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Yarn Preparation For Weaving And Knitting

Definition Yam preparation involves those processes that improve the yams weaveability or knittability.

Preltlara on R 8 t or a in Yarn warpyarns Yams must be aligned properly Yam strength must be increased Yam hairiness must be decreased Yam smoothness must be increased Y a m elongation and flexibility must be sustained FillingYarns Yarn must be wound properly and on a suitable package for high speed unwinding

-+ +.

Weft Knitting Yam friction must be decreased Fiber shedding must be decreased Yam smoothness must be increased w r Knitting ap Yam friction must be decreased Fiber shedding must be decreased Yam smoothness must be increased Yarns must be properly aligned for introduction to knitting needles

6-2 Yam Prepordon For Weavbrg And Warp Knlfflng

Yarn Preparation For Weaving And Knitting

Quilling (Shuttle Loom only)

+ Q 00 Weft Knit





winding waxing

Winding waxing



Drawing-In or Tying-In


F l




Y a m ReparatbnF r Weuvhg And Warp Knmhg 8-3 o

Materials Processed Input - Yam (spinning bobbins) Output - Yarn (large cones, tubes, etc.)

Obiectives o f the Process Inspect the yam

Clearing of defects Lubricate the yam Package the yam

6-4 Yam Preparation For Weavlng And Walp Knlfflng




Slub C t h r ace

N n m [ A QLU L r w l U a J



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Tension Dtvicc


Stopped Motion Feeler

Elements of Winding
Yam withdrawal

Yamtensioning Yamclearing Stopmotion Takeup


Figure 8-1 Open Wind Coner


2 ,


8-6 Yam PreparatknFor W e a m And Warp Knlfflng

Yarn Preparation for Weaving



k An operation where yarn is transferred from single packages of

yam to an even sheet of yam representing hundreds of ends and then wound onto a warp beam.

size, and wind configuration.

k The packages in the warper creel must be uniform in density,

B. Tension applied in warping must be uniform throughout.

C. Contact surfaces which the yam passes must be smooth and must not impede the progress of the yam.

D. The speed of the warper must not exceed that at which the yam can be withdrawn from supply packages without undue strain.

E. Warp winding speed must be controlled and maintained at a constant rate throughout. & I
Direct Versus Indirect Warning A. Direct Warping 1 Warp is wound directly onto section beams. . 2. Used predominantly i preparing yam for warp knitting n and weaving.

B. Indirect Warping 1 Warp is wound in bands onto pattem drum and then . transferred onto a beam in a separate operation. 2. Used for fancy pattem warps or where creel capacity is limited.
Yarn Preparation F r Weavlng And Warp KnltHng 8-7 o

Figure 8-2 Single E d Creels n

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Figure 8-3 Traveling Package Creel

New packages placed on inside while the packages on the outside arc being unwound

Yam ReparallonFor Weaving And Warp Knrmng 6-9

Figure 8-4 Indirect Warping: Drum Warper

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13 Obiectives k Strengthen the yam
B. Make outer surface of yam smoother

C. Lubricate the yarn D. Have no effect on subsequent processes or resulting fabric

II. Whv Warp Yarns Need To Be Strendhened

k To overcome tension levels in the warp
1 Constant average tension determined by: . a. rate of take-up of cloth and let-off of warp b. contraction of w r due to crimp ap e. stretch of warp due to tension
2. Cycling variations in tension

a. due to shedding b. due to beat-up c. higher level in dense fabric d. highest tension in cycle is where a weak yam will break 3. Random variations in tension a. due to large, badly shaped knot b. yam and fiber entanglements c. knot tails entangling B. To overcome weaknesses in the yam created by: 1 Yam damage caused by the machine . 2. Weak places i the yam supplied n 3. Inadequate distribution of load over all warp ends 4. Inadequate knotting or joining


Yam Preparation For Weavlng And Warp Knlfflng 8-1 1

III.Sections Of The SZasher

k Beamcreel
B. Sizebox C. Dryingunit

D. Warp separation

E. Headstock

a Size Add-on
_ .

V Factors AffectingSize Add-on . k Yam characteristics

B. Number of ends and tension of warp
C. Squeeze roll control and conditions

D. Residence time of yarn i size box n

E. Viscosity of mix

-ImDortant Inpredients In A Size Mix V. I

k Adhesives
B. Lubricants
C. Additives

D. Water or solvent

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VILParameters ControZZed In The Size Box

A. Level of size solution

B. Temperature
C. Concentration of size liquor

D. Squeeze roller pressure E. Yamspeed VIILNew Sizing Technwues

A. High pressure squeezing

B. Hot melt sizing C. Foam sizing

Ix.SZashing Calculations

Yam PrepaaatlonFor Weaving And Warp Knlfflng 8-13

Figure 8-5 Slashing Preparatory T Weaving o



8-14 Yarn PreparatlonFor Weavlng And Warp K M h Q

Requirements For A Quality Warp Beam

Objective: To Make A 'More Perfect Warm Beam" Ends wound straight and parallel to one another from beginning of beam to the end with each end holding its relative position in the warp with no "Rolled, "Crossed", 'Stuck, or "Lost Ends".
Tension uniform on all ends. Density of the warp is uniform from beginning of beam until fizll beam.

. Selvage ends flat with the rest of the warp.

Size added is uniformly applied on all ends and improves warp weaveability.

Yam Preparatlon For Weavlng And Warp Knlfflng 8-15

Warp Preparation
Drawing-In Provides each warp yam with its drop wire, heddle, and reed dent. Tying-In When m s producing the same fabric by simply typing each end of a as new beam to its corresponding end of the old beam

8-16 Yarn PreparatknFor Weavlng And Warp Knrmng
Yam Preparallon For Weaving And Warp Wfflng 6-17