75., Can I get a student discount? a"{ h O 7h.

Which one is the t7ai.n bound for Kamkura?

{ & & After the Vacation *a&


rr,
mi
L ,

D i a l o g u e

Michiko and Mary meet after the vacation.

Michiko: Mary, I haven't seen you for a long time. How was your vacation?
Mary: It was really f n I went shopping, ate Korean dishes, and things like that in Korea. u. Michiko: Sounds good. I want to travel, too.
Mary: Did you have a fun vacation, Michiko?

Michiko: It was okay. I went for a drive just for one day, but I was working part-time every day.

Maw: Michiko, I want to introduce you to a friend of mine. This is John. He came to Japan Iast
month.

John: How do you do? Michiko: How do you do? Nice to meet you.

Michiko: John, where are you from?

John: I am from Cairns, Australia.


Michiko: Is that so. John: Have you been to Cairns? Michiko: No, I haven't. John: It has mountains and the ocean and is a beautiful place. It's famous for the Great Barrier Reef. Where are you from, Michiko? Michiko: I am from Nagano. Please come to visit me sometime. The food is good, too. John: By all means, I would love to.

Australia

gz?
%&El
% c3-3ftQ1-T
9b@

snack; sweets Mew Year's boy toy


girl

Fk F*

foreign country singer

camp this person (polite) this semester president o a company f class


future drive beer

art museum host farniIy lake mountain dream roommate

to tell a lie

to become hungry to own (a pet) to cut dasses to take (a class); to get (a grade) to learn

toclimb to work

bket-)

* Words that

appear in the dialogue

to get tired

to quit
I r r e g u l a r

V e r b s
to have a fight; to quarrel to introduce herson I: p e r m & ) to go on a diet t o be late (for an appointment)

~ S L Wa * t 1 j 21~~1-p &

to study abroad A d v e r b s
a n d

(place 11)

O f h e r

E x p r e s s i o n s

&z

$5

after (an event)


-

(eomt

a)

* L@9LX,

*%

.fz"{
;iLQ

* -?St+

--TA * V 3 tli:3 * 3253%


% 7 Y

coming from (place Ql) vew and then just . . . ; only . . . . . . points it has been a long time okay; so-so more

You can use a verb stem (the verb form that goes before 3 hope or aspiration.

; b f :

\cl-9 describe your to

I want to see a film thzs weekend.


L\-=>rS'+rn
be?:<

+Eas*b2, C L~pj3-3
Z/Y

&& -2f t f i b \ T - j f ,
j r r

b:

I*-

or &BIh2EJi c\.'C"T, $ : & .


i % x

t c B 3 k L\TTo

1 want to go to Chim someday.


verb stem

+fiL\T$

1 want to d o . . .

As you can see in the first example above, having L \ attached to a verb slightly affects the composition of the sentence. A verb that takes the particle & can have either the particle 2 or 5' when it is followed by ? t l. Particles other than Q remain the same. . :
The combination of a verb and f L \ conjugates as an b\-adjective. Here are examples of : negative and past tense \ sentences.

&cr>Atc&a i 4 ~ ( ~ 35 t A & &*XI, VK


I don't want to see that person azy more.
L
I

I went to a department store, because 1 wanfed to buy a sweater. If your wish is one you have entertained for some time, that is, if you "have wanted to," you can use t = b \ Z , g - = , T ~ \ 2 - i f instead of fz'=\TT.
L; b

+ - ~ -*- v ~ ~ ~ ) t ; ~ ~ ~ f L ~ z+, ~ , ye>+- t~ci=$3 ~ , a

2 L\T? sentences are not usually used to describe wishes held by others. Somebody else's wishes are usually reported in Japanese either as quotations, observations, or guesses. T o quote somebody, saying that she wants to do something, you can use Z Z-;,T \ 5 L f= * with 1 L\. " :
L

%7'J -3htd

b4 Pitfiitz~lZZ9T~h3 L-tz,
II

Mary said she wamted to go to the bathrom.

if

To describe your observation to the effect that somebody wants to do something, you must use a special verb f= 6% T -i:~ \ B instead of f; I If a verb takes the particle & , the \. \, with which we had. a choice derived verb f: P7 T C:L \ & will retain the 2,unlike between the particles 75< and & .

$ 7 ' 1 --3h/~33-t-~R&f-z15'7T~~aT,
rr)

(It seem) M a u waxh to drink coiXe@The verb I?= V-7-I L S , which comes from the dictionary fonn i3< 6 , indicates "I think that she wants to, because of the way she is behaving." We will have more to say about this type of sentence in Lesson 14.

1 want to

. . . /Doyou

w ~ n to t

verb stem
%

+ f=LlTT

? . . ..

They want t o . . .
verb stem

f=t\conjugates as an t\-adjective
=

C ~ ~ T T L \ ~ ~ fchl& conjugates as an u-verb

+T

fix or

Z only

You already know that you can connect two daum with the te-formof predicates, as in:

kRTFkl%% LX. % E R7s T 2 & ~ 3 T o ri. 60 +,4,:<71i C h Osaka, 1 will do s m e shopping a d eat Korea% food. z
gh?d.

This sentence, however, tends to suggest that shopping and dining are the only activities you plan to perform in Osaka. If you want to avoid such implications and want to mention activities or events just as exemplars, thus leaving room for other things which are left unsaid, you can use a special predicate form - 2 3 -15 3 -if 4 .

In Osaka, 1 will do szcch fhz~gsus shopping a d eating Korealz dkhes.

SJ%?fJ.

A P Z T R L \ *t~k q , s ~ a ~ 3 3 2 + t q ; t 3 T , L ~ * tO S./Y: ( 9 2 3 1 fz

(activity A) ft 9 (activity 8)k

do such things as A and B

To get the f: 3 form of a predicate, you just add 9 to the past tense sho?t form of a predicate. (Thus we have L t= for the verb rf- 6 , whose past tense is t ' and &x.f= 9 , 9 for $%6 , past tense h-tk.) Note that the helping verb -5. .3 at the end of the Lktentence t: indicates the tense of the sentence. You can change a --f= 9 --f: '1 T 4 sentence into the
: ' i

past tense, or incorporate it in a bigger sentence, by working on the helping verb part.

sssa. & ~ ~ t = t~l , ~ ~


Lq3 2 9

I sfudied a d talked wzth my fnmds, among other things, ooer the weekelad.

<L>li

rt

Y t3 L E , ~ S L

:1 'd

G-z~tz, 9
fir

+%&M~hf7't
C;LA:(

I like danckg, Zisteni?rg to music, and so forth.

3.

3 T6@h2'S3TT0 -f

The past tense short form of a verb

+ t Z 5'& & describes that you did something, or


-

something happened, in earlier times.

E&L\,

?T~kLZ&~dk,33-j-~
Ir

Have you m e r been to Europe?

Yes, I haue.

A / E ~ + ~ Z ~ ~ ~ 1aktt, 9 X / ~ Z L'nSii c7 Takgshd has never been abswt from classes (in his life).

tS

verb (past, short)

+ Z&&t&&

bane the experience o f

...

9connects two nouns, as dues Z . 9 suggests that the things referred to are proposed as examples, and that you are not citing an exhaustive list.
'<

in negative sentences) In negative sentences, you often find the particle t$ where you expect 752 or %. Observe the reply sentences in the following dialogues:

Q + P L f i t l ~ % r . i 7 t GR 3 T o DOyoit watch TK Prof: Yamashitla? T ' + A : LltlL, 7 v k + t ~ H 3 - e A o No, I don't.


-A

Q : ~ - t - f i ~ B & f ? ~ ~ T T 7Do~ ~ want to have a cup o f coffee? 3 you 03 A : b l b l 2 , x-t--t$E&4.7~ & 9 &*Ao No, I don't. <
m

8 and fir, respectiveIy, would not be ungrammatical in the above examples. Many Japanese speakers, however, find the tk versions more natural. The rule of thumb is that negative Japanese sentences tend to contain at least one tA phrase. If you add $Lik to the sentences above, therefore, the htt is already fulfilled, and Japanese speakers feel much less need for

3EZTi$SLk < & 9 3 @ L o ir. Z lbta' EL f c, f E 2 9 5L o L'5

I don't want to speak in English. 1 have never been to Hiroshima.

e(fb You can add E t r f to numbers to talk about having just that many
items. E tf implies that you have something up to the amount needed, but not more than that.

$Li2*9Atz-!ElI-2tf23fzZ b2L 3 k Si
~r,abr,-

)5755:&'3

23,

I have met that person just once.

f2 tf suggests that you can live with that few, though the number admittedly could have been higher. We wiII learn another word in Lesson 14, namely, L75>, which means "only" in the sense that you do.not have enough of.

fLb You can use the particle tL to indicate the occasion on which you do something.
IdX

@zst&kgY5 2 Ye$E42

I ate salad

at dinner.

tz can also indicate the role you want something to play.

&&+t?+t~&3iZS%Et>& I bought a postcard gs a sozlvsnir. tk, i IZ lss 3 . fi.

3 ) F .7 4 7 is used when you go somewhere by car for pleasure. To' say "to have a drive" or "to go for a drive," use F 7 4 Y t Z f5i < or F 9 4 7
r

3-&*
aT%

I went fur a drive to the kake.

i a a - r w w 7 ' f i m g ~Z/I."Y,WLB L *

tfz0

When you simply want to say "to drive a car" (not necessarily for pleasure), use B$Gf 5 instead.
3,'..T/b

HM$ T @ ~ S % L ? Zz k&%9 & T A h o E A 3LTL Have you ever driuen a car i~ Japan?

=b S , like the English word "dream,"has two meanings. One is the dream 9
you have while sleeping; the others the dream that you wish would come true. To say "I have a dream," in Japanese, you use the verb W 8 for & sleeping dreams, and l$F 9 T L1& or h .5 for your visions.
w

I had a scary dream Iest night. WJ~Z~~.GFB!Z~! LLz. ~ W % 7 7 b r ? ~ ? @ r l r & 9 &To I have a dreamAn ~ t is your future dream? t b a f z c n ~ ~ c n l s ~ . i %7~a~ ~ ~ ~
L.i4b.
@Q

tc&

EfabThe particle h i often follows the particle: 4 in sentences describing a place in terms of the things that are found there.

Bs29-ss I Z ~ & A ~ ~ ~ ~S~ & 9- &ToV . . < B L~ ~& 53 There are lots o f big departmsnt stores & Tokyo.
i-YkL etlN-

%a,%~tsh~rf.t~t~B$=q,%*&~t~& f,. E anA? +=A+&> We have a good Japanese feather & my college.

These sentences would be okay without iA, but there is a subtle difference between the versions with and without I&. The d sentences are about the ir places; they answer questions (either explicitly asked, or implicit) like "What is Tokyo like?" The sentences without b& after E , an the other hand, are answers to a question like "Where do you find good teachers of Japanese?'? See the grammar note discussing the difference between 21s and ki in Lesson 8. In the case of the particle E,the contrast is between the simple 4 and the combination iz 43. (See also the grammar note on counting people Z in Lesson 7.)

k j f i L@5 # ;fzh

P r a c t i c e
Ic

A. Change the following phrases into --f;l\ sentences.

Example:

>I

<-

~- &< 6 2
+ 7h

( i a ~ k )

) .

~\>~<-fl-&:&<f=

,TTo ~ { $j9 $ + - A o

B. Pair Work-Ask if your partner wants to do the things above. When you answer, give reasons as in the example.

C. Change the following phrases into

--kt+\ sentences in the

past tense. @

Example:

D. Pair Work-Ask childhood.

if

your partner wanted to do the things above during their

E. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions and report the answers as in t h e example.
Example: A : i7h$X,dAN13z&xf=~\T?y5x,
tac
fz

B : k0tf-*$'&<fZ~\~-fO
f:

A : i f ~ / 3 ~ / i a k ~ : o & ~ e <-f = ~ a z Cg ~ il~\ L ~ . \


f:
Ih

ijX,;X/l2tz"~*&&^=i'%%$'7 \ ~ - $ - , TL
t:

I. & z * i 2 h b : @ $ ~ * < f = ~ ~ T $ $ ~ ~
u.6
t*tI

t:

2. f i h 2 ~ \ %d t
241

hE~~?=~\\~$~~
3.

Additional V o c a b u l a w H 9 (Occupations)
M si5

3 921% (*%I
l-f\ S 9&+XI L

writer

(%ST) police officer


actor/actress

Y J ~ - ? - ~ ] Zb L @ (Z*>
; a

journalist
housewife

td~\@?~ (#HZ) 75* A ZL. (SS*)

L*kLg?

nurse

(*@I L 1 9 t a i L (i'iP$*)

actress firefighter

<AZ"L ($FZ&) lawyer 93 @ @ ( 3 baseball player 5 91 (9&%%) president of a country

F. Complete the following sentences.


1. + B l a r . ~ . x % f < h ~ 6.
i
:/

>

? =

TT~

2. % t f z t 2 * 5 t : $ + J , '
+T

t. \T-j-, L
$39 2*ho
l>?

3. &if/Lf-~ ha6 ,
7h.

4. l 3 + 2 L I d ~ ~ C b & T ~ & ->%I: %,


f: Uh.

t=<&92*tLo

Z 5 - i

Z?

, t72
f-,<

t bb7 7". TT, :

@ERbt='3.%Zbftr3I/ZT 5 3 L; @AJ
A. Tell what the following people did on the weekend using --k 9-fz 995. @ Example:

9 3 y : saw temples in Kyoto, went to a museum, etc.

1. ?z G went camping, went for a drive, etc. f L:

2. 3 a 3 Z : made sweets, read books at home, etc.


3. X - : went to Osaka to have fun, went to eat, etc.
4. HA: cleaned his room, did laundry, etc.

5 . n If- : met friends, watched videos, etc. b

6. P b LI:PX+?lhk went to a hot spring, rested, etc. L T !: L%

B. Look at the pictures and make your own sentences using --7"!J--fr

r3F5.

C. Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. When you answer, use --tz!ZI--tzg$6 as in the example.
Example:

A : EI*T'fT% L t ~ ~ 1 T - j - h ~ ~ i r ~ i h , 2:: B : a +Ql%SF ~f%~t'. 1. f


1: 13/,,

1.

: :

.. r ,

(Mt. Fuji)

mia

A. The following are what John has or hasn't done. Make the sentences using

-z ty . j p j hasJ .
Example:

0 eat tempura

x goto~~kyo
1. 0 eat sushi 3. 0 work at a restaurant 5- x write love letters 7 . 0 climb Mt. Fuji 9. x see Japanese movies

3 3$ , ~ g t : f i ~ f = ~ t ~ ~ ; f i ~ a - w ~ , - i I,
.L Z &'a&,
V + % .

X;: b ?i 'fk<f: < X. 7:


2.

C study French

4. x go to Hiroshima 6. C sleep in class 8. x drive a car in Japan

6. Pair Work-Make questions using --Z&hxS5 and ask your partner. Example:

H$-Ql%$B??&c
1:

i3A

3 *+

A : a+a%ra2Rhfzrrh~Ek,9aTh~,
:: !:A
5
0

B :

Cab,

$ 9 5

# T o

if

1 Lf

z ~ h t t ,

Pair Work-Ask your partner the following questions. When you answer, use as in the example.
Example: A :

-+-

rX/Qs'B*Hm??k { IiX.9~i
1-

' f Z ~ ~ ~ d x o
f:

'J

B : - j - L ~h-x ~ i : b ?u%<3T0 ?l i f:
1-

z * & ~ x $ - Y 1 { B& T k -2 A
-F
'Iri 7

2- r+,4,5333$*2*33$ a o T-$-

3. Z+tL''d*~~FCL
4.

I"GcG3. z*XIQ*-;l*;J2& 3 a-po 9 &Qf:aAFa&n f : Li<Ti f C0

< fi 9 a Th*o <


-3

5. & t a ' t z @ A ~ t ~ G AY Z O EI- E lZ~i hCfLi\3 -j-&.o , f:rxBr( < rl


6. Y b Q &cfi-=l?= 2 Z $'$I
i

7.

+,
L \ t

?f 3 3 Ti$>, 2 TT-h',

i\

r " m g s g R 9 c i : ~ \ ~ar 5 . ,
r *
r:
kh.

8. 1$F13$ (actors) @+T, ?<kl.~'%3 h o T ' T 9.

*+ +T, G3
I i ~ r @ i

-f

d-

Ln

f2-;kl.6f* 3 T - f d a 0
3

A. Talk about your dream for the future or what it was when you were a child.
1.

&at~mpklmT~d~~
rph

Example: h$Lid#&,r ' %&%GtzQ f;L C i i i IS.& f

9 ? L L ~ T T~ - ~ L ~ & L , & Q E I : ~ ~ . LT,


(!:
i.

f;.b Tj-,

B. Class Activity-Find someone who . . .


I. has seen celebrities
2. has never used chopsticks

3. wants to live in Japan in the fut~lre


4. wanted to be a star ( 29 -) '

as a child

5. wants to cut classes tarnorrow


6. doesn't want to go out today

C. Class Activity-Bring

pictures of your hometown and describe it.

Example:

Z i t &

rpihr,

3&4$3@9 { 3 f : LT'Lm3d./,
k

Ql@j*% (theater)
[f

$'& 9 3 $o

1 { ~ Z L - ~ ; ~ J I L $ X2HT%k%Lk!J I-2 L : ~ " Z ~ !T, f.


:ii&

a ~ r i

E+kA b z J @ 7,r L ~ &fii.% 1 : 4 + ~ i f = ~ ~ T T , d..? A

I l n t h e J a ~ a n e s e l a s s C

Useful Expressions

YG6 T%

Both are fine.

ElCTT, Same thing. 6V f : ~ ~ f = ~ q q j y - More or less the same ~ ~


&k

&l
1111.

Ygk'2To
3 h;

A little different.
Can't use it. It's wrong. Raise your hand.

$224 * A , ~ G& 1 T L~ 3 To 4 S~ 3
(
I
L*<f;'L>

3-% 513"T < ft"%\, 2 7


7: b h o "3
E

Read it before coming to class. Hand in the homework.


Close the textbook.

L T { ?53bi0
Z

& e ++ 2 H C T e 315 6. L
9tbf
51
= I

<f5Sh0
ATo

Z Q ~ O A ~ Z W L ~ T < ~ ; ' ~ L ~ ,the person sitting next to you. Ask

< ?<??L\,

VY

The time is up. Please stop.


That's it for today.

+El ldZ-h-?.#%b Y)
f;

Useful Vocabulary
L t fz-1.

%% ,

homework
deadline
exercise

< T~I~?=EL~Zcolloquial expression


n.f:
$at;
r b

~
1

L&3 1

bookish expression
&tz

RF
k X b 1

&%
k

meaning
pronunciation

T L ;2a L s Q $L 3 -polite expression sg dialect


\
[ X i If&

Gq3
iYr7UtpL Z

standard Japanese
.

k Z 2 i2
question
3 3

for example anything else

t36.E~

8
75.7

answer
example

-% licv

number
V "

... . ..

#!I hr\

-<-%T
k i * I

page number . . .

line number

3&

0 (correct)

L.f:

' I

two people each

3%

x , Feeling Ill l

@ Mary and Michiko are

@ At a hospital.

Michiko: You don't look well, Mary.

Mary: Urn . . . I have a little stomachache.

Michiko: What's the matter?


Mary: I went out to have dinner with my friend yesterday. I think maybe I ate too much.
Michiko: Are you all right?

Mary: Yes. Don't worry about it. Oh, it hurts.


Michiko: You had better go to a hospital.

Mary: Doctor, I have a sore throat. I had a stomachache yesterday.

Doctor: I see. You have a fever, too. It is just a cold.

Mary: WelI, I wiII have a tennis tournament soon,so I have to practice, though
Doctor: You had better not exercise for a couple of days.
Mary: I understand.

.,.

Doctor: Take medicine and go to bed early tonight.

Mary: Yes. Thank you so much. Doctor: Take care.

Nouns

&L
L\A

* SQa'h.
*
2Jaolc~

h'kL

3 i5&

leg; foot meaning stomach cold girlfliend boyfriend temperature (weather-not for things) cloudy weather match; game juice politics grade (on a test, etc.) cough throat
tooth flower sunny weather clothes hangover present homesickness thing (concrete object) snow business to take care of

used

L \ - a d j e c t i v e s
i i 5 3 ~ h
V L \

L\$=L\

%L\

sweet hurt; painful

G ~ L \ %?3 l L
-3Z*?

9L l d%~l
,
b

there are many . . .

narrow; not spacious


inconvenient; to have a scheduling conflict bad

W$3 & L \

hbl\
* Words that
appear in

,%L\
the dialogue

fantastic

to catch a cold to be interested (in (tupk I = ) to lose to have a fever to become thirsty

. ,. )

to cough

to break up; to separate (person Z )


I r r e g u l a r

3X/Gkj$& * LhEA9~\T6
A d v e r b s
~ 1
#j

V e r b s 6 ~cBCT4
O f h e r

to get nervous to worry


E x p r e s s i a n s

a n d

* ;~;&=L\L"~Z + l7&3$'3~\
* fz=,i=tL T 3 4 ??if * -TLa i
-- r"

* 6-3ttCcG * -QlT
+ah7

always Get well soon. don't look well probably; maybe as much as possible probably; . . . , right? . . . degrees (temperature) for two to three days because . . .
for the first time very soon; in a few moments/days

2 %
is%

lZ5

G r a m m a r

There are two distinct ways to mahe a shternent in Japanese*One way is to simply report the facts as they are absmed. This is the made of s p e h that we have learned so far. In -this lessan, we will learn a new way: the mode of apla:ab-ak things.
A repor5 IS m isolated description of a fact, When you are late fur an appointment3you can already report in Japanese what has haapened, sqX #% 2 +FATL fi . TEs sentence, however, does not have the right apologetic tone, because i; is not offered as an explanation 'for anything. lf you want to mentian the b u m fail'= to m on time as an excuse for being late., YOU will need to lrse the explamfi~a mock af speech, and say:

(As it h i z ~ ~ e ,fj la B d&'t come~ h l w


An explanation has two components, one that is explicitly described in the sentence (the bus not corning), and another, which is implied, or explained, by it (you being late for the appointment). The sentence-final expression &-il-9 serves as the link between what the sentence says and what it accounts for. Compare:

& L ? 72 b $: ;ti ! 3 To : I

1 haue an exam tomorrow. (a simple observation)

& L ? z T X b -h% 21AT-$, 1 haoe an exam tomorrow. (So I can't go ouf toflight.)
I want to go to the bathroom. (decIaration of one's wish)
I want to go to the 6afhroona. (So tell me where it is.)

hTT goes after the short form of a predicate. The predicate can be either in the affirmative or in the negative, either in the present tense or in the past tense. tLTT itself
is invariant and does not usually appear in the negative or the past tense forms. In writing, it is more common to find P TT instead of LT-3-. I
@@;Jr (in response to the question, "Why do you look so upset?") (As a matter of fact) My grade z not good. k
1

Qi>Q3

1 < 3 b Pt T?,

'In casual exchanges, k t T appears in its short form, tLR. In casual questions, hTC;-f;ba is repIaced by a.We will examine these further in Lesson 15.

b L

(explaining to a person who has caught you smiling) fz A T The exam i s over. (That's why I'm smiling.)
If6

When it follows a noun or a 2-adjective, 2 comes in between.


report sentences

explanation sentences

&-adjective:
noun:

wPT'$
fP<i?Ll

8 9 ~ ~

Sk'ZJhTT Lb ?%ahTT #<wLl-

You can use k T-P in questions to invite explanations and further clarifications from the person you are talking to. It is very often used together with question words, such as r i L -I (why) and r 9 L TZ (what has happened).

Q : Y-f'-J f @ t : $ q ; h t z hTT&, L s.n ha!,. Why did you break up with your boyfriend? (You've got to fell me.)

A :h.n *&*A~aS: t L ~ ~ h T " P o l.=Xr; .


tat
\

*,

Oh, him. He never takes u bath. (That's a good enough reason, isn't it?)

Q : Z * j tJikTTha, What happened? (Yozc look shattered.)


A :T ~ ~ E , L P A C T . ~ L % y cat died. (That should explain how I look today.)

You can also use X/Tf to provide an additional comment on what has just been said.
A : z 7 $) ~'1kqkf+gT-$-t2~ 515 L3 That3 a great textbook that you are using.

B : 22, f ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ & 7 5 ~ ~ ~ ~ 7 ' ~ X I - I " T O Lj, :!$ .ttA,trr h. You bet. The professors ak my university wrote if (for your iafomation).
i

'A f ? ~L kX.'II*Trls question is best answered by a kCT sentence with the subject marked with the particle i3.' rather than 13, as in this example. See Lesson 8 for a related discusion.

Verb stems may be fdowed by the helping verb T P 8 , which means "toomuch," or "'to excess.'' F 6 conjugates as a regular ru-verb.
You musb mt eat too much,

-ifF4 can dso iolluw L \ - and 3-adjective bases (the parts which do not change in conjugations); you drop the L and 3 at the end of the adjectives and then add T ,4' 6.
This book i too expensive. s
That person is too flice.

t 3 9 75% \ b xT? "it is better (for you) to do . ." is a sentence-final expression that you can use to give advice. When you suggest an activity with I2 i Q x b h~ h t j , you are giving a very specific piece of advice; namely, that it is advisable to do it, and if one does not follow the advice, there is a danger or a problem.
13 j f i Z k \ L \T:"-if peculiar in that it follows different tense forms, depending on whether is

the advice given is in the affirmative or the negative. When the advice is in h e affirmative, 4 9 .hzr k l T T f f generally follows the past tense short form of a verb. When the advice 3 is in the negative, however, the verb is in the present tense short f o m .

You'd better eat more vegetables. I is better mffu skip classes. f

You can use @Tto give the reason for the situation described in the balance of the sentence. Semantically, e> T is just like f i x 6 . Stylistically, T sounds slightly more formal than dL h .
(reason)

DT (~ituation)~

(situation), because (reason).

~17%

My Japanese has zmpruved because 1 always speak Japazese.

ElrQ;%T%T@T,1I& SI i 'U i+ T= Q 9 3 LL:, H+ h l t It IfX. r ItG. - ti

did not sleep last night, because I had a lit of homework.


The reason part of a sentence ends in a short form predicate. When D T folIows a 2-adjective or a noun, Q comes in between, as it did with the explanatory predicate AT$-.

u.l:

, 3 c;~W-9-~
;is

I do not like that persola, because he


7

mean.

Banks are closed beca&e foday i a Sunday. s

+ a t ai :a qi s =a- w r , mca+w-r-?, 3 %k U rl

We use 2 { 'G + ~ \ 1 ? 2 * p L to say that it is necessary to do something, or "must."


3

I have to stzkdy u lot, because there wtlZ be an exam next week.

*a72 FfiQEk,4fiab, { 3 X /-LL?L? L Q a\ % + - L \ I ~ ~ * X / , ? < %%


&brLlpl

2 { t + means "if you do not do . . ." and 1 I X, roughly means "you cannot go"; i 2 { % 9 i . ~ \ l f -kt& therefore means "you cannot go not doing . . ." with the double negatives giving rise to the affirmative sense of the mandate. To form a 2 < 5; e 1. \ Ij 2 -@ /V sentence, we substitute fd: L \ in the negative short form of a verb with 3 < 6 + .
\

verb

short negative

"must"

ma
I -

e7

1=

B<&l t
GI

zaaL\
I/= C 'tdL\ -

$5

<a
L

B6t6<5+L\IfSl2hr k E%3fg<5~L~lf%lr3/v Ll La<S F L\lf%I&hr Zt6<5*L~n%ehr

\t$2 -&A, is grammatically the negative long form of a verb in the present tense. You can change 3 { G + 6\13 3 to 2 { %s 3 *AT L 7L= (past tense) to say you had to, and to 2 { t;+ k\C?Qb\ (the short form, present tense) in casual speech and before elements like t TT. L

'In writing and in very format speech, td

< a k \ l f

3 ++A, is more common than Q ( - \ r \ d f

3 +?A.

1 had to get up at six thG morning-.

133 t i , fiett%33 4< U % 2

- 1 ; + ~ \ t - f 3 . t S - k T L f(long form, past) =~

GH. 3 :

kh-Llpi

LQ

& P L ~ ~ - ~ Q L(short form,, present) \,&T?

(The truth is,) I mzcst practice every day.

We use the sentence-final expression T L 1 3 (probably) when we are making a guess o . m a prediction, -r" t 1 =I follows verbs and L\-adjectives short forms, in the affirmative in 4 and in the negative.
(verb)

I will probably rain tomorrow. f


It will probably ~ o rain tomorrow. t

It i probably cold s

~TZ

Hokkaido.

I is probably not cold k Hokkaido. f


T L I ? may aIso follow Q-adjective bases and nouns. Note that T L 1 5 goes directly . after theseelements; we do not use X - --T L a i , x - - G ~ ) T L I 5 , or X - -- + L i 5 . Q TX
tr '

( fa' -adjective)

Professor Yamha'da probably likes %h

Professor Yamkita probably doem't like %kk


(noun) &aAtA;S-X
U I:

I-

7 'I T A T L $
U/,

$ o

That pmm & probably an Australian.

$ - 2 b?j"IThC:'Qk\\r"Ldt
U

3 . Thatpmmis~oba6bmtanA'1~~~akia~

L I i rnay also follow predicates in the past tense. We will, however, concentrate on t h e present tense exampIes in this lesson.

T L d; 9 sentences can be turned into questions (--T* J 5 51 which can be used to L ., invite another person's opinion or guess.

~ h k w u ~ l d ' say i more difficulty.. h you s ~apanese Korean? or


The short form of T L a j is f."S 3 . You can use it to cautiously phrase a prediction or an analysis.

t=cjLShtAR%7S%4f:5 3 Z , B C \ ~ - ~ ,
I think Takeshz would be intermfed i if. n
In casual exchanges, you can use T L L 5 (with the question intonation, and most often pronounced as somewhat shorter T L a ) when you want to check if your partner agrees that you have the correct understanding about what you have just said.
311 k
i4k

5 h > , +ElSrSrb75*bTLa ? Z h ,
t
l

&T L, I

Johzy you uwderstand Chinese, rzght? Caa you read this for me?

R E P r a c t i c e
h.h, LJ95

i ,

t*5LTchTf h
Example: $5&'& \ ?7$ hi:.? . ,-: Q : Zei

A. You are in the following situations. Explain them using - - h P b . @

L. f' LTTda,

(I)

n.n

L; ZSp52
TL h

&33Lk

B. Respond to the comments using --&Pf. @

My father's

X
5l

4)

X,TTo

I received them from my friend.

Italian ones

My mother made it.

It was cheap.

kind

C. Pair Work-Your

partner has said something nice about what you have.

Respond using -hT-7.

D. Pair Work-Make

up dialogues asking for reasons.

Example: I went to Tokyo last week.

1. I am very tired. 2. I have no money. 3. It is not convenient today. ( % & Ni 2 Zhb 3 k) Z 4. I want to marry my boyfriend/girlfriend. 5. I am going to Japan to study. 6 . He speaks Chinese very well. (% i@<szh . " k 1+i -F T ? ) +Z ' C f 7. I don't want to watch that movie.
?

A. Describe the following pictures using --TSb. Use "verb

through (4) and "adjective


Example:

+ 335"for (5)through (10).

+ tb5" for

(1)

B.

Look at the verbs below. Think about the results of: over doing these things and make sentences as in the example.
Example:
r:
+

&4?yf:&hh, i 2 Q $ h h 1 % ~ \ & T T o r: T=

A. Using the cues below, give advice to a friend who has a headache. Decide if
you should use the affirmative or the negative.

a
F ~

Example: %??&;t'
(tl
u,

& :

bf3

m'%~\&r'S,
L \ *

A :

<+'I

&&Lf?'l3 7 3

B. Pair Work-Give

advice to your partner in the following situations, using --I35

Example: El
:4

$-g&fleI fz L 1 3! :
I /
'

L r i Tr: I, ;&
I: I

8 : B*g-h'k+l:ta'qf<~\k~~,
: Uri
7

A : E3$-Xa)&f%
/

rt

2 + $k13j & z ~ \ ~ \ T ? k . ~
7 (

T 3 & 7?513sZ233f d : ~ \ i Z c & j IJ 2


ZI,

S L ~ L \ T T ~ : ~

Z'

C. Pair Work-You are a health counselor. Someone who hasn't been feeling well is at your office. Ask the following questions. Complete this form first, then give your advice using --IZ5h%Il.l.

A. Connect the two sentences using -@T.@


Example:

~\L\X.%T'T/%~$L$T [r
-i/y

5x.

B. Make sentences using the cues below as reasons, according to the example. Example:

&x-k???V32 z Lf

-hh-@$7.F~~f:~T, $9$2j$A$ L f z o
L ~ ~ 3 a .t*$ i

C. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

0,s L 45 A. Look at Tom's schedule and make sentences, according to t h e example. @


Example: 7 : 0 0 ~ . ~ . / & 3 $
%

v - G R I L E ~ % L < %Z tLhI ~ ~ tI
~ L

I% C

&

; ;

&

B. Pair Work-Invite the partner to do the following things together. Turn down the invitation and give an explanation using 5~ LUf &L\.

--a<

Example: play tennis

1. do homework

2. eat lunch
5. go to karaoke

3 . drink coffee

4. study in the library

C. Answer the following questions.

A. Here is tomorrow's weather forecast (XZfsE). Play the role of a meteorologist 5kd lEJ and tell the weather forecasts for each city. @
Examples:
+

&i3, +~ I J A L ~ t~ = % Tj o LL K i M

temperature in Tokyo/around 2C

city

weather

temperature Ex. around 2C

Tokyo

Ex. snow
1

Sydney
Hong Kong

(1) sunny rain

(2) hot (5) cool

1 (4)
1

(3) around 30C (6) around 18C

Rome

(71 cloudy

(8) warm

(9) around 20C

6. Pair Work-Play the role of a meteorologist. Predict the weather for your favorite city. The other person fills in the blanks. Switch roles and do the same thing.
city

weather

temperature

A. Using Dialogue I as a model, make skits in the following situations.


-Your friend looks sad. -Your friend looks happy.

B. Pair Work-A and B are deciding when they can play tennis together. Play the role of A and 8.Discuss your schedules and find the day on which both of you are available. Refer to p. 245. for B's schedule.
Example: A : $ k ~ c 3 f i ~ E I C = - # % ! = ? = X $ L $ % ? h f i k o
%r,L@i
I-T-3li

UF

B :&

a aI Tal q Wa i i % 7 ~ - i ~ h t - f a a ' h X , ~ - j - , a % a ta r i T-j-$1, L:%Li V


irxLrsi
9 - ?

h Z

S S- 6& Z Q< G + ~L :
5 ~ )

A's schedule

Sunday
Monday

go shopping

Tuesday

read books

Wednesday
Thursday
Friday

meet friends

Saturday

C. Role Play-Visiting a Doctor's Office

as a model, act the role of a doctor or a patient. Doctor-Fill out the medical report on p. 245 and give advice to the patient.
Using Dialogue Patient-Describe the symptoms you have and answer the doctor's questions.

Sex:
Age:

Male

Female

Symptoms:

E Sore throat l
Headache

Stomachache
Any other pain Cough Fever

UAllergy ( 7 ~ ~ t F - )
Others

Pair Work @ 6. Example: A : ~ S o ) f i % f il> t L~ - - , % t ~ 7 ~ 2 2 L 3 ~ h h ~ , GLxLni I V' - r

6's schedule

Sunday
Monday
Tuesday Wednesday

teach English
clean rooms, do laundry, etc.

Thursday
Friday

Saturday

practice karate

I ~ e a l t - h n d a
At-t h e Reception o the Clinic f

I I i n e s s

Patient:

E x m e me, thzs is m firsf &ify

3 % -@A,p u "C i tbhTT&2, % :

Receptionist: td L \, I%R3 T ( ?: S L \, i IX IlLLki r* OK. Please show me your health i~surance certificate.

Please fill zn your name- a d address m this paper.


Patient:
Zt ~ l d f l ~ 3 % ~ ~ - h * ,

z a & l =ta'.P? t $PzL~ ~ d- f i i 2 ~ ~ \~1~ % F { E Z T 8-k L' ? r

What k i ~ d s medicine are these? of


Receptionist:

t*X.

<TI

%&k&TT, @@t=&X/TZ 2 b, (f Y c7
l

These are paiPzP;alIers. Please take one afler meals.


Patient:

b a a9 a L f:,
I see.

Receptionist:

S A$L- b - ,
f<l\

Please take care.


Useful Expressions for Illness (% %) and Injuries (13 ) ' 5 7
Uii ?

TfiTT0 if 9

I have diarrhea.

@ f ?7F0 3& -(& W


&9 T - T 0 ~

I am constipated.

I have my period.
I have hay fever.

ZB&TT0
fi. L - A L t - j

( 4 1 )T
t-L ( I

Jb?-~5~25 9

- have an allergy to I

.. .

&ah''& 9 3 To

I have a bad tooth.


I sneeze.

4 7 ~ "
idQz*j

<L+A~;~*~T, 2 a.
T
P
$75,

I have a runny nose.


My back itches.

3p+)5s75~@~~Tj-o

%%v& To 5' 3
13-3 L A

I have rashes.

bj)$~\h~L3T,

I feel dizzy.

.12f 3 2 t k o
fin
I \

I threw UP.
I; am not

3 .i:&

&, b 5 L \T?, :%

feeling well.

3+-I?Z*t2 L 3

L f:,

I burned myself. I broke my leg.


I hurt myself.

EQ3%&#69 2 L k 0 &.L lib. s 13753%t 3. t f z o


Useful Vocabulary

+ ES (Doctor's office) La E $4 l physician


LI
'*'I\

&

&@f# u. . d. ;
YbR If
7. 5

dermatologist

surgeon

&%A?+ S h i. UX. 6.
t f - r > l t i \ l i h-

obstetrician and gynecologist


orthopedic surgeon

!E%ybH
75-

fl/E$*
d'/v

ophthalmologist

%$3 L EF&R C U: 6.
25.

dentist
otorhinolaryngologist; ENT doctor

antibiotic

X-ray -operation injection -thermometer

(v)

%79=3hmlp383 Mary's Weekend

266

( %_)ab(Da b 33 IbX )
;hf=l,

M y Favorite Restaurant

276

1-(
= ( )

%7 9- & / u @ ~ A ~ a r ~y ' s e t t e r ~ F ~

282

H*)=aa
1LWu

Japanese Office Workers

287

bL\L+Llhr

1( -

@a u e 5

The Folktale Kasajizo

298

( T I gE)s%
12 a 9 0
%
tts
(% 2

is Lw3

Looking for Friends

304

Tanabata Festival

310

(Refer to "Japanese Writing System" on pages 18-22 for more. details.)

@ Hiragana Practice
A. Choose t h e correct hiragana.
3.me
6 - chi
9.e

$2

bj

''%

X,

B. Match the words.


Person's name
1.
PIace name
9.

&Qi55

Akai
Nakamura
Takahashi

2.Tp&Z*
3.$57p~\
4.
5. 6.
7.

lo.
11.
12.

37126 j a jZ $#2

- Gifu
Beppu

t a t %Z t
Q-hxk&

Tanaka

Morikawa
Sakurna Yamarnoto

13.

14.
15.
16.

G g 3 fib 3523 1 = y4is


-b1 2

- Sapporo
Osaka
Kyoto

- Kanazawa
Nagasaki

& 9 -hab 8-$<2

Hashimoto

Chiba

C. What's wrong with the hiragana below? Rewrite the correct hiragana.

D. Write as

many hiragana as possible which contain the following parts.

E. Put the hiragana in the right order to make sense.


Example: 1-

&=. & %

? f2.G ! . ----

b&T

@ Reading Practice
Read what the following people are saying and answer the questions.

1. Who is an office worker?


2. Whose major is Japanese?

3. Who is a high school student?


4. What is Harada's major?

@ Writing Practice
You received a letter from a Japanese friend. Read it and write a letter introducing yourself.

* f j F k & t <f;#a~lr\l.\t3Tis more polite than tf 3 P k 6 L < .

jII9hf

Katakana

75,
-tjso

*
F
t
\
\

ki

ku

9 shi
chi

su

*
%

r9-

k&?

ko

se

so

7
I\

tu

3- .
ha

'

is t,

ni

3
7
A

fiu

hi

fu

?b $ \ % -fte
ne
he

/'
no

to

ma

mi

ma

me

*
3

'ho

m*

Y. 3 7
, a

Ya

2YU

YO

ra

'1

ri

/k%Ln?

13,

'yo
[Refer to "Japanese Writing System" on pages 22-24 for more details.)

@ Katakana Practice
A. Choose the correct katakana. 1.6 4. shi

7 'y

7.m

t IL

B. Match the following words and pictures.

C. Match each country with its capital city.

Countries
1.
2.

Capital Cities

TL--27

$ 9 7 73=/1.>DC
2 3.

$ 7 27'
7-%'1Y7

3.
4.
5.

- 11 7

z97p
$---;Cb7'17-

7Axylby~LA

7731~>7--1~

6.29~-7.9

7 - z l x P - tv x

7*4>F
8. 7lb%.>F

+* 9 x 3
2

7S4u
Xhy?rf;~LA
the following country names in the box of katakana.

9.

7W-Y.

D. Word Search-Find

b t- L. (Vietnam)
3 3 iS*$

-Jl. (Singapore)

?- s 3 (Czech) 7 % '1 f i (America) '


2 5' r X

2 (Sweden)

57 7' F IL (Ecuador)

+3

7*?3 lb (Brazil)

jK2
4
; /

7 f 7 2 9(Holland)

(Mexico)

7 (Bosnia)

F 5' 7 (Indonesia)

3- 7 (Canada)
J 7 2 ?* (Rwanda) t

9 4 (Thailand) 7f -2 P 3 '1 7" (Australia)

E. Put the kafakana in the right order to make sense.


Example:

3 .f- --

-*

@ Name Tags
Write your name in the box below and make your own name tag.
. .

Example:
7 '

9
IL

1
2
3

1 9+
=/

@ Reading Practice
Mary wrote about the things below. Find out which item she wrote about.
1. (

) 2hli

h k L o C4i L U ? W 9 2+?&, +?.i-Sh@ EZi LTT, -.z-3-7T=/+-XO I % $ LTTo

@Writing Practice
Write about the things you or your classmates own. Use Mary's sentences in

1 as

a model.

V?f

I-*& ( 4*% p* 4 fit-year student -9 (4 Y 7 2 )one minute -9 (U 2 7) one

&?& (-3-

r (ak~) q two

>* ) second-year student 4

sag7 (a%n?l

two

days

(YY;l; 2-kd1 third-year student 57 (G3-33) thee

Eq&

W 9

(k % 2-k4 ) fourth-yearstudent 7 3 ) fow (P8Yl Apd


H e1. . 3 * : . 5 . -.

1.

* ~ f .,- $ T&. .. .

..

3%-

(t3'73)

five

(%a31 seven

$13 7 . k (+z 91
LZQI

nine

he (3'9 ) nine o'clock


%7( Z Z a ) ? )

kg

I+=~I;l+f4) nineyearsold

nine

(nine)

(Vz=LS) bn -- +q (9393) teno'clmk -f-% ( 9 z ~ S f - 4 ) years old ten -5 ( k g ) ten


(2)

-+
+-

(t: 9 1 Aand~ed (YL' F T 3 ) three hundred (u Y ? 3 six hundred r k z ( ~ 1 l* 3 eight hundred

2s

(hundred)
012

(6)

1( '

T
.) -k ;

'
C?f2@&-33y~ee thousand

4 2 -lie=/ 2

=k (*9)thousand

21 eight thousand

(thousand)
013

(3) '

7-2

T
014

-5 (-4# 7 2 ) ten thousand ( 9 =L 9 T y ) one hundred thousand SZ ( k ~3 2 ) one million

fx
(ten thousand)
(3)

3 5
'.P;.p;m@*~&a~&Un~~ yen
circle

F 9
015

x>

F
(yen; circle)
(4)

1 fl f l --% .E3$%7$%3 o'clock


?fE
in one's childhood ~ 4 ' ( k 3 Z I * = i ) s o r n e t i m e ~q $ + ( F 3 - 4 > w a t c h
( Z F b r7,k 8

El+

z3
(time)

0011

fl

R '

8+

(In this chart, katakana indicates the om'ymi [pronunciation originally borrowed from Chinese] and hiragma indicates the kuz % i[native Japanese reading].) m

@ gTa@a (Kanji Practice) h L fihL93


A. Read the price of the following items in kanji and write it in numbers.

Example: T 3 ~ k - b

(l))h)fi?

B. Write the following prices in kanji.


Example: T5,420
+

3 ? - ~ ' i Z ~ ~ f l

An international exchange student writes about his daily routine. Read the passage to find out about his schedule and fill in the blanks below.

7:OO
(

1
9: 00

go to the university

1
4:OO

eat lunch

6:00

watch T V

a< @g
fS

hhrLw5

(Writing Practice)

Write about your daily routine. Use the above passage as a model.

$ 7 --tCyCr)I/c;b 583Mary's Weekend 59 C


7 J
=.y

a E l ( ~ 4 f F everyday -&Gr)EI(kib$.o)UI) Mother'sDay ) B ~ C ( ~ w + f = ) d i a r yE ( 5 ~ A ) t h r e e d a y s ZI


-.

(day; sun)
--

a*

[**2)*~*&

El *% (z* 23)Japanese language I&$-$ X/ (+& & 2 3 L) Mr./Ms. Ymamota

I (book;basis)
= A (92 =>) three people
ese peo& Z ( Z 00 k 1this person

ah

/ (moon; month)

J(41 )

fl fi

K
ozr Y

(U) fire

$542 (%&lda)

money

F
5G Isoil)

&% El ( F 3 9 IF) Saturday


zk ( 7 %soil )
(3)

+
n

0 g 4-

39

~3qz a (=

+s.%sha=d%~
B

(weekday)

1 B E~ $

PPFFTq1$q%@q

i2 733
(UP)

k t i k ) top; &OV& 3 l+2 ( V 3 P A & ) good at E L (73-3 3 9)rooftop 9 (3) 1 F 1


T (Lk>under
%T%(9-2 Y > subway Y
(3)

Ti)
3 'f23
&%

tfz

T*fa'

(-?:a> poor at

(down)

T T
+E(Q=.fdP)China

q(a;b.)inside
yip

-*+

q?

(middle)

(#23#3)juniorhighschool (4+ % Y 9 = 9 ) all year around ..

EqF (*&gqPW) F%( / \ Y Y j . ) half.


(half)
(5) '

.+!r*-f,

- .

1> -

P. -

(In this chart, katakana indicates the on 'yomi and hiragan@indicates the k%c~'yomi.)

@ h'hl

I ;

fLhrbD3

(Kanji Practice)

A. Match t h e kanji with the English equivalents.


Sunday Monday

Tuesday
= =

Wednesday
Thursday

Friday
Saturday

B. Look a the picture and choose the appropriate kanji for the blanks. t

%711-3PU[2Sfi'dS*hIZ%S;h\SZ I/ko Read the memo and answer the questions.

Read the following passage about Mary's weekend.

&+k

store

SaPtC:'?
% k;% (
late

sweetbun

Arrange the following activities in the order Mary did.

1. studied Japanese
4. watched TV

2. bought sweet buns

3. went to a restaurant

5 . went to a park

@ g <f i ~ v ~ ~ 3 (Writing Practice) a


A. You are going out. Write a memo to someone in yourkouse, telling when you will

be back and whether you will have dinner at home.


6. Write about your weekend.

9 d ; Z j Travel
8.
(mountain)

am&

S-f-A (7992)t Fuji M.

%R (YY+)
(spirit)

electricity

XR
(heaven)

xg

CF~/+)

weat& (72 9 3 ) heaven

$A&A*
(I; private)

(P ' Y 9 1 5 I - 2-f' '

private university

E e h i Z (fzL&X) field rice


(rice field)
(511

n m w m

(%j'h.&E~Uk) woman */$i (93-k4> woman

*ah

S Z Z

*.
2 9

UlX - (Zizk Z$YU.'k3 man Wy*--fl man


(711

(man)

9 35

R
I

RZI tasee E% (92 ?'Y > sightseeing


(711

(to see)

, F , q ,

1 (to go)
k
339'
(to eat)
&-% ( f i % & ) B

&<%
(9)'

t o eat (ke60)food

'fke V 3 9 F 9 )cafeteria (

/ h + & e * &
;'@a) drink $ 0
~ . z ~ Y ? drunken driving Y )
. '

*-G

@k&% 6 a)) drink (a&

&%g% ( 4 Y

I (to drink)

03'

f pf$&

(In this chart, kutakam indicates the m'yomi and hiraga~ara indicates the km'ymi.)

~
->\.*

;h'k t;

fi/vb@J

A. Using the parts below, make up the correct kanji. Example:

B. Match the following sentences with the pictures.

C. Match the kanji with the reading.


l.(

)-s
) 5 E l

2.(

)=a
)*B

3. (

) S3 F
)+3

4. (
8.(

5.( 9.(

6.(

7.(

)*a

lo*(

)+a

11.(

)=+a

A. Match the following katakana words with the English equivalents.


cake

coffee
cafe

classical

concert
Vienna

B. d;3Z$h13&SZShlZ12htSSA'S6bt~~ Read the postcard below. Write T for the things she did or d o e s a n d write the things she didn't or doesn't do in Vienna.
)

F for

see an old castle


take pictures
enjoy sweets

2. (
4. (
)

go to see a ballet

6. (

drink beer at the cafe eat at McDonald's

Mr./Ms. (used in letter writing) h-but dt: 6 night

;k; L 5

castle

again

C.

a/x- ~-&hmafjisexeZ , L~
Read the postcard below and answer the following questions in Japanese.
1- U j C -

3 AI&+Z*Z

L X O ~7 j -

5 ~ ~

2. Y'A QX3,T-$$10
3.

4.

5.

,4@3 la Q I z - 2 La L f = h s , + E l i Q'dz$i L a L?=dh., KhZ L 3 Li?=Qb, s 3 Qbrn&<% TT7F0 aiJz*5

mountain

?z L

tough

T3 ,

2 % Take care.

@)

P< @g (Writing Practice) ' hhJL@3

The following are your Japanese friends' addresses in your pocket notebook. Copy their addresses on the postcards and write about your vacation.

$hQ)q*fd L/J, b 7 9 My Favorite Restaurant


L

045

$g===&; gq$$* $ ;;
I .

[tz L-pg *&t<&& $kB (& 3* 4 ) northwest ( f i YV-4$ Kansai region


I

- :

mi5
I I (west)

I (south)
$9 r3f4
$C3LIb9*3)Tollokuregion Z t j ( $ ~ & F 9 ) Hokkaido 4 (5)

3 '

Jt;
An (32 9)population 3

( 6 ) mouth

I t;'
3ZL-y (to exit>

I b-f (fZP) to take something out


A.--.

" C& 3J & g Wi (wr) right t- 7

(right)

&& ( 9 ~ 9 ) and left right (511 ? $ - &

SM

i t 7)left turn .+

7 3 7-2

.&*
/

( 37 2) five minutes

7+>

( Y J Y Y Y ) minutes ten h5?(972)0neself Te(~h272)haIf


)\

(minute; to divide) (4)

n
%11(23l~)ahead

%2

%&

(+z > . teacher *l I

33

ki!%(+=/V=9)lastweek

~CZ--&

(5 to be born (4 Y Y S 9K-4 F) once in 9

a life

(learning)

(8) '

p,

* * 5

3 -

$, 2

77.4

5b C 4 .J 3 'E S

foreign country

5Y
(outside)
{ t=

pb@A (84a 3 Z;j?) foreigner ' Yb ( % k ) outside


(5)

'

9b
COU~~I-J~

27 ~ * 9 9blSLY8?TY%rZim
E l
C+1939) m ( C E) country

(country)

cs)~
I

n n m m n ~
,,
~

(In this chart, katakoau indicates the on'yomi and hiragalaa indicates the kun'ymi.) . ,. .. . .-*. . *.., y?.:,; -.::i:,
8

: '

I0

@ gTa&a (Kanji Practice) bh, ;nlut@5


I ;

A. Combine the following kanji and make compound words. You can use the same kanji more than once.
Example:

y\

+ a + yb@

B. Indicate where each place is located on the map.

23 &b 37

station to exit
('.

straight

@ rh L"h[dk(Bulletin Board)
Look at the bulletin board on the next page and answer the questions.

1. If you want to buy a bicycle, who are you going to contact?


2 - Where will the party be heId? Are you going to bring anything?

3. How do you get to the concert haII?

4 . What can you do for the winter break (from December to January)?

Mary writes about her favorite restaurant. Read the passage and answer the

questions.

9 1 9 1 cooking b > 95 always 3 .tr JL everyone


A. Where is the restaurant?

< < .: .....LA"..."', . .. . , ..>4".+?: . .. ..<'?%&>,?? ? .~:::>..*?~*b -:... *.?*..-*.F>?:~-. ....


A

0'

,,""-LTA&*.~&=:**, "<**:*~--~~EG+.---

'

B. Circle the food or drink the writer has at the restaurant.

C. Choose the correct answer.

@ g <#@= (writing Practice) h ' Ah t ~ 3


A. You are organizing a party. Write a flyer about the party. Be sure to include: what kind of party it is, what time it starts, where .it is held, what to bring, how to get there, and so on.

B. Write about your favorite restaurant.

' .

1J -$by@rn';&.

Mary's Letter

I (capital)

>4% J%

( 9 s 93 Y 3 91 elementary school ( 9 a 93 3 Q d ) elementary school student

4a.R
(to meet1

( k d 9 ? 4 2) office worker

X - - C = & ~ ,-

7:.-

gx3

x%?(7$1

. .

t ~ k -g&) -fa* 3

father and mother

I (father)
.$.g ($9) mother tongue

067

35'

068

069

*
-8
PW

$% ( A b & % > i - - ~ & d . ~ Z& ( ~ 9 ~ i3 h s ~ h ~ l ? h g ) %$!?& ( 2 5' 3-3%$1 high school student

(school)

+%E ( # = 9 f l39) junior hi& ~ a - f 4 a


*El ( ~ 4 2 &every day ) %g[ T ~ V X J ) every week -@El!! (74 every right

school

airv?t.tv@

~4

(every>
3 '

r a @ *
B.*% 4=& =* 9) ~ a ~ a g e i i ]language) $$% (x-43 English (language) 1
04
~

* . - a

(word)
070

. - . .

- + 3 - n i

si 5 v

5%
v

*== =xx
~ i m v

'07 1

072

(In this chart, kut&m

indicates the m'yon%iand kiragana indicates the kun'ymi.)

A. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate kanji.

B. Which new kanji from this lesson include the katakana below/?
Example:
X
+

&
2.

I.

3 +

; + i .

C. What's wrong with the kanji below? Rewrite the correct kanji.

..

? Z i-

a little

-6. I; from . . . L' I-$ { cram school

k
Z 6

literature

t take (a class) o [--??)f:~,LkG=-j-&


to look forward (to)

.h-i,f-.-.i=3,~7C'I B
to take care of oneself

Summarize what Mary wrote about t h e following topics in Japanese.

1. Japan:
2. Her town:

3. Father:
4. Mother:

5. Sister:

6 . Brother:
7. School:

A. Write about the following topics.

B. Write letters to your Japanese friends. Describe your town, host family, friends, and so on.

$(7)z+t Japanese Off ice Workers


A
/ -

#k;i;' (*?Qts)
@El

to be absent; to rest (%'FA> holiday; absence I+z3Y'Y1 holiday

I (to rest)
Sj W 3 )
to say

ZZF
(to say)

(Y Yyfl3'3) linguistics

% . ~ B % @ read &: 30,


%@ ( F 3 9 s reading books
(to read>
04
. = 5

g - $ + $ + z 31 *5- z * * e * 53- $Z

3 .(W%5 ) to think ,%% Q (7 9 Y a) mysterious

1 (to think)
& ( 7 S y &&k % (9 s ) one's second daughter ;& 9
(next)

I = ,'sA

; ; ik ? (&El w&& ' (t~h.9) time what BA (&L=Yl "howmany people


(6) '
(711

(what)

r 4 ? r
0%'yomi

(In this chart, katakasa indicates the

and hiragana indicates the kun 'yomi.)

A. Using the parts below, make up as many kanji as possible. Example:

X +

6. Match the following phrases with an appropriate verb.

l.%MG
2.

++F&
**t2

?m-&
L5 ~ 1 Y *

3. kk32
4. EI*SlJ% S

.L2 $
T4
, 5 %

5. SSP-@
6.@$bI

*M(
4,B

7.57-3r;re

Read the following questionnaire.

9 - b questionnaire X b L 7. stress
7

( 3+."Xl 1 i

overtime work after . . .

&)

B. How would you answer the above questions?

C. 7 - 9 ~ h l 3 7 > 9 - b l ~ 2 L ~ T b$-bTZSSZ b k o
%' I

Read the report below and answer the questions.

-GI9L\T

about; regarding to
7

% 6 ( f: 2 8
XCC 3 % (3i
)

t o answer

to be tired
first of all

secondly

2 -jt"

lastly

Make a questionnaire and ask several people the questions. Then, write a report based on the result.

Ez Sue's Diary P

(after)

1 (before)

17 '
(white)

@,% (*\ 3 9 ) blank sheet

~33% (9

rainy season

sx*<&&*-y- ; a $ -

%s ( 9.=/ s ) dictionary

(friend)

752 ak,~\f:

qrd (9732) time r (&t>E) d between


--3Fa7

~ e r d~ S 9 & 2W O ~ O U Z S ( ~ )
ABB~ Z Y Y Y ) humanbeing (

( 4 ~ 9 3 9 A 2 one week 1

(between)

108 1

I'

P B B' Bq B9 r'l fi9 M fl El

% ( b h k ) hpwe %& (k'P3) family % ( 3 6 ) house; home


(house)

133
'7
(to speak)

sT(ikhT)tospeak %fk$Q,L)talk;story %$# ( 7 7 7 ) telephong &%k (a4 7) conversation

(little)

(old)

TF- 3;

9(to know)

%% ( t a l to k m w %A( - f 9 acquaintance 2)

(to come)

(7)

- -

"=*$*

(In this chart, k-atukam indicates the m5mi and hiragana indicates the kua'yoma'.)

A. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate kanji.

B. Choose the most appropriate word for each blank.

H Z (b:-3)

diary
in the morning

?Rq
&Xb7~f'lZ"3; % j

host family

~ \ & L \ 5 various 3 8 8 to have a talk *LT and

excellent food

A. Put the following pictures in the right order according to Sue's diary. (
+

> + (

> + (

>

B. Mark T if the following statements are true. Mark F if not true.

C. X-*/vl&%Y 'J-ShCnfix b 7 7 S ' J - ~ Z ~ M & S ~ Z L ~ ; ~ T -l h a Read the following letter.

A$?&

% El (*A L 9) '

the other day


dormitory to show someone around

%Ll3~)T2i

A. What did you do yesterday3 Write a journaI.

B. Write a thank-you letter to someone.

I _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ - - - - ~ ~ ~ 2 - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - a - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ a - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - ~

I Useful Expressions for Letters and Cards:


j

I I

I
1

b-

?? 3 C 7 { ;F;' 3 L 1 (Please take care of yourself.) f ' ,


.)

T). i - - g b t , T Z j ( Z * $ * L \ ~(Congratulationson.. ! S k h r 1 9 vgblL,TZ 5 . (Happy Birthday)

L _ _ _ - - ~ - ~ - _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - ,

fit&< . .

&G

733
(to Iive)
*sf?
f-f2b

f&?fi

( 9 x 3 9 3) address

%EB- a 3 39-1New Year -f:%>% Z L L \ (fzELt3) right

(right)

next year.

++ K t - 6 ) this EV

Oq/l?

stand;

(to sell)

s-3 %&4:>:3Itd
( Z J I b ~ shopping ~ Q>)
(to buy)

q W3Y-h
Sk1LFJ ( 3 f.P 9 4 3 9 ) Kitayama town @TR(FJ34 3 3 ) mayor of a town

-p [&!$<I) j \ & &% (F3 9-f2) first son one's


(long)

f - ~ f%wap;-r&d
~ ~ ( 5 ' 3 F ~ ) c a l l i g r a p h y @ ( $ ~ 3 P 3 ) judo & 3 c a (di .Ih 4 F 9)Hokkaido ;

110

1t

@3 -kY

e 6@%3snow %% C ~ Y + Y ) new snow


Ofl

(snow1
fz

- , - + i ~ r ; ~ =r 3 ~ + q *

') 'Y

national university $A&&E (9 !Y J 9 3 9)private high school 31


5

C 3 >to-stqd e) @&AT ( 33 '1 Y Y-1'3 3 '


&9

(to stand)

" r" ff &


-

l 3
& $1 #+

2 9

l;r-*< .n@gg'r) m Tf f Ti T & $k$$ ( Y F 9 Y T ) automobile ( V . 5 2 9 ~ bicycle )


(6)

(self)

&

$6
L T
(night)
(8) '
I) midnight

+&

( 3Y P )

tonight

63

r $7 'p @ f i 8 c $H (&-$I M F H + $ A3) this morning (if


"

$fl& (FEI 9 9 3 91 breakfast


(morning)

t
(to hold)

&2 %8-> tohold2:-$%3T ( 6 ( & 3 T < tobring 23) Ffi$*~% ( V 3 9 t 2) belongings


( 9 )

(In this chart, katakuna indicates the o~'yonai and hiragana indicates the k m ' y m i . )

t'-

*
*
-4

$Tl$JJ$Ji!

.f

# %

A. Add strokes to the kanji below and turn them into new kanji from this lesson.

Example:

-+ & -

B. Write each antonym in kanji.

C. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate kanji from the list, and add hiragana where
necessary.

I. y7-Cshopping

2 L 2 Lk0

2. 75>3 %
have

T~

\ -jw, a

3. &5TEA7h$
0

To
0

4.

1<
snow 1:

i!lcwi* 2 To 9

(are) sell(ing)

5. g

L" L \ 5 ,&~rl$#ia
was long

6. 71f-

n4 To
live

7. $AQl$&5 C=-k@AiF

was standing

A. Answer t h e following questions.

2. (Picture 1) 2&t~&c:'3 h ~ - jR E j -~
3. (Pictnre2) La)%EL'$

Z,%~\H-~~,
4)%+#Q>%Xe characters) (main
L@UX.:i

hZ %if&

B Read the Japanese folktale "fPi4G323" on pp. 302-3. .

C. Put the following pictures in the right order.


+

> +

i 6 L ;t;-h. L 2.
7.5.

once upon a time bamboo hat


New Year's

%&fi

4
&&
hats

year rice cake

LL>

to sell sad
mountain road
guardian deity of children
snow

&g

cj??
Q - 4 -

to put (a hat) on a

person's head

la+
ra
L\&\

oneself

tZ

to take off gmd deed


door

( ~ 2 ) voice
to be surprised

F (0
L&;b+?td

happy

D. Mark T if the following statements are true. Mark F if not true.

Choose one topic from the list below and write a story about it. For example: What do people do on these days? Do you have good memories? Do you know unusual tales about these days?

19 8 (Birthday)
d.A,L.rl\'

&a% (Thanksgiving Day)

fzh,

W 0i

13aom~a

Looking for Friends


IS b@3

1 ] 3
(picture)

75"

& ( ~ 2 0 movie I @ 4
@%(#&)painter
(8)

35(3-/1&3)plan

- I n

7 5 % f i & g

R
FFi
j&

$t; 75
(to sing>

*
5

R+"(%K$vF~. singer 0% ( 3 Y ;5 national anthem


08
I

*.j

+=5.r~-T) sing to

( 5 f.1 song

"

"

"

g
city

9
O i ;

(&h$?i%+%,:~-awagu~hi

$ r ~ $ ( V P 3 V 3 ) cityhall

i$E(LFa9;7)mayor

(city)

r5

'=j 3

*%$2 market (t13 6 ) (5) ' " " * 1 m L \ 4 L 1% ~j$j?$h~>s&$~~$& 2 Z 25) v&c&&&la~es -. .
A
~

r*t5
(place)

33

a $?g?~&~$hh~~d !& $ % ( Y d Z Z 5 ) kitchen


(81
4 -

-f*F%(9=95/~) address

-#

j j

7.' T j

jjF 76

<> 7z
(to make efforts)

M & i& % + p q & $ & * $=$F & :


&&"r9k&&) totry hard %$&Q ( + Y e Y & ) diligent
(101

*
3

r
v
?

&

+3 9

(In this chart, kutakana indicates the on'ymi and kiragana indicates the kule'yomi.)

v=f

* R

, ,

$%-'c4gisj$@%~% *%-fastudy
$&I\ f ~ m 7 ~ ~ 3 ~ @ . .
( =f 9 9 s

9 $1 obstinate

(strong)

On'

"

fL

; " ? s f ' P 8 5 $ 5 .
*

29
5 i
(to exist)

%;%'Fs ( ~ 9 9a) famous 4 %# ( ~ 11 4 9)toll; fee 3 % 6 (&a>to exist


@)I

. +: ._ . , , : 1

1J 3

.( ' s 3.3) l tmpel @ A$ (Y sI 2 ) inn ? $ (0k 9 Tz U) traveling alone

a
"

(travel)

(IN'

" J

A. Combine the parts below to form t h e new kanji from this lesson.

B. Put one kanji in each box to make compunds.

A. EBIZEZT L.=.%lv Zk

< Z*LI,

(Answer the following questions.)

--%& ( 1 % L I$ 9 ) (i%&Q)

looking for . . .
woman

111

*3r
Vl% c-\

t :) '

river girlfriend cheerful


band

man
outdoor activities

near place

Y.'>

I. The person who is 18 years old


2. The person who is a college student

(
(
(

3. The person who likes movies

4. The person who likes climbing mountains

5. The person who is looking for a girlfriend

&%
3

neighborhood

$ 3

( A t t h * ) culture

{ A ) 9 9 (279)
Z

shrine

festival
reply

fishing

s C %L old t i m a % 33 %% (bt31tiift~ old tale t)


; f s:

(ancient times)

e-? (&;1PL&SLI once upon a timg


&.+-a: (-~pk-tFkJ --jj$Qple @e ( 2 3 F 3 ) sometimes (symbol of repe
tition of a kanji)

Ee 3 ( L 3 . i ;

~1.5

&) various

p* @

- S&b.&

3 g j G&-

F5

@s IV Y 1.3 Shinto religiork )

* -- cs 9P? *
-=

- r - ,

a-

$&3T 6
?$A
(early)
(61

(b&+g37&) get up early to ( Y 9 .f 3 '7) early morning


r ,
FI

'

& 2 ? (% Z 2)to wake someone up

&&rf$
(to get up)

(+1)

Y$&) to stand up

(9 9 ) ambassador 4 ( 9 399-=9) "Occupied"


(to use)

i6-=brjk
-

* I 3 { )r G tiff: G 3 1 both husband and wife working !& foraliving 5!%$(p9F93)Iabor


(to work)

i$&9% f

I/>
(to link)

B &*

Zi ) -to take home ..('3kLT ( 3 3 L 2) United Nations ( 1/ Y .IL 5') consecutive holidays

(In this chart, katakana indicates the on'yomi and hdraga~a indicates the kwz'ymi.)

A. Match the reading, kanji, and translation.


Example:

15. L

- to use
COW

1- l A - P ( b h )

2. i % ( 3 & )
3. - h a ( j )
4 . b-ha(h6)

to get up
early

color

5. Ahx
6 . 25%
7.
L l 5

-$-

ancient times
to separate

blue

8.

9 L

red

6. Which new kanji from this lesson include the katakana below?

1. *5* +

2.

-+

3.

4.

jz

C. Which new kanji from this lesson shares the same component as each pair of kanji below? Example:

$1

0-t;Idk 9 ktd
A. $2 (picture) ZHT<tZ*L\, X

Z f i I ; t ; ~ t c " t E L ~k T tE lL1+95Ta ~ U ~l ~ 9 I

f..

3 i3

-k$T &tt,. i ' B

--, L\

L \ C3

la

9 : ,#&Ti 's

a 3 2 a A I= i: 3 z'. 4 .at;
3 j r 2
L

& b \ b \ + S *
G

,m:t-. A G , c la
o

( &=$A

r f -- l L~ : T e 1 2 % -i " & E J 3 + $ ' PL et=gf-.1t 3 4 % ~ b\ 1 : L\ e 9 C 7 f J 3 El L 5 -- l-f 7 U h 1 js2~7.; 3 -

> L \ S
+f:
'a'0

Ll

T O &'rib&
1

-T
$2

L\
L\

k ;

~zhz \
r

L\-Ba

L '

-j-Q

ss3

a a r *
L\

3 +?

rm n
L\

e, c3
t~

bh Q L\ " 7 L Z L \ t

4%

9 vl.

T
&

C~I

L\

t3 %

a 3 T A 755 $ 3 " O L \

t t & F H i ; $Jx " .la TEZn 2

-i 14, z TV
a )

2 i Y

' a # % Q

+
r

7 ~ t ta
O I Y
b

$1 3

" a & , ~ t a m ~42


o

P z

t= a td y$ rtlga
3 $+-& i~
&@a,+

x;a

'-kt:
3;

12 fs

5 .

f2

1%

8 3
9

-&
L\
Tz

t:

-il
9

<

the heavens; the sky


God daughter

to get angry
to take back

to cry
pitiful

serious

to weave

once a year
by

one . . . ( & 6 El one day)


adult

...

wish

to find
the Milky Way

to be realized
we

the other side; over there


COW

and so forth
strip of fancy paper

farm

people

*<l\h1

,, ,

Japanese-English
316

s<l\h2 +

,English-Japanese
@+,
fY4'

Numbers
342

,sm$w+? Conjugation Chart


?Y7 &52)&3

8BH17)~~I&12T~~~&fK30
Items at the end of each entry indicate the following:

e......~

%.*.*.. S&SS%
(s)

(Conversation and Grammar section)

urn . . . $2 L1 -dS@ that . . . (over there) 12 PIT-b apartment E L7 ZSLI g ~ \ sweet SL12 $i%03ht;h XQIlIT the Milky Way % L12-TT 35%g negative not much L3

ZdI

G ...... % L 1 5 3 (Greetings) ...... 3L,(Supplement)


I

(Reading and Writing section)

6 rain $2 L8
&@;bP1315 15-h" ki$8 it rains $2 L8 7% 93 U.S.A. 1 ,$12 1 $555 $k$ towash 52L8 dS'3;ht&5 Thank you. G G i65;hgLjZ S L I Z s Thank you. (polite) 5 G 2 &3 there is . . . 5 L4 2 $ 6 one . . . Z% L12-?J 5$SLIT % L \ T on foot 2 LIO 7JLlT-f b part-time job L4 & that, (over there) 2 L2 $ one I 7>3-b questionnaire S L8- fl &h&L\$& $n$& to show someone around s ~ 9 n-

- I1

m------RE%e(sm&g)
(number of excercise in the Reading and Writing section)

B between 2 L4 4
to meet; to see Ia person) % L4 7 3b F 7 outdoor activities 3 L11- IT 5 &&Ll % L x blue 5% L9, Lws) d5h'l.I ;if;b \ red 52 L9, $2L9(s) &fi'&L\ TI % \ cheerful S Lll- Il d s 3 +t fall e l 1 0 d18 M 8 to open (something) 5 L6 5f 2 &* $A morning 2 13

&

4-5

%eZl$h RRBZ breakfast

L3

Ze3 7 S f

to play; to spend time pleasantly % L6 &fr?k;h\ll I $ , r > warm gL10 Sf=% 53 head L7(s) itSftdh~L~L~i A f L \ L x bright; smart; clever 93 L7 &7~fiSbLI R L L \ new eL5 8 3 L l a 6 hot (weather) 3 15 2 &3LI % L \ hot (objects) g L 5 itS& ?% after (an event) 5 Lil, R L8- n Z bS&P &T lateron el-6 sfsfi YOU s L4 ZlZ X (my) older brother LT(s) % (my) older sister f L7, L7(s)

,%e

(--a)

the day after tomorrow Lqs), $2 L8 21 R leg; foot 52 L7(s), % L12 IJ 75/'Plfh/%@5Y 7 W f Z Asianstudies g L 1 7 $I/k tomorrow PL3, Lqs) 6365 over there eL2

LIl.1 good e L 3 LILIX No.; Not at alI. $ G L\L\Z b \ L \ 3 - good chiId

19

L l L I Z k gooddeed SLIO-II 2 L l s , s 3 to say 5 L8 LIZ % home; house $ L3 -L\b -fi 3 bound for . . . $ L10(~) -f+!J;( Britain e L 1 , e L 2 L\< tog0 52L3 L \ < 5 how much GL2 L l L + 6% doctor %LI, 2110 LIGhZ5 (&I &%,% mean-spirited 2 L9 Lib chair 2 L2(s) L\5htbL\ IK r busy (people/days) 5 L5 L 2 LlTe to h u m g L 6 L l f i L I b L. hurt; painful 5 L12 2 L\kEh?kb Thank you for the meal. (before eating) 2 G L\S?lxT -1 January L4-@) L \ S I; -r$ one o'clock 2 L1, 52 Ll(s) L\Sl;h'h -4M one hour B L4

LIZ-n LlSlgh, --d best $ L1O L1% l2h-S - 1 last car; tail end & ?
b\%i$h%Z

Z P 9 1 aerommme S 13s) 5,
XLW && movie e L 3
X L \ Z 8 3 Ewlish Oanguage) 5 Lf 3 2 X Z yes e L 1 X S R station 52 110,35 16-1 LL(IlL1I.W language lab L3 - - X h -P3 . . . yen e L 2 Z h U 3 S $ pencil % L2, 2 L2Is)

-&a

a LI O(S) first car; front end LlO(s)

L \ 3 when 52 13 L13h' 5 El the fifth day of a month % Lqs) LlgTfl.1 -3 one year old % Ll(s) L I 7 LAG --M 1: together 3 L5 2 L 1 3 3 39 five' 5%L9 L I 3 ZOZb Il go and come back. 2 G 'l L \ T T % T L / + L ~ Pleasegoandcomeback. S G L l ~ t S h r --5? one minute 5 Llts) 2 L \ 3 % always 2 LIZ, S L6-m Ll& R dog 2 L4 L\$ now e L 1 Ll& %% meaning 5 Lll(s),$ L12 2 L\%3&(&IV) #(9&) youngersister E L I , a L?, % ~ 7 ( s ) L l S ~ ( I ~ t l $ lWWdme (to ourstore) 52L2 i L l 9 <?5 A V entrance 3 LtO(sJ % L 1 6 (a person) i s i n . . . ; stays a t . . . 2 L 4 L l 5 to need St8 Ll-3 C color 2 L9 LI?5Lb3& various ZM-II

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Items at the end of each entry indicate the following:

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(Conversation and Grammar section)

G --.*-I

(Reading and Writing section) ZL\?23 (Greetings)

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% IS A (Supplement) %

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straight Z 2 T C SL6(sJ, SL6-I stress XbLIX 1L8-II strip of fancy paper k&Z< 3 Ll2-n i student h L < !) ;'% gL? student discount hS<@!l 9% tJ LIO(S) study R;h3&3T6 &ST6 2 l3 studyabroad 1303hT<T6 B%T& g h l l subway 5ht73 *T& eL10 summer 7 3 X el-8 6 Sunday 5 H q a & ~ 3 ,LW) s sunny weather I & f l % L12 super express 1 4 ~ h w ? $LlO(s) supermarket X-ITL4 surface mail GdXUfkr SE(s) surfing 9 - 7 4 > +LEI surgeon ITA\ Yb% S L12(~) (be) surprised t F 3 < 7 T6 Z% LlO- EI ! sweat shirt t- LI-Y5 I 2 2 Sweden X ~ I - 7 9 211 sweet &dL\ f f r \ 2L12 sweet bun (&I d h l;w 5 3 L4-m 5 sweets $ 1 (%;)SF2L11 swim &LC' &L5

snow @f t
so

$LIZ

t w s 52L4

soccer WY&- 2 L10 something f l Q % L8 sometimes &hF3 32 &L3 . song 5k R 52 L7 SO-SO d&b& SL11 south BkB & %l@s) souvenir IS)&+If ( 1 L4 spa 8 A t i h Z& & L9 speak Iat6q %.f 5213 special delivery 5 < t =3s ~ Ws) spend time pleasantly &+IS %A: 2 L6

4 2 LlO(sJ take (a class) &25 R 4 $2 L11, B 17-11 take (amount of tirne/money) h\;h\& L10 5 -

tail end L

fake (pictures) S5 eL4 take (something) %ZJTL\< &T -c\\


take a bath

(&)&4Irta~l% ( g ) R g i = ~ &

21 6 take a walk E h% & B 9 d - 4 2 - 1 Tt b 15 take back 34178\X6 S$-LT%LIZ- II a % Take care. TI&, & i f h $ ~M , SZ%t t

s E-n

take care of oneself ?1'!3t:ESZ3lf 5 f+d=fff,e3!P& %L7-I1 take medicine < % &&ti L9 take off c 5 & & S 110-11 4 talk 1289 ST 2 L3 a L q ; 4 5 X b r 52 17 tape T-7 % L2 teach 8 L X B R Z B 52L6 teacher W U ~ L I 89 e L 1 telephone rha B S g L 1 tell a lie 7 eL11 temperature (weather) S&h & L12 temple 7 % (%)P52L4 ten kbj' SLQ ten minutes 3 4-53 5 Ll(s) 3 ten o'clock L G 3-3 5 Lits) % ten years old 1 +& S L1(s) 2 tennis T Z X e L 3 tenth day of a month, the Is&& 3-El

think 5 , g 8 L third day of a month, the &3h' Z a 2 Lqs) (become) thirsty B . E A Y I ~ ~ 0 YhS% < {
2 L12

aL ~ S )

test T X b e L 5 textbook S & 5 & t a $ 4 S L 6 Thank you. dsv3ht&3/&v3hV5ZS1~dT G Thank you. Z5% 2 L2 Thank you for the meal. (after eating) c"S95*% 2 G Thank you for the meal. (before eating) LItcE3dS 22G that.. . 9 el2 0 that . . . (over there) &UIe L 2 that one 33'~ EL2 that one (over there) 2 L2 That would be fine. I 3Z5Tb & # t T f

thirteen minutes I ; @ ~ ~ Z ~ J ~ A -% Ll(s) + 5 i J thirty minutes T4Jyb@~Sh 3 S Ll(s) Ef ? this . . . Z m 8 L2 this month Z h W 2 3 Lqs), % L8 this morning If3 4 m 2 L8 this one Z l z S L 2 this person (polite) 5 % L11 this~semester Shhth9=13 + 3 9 S L l I ?33 this week Z h L @ 5 433 &L4(s), 52L6 this year Z 2 L +4 SL10 three 57 2 L 9 three minutes iM~15hir 35? S L1Is) three o'clock & h G 5% eLt(s) three years old L Z& U(s) throat 2 L12 Thursday- 6 6 6 U $ I 5% L4, Lqs) 3 e 4 3 ticket -S?S %% 6E (bodrdihg) k k e t l;dr 5lrp I h 3k$ B 5 1qs) f 3 ticket vending area %r~135!7[$ %~%FiS11%

g LlO(s)
till (a time) -ST & L5 (be) tired 2ffTLZtl.;S & h T ~ \ 6 S L8-Ix (get) tired 3t~\fiB &h8 +Lll to (a place) -*F el5 today hdr3 + ~ &L3, 32Lqs) l together L 2 15 together with (a person) -2 f 14 tomato 7 S L8 tomorrow 2 Lk % L3, 32 Lqs) 1 tonight ZPvIgh -46% 2 L 3 tooth & 2 L7{s), B L12 tough (situation) tzL\-h(fd) A$ L6, A 15-I I town S W 2L4 toy &%23"p s Ll1 track number. . -Mh-Fh --&R S Llqs) traffic light L h Z 3 E% gL6(s) train T h L ? %% S L6 transfer 8!3f3\Z 3k7 ?2Llqs) travel v3&Z3 R e 52L5 T-shirt T9t7'3 % L7 Tuesday fi&Z~uP A%a S L 4 , *L4(s) turn dhtQ fV& $L6(s) turn off IfT 'rB$ el6 turn on 3136 $ L6

2 L6

That wouldn't be necessary. l j ~ Z 5 T b?E#$TT 2 L 6


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+ =

wait 33 %wallet $L113\

eL4

H$

gf 2

2 Lqs)
twenty minutes 1: Lm 3 t-f-# 2 Ll(s) twenty years old I 3 f S =+& Ll(s)

twenty-four-print
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$2 110 wash 5 Bi g L 8 watch & l f L ~ eS# l.2 watch 5 R% L3 water &P d= 3C L3 we akLk?5 ?L#=% SL12-TI weather 7hh KR 2 t5 weather forecast ThhkI35 X f1 6 %- P t
&kfch\Ll
F%*bh

warm

weave IZkb&b

% L8 t d t = Q& 8

5% LIZ-n

=*

uh-huh 3h, gl-8 uh-uh 35h g 8 L


u r n . . . if5D &L1 umbrella % 2 L2 under L 1 e l 4 ; understand S 14 unhurriedly @ ; ~ 7< 9 L6
university tr'L\hT< A 9 el1 U.S.A. 7%?l;bS L l , el2

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where
which which which white

one

. . . Em e L 2 g 12
t3LI

F Z 2L2 &3%/C3S

e1 L0

use 3h\3 5
usually f = L K t l

$16

A &

S L3

who

tz'a

Bb\

SL9, &L9(s)

612

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various

why E 5 b 7 32L4 wife djtlslv S3tt ?2L7(s) wife ZI'ZLL\ SEfi 5 L7@) 2 wife ;h\&Sh S L7(s) wife 9% 2 L7(s) wife Ita5E5 8 $ L7(s) wife 747 L7(s) window SEE $ gD(s), L6 & winter 13xW SJ8 wish ; I ~ ~ I % I %LIZ-IT with'(a tool) -7 gL10 woman Shf6 ILII-II woman S b & ~ U b t* a X 8t7 word kh,' Y% 3%L9 work t Z L e S 2L1, S L 8 w 5 s % 111

work for 3&@8 &bh& &L7 world -Ffi\L) f!?X L10 worry LPvlds~W 4 a % L12 write j3\< f 52L4

. . . years old -*Ll --& t i , $2Lils) yellow S L 1 3 L I %EL\ 2 LSfs)

<

. . . yen

-Xh

-PI

5212

wrong (X)
X-ray

($3

+Lll(s)

1/3/bPP=/ 52 L12(s)

year L 4 SLIO-n: year after next, the $tiL\;lah WESF 5 L~s) 2 . year before last, the 8 & & L &L4-(s) . . year student -@Pvi2L\ --.&& g Ll . . . years --#ah-4 G LIO

yesterday 3En5 % L4, B Lqs) yes Z X g L 1 yes I&L\ ell yes 3h Gl.8 you &&f= 5214 young ;ht3'Ll Z L \ 52L9 younger brother &&3& ($h) %-( 3 A) % L1, b L7, L7(s) younger sister L \ % 3 t (eh) %E( 5 A} 3 L1, % L7,52 LT(s) 2

zone tickets VLl9 lfh, 9 4 ; S5

.@

z$

LlO(s)

#& 7Y*

N u m b e r s

This chart shows how sounds in numbers (1-10) and counters change according to their combination. 1. Hiragaaa indicate the sound changes in numbers, and alphabets show the changes in the initial consonant of counters. 2. ( ) means that the change is optional. 3. An empty box means no sound change occurs.

k+g
L ' 7

S
L'-3

S'Z
L'T

t
L'7

special vacabulary for numbers

U Z 7
i

-2~'t=% 3 vz
4i39ha
-s,9ha
,iht:r)

1
2
3

A79

L 1 3 7

199

k7na

1\7da

6 -3

Gbi75)

9 f b a & a -

ca
9

LA-2

137

. 3%-

L L n 9 ZLaha
9 9

t-@3

g
6.1
7

-4z)b
floor
iiouses

cents
Lmi 3.A

-2 shoes
-4thousand
+ A. 2

letters
hrj &

small items
years of age

date

people
:i r,

-%

-3lr~I
weeks

-$
books
?I.

street address

-4%
years of age

cf. --A cf. idj:& cf. (20 years old) a j 1-;l (three or more ( 1 4 ) people) l i 7 6 . (20) i:L-kp? k 7 ha(24) fa'kt: 1; (how many)

- -Conjugation
verb dictionary long forms forms bmsd types (L: 3)
irr.

C h a r t

te-forms

short past

(L. 6)

(L.9)

short present neg. (L.8)

short past neg. (L.9)

Ts

L W
b

LT
3T
-T

L f=
3 t:

L Qc\
t

t Q ddtt D:s 7
z 26%7t:
--3&*7c t
--#3 t d : 7 ! J 5 3

i. n
7a
Zl
ZL

<b
f:dr% -

43$-

a&\

-3- T
-k\3T
-% 3

"k
-7

-Q&\

fib%

-7T
-7

Ji

-hQl,\

32

f
9

-3

k
71t
fz

--kQb\

-F 7z

QPas

9 =rfr

2d

ra

-3

a-P

~ -7

-6
* Q L ~

rvh~p-=,fi

u
Zl

$5
+&

- 3 3T

-7T

-7

Q6.7 = : >

3
$5

-/tT
3

--AT:
--

-3 Q L L

-3 Q 6 5 7 f c

--hT

- - ~ % Q L > -i3Q$*97:

L- Q ~
$ 5 ~

--tta~

-AT

--A?<
-~\)"s

-fJta.c.r

-td:fJda-=>f2

- 3 3 ~ -L\y

' v ~ ~ Q ~ f,i a ~ b s 9 ? = ---h*Qa'L

21

u
u

b>l %C"
132-5

--S3?
h

*-3T

-%+$j-

*---;)f:
-L\j?Z
- -

-&*Q;bal=ltz

-&"h,>

--;b"QY
\

fi

-LT

-- L t2

-Sf.

ta'h.97"t

The form with * are exceptions.

F A b o u t the Authors
Eri Banno is currently Associate Professor of Japanese
at Okayama University, Japan. She graduated from Nanzan University in Nagoya and earned her M.A. at St. Michael's College, Vermont. She has taught Japanese at Nanzan University and Kansai Gaidai University. Her publications include 80 Communication Games for Japanese Language Teachers (The Japan Times).

Yutaka Ohno is currently Associate Professor


at the Education Center for International Students at Nagoya University. He earned his M.A. in linguistics at Sophia University in Tokyo, and has done post-graduate work at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He has taught Japanese at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst College, and Kansai Gaidai University.

Yoko Sakane (Yoko Ikeda) is currently Associate Professor


at International Student Center at Ibaraki Universiiy, Japan. She graduated from Morningside College, Iowa and Kansai Gaidai University, and earned her M.A. in comparative literature at Pennsylvania State University. She has taught Japanese at the Eastern New Mexico University, Pennsylvania State University, and Kansai Gaidai University.

Chikako Shinagawa is currently teaching Japanese


at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She graduated from Aichi Prefectural University in Nagoya and the University of Arkansas, Little Rock, and earned her_M.A. in Japanese at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. She has taught Japanese at the University of California, Iwine, and Kansai Gaidai University.