Sunteți pe pagina 1din 98

Nanen, Johan van

Minor Tibetan texts

PL 3637

M35 v.l
cop. 3

BIBLIOTHEOA INDICA:

POLLECTION OF ORIENTAL
PUBLISHED BY THE

WORKS
M,

ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL.

NEW

SERIES, No. 1426.

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


I.

THE SONG OF THE EASTERN SNOW-MOUNTAIN.


SIR-WILL!

AMJONES
=

BY

cfl

tNTED AT THE BAPTIST

-V

AND PUBLISHED BY THE [ASIATIC SOCIETY, 1, PARK STREET.


1919.

LIST

ASIATIC
No.
1,

(SOCIETY
PARK STREET, CALCUTTA,
AND OBTAINABLE FROM
11,

The Society's Agent MB. BERNARD QUARITCH,

Grafton Street,

New Bond Street, London, W.

Complete copies of those works marked with an asterisk * cannot be supplied


of the Fasciculi being out of stock.

sonic

BIBLIOTHECA INDICA.
Sanskrit Series.
Rs. As. 2 3
1

@ -/10/- each Advaitachinta Kaustubha, Fasc. 1-3 @ -/10/- each Agni Purana (Text), Fasc. 1-14 @ -/10/- each * Aitareya Aranyaka of Rig- Veda (Text), 2-4 @ -/10/- each Aitareya Brahmana, Vol. I, Fasc. 1-5; Vol. II, Fasc. 1-5; Fasc. 1-5, Vol. IV. Fasc. 1-8 @ -/I each.
Avavaidyaka, Fasc. 1-5
'/.

14 12 14

Vol. Ill,
14 2

Aitareyalocana

Amarakosha, Fasc. 1-2

*Anu Bhasyam

(Text), Fasc. 2-5 -/10/- each Anumana Didhiti Prasarini, Fasc. 1-3 -/10/- each *Aphorisms of Sandilya (English), Fasc. 1 l/Astasahasrika PrajnapSrarnita, Fasc. 1-6 -/10/ each Atharvana Upanishads (Text), Fasc. 2-5 -/10/- each Atmatattvaviveka, Fasc. 1-2 Avadana Kalpalata (Sans, and Tibetan), Vol. I, Fasc. 1-13, Vol. II, Fasc. 1-11 I/- each Balam Bhatti,. Vol. I, Fasc. 1-2, Vol. II, Fasc. 1 (& -, 10/- each

2
1 1

8 14
12

@ @ @

2
1

24
1

14

Bauddhastotrasangraha TRaudhayana Srauta Sutra, Fasc. 1-3; Vol. Fasc. 1-2 -/10/- each o-M. Fasc. 5-8 -,10;- each
. .

2
II, Fasc. 1-5;

Vol. Ill,

Bhasavritt Bhatta DIpika, Vol. I, Jjt.,^. i-?,-, v-i 11, Fasc. 1-2 -10- each Bodh'icaryavatara of Qantideva, Fasc. 1-7 Brahma Sutras (English), Fasc. 1 1 Brhaddevata, Fasc. 1-4 -/10/- each Brhaddharma Purana, Fasc. 1 1-6 Qatadusanl, Fasc.- 1-2 - -_/10/Catalogue of
,
'

6 2

4 8
10

@ @

10/- each

5 4
1

>taathaArtflHH^9

Vol.

Vol

14

Jaturvargl^ChintSmani, Vol. II, Fasc. 1-25 Vol. Ill, Part I, Fasc. 1-18, Part II, Fasc. 1-10; Vol. IV, Fasc. 1-6 @-/10/- each Ditto Vol. IV, Fasc. 7 1/4,'- each Ditto Vol. IV, Fasc. 8-10 -/10/*Chandah Sutra (Text), Fasc. 1-3 -/10/- each 1 4 - each Qlokavartika (English j.'E'asc. 1-7 *Cranta Sutra of Apastamba (Tex<-.), Fasc. 2-17 -/10/- each *Qrpnta Sutra of (?ankhayana, Vol. I, Fasc. 1-7; Vol. II, Fasc. 1-4; Vol. Ill, Fasc. 1-4; Vol. IV, Fasc. 1 -/10/- each Cri Bhashyam (Text), Fasc. 1-3 @-/10/- each Cri Cantinatha Charita, Fasc. 1-4 Dana KriyS Kaumndi, Fasc. 1-2 fa -/10 - each ii *Daaa Buna (Tex
;

@ @

@
. .

@
. .

BIBLIOTHECA
A

INDICA:

COLLECTION OF ORIENTAL
PUBLISHED BY THE

WORKS

ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL.

NEW

SERIES, No. 1426.

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


I.

THE SONG OF THE EASTERN SNOW-MOUNTAIN.


SIR-WILL!

AMJONES

MDCCXLVI-MDCCXCIV
BY

JOHAN VAN MANEN.

CALCUTTA

PRINTED AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS, AND PUBLISHED BY THE


ASTATIC SOCIETY, 1, PARK STREET.

1919.

PL

v.

PREFATORY NOTE.
Lewin, in his Manual of Tibetan,' 1879, preface, states Tibet and its language are still comparatively unknown. the familiar tongue of the people, their folk-lore, songs and
'
:

"

ballads are all

this saying, Jaschke, the greatest Tibetan scholar of his time, stated two years later, in 1881, in the preface to the third edition of his Tibetan Dictionary " (To) the student who has for immediate object to learn how to read and write the Tibetan language. existing dictionaries (are) almost if not quite useless." Since Jaschke's third edition, two new Tibetan dictionaries have appeared. Walsh in an article in the J.A.S.B., Vol 72, Pt. 1, n. 2, 1903, reviewing the last one of these, the one by " Sarat Chandra Das, says, p. 78 Although the present Dictionary has fulfilled what it purposed to be, namely, a complete Dictionary of literary Tibetan, so far as our present sources of knowledge go, it does not fulfil the requirements of a standard dictionary of the entire language, and the standard dictionary of the modern and current Tibetan language has yet to be written." Laufer, Roman einer Tibetischen Konigin,' 1911, p. 27 et " We have here to open a road through the jungles, seg., savs unaided and by ourselves we have to work through text after text and note down expressions and idioms as we meet them,"
:

unknown." Far from contradicting

'

etc.

Grunwedel

in

'

Padmasambhava und Verwandtes,'


:

1912,

pp. 9-10, endorses Laufer's remarks and adds about the difficulty " of translating from Tibetan Ignorance regarding the subjectmatter, mistakes and misunderstandings in the text itself, and,
finally,

language, of

explored idiomatic element of the which the history is as yet poorly known, these Of all the dictionaries only Jaschke's are the main shoals .... has really achieved something in the matter of idiom." As a matter of fact the printed materials available for the home student do not at present enable him, if without the help of a native teacher, to translate, accurately and without skipping the difficulties, any modern Tibetan book (not even the so-called Tibetan Primers in use in Darjeeling) if such books do
the
insufficiently

not happen to belong to those excerpted in the existing dictionaries. Jaschke's, which is the best from this point of view, mentions only 25 titles of texts used as his sources. Comparing this with the more than 1000 titles quoted by Skeat as the sources for the material for his Etymological Dictionary of the

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

When the monks meet for sn^QTS"

collective or

communal

tea drinking, the last three words are changed into


'

we

give our offering,' said before drinking the

first

cup

and

whilst sprinkling a few drops in libation with twp fingers, the thumb and fourth finger of the right hand. At the termination of tea drinking nothing is said at all. Except for these changes the formula remains the same for all occasions.

Another pupil of Tson k'a pa was his own nephew Dge hdun grub, about whom further particulars are given in the same passages of the two works cited above, and who may be called the first Dalai Lama, though not known by that title but by that of ftgyal ba, or conqueror. Yet it will be seen from
the above formula that the three
'

who

are together called


his
'^ ne

]"

father

and

sons,'

that
all

is

Tson k'a pa and

two

spiri-

tual sons or pupils, are

three called jSflJ"^*

ex P ress i n

y^q'^T^'
like
'

has no doubt to be understood as a collective word


'

group,'

family,' just like 5|"|"

means

'

parents.'
in praise of his

From

this Ccn'QCS'cnCJ* a small

poem

teachers, the UsJ^'W^J" has

come

to us,

which we now publish.

Of

$Jp$J*^]^'g:*

it is

said that he founded a formal cult of his

teacher Tson k'a pa, and

it may be that his devotional attitude found a reflection in this poem, showing the attitude taken by his own pupil towards him and his two other teachers in his

turn.

This

poem

matter (said to comprise about 150 leaves),

occurs in a miscellaneous collection of religious in a work ^^j*5Tff'

I have not been able to (' Keligious Practice'), leaves 59, 60. see a complete copy of this work. In this edition the text is A small edition, complete in fairly correct and clearly legible. itself, of which I possess two copies (not quite so legible), offers several different readings which nearly all seem quite as good, and some decidedly better, than those of the larger edition. The differences shown by the two texts are, relatively to the size of the poem, so numerous and of such a nature as to preclude the idea 'that mere copying can have led to them. One is led to the conclusion that one of the two texts was produced

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

from memory and not by actual copying. We shall note the variants furnished by the larger edition, marking them B., whilst following for our own text, with one exception, duly noted, the smaller edition A. My. two copies of the smaller edition would seem to be prints from the same blocks but for some difference in the last page. Whether the other pages are printed from the same blocks, whilst only this one last block has been, for one reason or another, renewed (and changed in the process) may be left undiscussed for the moment. Enough to make the general statement that great care should always be exercised before pronouncing Tibetan prints as made or not made from the same blocks, and that, indeed, interesting observations may be made on Tibetan typographical practices.

The

title

cB^"5!^"

is

a very frequent one in Tibet, and

indicates, like 3$?"$!^' ( as

m J- Diet., p.
The

2736, but not as on p.

XXI

a),

a religious miscellany.

particular

^^'2WC' from

which our poem is taken is said to be one of the text-books which the Tashilhunpo tapas are required to learn by heart. The book with the same title which Laufer (Verzeichniss der Tib. Handschr. etc. zu Dresden, Z.D.M.G.. 1901, p. 123, n. As I have 135) mentions, might or might not be the same. not been able to examine the title pages and final pages of the
book,
is

cannot give any further information about


title.

it.

ef^'SJV

the marginal short

Another Gelukpa prayer of almost equal popularity and frequency as those of the one quoted above, is the following which may be used as an alternative to the former one. It is
distinguished from
it

in that in
it.

not the

U^'^JSsJ'ZTj^lJJ*
:

but Tson

a pa alone

is

invoked

It runs

To

the unfathomable great treasury of love, the Looking-One (Chenresi, Avalokiteshvara),

Down-

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

To the immaculate Lord

To
To To

of knowledge, Sweet-voice (Jamyang, Manjughosha), the subduer of the hosts of devils without exception, the Master of Mysteries (Chanadorje, Vajrapani), that crown-jewel of Tibetan sages, Tson k'a pa, the feet of that (or thee, o !) Famous Goodheart
:

(Lozangtakpa, Sumatiklrti) we pray.


,

chief difference between the use of the two prayers is that the latter is more in private use, whilst the former is more favoured in what may be called official meetings and collective acts of worship. The latter prayer is often used in a manner like the mani padme hum formula, and case* in which a devotee vowed to recite this prayer once or more times a 100,000 times are known. The practical purpose of the

The

'

Om

'

latter prayer

was thus defined by a Tibetan


' j

"V
:

eS'

o
(bring, ask for)

To ensure
in
(this present, earthly)
life
:

health,

happiness, absence of

sickness,

and longevity and at the time of death a happy mind and a firm hold on (grasp of) religion The above form of the prayer is the printed one which is used by the monks to read aloud, mechanically and repeatedly.

as a soit of prayer-litany, together with other similar matter. for the benefit of their clients, or also to ensure their own salvation.

It

is

said to occur in a prayer-book called


I

ST^{f|"]"
*9

which

have not seen myself and about which

^}
details.
its final line

have no further

This prayer has also some variations in


the words
JTjrn^J'Cja*
:

(after

according to circumstances.

This line

ends, when

Opening a ceremony
Closing

Before tea
After
,,

or
(3pj'flj'(

nothing at

all is said.

It is interesting to note that one of my informants interprets the above formula as indicating that Tson k'a pa is the

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

simultaneous incarnation of Avalokiteshvara, Manjughosha and Vajrapani, and that these persons invoked in the prayer are not referred to as a consecutive series of separate entities, but as all embodied in the one Tson k'a pa. My informant was very insistent about it that this is the general and orthodox The other two names of Tson interpretation of this prayer.
k'a

pa are

Q'^q-r and
My

closing verse of our poem is also a prayer to Tson k'a also in use elsewhere than in connection with the inpresent booklet and occurs elsewhere in print as well. formant ascribes it to Gendundub himself and thinks that its wider use has spread from this booklet, though he cannot
pa.
It
is

The

definitely assure that Gendundub himself did not appropriate it for the closing lines of his poem, taking an already current prayer to Tson k'a pa. The latter theory is plausible inasmuch as the last verse is seven-footed as against the eight-footed lines of the rest of the poem. Anyhow, the statement that this prayer also refers to Tson k'a pa alone, and is as such used and

understood by
UsJ^'M^J'CnwjJ*

all

Gelukpa monks,
which case

settles a
it is

doubt we might

otherwise entertain as to whether


in

not addressed to the

its final line

would have to be

translated in the plural. As to the edition, in the original the verses are not marked The small edition has no they are evidently four-lined. divisions at all, except marking the lines, but the larger edition
;

has in addition a

JftJ'3^^f

snake head) after

lines

16

and

48. In my own text and translation I have by typographical disposition and by the introduction of title headings indicated my conception of the clever and very logical inner structure of the poem. The text is followed by a short discussion of the variants in it, next by a translation, and then, my main business, by a full lexicographical discussion, in alphabetical order. This embodies in the first place all the new material, supplementing, amplifying, modifying, or even only questioning, the data in Jaschke's Dictionary. 3rd edition. For this Dictionary is, ag far as lexicographical method is concerned, still superior to all other, even subsequent, Tibetan dictionaries, however much valuable and additional matter may be contained in the two latter. Jaschke's dictionary is as yet the proper starting point In this glossary I have for all future lexicographical research. also drawn special attention to contradictions in these three current dictionaries, those of Jaschke, Desgodins and Sarat

Chandra Das, even to such points for which I myself have not been able to suggest a solution or about which I could not bring

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

new

For the good of future lexicographical work in material. the Tibetan field, it is very necessary to point out as many as possible of the numerous existing discrepancies and uncertainties (especially relating to finer shades of discrimination and precision) so as to focus the attention of investigators on them. It is unavoidable that most of this work can only be suitably undertaken on the spot in consultation with educated, intelligent Tibetans, and not in European closets. The number of those in a position to undertake such research will, for a long time to come, remain limited enough. As indicated in the subessay my own main object in writing it is primarily a lexicographical one. For this reason I have also incorporated in my glossary notes on side-issues and all sorts of incidental idiomatic catches which cropped up in the discussion of our text, though not immediately connected with the poem itself. As it seemed the handiest way to present all the results of
title of this
'
'

investigation I have also embodied all commentatorial matter, the philological notes as distinct from the lexicographical ones, under the same alphabet. The few syntactical remarks have also been wedged in in this list, though in their case the Stichwort had to be chosen more or less at haphazard. In the matter of oral information and illustrative examples embodied in this paper, my authorities are nearly exclusively my two Tibetan teachers Skarma Bsam Gtan Paul and P'un Ts'ogs Lung Rtogs. The first is a native of Ghoom, though of pure Tibetan extraction (K'ams). He has resided for nearly a year in Lhasa, for another 3 months in TashiIhunpo (where he was Tibetan interpreter between the Tashi Lama and Capt. R. Steen. I M.S.), and for 4 years in Gyangtse. The second is a native of Lhasa, where he resided till his 18th year, after which he spent 3 years in Tashilhunpo as a tapa. Then he wandered for 12 years through Tibet, Sikkhim and Nepal, after which he settled in Ghoom since about 1914. Until recently he was there schoolmaster (dge rgan) in the local

my

'

'

Tibetan monastery.
in long,

intelligent men have given me the greatest help patient and painstaking discussions concerning the lexicographical and other problems presented by this present text, as well as by several others, which I hope I will be able to publish and discuss from time to time in the future.

Both these

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


B.

TEXT.

y T

^v^viv^<f v*r V
V>

2 3

ii

5 6
7

in

10

12

II

IV

13

1.

? *T

1.
;

B *

1.

and 2

q*'
;

1.

B C*

1.

10

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


15

17

^^^gc'^q'c-q'^q^
^>

||

is

19

20

vi

21

^-qara^-q^-oq-^-jc:22 23

1|

24

III

vil 25
26
27

28

VIII 29
30

1.

16

and 2 both tr.


instead of
;
||
;

Text from
17

B
18

1.

16
'

B
1.
1.
;

closes the

line
1.

with a

^
;

1.

M.-

1.

20

2 q*-

1.

22

B P'

1.

24

and 2
.

19

B 24 B

1.

26

B^'

1.

29

1.

29

2 S}^

MINOR TIBETAN
31

TEXl'S.

32

IX

33 34 35 36

<W

IV

37

38 39

40

XI

41

-ci*

||

42 43

44

XII 45
46

1.

32

$*'
1.
;

1.

32

^
;
;

1.
;

1
I.

and 2
41

*w
^*J'
in
;

38

1.

B **>\ 42 B **r
'

1.

1.

words

q^-oTtVs'*
in

1.

45

B qj 40 B 3 r tffr 43 B A 1 and B 534


;

1.

35

m
B B

1.

37

A
;

instead of flj^-q1.

44

last three

].

45

1.

46

last four

words

10

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


47

48

XIII 49
50
51

VI

xiv 53'
54 55 56

C.

THE VARIANTS.

The
cal

two small blockprints, nearly identiand a large blockprint B. On the whole A furnishes a good text and it may be used
texts used were
1

and

2,

as the basis for the edition.

Two

curious cases of the use of


of the

q* for

J*

(7.

45)

seem more than mere negligence


48 49

wood-

1.

47

g||

1. 1.

line instead of

A B

2 **'

and has a

final N- to

B has Sf at the end of the Colophon, A 2 has no *V after B has a different colophon *|^*
.

1.

48

>

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


cutter in connection with the badly printed CJQ
in
1.

11

13 (which

looks also like J^Q


there
is

and

also a

J*

like

^*

in

1.

23.

Inversely
J^* in
1.

a clear

J'

5|J2^

in

1.

37 and a 2J^* for

48.

2 twice lacks the hook in g" (20. 24)

and the naro

in lines

into a single one in A 2) the from the same blocks.

These two latter variants may be due to deterioration 29, 47. in the blocks or the roughness of the paper, or defective ink2 are practically identical, and Otherwise A 1 and ing. 1 are condensed except for the last pages (the last two of

two copies may have been printed


*

In 5

writes iSJ^'CJQ.* for

JQ

as authorised

by the Diets.

But the question of final particles is still far from being satisThe Diets, are on the whole much at variance factorily settled. on this point. Desg. gives as a rule a greater variety of them
than
J.

Some

by the two copies


5Jcn* is the

differences in the tenses of the verb are presented of on one side and B on the other. In 1. 2

present tense as against the past form ^Sl

in

A.

As to the sense both would do, and though the past form in Tibetan is better rendered in English by the present we may understand the past form as has begun to rise.' In verse XI B gives imp. forms, making the sense one of command whereas
'

A
in

has present forms giving a mere statement.


$J|$1*

The

final $J"

however,

is

not recorded in the

Dicts.V nor

the

form

5jt$|*'

SjflJ*

however,
35
is

is

a regularly recognised imp. form.

QraCT^s]' in

1.

a correct past tense.

The form

Pj^H"

(without an

initial

Q"

as in

is

not recorded, though ClpWl"

present, might do equally well.

QkR^T
initial

1-

32,

is

not authorized

by the Diets, which


of Qy<Si* for

all

omit the
seems

Q'

The substitution
sufficient

^K"

(38)

to

lack

urgency,

12
J.

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


records a
to listen to

though

fteEiSv'^&'q'
1.

an explanation

'

from Sch.
.5JQ" of B,

Q.5JC*
J.

29, is correct according to the Diets., not


S.

though

and

Ch. D. give the alternative spelling.

In the treatment of grammatical particles


B.

is

superior to

q^*

(10)

is

correct, not q* B.

It

is

an adverbial construcso.

tion.

In 18,

q^* j and

22,

q^' '

equally

In 24

q^'

is

terminative dependent on qcflC'q'

The remaining variants are


for or against

all in

the nature of equivalents

which nothing (or the same !) .can be said, and which would do as well as the readings we have adopted. Many of them are, however, curious for this reason, that they are not homonymous variants at all and consequently substitutions for, not corruptions of, the text. We have to leave the question alone whether those in A or in B are likely to be
the original ones.

In

7,

C&'q*^* ) very ^N
I

kind,

is

as good as practically

^dTq*^* very
the

15

precious; in 17
*

^^"flsT^^T means
this

same

as

'from
'

moment', and 'from


'

this very day.'

In 19

m*"^*
'

in

another

seems even a

trifle

better than

'5&'
in

from another.'

5]$J"
'

seems better in 32 than


to perform,'
in
J.

B,

'

even, indeed!'.
'

^^*T

34,

is

as

good as ^gjq*q* also


S3

to perform, accomplish,'
if
'

and the future


pf.

form

of the latter

would be better
In
1.

changed into a

form

qiq$J*

or pr. ^iq*

40 cn^'q*
'

the sending, throwing,'

seems as good as a^*q(o!<5*

(as silly) as the conveying.'


<J$]" B.
^^"-

In

41 the article q* means the same as plural


^S* ~
I"
'

In 44,
^

egotism, selfishness.'

is

substituted for

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


'
'

13

sin

similarly in 45

and 49 mX*
>^

all,'

for

'

J- &J$J'

many.'
in 46,
is

Lastly, the difficult construction

SJC'^J'SJ'Q^C"^^'
>9
'

replaced in

B by

the easier

2JC"I^*<5Tq5'J^*
'

not allowing
'

(letting, making) it [the soul] (to) fall remain fallen when once it has done so.'

instead of

letting

it

All these examples seem to point out that one of prints (probably the larger one) was derived from which was not actually copied from the original written down from memory. The variants are no

the block a version but rather cutting or


'"Hf^'

copying mistakes except

E;$J*$f*

and C^J'^f

1.

16,

and

Cv

In

1.

26 we find an erroneous $.' for (3^'


at the end of lines 16 and 48 in

The two ^

(or rather

at the beginning of the following lines, for that is where they must be put if the Tibetan text is printed line for line like English verse) do not agree with my conception of the structure of the poem as indicated by my typographical arrangement of I would not have expected a ^ after line 16 but after lines it. 12. 24, 36 and 48. The occurrence of the sign after line 48 may, however, be taken to indicate that the next two verses have to be regarded as appendices to the body of the poem

proper.
It

must be mentioned that


word
is

in

the

title,

in

both copies of

A., the final

^(3tf3$I*

In B.. as the
is

poem
title.

occurs in
I

the body of the volume, there


written

no equivalent

have

^ZT2^"^J* without prejudice to the question whether

the form
before a

^acn^*
>*
11

is

legitimate or not.

My

teachers say that

the

^sj*

is

required.

The only reading taken from


prehensible
2^* of

is

$!' for

the incom-

and

2, in line 16.

It may be, finally, remarked that the three copies from which this edition was prepared, show once more that textual

14

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

correctness and perfection of typographical execution are not The two small prints which are, necessarily related in Tibet. but for the single omission of a dengbu in line 16, quite correct, are small, badly printed on bad paper, and not carefully or neatly cut. The larger copy is neat, well printed on good paper, very legible, but not nearly so satisfactory as a text.

D.

TRANSLATION.
Eastern

The Song

of

the.

Snow Mountain.

OBEISANCE TO THE TEACHER.


T.

(His TEACHERS).
1.

On

the peak of the white snow mountain in the East white cloud seems to be rising towards the sky. At the instant of beholding it I remember my teacher And, pondering over his kindness, faith stirs in me.

2.

To the East

of where that cloud is floating, In that entirely victorious Virtue Solitude, There resided the precious ones, difficult to be invoked, Father Famous Goodheart, the Sire with (his two spiritual) sons.

3.

The yoga and other


the road

(teachings) of the

two stages

of

Relating to the profound Doctrine, they preached most


fully.

To the pious Your grace,


II.

of

protectors,

snowy Tibet was

ineffable.

(HIMSELF).
4.

Especially that this ease-loving Clergy-Perfection Has turned his mind a little towards the Doctrine Is (thanks to) the kindness of these noble father and sons. Truly your kindness is great, O father and sons.

5.

From now onward

till (I reach) the heart of saintship. Whilst, except in you, noble father and sons, I will not place my hope for protection in anyone else, I pray you to drag me along with your mercy-hook.

-6.

Though
I

I cannot repay you in proportion to whatever your favours have been, pray that, with my soul not enslaved by attraction

or repulsion,

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


I may hold fast to your teaching, And may always put my best energy

15
protectors, into the endeavour.

III.

(His CONTEMPORARIES).

7.

However, nowadays, in this snow mountain solitude, (There are those who) whilst promising to follow the
teaching themselves,

Regard others, who (equally) follow the teaching, as


their veriest enemies.

Such conduce
8.

calls forth the

deepest sorrow.

With thoughts wishing the ruin of others And with souls fettered by fierce ambition, They nevertheless promise to dwell on the high road. If we consider this (carefully) it is a matter of shame
for all concerned.

9.

These malignant beings, Angry because they find themselves

in their old age in the wrong road, And raging from the bottom of their hearts Against those persons who have (duly) acted conform to the Doctrine, Has not a demon entered their minds ?

IV. (His PUPILS). 10. Not to take steps to conquer the enemy, sin, But yet after mere reproach to flare up in reply,

That

is

as silly as,
evil spirit is at the

When an
To throw
11.

Eastern door, the ransom towards the Western door.

Those virtue-friends who understand that this is so, Think of all embodied beings in general with kindness, But saintly thoughts especially of all who devote
themselves to the Doctrine.

And
12.

they subdue the enemy residing within,

sin.

0. my followers and friends, Whilst not letting your souls remain fallen after a lapse But whilst examining (yourselves constantly) whether your minds keep to righteousness, To remain on the straight road, that surely is good.

V.

(FINAL PRAYER).
13.

May

all those who believe in these words, With a mind bent on the, clra\\ inu on of means of love and me ivy.

all

beings

by

16

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


Through the
(direct) vision

of the actionless state

of

(pure) knowledge. Speedily obtain (that) glorious,

supreme saintship.

VI.
14.

(FINAL BLESSING). He, whose body blazes with the marks and beauties (as of a Buddha), Whose speech is adorned with the sixty branches of
melody,

Whose deep and wide mind,

indeed, is a treasury of omniscient love, May that glorious teacher's blessing be on us.

The above was composed by the Great Omniscient Clergy Perfection Good-Glory as a song in loving memory.

Blessing,

E.

GLOSSARY AND NOTES.


and Material.)

(Lexicographical, Syntactical
see
rn*
"

>0

so to all
'

muc h

'

a natter

shame

= all the people who look at or into the matter, the ( beholders, the general public, or even humanity in general), but rather a matter of all (of them) being ashamed,' i.e. the people doing the shameful acts, the people concerned, engaged in this conduct, not the public in general.
'

"s!C*
welling).
sin,' p. 86,

29.

Here thought, conception, wish


i.e.

(cf.

D. op

(Desg. 'all-enveloping,'

'natural corruption orl

but

^*'||r'=T*^c;*qr|E'
See also
S.

'excitement of pas-

sion' on p. 1044a).
Schroeter, p. 26. proposition.'
see
'

Ch. D., p. 296, ^JPEf^, but

approbation, assent, the consenting to

any

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


*

17

30.

Here equal

to

U\T<?"<3k'ys|C*

'yet,

however,

nevertheless.'
HI"

20.

Not

as a separate

word

in J.,
is

who

gives rn 7T
S9

and

X3

m*^* the
the

latter after

Schmidt.

This

the word occurring in


'

compound (a^J^'ny the Tibetan w-vowel, the

foot-hook

'

(not merely honorific of TJ* as


N3

Hannah seems
p. 4),

to suggest in his
J.

Grammar
(3^2^*

of the
p.
'

Tibetan Language,

which

has under

on

472a, together with a queried meaning 'spur'


ein Sporn'), taken
to

(of the foot:

from Csoma.

This latter

meaning
S3

is

unknown
ftvyjcn'

my

informants.

Bell gives: book-

men*, fishhook

but iron hook


S3

ajqi^vrj' *
>J>

Henderson gives.

both nsTT and m' for hook, and also alone for iron i^^j^'^]"
<O

>O

X3

hook.

My
TjZjy S9

informants deny the


( J' )

correctness of Ren*

Desg.

knows
rn* as

only as a verb, not as a subst.

he mentions

a separate word, subst. hook, and does not mention

N3

rryq*

The various

articles in the
is

three Diets, sub

pen*

are

interesting but the


S.

meaning hook
'

not given in any of them.


a pointed iron hook, a

Ch. D. translates HVCJ' with

^IFU,

large

pin to pierce with,' whilst Macdonell in his Sk. diet,

translates the Sk.

word as
\

'

hook, goad, stimulus, remedy.'

(See below

s.

v.

Q^<?'J*

J.

under rn^T gives also ajcn^j'TpTT

an iron hook, and ft'TI^T a fishing hook, but


N3

my informants

say
\

that the colloquial for fish hook

is

rather

ft'a^'O^Q*

(or CJ3/

l^l^J'^r
N
(to

or

s*

mply ^*Q,<3J*

(pr.

nyendzin), just as a meat hook


(pr.

hang up meat
3

on)' is Nn'O^<3:*

shendzin).

The

U^* in

18

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

the above represents the pronunciation of the more illiterate


people.

One
HI*

of

my

informants
iron

is,

however, of opinion that


at
all,

does not

mean an
it
it

hook

but hook in general


copper, gold.
o^

^
even though
might be made of
silver,

etc.

He compares
neccessarily
called
'

with the word wall,


of iron,

ijLJCT]^'^*

which

is

not

made

and though

of stone or earth

is still

iron-mountain.'
/

Women's ornaments such


pr.

as earrings,

chains, or necklaces

*y*QTC*

kenthang, not in the Diets.

or Bell.
left

As a

colloquial

word the dengbu might perhaps be


golden or silver hooks,

out in writing)
r

may have

S^'^'"
has a very

Exam P le:

or cjr
>0

this

woman

fine

necklace which has four


Schroeter's diet., p. 3616,

golden and silver hooks

(or clasps).

already gives '^Wl^'^" as Aoofc only.


in the sense of mineral, given

The expression

by Desg., 307a, would make us

think that 'Sl^'fT" might perhaps


NP

mean metal hook, but


Under

see

below.

S. Ch.

D. adds to the confusion.

I^Tl^r" he

gives: (1) iron pin to guide and punish elephants; fish-hook;


(2)

name

of a plant.

(His next entry seems improbable, elephant


driver
for

driving and elephant

one and the same word).


as 'iron hook, an angle, a
'

But under

rn*

he defines
J.
ha-?

'sHST*
X3

>O

fishing-hook.'

^^n^l'^l*
S3

under ojcn^J* and gives


;

an

iron hook, esp. fishing-hook, angle


^w"'

often

fig.'

and
'

in his illus-

CV

tration he translates

cB^'T]*ST^|'T]" simply as

hook of grace/

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

19

He marks the word as belonging to the book language. It is curious to note that Schlagintweit in his Rgyal-rabs (title, or
introductory verse) translates the word
'SJ
:

712M'* with

'

eisernen

(p. 25), whilst Schiefner renders the same word corHacken alone. But in his new rectly on the next page by translation of the Rgyal-rabs, H. A. Franc ke (J.P.A S.B., Vol. VI, 11. 8, p. 397) writes again Iron Hook.'

Hackeii

'

'

'

'

There

is still

another compound with

rn*

namely

JJ3^'^y
sa

NP

the name for a component part of the elaborate torma cake It indicates a small piece of dough in the form of structure. the top of the thumb. From all these examples it might be

hazarded that the element


or
'

HTJ*

^ ^o

means primarily curve, curved


like
'

'

'

curvature,'
like.

and has no substantial meaning


teachers, however, think that TJ" *&
>s

hook

'

or the

My
'

by

itself is

a substantive

hook.' So it is not clear whether J. is right as against the other Diets, in not entering the word separately. The above discussion is in any case better entered under the

word

rn'

whether this

is

really

an independent word or not.


|7J*

The

x fact that S. Ch. D. gives a Sk. equivalent for


its

alone,

N3

pleads for

separate existence.

My

teachers opine that TJ" as a separate word


N9
-i&

may

occur

alone, but their nearest approach to framing a sentence illus-

trating such a use

was one

in

which they spoke of a wooden


fish or

hook (made by a jungleman to

hunt with) as ^C^qi*

wen^'m*
>0

or

more

briefly

3'[T]' *
N

So the example was not

decisive.

Additional Note

Cf. the

example
golden
'

in Csonia's

Grammar,
lit.
:

p 109
'

qi^^''WOT^'r

fetters

or

chains,

golden iron ropes. See also Ramsay Western Tibet ', p. 62 To hook ngiakuk tang ches, properly applicable only to a fish caught with a hook, but also used generally', and Hook ngiakuk (fish hook), kuk kuk (a hook of any kind.. ,.'
: :

'

20

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


Query
:

Is the use of 'sWl^T

merely conventional
(Bell,

in sev-

eral words, as in

"s^^TF]'

ca g e

Walsh

'

Tromowa
use of
Of.

Dialect

'),

etc.? ajqixj '3T (iron) bridge,

And

is

the

J*

perhaps analogous to that of honorific prefixes


guilder (gulden)

the
its

Dutch

which

is

made

of silver,

though

name

is

derived from

'

gold.'

TTCJ* see TJ*

7.

Difficult,
'

but here rather with some of the


' '

of the English hard (hard lines ?), the French dur ', perhaps L. arduus.' The meaning is somewhat that the invocation should not be undertaken lightly (God's name should not be spoken 'in vain'). Conceptions like: grave, serious > weighty, not lighthearted, or commonplace, or flippant, suggest

meaning

themselves here.
teachers.

It

is

'

a serious matter

'

to

invoke these

qTO'Es'^jSJ^-qwards, or about
^flJ'ST^"
/fl|'
\

42.

To think with kindness

of or to-

11'

We

have taken

this

word

in the general

by J. the pious,' though it may equally well be rendered by the fortunate ones,' i.e. those who were fortunate enough to hear Tson k'a pa's preaching or that of his two pupils.
sense given
'

One

of

my informants

suggests, however, that


' '

^TS!'
'

should

here be taken more literally as sharers '. share-havers in Tson k'a pa's message and consequently should here be understood as his followers.'
'

see
N9

see

5*
X5

2^$!"^*j$|*

19.

May

either be
'

taken as two separate


'

protection and hope or as a compound hope for proMore accurately the spot (place = protection-hope.' persons in this case) in whom I place my hope for protection, to whom I resort or go, in whom I trust, for protection, (cf. D. heul, toeverlaat).
' '

words

tection,'

MINOR TIBETAN" TEXTS.


'SI* *ee

21

Sims-XT

*JT*T

4.

This

is

an

illustration of the

meaning
'

of

^3'^"

under

J.'s

4th sub-heading, 1st division.


'

Js'^J'S^J'
'

faith has
'

been born,' but here rather


strong,' or
'

becomes

active,'

sprouts.'

waxes

grows, flames up, intensifies, awakens, arises, stirs.' The idea is not, as in a case of Christian conversion, of a state of previously non-existent faith, suddenly arising, but of an
existing faith

becoming strongly energised, leaping up ('an


').

outburst of faith
translated

The

colloquial CST'q'SJ^J* can be suitably

by
(

'

to inspire faith to.'


\

For instance ,3'5T(V\'fcr

^V^J'rr^'^*
faith.

{'

1 lama inspires Q^N ^" that

me

with (no)
'

-O

_^

A
'

free translation of 5^!*C|*'^"


in,'
is
'

is

consequently

to

have faith renewed


'

but in our passage the additional meaning of


'

up

my

implied. Therefore we may also render they call faith or renewed faith comes up in me.' See the use of
'

this expression in the Tibetan

Primer

Til, p. 7,

1.

8.

C'

(read

Then

he, recognising that the king was very good, and having gained faith in him, and having prostrated himself numberless
(i.e.

times, (asked) how can I request given by the king.


'

take, accept) such (gifts)

see

50.

To

generate,

the

generation,

production.
'

'

that which has been produced in the soul.'


;

the

(completed) productions of the soul'

with CC" = ^'ith


of,

' :

with

thoughts

of,

assuming, observing an attitude


.

with a mental

attitude of or disposition to)

22

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


^C'
\

CJQ *SsJ$J$J"^S^"

is

one elaborate substantive, a

'

the-

beings-with kindness-having-drawn-soul-disposition.'
i-Trr
3J
i
it

28.

Here not

in J.'s sense

'to be weary,' but as

Desg. and S. Ch. D. have


'

'sadness, grief, sorrow/ or adj.


it

sad

',

etc.

In seeing a half -naked beggar,

may

be said

Here the word


'

is

adjective

that

unhappy (unfortunate. wretched, miserable) man


r

has not even a coat.'

sqmjqr
O

(Bell)

= J.

^m'cf =sn^pB|qj'=:
>>S

= ^'J'

Desg.

<-5'J*

coa t> garment, dress; not alone -man's


J. s.v.
<3&*CJ*

coat,' as J.

has

it,

but for both sexes


in

S'CJ"

and

,"]* both missing


golak and golak.
coat
'
'

8 Ch. D.

cn^j'ajcn"

is

pronounced both
s.v.

Walsh, Vocabulary Tromowa Dialect,

go

and

'

golag.'

My teachers do
S0

not know a word


overcoat.

STSTl'i]"

o
for coat in Tibetan.

Desg. has a ?cn$J*CJ"


'

S.

Ch.

D.

^TTCJ
S9

or

S^'^T
<O

coa * or g arm ent patched up and

mended.']

see
'

Tj"

SP

"

45.

followers

and

friends (cf. citizens and compatriots), i.e. followers who are also friends the same people under two qualifications, not two different groups of people, the friends and the followers. See

my

ff

see

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


roe* 18, ror* 12, 23.

23

The

difference in

form

is

not acci-

dental.

S^^'RS*

*s

a stereotyped Ojq*f^cn^]*
1.

manner of

speech, expression.

y^'^JJJfJ'pC

18,

is

a normal honorific
of intimacy,

form.

The form

rasr*

was described to me as one

from familiarity and lack of This seems an almost exact parallel to the use of respect. (thou), tu, du in (English), French and German in addressing
of utter confidence, as distinct

parents. God, and relations.

The following example was


a
little ritual

given,

a quotation from the

a^'g^r'^jn 'cg'cn*

geluk-

pa book,
^psJ'Sr*w

leaf
'

12a

<
:

^^iJT^"5p^T@^^

|p?6\'

C\^

As thou
.
.

art omr lama, our yi-dam, our dakinl,

our dharmapala
wise,
(to

.'

(prayer addressed to Tson k'a pa).

Like-

in

the

little

prayerbook

^"^<5"
(e.g.
"*s

Tara)

we
**..

find a

few cases of roC'

5b)

amidst

many

cases of
first

roff"

In the term

*,'^*5J^**[^C'

the hon. form of the

two

syllables of course determines the hon.


'

form of the
'

last.

The

intimate

'

form

was further described as the

language of religious transport, ardour, fervour,


see

32.

According to the Diets, 'to be ashamed.'

Desg. and
his third

S. Ch. D. do not support J.'s meaning 'piety' and meaning 'disgust, aversion.' My oral information

rejects these second

and third meanings, yet


'

see below.

CV
is

^
for)
i.e.

*TH' CTJ$"'

raoj'qa "qi* freely translated


s

a matter of (cause

shame
should

to

'

all,'

literally

a-by-all-shame-feeling-cause,'

all

ashamed. The shame, it should be understood, must be felt, not by all who behold the bad behaviour, but by all who
feel

24
are guilty of
it.

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

The exact meaning

of the root

3QJ' from

which the verb is derived is not 3^et satisfactorily dealt with in the Diets, which are supplementary as well as contradictory in their data.

The compounds exhibit a great variety of


That
of
'

shades of meaning.

raoj'^l^'

for instance,

may perhaps

cover so wide a range as shameless, impudent, self-willed. stubborn, stiff-necked, arrogant, insolent, ungrateful, loveless, Some of the heartless, harsh, cruel, wanton, ruchslos, frech.'

compounds and
also

applications clearly indicate

that rnQJ* must


it

mean
'

'

sexual

modesty, chastity,' others that

must

mean

bashfulness. shyness, timidity' (in this sense

brazen, forward, unabashed, saucy, bold,

audacious
'

').

seems to come very near to the D.


'diffidence' than
'

schroom

which
in

is

more

'

scruple, '-but ra(SJ"J5*


'

may
'

some cases
'

comes near

or without a conscience.' In this sense itimpious.' The German subst. Scheu may be It is also averred that in certain combinations a also compared.
'

mean unscrupulous
to
'

positive statement with raOJ'JJC*

is

practically identical with


!

the English exclamation

how

dare you

how can you

A
in

compound,

difficult to define exactly, is

RflJ'^QC'^^"
x

which

qA

has the meaning, not given in the Diets, of

straight, straightforward, honest, fcrue, dependable, the French droit' (c/. rectitude). The whole expression may mean
'

abandoned,' or simply JZJOJ'3^*

Example
of

^ ^

PW^ftC'Sfc*
abandoned

-v

Cv ~*f -v

^~

-v

-v
'

the lives

these

(shameless, etc.)

men

are useless.'

An

old sweetheart
'

who has

cast off her lover

may

be called RftTfiC'&K"

the brazen,

perfidious

girl.'

in this sense as equal to Desg. gives ^(SjC*

^3C* }
4

'

good. Just, generous.'

This

may

be Schmidt's

sincere, orderly.'

In the sentence

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


*^*v"

25
parents kindness

'to render your

in this

way shows a lack of gratitude,' word as 'ungrateful, loveless, harsh.'


As
(see

my

teachers explain the

far as

the further meanings of

R^T

as given in J.

above), are concerned, P'un Ts'ogs


J'x$3r

maintains that
denies
it,

JZ3QJ*

'pious/ but
ra(^'(AJ^Z]*

Karma

and

the former also states that

= (3<S'J'Cllcn'J*
'

which

latter expression Desg. and S. Ch. D. know as to be disgusted with.' But J. and the others render the former expression

with

raQJ'

as 'chaste' or

'

modest/ or as to be

'

chaste,' etc.

Both
*

of

my

teachers are at one about the expression


-v
c*-

to be weary, tired, sick


I

of.'

Examples
/

fy*,;S5$|*Q5

^]*

am

tired of this food.

^J'cB^J*

P r tobche,
-

see

Hender-

son's Manual, Voc., p 48, s.v. food


'

there written
of

fJBJ"3y$T

have got tired

this man.'

The

sentence

'''d
:

''

was ex-

plained to me as Having understood the doctrine, and having been delivered (saved), I am now weary of the world, have renounced the world, know the world for vanity, have turned

away from it.

For

J.'s

'

[raj'STUs*

scornful laughter', the syno'

nym

raflj'^qir*

was given to me, as well as the explanation a


feel

laugh to make the other


small.'

ashamed,'

'

to

make another

feel

We may

therefore think of ironic, sarcastic, malicious

laughter, or of derision

and Schadenfreude.

R^'^Vz^'^T,
make
a very striking
the word

to laugh at another, at the expense

of another, in order to

him

ridiculous.

This

word
JEjOJ*

furnishes

test of the present state of Tibetan lexicography,


will furnish another.

26

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


For words
like these a

tic illustrations is

comprehensive collection of authenimperative before finer shades and the exact


**^ _?
.'<&'

range of meanings can be fixed,


as 'shame,' a

commonly

translated

synonym
^^^
s\C
' :
l

for

[ZpJ*

is

a similarh7 uncertain word.


S.
:

Compare the
*x

translations in J.
+
**s,
1

and
J-

Ch. D. of this same

sentence

FpJ'q*
Ch. D.
see

"'eS'q'I R*

'he has no shame nor

dread

';

S.

he has no shame or modesty.'

's"
-see

see

0^*3'

WSajsee

qi
see

o*

zp-q-

and

g^ra^'qy*
'
:

55.

J.'s

queried 3^J53J'q"

quoted from Gyal-

rabs prob. omniscient-merciful,' cannot with any certainty be decided from this passage.
:

Desg. has
i.e.

'

jqil^'qg^ jqqi^'^'=
'

knowledge of the heart,

pity, mercy.'
S.

Ch. D.

omniscient mercy.'

According to
here,

my

teachers these are two different words


;

knowledge and mercy


^J^'CJ*
to

not a compound,

S^R*^]'

^8

here

hon. form of

know.
Desg.
',

But a
has a
S.

subst.

5|ra<5* is

not

recorded in the Diets.


^cn'CJ

35JPJ<3J'CI"

science,

knowledge

and

Ch. D. also gives

as 'knowledge'

In compounds

JP]3\*

has usually the verbal

value of

'

knowing.*'

The

entries s.v. SJRdJ' in the Diets, need


close study.

careful comparison

and deserve

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


g

27

often used in an emphatic sense to

know

all,

to

know through aad


(as, for
cf.

through, to

knowledge
distance),

instance, to
:

know with supernatural know what happens from a


sensible.

the English adj. 'knowing.'


of

The shades

careful, cautious, clever,


35-

meaning wise, learned, intelligent, need further analysis.

The value

of this

word

is

clear

from the

but there is a difficulty in choosing suitable English words to fit each case in rendering. Such words as the follow ing may be found useful under various circumstances to be
Diets.,
:

disturbed, upset, disordered (cf. disordered brain), unbalanced, deranged, convulsed, in turmoiL tumultuous (a soul in tumult), in revolt, turbulent, wild, in uproar, in tho throes of seething,
(passion, etc).

And even
easy, idiomatic
'

so

none

of the

above expressions furnishes an


for

and

close rendering

ft^'pC'^^'O^

the

man whose
'

very character

is

an utter chaos.

ara
i.e.

21.

Ordinarily to carry, but hereto carry back.

to repay, render, return.

Example

5J*

5JQ *ff <?'

GR^* ^^T]^"

You must render


primarily

your parents their kindness.


'

The verb QEQJ*^'


see J. s.v. 4.

to weigh

';

is

equally so used

For the above exC- CV

ample the word OH* would

ordinaril}''

be inserted, 5J'5^a'5<5*

but this would lessen the force of the illustration 'U for our purpose as aj<S' means here return,' and
'

kindness in return.'
three

The above sentence can be expressed


(with

in

ways

5f

|Q*^<3j*

or

without OH*

^R^*

or
(

'g^'

title.

Mother Snow Mountain.


ZJ1*

The

affixes to

are according to J. ^" and

Desg. adds C*

S.

Ch.

28
-\,

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


-v^

D. only q*;

Bell

and Henderson no

affix.

Of these q*

gives

a definite sense of greatness to the mountain.

(See S. Ch. D.,


is

Grammar. Introduction,

p.

18).

Here the

particle 5J"

not

an inherent part of the substantive, but is added to give a feminine sense to the word, which here means something like Mother Mountain,' the big mountain being as it were the mother of all smaller hills and heights around it. My informants were definitely of opinion that, here, Mother Mountain and not Lady Mountain was meant. So we should not understand the expression as Her Majesty or Ladyship the Snow Mountain.' The meaning though grammatically import' '

'

'

'

'

ant remains better neglected in the 'translation.


OvC^ "v

^
25.

STjC^r^A'ra^'Q^'dj"
CV. "V
-

In this

snow-mountain-mass,
Cv X^'

i.e.
**'"

monastery.
CV

-^"P]^*
v

as monastery in J. s.v.
'

but not

s.v.

Bell has
JZ35T

^'PR'

as

cell (of hermit).'

own monastery

Here the expression seems rather to indicate Gendundub's (be it Daipung, Tashilhunpo or Namgj^alchode) than Galdan, spoken of in the second verse. See Schulemann,
fll.

Gesch. der Dailalamas. pp. 92


*

See

(^^cn*

and

see

^nr
J.

33.

Qcna^'^J*

error,

mistake.

In

Desg.

or

Cnq'qo^qu^
'

solitary spot (s.v. Q^cfq*

and
^

(s.v.

cnij"

has lost his

way '; and

also

to put apart
(route detournee).

(^qp4*QJ5^"

a separate road a side road


;

According to Desg. only the past form of

Q^TICH*^*

i.e.

ZTjfl]*^*

means
S.

to

have erred, gone astray, both


J.,
:

physically and morally.


Q^TjQl'^J^

Ch. D. copies

but adds to
'

J.'s

the place where two roads separate


the

so as to create

doubt
(p.

in

mind

regarding the right path.'


'

Schroeter

451a) has two entries QOTaj-q"


'

remote,'

and
'

(^onOJ'qa'

a closet.'

J.

has the latter expression as

a hermitage/

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


and Desg., as above,
$|*
'

29

solitary spot.'

In our passage (J|$|*Z7pr

does not

mean the mistake


:

as to the road.' or Anglice' the

error of his ways.'

In our passage OJ5J*cnf^* has to be taken together in the


sense of Ojqrajjl]' =aj|'a|cn*=(aj$J"C<X*
religious

the wrong road (in a


of
1.

sense,
is

in

contrast

to

the

QJ^J'&JS^'iJ*
'

31).

]'^'

here to be understood as a

wrong-road-place/
or proves to be, the

as the spot or place

^'=^'^' \

which

is,

i.e. the place where one realizes that the road on which one is, is the wrong road, or, perhaps better, that the road is a wrong road ( = place) to be in, a wrong-road-spot,

wrong road.
indeed.

The meanings, recorded

in the Diets, for

compounds with
one

or without initial Q* of QqiftJ*^'

seem

logical, as

who has
is (in

separated himself from the road is astraj^, is mistaken, moral or intellectual matters) in the wrong, in error.
Cv

Note

this

example of the use

of

the verb

OJ<S'^cn'J"

qg^^'^'gq'^'J^^^'Q^^I'^^^
otherwise you will
r

answer very carefully

make

a mistake.
'

^cn*|*JffIJ$r<3k2$|'
'

having twisted, squeezed, screwed

up your brains

? ?

adv., carefully, attentively.]


'

see

see
g]'

40.
S.

Ransom.
s.v.

Is here rather

gj^'^q*
N
is

w ell

defined
'

by

Ch. D.,

The meaning

of

gjff'^q'

probably

the

ransom (which

is

thrown to the

evil spirit) as a substitute for,


is

representative of (the person on whose behalf the offering

made),' J.'s

5TSn'

'a man's image which in his stead

is

cast

30

MIN7 OR TIBETAN TEXTS.


'

away n tne
uses
'

CT

'^
in

a ransom in em> g v

There
is

are,

however,

of
'

g]5"
^9

which the primary sense

perhaps rather

effigy

than

'

ransom.'
it
is

In a ritual describing the construction


said that the

of the

torma cake

S"3"
'

(together with

many other moulds) must be imprinted on the dough or paste. Heje the word seems to mean no more than a mould constituting an effigy of the body.' Though all the torma -cake material is thrown away after it has served its purpose, these imprinted effigies do not seem to serve special!}' as ransoms like
the

g!^"<3&T
S3

a nd

5TgK* quoted above.


N9

As

to J.'s queried

'ij'S'^* an d
(

tne slightly different

tn * s
N9

*s

ex pl a i ne d as follows.
(a

The
cf.
.

first

phrase
;

means
een
'

he

is

lii

in

human form

man -Hi,

werwolf

D.

lii

in

menschenvorm, menschelijke gedaante)

3T PT means
For
alone
'
:

that man. there (with a pointing out


:

by word
'

or finger).'
'

instance

that
Cv "*

man

John, that king

TTTT

That man

would be

J"^*

But the second phrase would mean

that

man so-and-so i>s a very devil.' J.'s rendering of the first phrase as 'he is a curse, an anathema, one deserving to be cursed seems too strong. Rather an unmitigated nuisance.' for, though harsh, it may be said by a mother of her own child when it is naughty and unruly. The sense seems to be devil {as may also be applied to children or wicked grown-ups in English they are true devils ', D. een paar baarlijke duivels ') and seems to be a case of meaning-shifting from result to cause (pale death!), the lii being the ransom thrown to the evil The association does not seem to be that spirit, Anglice devil.
'
' ' ' ' '

of worthlessness, hatefulness, something fit to be thrown away like a lii.

good for nothing, only

As to the above King Koko, this is a facetious name applied (something like thingumbob) to such Tibetans as ape
Chinese manners in dress and in other ways. be a Chinese word for Tib.

^f^T

is

said to

^"if

or

fg*

elder brother.

Tibetan, strutting about in Darjeeling with Chinese cap and

MINOR TIBETAN
coat

TEXTvS.

31

may

hear the sarcasm addressed to him


'

TT nT

Well Mr. Chinaman


;

(or
'

John

Ch..

Uncle

Ch.) where are you going to

Mossioo

of the

mid -Victorian

Punch and music

hall ditties).

6.
'

Clearly printed in both copies, not

the virtuous,' seems to refer to the Gelukpa sect, though the monastery which is here meant is usuaHy called The relation between the two terms is not quite ffCTQ'QT,?'
clear.

This name.

Griinwedel, in his Mythologie des Buddhismus, etc., p. das Kloster dGa-ldan oder dGe-ldan.' Giinther Schulemann in Die Geschichte der Dalaiiamas.' p. (55, speaks of the Schule, die zuerst dGa-ldan-pa, dann aber dGe-ldangenannt wurde.' pa oder dGe-lugs-pa, 'die Tugendsekte
72, speaks of
'
'

'

'

Modern Tibetans seem to


the famous monastery.
37.

know only

the

name CCPa'a}*'

for

This

is

an apposition.
'
;

The enemies,
'

the sins
as in
'

the enemies

who

are the sins

these enemies of sins

these rascals of boys.'


-

See
is

title.

Its

hon. form

single

word the

affix

3^* is required,

which

may
'

disappear in

compounds.
;

Bell gives as

meaning

of

^zjj^'Sq'

religious

song/

Henderson hymn.'

As

J. points out,

the profane song


for err
<sp

is

gv and
sa
(

the religious

song gqcjl^'sq'
>e
Diets,
S.

A synonym

is

cn^ST

not

tae three

but

in Bell

and Henderson
'

s.v. song).
'

Ch. D.'s

gTTOSJ"
N

sportive song

is

not supported by

the data in J. or Desg., nor by

my

informants.

They take the

32

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


all( l

second part of this compound as a misprint for ^(eJ^T


hold that 91*^1(5^1'
N9
*s

a double-form with the meaning of either


honorific form,

of its parts

song.

The word gqrn^']* has one

^^JC'SJZTVV *
forms
:

The words OV and cnRST nave ea h various hon,


>s

sn^JC'STIe?^* (recorded in

Bell)

and

^^JC'SJ
N

Desg.

has a ^|JNC"5mV^* pleasant song, but

my oral

information does

not support this special meaning.

Note the difference between


of joy,'

J.

S^'cn*

(s.v.

ayzj*

'

song

and Desg.

id. s.v.

ZTP
>

'

chant erotique.'

In Redalob's translation of the Psalms into classical Tibetan, the

word

^C*^*?^"

is

used for psalm.

The
Ordinar

following table

may

be useful.

Jcsr

hon.

((rare)

--

see
see

'q*

and

QqC'*

"x

38.

Attention must be drawn to the

fact that Desg. identifies

C\5K*]"

w ^ n ^3*^*
etc.,

as agauist J.'s

distinction

between the two forms as neutral and active.

Also

that Desg.'s explanation of

CTy^amcn^*

as

'

to put (the

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


enemy) to
flight in battle,'

33
J.'s
'

seems more probable than


of

to

fight a battle,' etc.

The explanation
q.v.,

a^k'^J* by

Q.5J5J* in

the note on
position.
tute.

^Laqi^mqpr'q'

seems to support thie sup'

S.

Ch. D. gives as a meaning of CV^fc'CJ"


'

to insti-

set going

and translates accordingly (^qq'jmcrjsr'q'


'

as

'

to start a combat,' as against J.


;
'

to

combat

'

alone.
s.v.

Also
znUsJOJ*

qiL^OJ'(^[jzr*q Hf
(p.

one

who
or

gives battle.'

Desg.
to
fi

923)

cnuWa^jq-

rj

W^2K
S. Ch.

'

g llt in battle, to
J.

combat.'
Desg.
QCfJ'^'

Cf. also J. s.v. STIU^QJ'


:

D. copies
Battle.'

as against

^ny^ftJ'nS'^T

to

n S nt

These

words

and

Q,^]^*^]*

again,

need further investigation supZTIU^ftJ*

ported by quotations (as well as the word

with which

they are used).


z5|*^*

33.

To be

old, the

state of being old, old age.


'

Example

^"^j'ol'^S^'^^'^^'^'^TS",
N9
ill,

tne bein g born grow=

ing old, being

dying are sorrows/ or


Cf. the

'

birth, old age,

ill-

ness and death are sorrowful.' four words in J.


as
'

treatment of the

first

^i^'C]Q* with following verb, to be translated


:

of old age,' literally


;

of (belonging to, attendant on)

having

become old

for instance, the joys, sorrows, etc., of the state of


(of old age)

having become old


This
is

zS$TCJC\"^K"J' (or
N9 J. treats

not the subst. A$J' or *^*zf* of Desg.

as a verb with

n$T as a past tense, taking

zS^'^J"

and
J'

as adjectives from which the usual substantives in

^*
and

etc.

are made. 5

Desg. gives the four forms **

^n^'

*<3T

34

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


'

as substantives and has no verb

to be old.'
'

J.'s analysis
'

seems

the more accurate one.


whilst
this latter

J.'s rft^'TV

old age

is

absent in Desg.,
'

has a zJ|5T without

affix as
'

old man,'
'

'

old

age.'

This word S. Ch. D. has as


'

= *'q*
;

old, ripe

whilst

he adds W>J*CJ'3:ftSv'J'
man.'

aged, old

exhausted, infirm
final

an old
settle-

This group needs proper quotations for

ment.

My
The use
not

oral information

on some
'

of these points
'

is

as follows

of zS^J" alone, as
'

old. ripe

is

denied.

S^T^J" does
'

mean

zJl^'ET
'

old,'

because jS^J'q* requires a HJ"

grown

old in years

in that sense.
'

As an independent

adjective,

however,

it

means
and
a

worn

out, exhausted, thin, lean, aged,

grown

older,'

is

in that case
'

an equivalent
'
;

for

zJiCJ*
if old.

Troubles

make

man

zJiJ^TCJ*

age him

make him

as

Age makes a man zS^'^T


J'TT the following

old,

i.e.

really old.

For the use of


:

two
v

illustrations

were given

rJi^J'^Tja-

a^*

'don't do such work (or things


;

or

don't behave in that manner) in your old age


'

*^TT]"^j*^S*
(evil)

S9

^OTq^'Iftdj'CrsrljC,

don't think bad


is

thoughts

in

your old age when (whilst) death

drawing near.'

see

see

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


and ^^i&'CJ*
54.

35
of these

The treatment

words in

the Diets, seems unsatisfactory.


passive verb ^j3*J" or ^SS'CJ'
out, embellished,' etc.
J.
'

None

of the Diets, give a

being adorned, being decked


{S<X*
'

has only

as a subst.

'

ornament,

decoration,'
with.'

and a verb ^sSS'CJ'

to adorn, decorate, provide

According to this his own example $*3q=n"^*y^r^qi<3;"


'

]"

should not mean, as he says,


it'
I

the letter nya

being
like

provided with an S above


'

^ST)

but rather something


topletter.'

to adorn the letter

nya with a sa as a

Desg. knows a verb ^idJ'CT or qjdj"^^* ( or


with the meaning of
'

^J or ^^|V
^df|<S"

'

to adorn,'

with a past tense

ornavi, ornatus, orne,' whatever that means.


'

He and

J.

quote also a

^)<3i'5]^!['CJS3rCJ*

adorned,' in which the *<** has


'

clearly a substantival value, like in jS<3TJ^"C]*

without adorn-

ment, unadorned.'
S.v. ^ftcK" Desg. says
~^y
'
:

praet. verbi *3J'CI^*


^^

ornatus, et
'

v. act. ornare, orne, orner,'

and he adds ^*3k'CJ* or

<5*

orna-

ment.'

Bell has

*$<
^J
I

for

ornament.

But

J.

knows no q^dJ'

or &' as substantives and refers expressly to the unprefixed

jSS" for the substantives.

He

further equates

and
^j^'cB"
cfj^"

?5^^|* 'ornaments' (plural).

Under
to
is

0^"^]^^
'

'to put on,'

we

find further

3^?^"^',

P ut on 8 a y
translated as
'

clothes, finery

(s.v.

j5j3J* *
<^^
1

the

same expression

to adorn one's

self ,') If

and

^'qg^'cfqt;^'^^

beautifully

attired'

(Mil.).

these translations are idiomatically true

we should expect

36
/
J
\

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


ff,X'

to

have a wider sense than the English ornament r

rather anything beautiful or fine, whether ornaments (in the sense of trinkets) or not. The word adornment would fit better. (Cf. D. tooi, G. Smuck.)

Desg. gives no example of

2S<3J*CJ*
>5#
'

with a clearly active

value of the verb

'

to ornament,' but both in

J and Desg. such

examples are given under q^i^'CJ*


^ _ QOT^j'qC

Desg. gives as synonyms


is

~V

*** 1 _ and yjE^Tq^

~V

and

-A

it

a question whether in
'

these expressions

^y

qc* can have the neuter sense


]

of

''

to act as

"'-- *"x
'

to be

'

(like in

*QJ']*qC*CJ*
m<3i"
)

S.
)

Ch. D. (who has several


s.v.

misprints in his syns. for


'

quotes

Qcn^'q* (2926)
;

a-

qrMT'CcnC'C]*

to arrange ornaments (tastefully)

to decorate,

adorn, to construct or adjust grammatical forms, sentences.


(Zam.).'

This latter use of qqi<5"

is

evidently the clue to the


S.

expression,

quoted elsewhere by Desg. and


f,

Ch. D.

A<5'

one versed in rhetoric, a clever orator.


(

The equation efidi'C^^^-n'CJ"


to put, place), given

m ^ e modern language,

v. Bell,

by S. Ch. D. is denied by both my teachers, though confirmed by Desg.; they know of no Tibetan word of this spelling and sound with the meaning bejewelled, adorned,
decorated, as
cited,
is

the correct translation of the Skr. equivalent

^^5?f

Yet ma,y

jS<3T
*_4
I

( \

CJ"

) /

perhaps mean
'
'

'

an orna'

mented object', hence 'die, dice'; hence again Desg. objets meles pour tirer les sorts ', and lastly stake (in gambling) and lot ? This first meaning is not in the Diets, but would settle the question discussed a few lines lower down, and ex'
'

plain those combinations with

^V

which

refer

to

gambling

and divination.

In connection with the immediately following


'

articles in S. Ch. D.,


'

zS^'^^^'^Jp^

one

who

joins

in

wager, gambler

[one

who

puts up his jewels, ornaments for

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


a stake
ster,
?],

37

and zS&X^'^T or qfacn-q* 'a

dice-rogue, a

game-

one

who throws
is

dice,' etc., it

should be ascertained whe-

ther there

a Tibetan word with

qj<5*

which means

die, dice,

or whether the combinations refer to the staking of ornaments

and

jewels in gambling.
S.v.
^cficK'ZJ" S.

Ch. D. gives no news, treating this word,

however, as a verb, and referring to *<*" for the subst.


~\^
I

As a

result of this little investigation


it is

we come

to the conis

clusion that

legitimate to inquire whether there

not a

Tibetan verb

jSdJ'C]*

(more likely than ^ft<?*CJ*


'

with the passive

being decked out, being ornamented or adorned, showing gaily.' What would render such a word exactly in English is difficult to see, unless we coin a verb to splendiferate,' but D. pronken (pronken in vollen luister) comes near to it. Other related words would be to blaze forth, to shine out, to cut a dash, or else to swagger, to swank, to preen, to strut, or again to be graced with or by, to show forth, etc., but especially to display in the technical zoological sense. An instructive illustration in this matter is furnished by the following two sentences, both with the same meaning
or neuter sense of
'
: '

'

r
,

of which the

picture!; ture!
is

how

best idiomatic translation is 0, what a fine fine is the painting (drawing) of (in) (this) pic:

case This second case by-lines-(fine-)-displaying picture 'To this picture there is a by -the-line8-(drawings) -ornamen-

But the psychological

translation
',

is in

the

first

'

and

in the

tal ion (or display).'

jSQJ'q*

6.

According to

J.,

IH, also

'

superior, excellent,

eminent.'

Jr&r^J^'z^ftP^"

most

excellent, illustrious.'
is

This

may
Dalai

be the meaning here.

Whether there

a connection
title of

between the word as used here and the AQ'J"

the

Lamas may be

left

undecided.

38
30.

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


Here character, heart, disposition,
etc.
Ct is

curious that this meaning, given


S.

by

J.

and Desg.,

is

absent in

Ch D.
"ZM*

39,40.

Door.

Though tha average Tibetan house (if it

be not a mere hut) has two doors, a front door and a back door, they are not on a principle located in the eastern and western sides of the house. For the text the words east and west have

no

special significance

they are simply used ^1*0^5'^]'


illustration or comparison.
is

b.v

wav

of speech, as

an example,

The
jSOJ'
lic,'
\

front (main, public) door

called

CTjaC'sjjr
'

Or

^ri"

(or

|T
'

The
'

first

word

is

interpreted as the
'

'

main,'
'

pub'

or

middle

door
is

the second as the


i

wi<ie

'

or

royal

door
is

The back door


explained as
'

called a en

5T

(in J. s.v.

iycn"]*)

which

the door for horses and

cattle.'

The SK'S'

quoted by

J., p. 296, is
'

unknown to my informants.

They only

know

S ST ^
^}
I

'

the door leading to birth, or re-birth.'

-q- see

oTCT see A^'CJ* ^*


I
'

'q^'
*

see
(

^*

S^'JC'

and
'
:

$T?f
is

16.
'

With terminative

there

certainty for"

=
'

'

it is

certain

'

it is

surely, truly so.'

am A

sure of. 'I

know

for certain that',

has C^J* for C$J" in B.

Here, however,
^

C^'^=^*q^* = E:^q^'= C
^
truly,
really,

=
p|'
also

'indeed,

forsooth.'

Compare

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

39

see
]

f'Spy

see
5STJTJC;'

and r^j-

f'ST see

?Sf
^'

see
see

jcprqsee

tsTfTJC
-

see

see

48>
'

Also

srwjjc*)
It is said to

Here rather with


'

fche

meaning
J.'s
'

without

fail,

for sure, indeed, surely

in addition to

anyhow, by
N*

all

means.'

be synonymous with
:

and
"

colloquial
'

C'S'

as, for instance, in

ask (you) to come without

fail,

indeed,
gr<5'QJ^'

^
surely, for sure, so that I
Cf. Desg. in addition to J.

may count on
J. (p. 1296)

it.'

Also

has the spelling "^""fcn*


.

Bell s.v.
.

'

'

certainly "[f'p]* (yn. ^S'STtS*)


s.v.

s.v.

'indeed' (syn.

9
'

'surely'

$J'q^'
^"3J5I'
;

s.v.

'actual'
'
'

"tfn*

s.v.

'

real

c'Ssn' (sjn.
'natural,
'

s.v.
)

really

C^J'q^'

Desg.

C'acn'UsJ^'
'

not manufactured,' but C'Sp]* (next

article)
'

certitude

"c^ "E

^ f^'
or

S.

Ch. D.

"cf'Spl*

true,

genuine,

really.'

&3j"3fdj*

and
5<3j'5<3j*

are not in the

Diets,

c* SJ" and *C*<3^" are not endorsed

by

my

authorities.

See also

40

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


colophon.

According to
'

J.

= x$3T^*J"
'

'

that

which has been spoken,' i.e. speech, word,' etc. Corresponds very closely to D. het gesprokene, het gezegde or L. dictum.' Here, however, the meaning may be extended to piece of writing' (D. 'het geschrevene,' L. 'scriptum') or perhaps even more generally the above, the foregoing.' The other use of the expression, as an abbreviation for
'
'

'

'

'

*f"

the so-called,'
or

is

here, of course, not applicable.

see

see rn*
"

see

m
^s

22.
'

In J.

'

love

and

hatred,' but here better

attraction (for the pleasant) and repulsion (for the unpleasin other words: 'non-attachment (to weal and woe), ' indifference (to the ups and downs of life),' or again bondage S. Ch. D. has (to emotions, impressions, etc.). passion for, passionate attachment.' It is the German Lust und Unlust.'
ant),'
'

'

'

see

ffq'^^
*

see

SfqN=#
see

34.

To be construed:

CJ'

or
>9

'
\

and not as
/

cB^I'^^H-^^"
43.
)

etc

^I'5J^N*
sense those

3^|P!<S"

Here most

likely in the stricter

who have
life,
i.e.

devoted, given, themselves (entirely) to


those

the religious
'

who have entered the

order, the
Cf.

or even ^I'CJ* learners, pupils, lay-brothers.

how-

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


ever, J. s.v.
'

41

^.-.^j.

p 163a and Degg

who hag

ft

gubst

lamaist dignity, rank,' p. 3336.

raq*,
'

10.

Stands here for

Sq'q^T, or wSq',
Perhaps
of

the deep, profound, doctrine, teaching, religion.'


'

an allusion to the aq'OJ?]' the profound doctrine


as explained in the Tantras
ders
it
'
'

Buddhism
\
'

(S.

Ch. D.

s.v.

3q*O|$J*

J ren*

a term of Buddhist mysticism, doctrine of witchcraft,'


'

whilst Desg. translates the term as

doctrina magica.'
;

instead of 3^*5^1* perhaps for metrical reasons

in ordinary

speech the inversion seems not usual.


see

See also 3^*J*

see

"^f'
*

46.
'

'

To

hold, to keep, to stick to, adhere to.'


(it) so,

not keeping

not preserving, maintaining


(it)

(it)

in that (the same) state, not letting


'

continue in the

same way, not keeping up the state of, not persisting in (the same wa} ) etc. Freely translated by its reverse rectifying, redressing,
7
:

correcting,

changing

(one's attitude, condition,

action, etc.,

previously referred

to).

45.

Not

in the Diets.,

'

lit.

after-track,' is
is

'

here,

followers, pupils, disciples, adherents.'


for

Though Q^\'
line
>

sometimes used

#&*}'

8ee J

177a

>

last

the

word

42
'

MINOR TIBKTAN TEXTS.


affix, filial

E^'Q.E^*

consonant,' a grammatical term,


's

is-

of

course different, as well as J

adj. 'following,
' '

coming

after.'

The word has


hind).

also the

meaning
OV

orphan

(those left be-

~v

See also under

JET

/ etc.

f-e

see

see
*

m*
N

37.

Here

'

'

sin

or

'

vice

'

are to be understood

as either the three


frailties,

sins, or
'

vices, or failings,

or defects, or
'

^5^*^$!$^

lust, "anger

and stupidity
'5JC'

(in

the

con ventional rendering),


five sins,

qVir.^^^

CT]?^cn*

or the

^"^C^'^'j namely
'

the three mentioned above


'
'

with the addition of C^SOJ'


fourth and
fifth.

pride

and

'

Sfq-cqr

envy

as

See also
see

see

C '^''^*

see
13.

Cr,

Equals

fsWqSTg^
(sc.

(or

^^ )

= CJ'

'

to be ease-loving, indolent, lazy.'


28.

CTKC'apf

'From the bottom'

of

the

heart),

hence expressions like S^'ZTl^'dj^r^j^J"


lated
'

may be

simply transsad, I

a deep pity (or sadness) arises,

become very

am

very sorry.'

See also
55.

^Fq*
'

ZTJ^*

Here perhaps better


perhaps even
'

treasure
S.

'

heap

than

mere

'

treasure.' or

treasury.'

Ch. D. gives as

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


'

43-

meanings
J.

treasure
S.

'

and

'

store-place,' in this deviating

from

and Desg.

Ch. D.'s example ^'cnc:^


',

the repository of

water, the ocean

seems to prove his additional explanation.

see

see

5*'CJ"

49.
'

(Pf.

and

ft.

*te<3^

Has

here simply the pri'

mary meaning
'

to adhere to,'

more
'

colloquially,

to stick to,' or

to keep to, hold fast to, to heed, to observe.'

May, however,
'

here be also taken as Desg.'s


sense of
'

to believe in, to trust


~-

(in

tho

^>

to rely
'

on

')

according to his example |r?C*nycn$J"Cir

gdrCJ^T
wise
:

I believe,

trust (in) your words' (p. 420a), or other-

to put reliance on (\vhat another says, states, preaches r

teaches).

Iwrcj"
here as
'

32.

(Pf.

CJ^$J*

May
'

almost be translated
if

to contemplate, to consider

('

one comes to think


'),

about
as
'

'

it

or

'

it'

one looks into that matter

but not merely

to behold, to see.'

Ipl'^qs:'

47.

Evidently the same as


(214?)).

J.'s.

qg^pr^q^'

'examination, trial'

J.

has a verb

qFCfr-^q^' (or
yig and in
soc

q-jef-*q'
,

occurring in the
'

Padma fan

with the meaning


J.

to examine, search into


2
S,

whe-

ther or whether not.'

has also the forms


s.v.

*]'^^"
'

aml

qn-cqrine,' p.

both subst.

examination.'

to

exam-

^Hj^'CJ* }

329a.
'

Desg. gives "^cr|'^g^- as syn. with ^|*^I',


;

*" Consider,

test,

judge

';

qgqj^l'cHji'

examination, judgment.

44
S.

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


Ch. D."eqi'^5c' (=q$J3TO3f,or SfflFft||5r
'

considera-

tion, examination, trial,'


*

and (558a)
all

examination, careful weighing of


S.

the details of a case, de-

liberation.'

Ch. D. seems to treat


S.v.

JT"
STj^*CJ"
:

an d
he has further
'

as

two quite
'

different words.

Fqv^jc']'
tion, inquiry.'

to

examine anything,' and

^5 cn" >^ sN*

investiga-

see

(2J*q* 51.

This word seems here to

mean

'

vision, illumi-

In our passage

nation, (direct mystical) contemplation, the seeing face to face.' it is the direct vision (the vision direct '), proper to, inherent in, characteristic of, belonging to, the knowledge pertaining to the actionless (or undifferentiated) state, the
' '

passive-state-knowledge-vision.'

See also

^J

See
see

see see

see
'

23
!

To

follo\v

to

keep to the teaching

to be or remain true, faithful to the teaching, to hold fast to to stick to


it.'

it,

See also

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


see

45

Q^or^qsr O

lit.

Great-all-knowing-clergy-perfection-good-glory/corresponds to a Sk. Maha-sarva-jna-samgha-siddhi-shrl-bhadra. See for literature about him Schulemann, Geschichte der Dalailamas, pp. 91-92, note 11, and S. Ch. D. The Hierarchy of the Dalai Lamas, J.A.S B., Vol. LXXIII, Pt. I, extra No.fp. 81.
: :

'

55.

This

is

here, in

my opinion, not a sort


ter-like formation.
I

of Hottentottenpotentatentantenattenta-

take the

Sq'yC^*

to refer to the

a profound and wide mind, whilst the


the
that

5J535f*

only refers to

^H"

the treasury of omniscient mercy.

It is

not likely

the qualities of width and depth form part of an enumeration of which the remaining items are love and knowSee the ledge or even (as a compound) omniscient-mercy. various component words in this glossary.
see

see

*J"
1

JTT

see see

-^g^q"

43.

J.'s

entry under this entry

is

as

follows

IC"

tQ' \Schr. 'good opinion'


;

(?),

prob.

Glr. pure, isound view or knowledge He adds an oral sentence meaning."

in Mil.

"

to lead a holy life." "(sic. joni= joA


ttfi:cn*aMC*

? )

it has a similar *dhag-nan jon-wa* C. Schroeter has (1356)


:

a good opinion, a good conception of any thing, a


'

conceit, a thought."

[Based on an Italian

'

concetto

'.
\

has two further entries

OTqO'IQ'q'

to

form

a good

46

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


<

opinion of any individual,' and

^CTT^C'^^"

(read:

SJ*

Q' to form a good opinion, or to conceive well of any one.'


In our passage we are inclined to take 5JC" as ^JC^"^"
o? 3|
>

as 'view, thought, idea, conception,' etc.,


exercise, practise,

and SJC'^"
entertain,

'to

perform

',

or even
'

'

to

cherish

(thoughts).'

^V

we take

as Ccn'CJ*

pure'

the connection

with thought not the opposite of false, erroneous, but of bad, So here the expression seems to mean to think with goodwill, with kindness (of others) not the colloquial to have a good opinion of, to think well of.' To think good is here the opposite of to think evil,' but the idiomatic value of the expression to think well of (as the opposite of to think poorly of ') would make the latter rendering misleading. The real value, then, of the expression as used in this passage, seems to be 'to think good, kind thoughts of,' i.e. purely, or saintly in the sense of kindly, lovingly, benevolently, in a friendly manner, with sympathy, but not. as J. seems to suggest, inWe may expand the rendering into with tellectually correct. a holy mind, with thoughts of saintliness, thinking saintly thoughts.' Compare J.'s colloquial phrase quoted above. So, as to the interpretation of the line in which the compound occurs, we take it that it means to enjoin, in contrast with the previous line in which it is said that beings in general must be thought of with kindness, that religious people (instead of the mere laymen) must be thought of in a still better, higher manner, namely with holiness and saintliness.
cruel, unkind.
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

One
$]"*}" as

of
'

mv

informants was

first

inclined to take ^JTI'^C^*


1
I

to teach, to preach the true knowledge.'

Though he

later on sided with the explanation adopted above, the opinion should be recorded, but it should be added that a second informant rejected this view of the first one.

Attention should be drawn to the meaning of ^!"^Z71"


soul
s.
'

'

the

(with spellings

jr'

and
'

J.).

Also the curious expression 'to be indifferent


S.

SIWC^"

Ch. D.; and fpC'^^lj"^"*!'

Bel1

These ex-

pressions not in Desg.

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

47

'tF
-2

see

see

27.

Adverb
'

'
:

purely, first class, first

rate.'

Not

in J.

but

in Desg., yet here in


S.

a slightly different applica' ' '

tion.

About

sse below. gravy and relish with the genitive seems to mean 'acme', 'essence', T

Ch.

D.'s

the typical embodiment of something, like in expressions as a first class liar, a thief pure and simple, the very devil, satan himself, nothing short of an angel, a saint in propria
'

persona.'

rqrq a 'rr^-^j$J*5J'

'

the very enemy.'

In the collothe same


'

quial

^JC'S" and t?|C"cn*^C*^]"


latter
is

may have

meaning.

The

something

like pidgin-English
'

number
Other

one

'

or the kitchen

Malay equivalent
[or
J*
\

nommer

satu.'

equations are cn^ZTTq'


'

also

^Q"

the Anglo-Indian

pukka.'

The word
case,

^^T may
is

mean soup

or gravy in the following

when

there

question of singling out ths liquid portion

from a mixture of broth and liquid. The primary meaning seems in that case rather to be liquid as contrasted to solid.

C^C^'gq^'T^'^ap'-give
the solid
stuff),

me

(only) the liquid

(not
this

pour out to
J*

me

(only) the liquid.

But
is

T has no
in the Diets,

final

A common
',

word

for

soup which

not

is

'

rii

thang

probably ^$T|~* or SJ' alone.


' '

in J. with the- meaning of potion ', a medical term, and in S. Ch. D. as potion, plain decoction, or mixture to be drunk after a medicinal pill has been taken.' The

This latter word

is

word
also the

$1*9

means

originally bone-soup,
' '

but has acquired


can be applied to
It

more general meaning soup.

C|C"

meat-soup,

wTPT but

-1*5^'

cannot be used.

might be that

C'

and S\C^' are

really the

same word.

48

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

|'Hf'

30.
'

Might here,
fierce,'

in

connection with ambition, be


its

translated as
'

an extension of

primary meaning

strong.'

see

'S^rUsJC* 24.
'

For ever, always.

see
see
40.

g^>0
'

'_^

^C'^C'
^"^'c&C*

s^'V^C^
Exceeding!}' stupid, meaningless,
use-

less, silly, senseless.'

The

particle ^' has

an emphatic value,
Oral
to-

but

it

is difficult is

to define its precise scope in English.

information

vague on the subject, and seems to point


is

wards a possibility that the ^'


turns the expression, of which
tion.
'

a syllable of exclamation or

it

forms part, into an exclama-

"^<3;*^"<~."
>

Oh,

how

silly!.'

An
is

equivalent

is

^'^C/

^y\T<3:
LC*

^'^'
final

"^'^r'
~N
*

alone

not used, and

%"^C'

demands a
S.

or

as Ch. D. (502a) translates p^"'^v?SW"C^'j|"


'
1

''

Ipity

you, ye Tibetans

perhaps better
of

'

What

a pity,

ye Tibetans.'
in J.
s.v.

Compare the
p. 5336.

list

words with wedged-in ^"

^*

JyT^'CJ*

16.
'

Also

'

^'^51' adjective

kind.'

According

to S. Ch. D. also very kind, great boon, and the great or S. Ch. D.'s wording is unsatisfactorily greatest benefactor.' indefinite and his examples, taken from J., fit the text badly.

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


J.

49
though he has an

does not define the combination


5<3j"^&*q*

example

qiX'^q'

with the meaning 'greatest benefit/


:

Two

colloquial examples are

JcT

''WJQ'WT^lftST
that

'

the
is

two (very) kind parents,' and


(very) kind.

"^S'55"Sdj"UW,

man

In form

^TcB"^*

is

a comparative, 'kinder.'

<5<3['Hf is

one

of those adjectives
of their

which have a comparative and superlative

own

as

Great.
positive

Many.

Good.

Small.

Bad.

compara
tive

superla'
tive

In practice, however, as shown by the above examples, the form is used for an ordinary quality in the positive degree though implying an amount of abundance or fullness of the quality referred to. Bell (p. 33) and Hannah (p. 129) have described these degrees of comparison. Short and partial notes SeeJ. in S. Ch. D.'s grammar (p. 31) and Henderson (p. 23).
Diet. s.v.
jcpj'j
is

p. 564.

J5<3j"S"

262& (as equal to JTSSj*

not acknowledged by
c^:*^*
is

my

informants.

objected to by

my

teachers because they say


fina*

it

never occurs alone but requires a


perlative form
^<3\"^"iCJ^*

^*

except in the suis

which, of course,

another thing.

See, however, S. Ch. D.

qma'^J'

p. 654, J. p. 13.

As to
better

the

<5<3:'

or

eB^'Hl*

in

many Tibetan

adjectives, this

is

regarded as an enclitic particle, exactly corresponding to the


English termination
-ful.

As

little

as the English -ful really

50

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


'

means

full',

does the Tibetan

&5"

J*

as a termination

of adjectives really

mean

"

great.'
'

Bell has

vS'd'H

for

kind.'

The word ^"flJS* and


In this place we
gratitude
(S.

its

uses merit a separate inquiry.

shall limit ourselves to stating that the

entry

Ch. D., Ramsay, Schroeter) seems incorrect.

The
is

confusion has most likely come about because a ^5'iZ]*'

an

answer to kindness (return

gift, etc.)

and so betokens gratitude.

21.

Ellipse

for: according

to

(or.

in

the

measure

of)

whatever kindness (you have shown to me).

see

gC*
35.

KZTTC'

The three

Diets, are not at one as to the

exact shades of meaning of


J. has, subst.
'
:

tnsrzT'Cj'

anything hurtful, or any injury, mischief,


perte, mal.'

harm, done.' Desg., subst.


S.
J., adj.

'
:

dommage,
\

Ch. D. no substantive.
/=cn^cn'Sj*^5:
^3

'noxious, mischievous, dangerous.'

Desg.,

adj.

only qj^cn*^'^*
"

not cn^Cfl'q*
"

alone

nuisible

(noxious),

and a cn^cn* = qT^r|" deteriorated.


:

S. Ch. D., adj.

cnccn'^j'
ND

vicious, mischievous, deleterious,

poisonous.

In J. and S. Ch. D further applied meanings as wild, hideous (screams) ferocity (in beasts), deleterious (smell),
:

fierce

(woman).

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


In our passage the expression

ETTT^SW'*

may

be

rendered by malign, wicked,


sufficient correctness.

evil,

evil-minded, spiteful, with

>9
-

see

see

SH

>C*s\CI$r y v
is

Colophon.

J. renders this

word as
' ;

a song
defi-

expressive of longing or of grief, an elegy (Mil.)


nition
'

but this
S. Ch.
:

not quite typical of our present poem.


grief.'

D. has

a song of longing
J*TS"

J.'s

example

J2jvJ"*7|^"*

n \C^T'NCJcn"

where nfKC'q* means

(spiritual) love,

seems to point

o
out to a meaning more apposite here.
:

So we would prefer a translation paean, hymn of praise (D. lofzang) or psalm instead of elegy. Other words to be considered song of thanksgiving, memorial song, lament, plaintive song (jammerklacht ?), memorial verses, an in memoriam, a memorial, etc. See also
,

The dge rgan, however, explains the word indeed in J.'s manner, but states that the longing and grief are not the worldly sentiments but religious ones. The longing and grief are concerned with the sorrows of the world and a yearning after spiritual realities, but not with the memory of the three teachers mentioned in the poem. If this is true, the above hypothesis is likely to be a wrong one and in my translation of the colophon the words there used should in that case rather run as a song of yearning for the higher life (cf the G. Weltschmerz ').
'

'

'

see
"

37.

Steps, measures, to subdue or tame, etc.

''

to take such measures.

52

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS,


see

"*r,

20.

(Fut.

^C)

M ^e

g ^'^* >O

(see

rj)
-O

is

here to be thought of as a goad (like the one of the mahout) then the verb should be understood as sub J. 2. 'to conduct, lead, guide' (by prodding). My teachers take it as to draw/ or Pictorial representations might decide the point. pull.' My teachers think rather of a rod with a hook at the end, like the episcopal staff, and not of angling with a fishhook or prodding with a goad.
'
;

^yqrUsJ^J*

33.

Or simply

UsJ^'

here

'
:

the^loss
is

of temper,

wrath, angry explosion or outburst.'


in the Diets.,

This sense

not given
'

though
is

J.'s 4,

'

ardour, fervour, transport


UsJ^J"

comes
that

near

it.

SmVUsJ^J*
N9

the same as

^u *

f r

* ne ^ ac t

the former word shows the cause, an outburst on account of


trouble, vexation, worry,
$3d\'

pain,

sorrow.

fc^*
N

y^*^R

or

nc*

]*

*r to

show

(or to lose)

one's temper, to flare

up, to burst out, to break loose, to explode in anger, wrath.


'

^iCK"
*
'

don't show temper to your parents/

don't lose your temper before (or with)


;

the master.'

C;-p^'E;'q*^'^C:

'

q^<3;-?ic:*j

to-day he

has entirely lost his temper before (or to) me.'

It is
is

synony

mous,

in this sense,

with the word Q'Cjqr which Ni.^


I

also dealt
m

with inadequately in the Diets, q.v.


'

5y*^J'aJ"C^C'Q. 3cn'3y' ^= ^o -3
I

*iJ<5"

don't lose your

temper to anyone, to whomsoever.'


;

j^*q^'q*^cn'q^^-cq|^'q^ ^:'^'^
need, or
it is

there

is

no reason

(no-

senseless) to lose

your temper.'

(Cf.

D. uitvallen,

uitvaren, uitvoeteren, opstuiven, uitbarsten.)


"

2.

Either

as

if

rising

towards the

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


sky/
as
if

53

in

which case

Q^'CT

refers to all the previous words, or

rising whilst in the sky, in

which case the Q*v*q* would

only refer to
see

see

J*

9.

have not received an explanation

of the 'etc.'
(

^JZTl^I*

in this place

and

I ignore

what kind

of

category is alluded to here. It seems not probable that the 18 classes of science can be meant, which, in the MahavyutGroup L, patti (Ed. M.A.S.B.), form group XXIV, p. 20. more likely material, but Yoga is missing in (p. 59), furnishes
'
'

it.

'

56.

Glorious, noble,' also

'

having abundance.'

Twice mentioned in J.'s article but not translated, perhaps because the meaning is so evident. Curious that neither Desg. nor J. specially cite this compound to which S. Ch. D. gives 7
lines, besides

mentioning several combinations.


52
-

Is this

one word

'q*

53.

'

'

Glory- or splendour-burning,'

i.e.

to

blaze with glory,' or,

more tamely,

'to be famous, renowned,


s.v.

celebrated
(It

';

the latter quoted by J. from Cs.

Qq^*q*
more

may
.

also

be taken as glory-spreading,

i.e.

getting

famous)

Desg. quotes a geographical

name cqftJ*Q.q^* Chinese

Pienpa. The expression is not in Desg. or S. Ch. D., and in J. only as taken from Cs., so that the latter's explanation needs The literal translation to blaze with glory fits verification. hero better.
'
'

Colloquially
'
'

fq^'q*
is

'

is

to thrive, to prosper, to do well.'


is

he

doing well,

well-to-do, thriving.'

54

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


he has become rich, has

made a
'

success of his

life,

has

come out top dog, has made good, has become wealthy, opulent, is safe, got his ship home, has got there,' made his pile, is
a man of position. (Fr. est arrive. D. schaapjes op het drooge.)

now

is

binnen, heeft zijn

53.

Here

rq-=crq^-

or

M'

techni-

'

cally

the eighty symmetrical parts, proportions, or points of


(Cs.,

beauty
lez)
;

Mahavyutpatti)

or beauties, lesser signs (dePIar-

proportions (Schiefner).

See the references under


full

5J/35<X"

and
'

SJflfe'^q*

(s.v.

cHj p 3276) gives the

expression

the eighty physical perfections of Buddha,'

^Hj'a^'qSC'CJ"

and
J.

q'q^* alone
'

'proportion, symmetry, beauty.'


7
,

has the entry


'

J*

symmetry, harmom

beauty

(in ceris

tain phrases)

but

S.

Ch. D. omits this.


is

Our passage
really

an

example
tion here

of this use,

but the syllable ^J"


full

an abbreviaDesg. seems
f r

and not a

and independent word.


:

to be mistaken in saying

^^T^S*

SiC

'

m sP r n ^
i
'

3S"

or
)

'proportion, symmetry, the 80 marvels of the


of the Buddha.'

body

So ^T3^*x$<3T means indeed 'symmetrical,


thes'e

showing 80 marvels,' but


cable to
signs
$|<3><3k"^q"x5S"

meanings would not be appli'

which could only mean

showing the 32

and 80

beauties.'
rest Desg.'s

For the

2nd

article s.v.
'

]'

adds to

J.'s data,
'

and

his cq'SJOJ*

and

^q"<3fc]*
'

custom,

rule,

example are new.

In Desg. 'custom, rule

tally with S. Ch.


'

D. 'way of doing,

method
lates

'

which

J.

has as

pattern, model,' but which he transJ.


s.v.

more

freely hi his examples.

qC' 'proportion,

symmetry, beauty,' quotes a

^Hrq"

fr

tne Dzl. in the

same

MINOR
sense.

TIBETA-N- TEXTS.

55

According to this 5q* would be equal to OZ' which


is

seems improbable and

denied by
is

my

informants.
:

An

ex-

ample

of the use of

^q'^OJ*

the following

^"^
the

new

year's dance of now-a-days in the monastery

is

in imitation of

the old way,

is

after the ancient pattern, the old


is

manner, follows

the

old

example.

^5"3pJ'

here not exactly

'custom' but rather:


example.'

'(with) tin (ancient)

lOT^'SpJ" method (as) an

Note the use


ancient.'

of

C*q^*

in the

above example as 'old,

see

see

2, 5.

The white cloud


If

is

a figure often occur-

used as an emblem of holiness or eminent persons, this excontain a stereotyped allusion to the name pression may perhaps of the tenth and supreme bhumi or stage of the Bodhisattva, the
ring in Tibetan poetry.
spiritual loftiness in connection with
'

dharma-megha,

cloud of virtue/ eS ^"11 "!<*


"^ sy
I

See MahavyutJ.'s (336a)

patti, ed. A.S.B., p. 11.

Here evidently not

'em-

blem

of transitoriness,'

though the point might be argued on


s.v.

the basis of the final remark


51.

cn^CT^C^J*

8oe

ft

bove.

Spsfgoj'

This word corresponds according to S. Ch.


(or apanca, aprapanca) which in rendered by unevolved, exempt from
'

D. to a Sk. nishprapanca
Macdonell's Sk. Diet,
is

56
multiformity.'
'

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

We

may,

therefore, think of expressions like absolute.'

the

undifferentiated,

homogeneous,

The word

dhatu being the Sk. equivalent


Cv

for Tib.

^gC^J* the whole


to a Sk.

~U~

expression

cnc^'^I^'noj' must correspond


Diet, translates the

aprapanca
'

dhatu.

The same Sk.

word dhatu as

layer,

component
ing to J.
:

part, element.'
'

In Tibetan zrn^^* means, accord'


; '

(1)

the heavens

'

'
;

(2)

height

(3)

extent, region,

space, in metaphysics

an undefined
'

idea.'

According to the

etymology Sj^T^flT should mean


tic,

passive, actionless, quietisits

inert,'
'

but according to the etymology of


monadic.'
,

Sk. prototype

rather

undifferentiated,
*s

One

of

my

informants

compares it with e&^r rn"^nC$]* dharma dhatu, and ^C'C]*^"


shunyata,
the void, the absolute.
J.'s

In this connection one

should compare

statements (215a) that in modern (Tibetan)


(

Buddhism the term siS'^'&^I'CJ"


'

^jf*WTO

'

),

clear

understanding or perception means the same as


further (2596) that
times, also

^C'^T"

and

^rsr$l'

originally

q^?|j|, has,
It

in later

become equivalent

to

^C'CJ'^s*

seems that

the old metaphysicians reached regions and distinctions where


their followers could

no longer

join them,
*..-'

and hence the pro^^.

cess

became 'omne ignotum pro ^JC^*J"^*


'

For practical
'

purposes the rendering

absolute,' or

'

motionless

might be

used for
'

S\T$J*JQJ*

whilst the

word

rendered ^nC^J" might be

by principle, state, region.' If occurring in a specimen of the more technically and theoretically philosophical literature of
Northern Buddhism, a more precise rendering and more careful
definition
'

might be required.
'

Taking the following

cn$J'C] as

becomes

knowledge, perception, cognition,' then the whole expression in English the knowledge of the motionless state (or

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


region, or principle) or the knowledge of (that
'

57

'

is

more pedantic but perhaps truer pertaining to, inherent in) the mo:

nadic
state
'

state.'

Other equivalents 'a state of stillness, the and, mystically, the wisdom of the silence.'
'

still

One
use of

of

my

informants, the dge rgan, knows of a colloquial


'

= ^^I*n^* ^*q'^C'=
The

hopeless,' but

my second

author:

ity ignores this use.

following two examples were given

fl^"3^'^"f&rgorW
and]

!it is

labour lost (hopeless) to [try


to

know

this.'

You cannot hope


'

know
know

this.
'

(N.B.
'

Note the

elliptic

construction

hopeless to
)

for

to try to

know, to study and so come

to know.'

UsJ'^Vy^cn*cf mrn'^Cj^'

'As
even know how to read well
labour),
:

he

doss

not

(or properly), it is hopeless (lost


)

how can he 1 study grammar 1 how can he pretend to know grammar 1 ). (Not he N.B. The Tibetan does not read but reads books
for

him

to

(or

'

'

'

'

does not
' ,

write but writes letters,' he does not go but goes to the shop.' In short, he is a very objective being.
'

'

'

'

'

5J* 8.

'

Father.'
is

It

is

not clear

why

in the

same

line

the

same person

referred to

by the ordinary
is

5J'

and then by the

honorific UsJ^" unless UsJ^"$I$J"

a standard expression which

cannot be changed whilst the


variety in expression.

first 5J* is

used for the sake of

The same double use of the honorific and ordinary terms for father occurs in Laufer's Ein Suhngedicht der Bonpo ', line 41.
'

-y-r-

C^

C*"
;

"^ ""

Spj^T
^(2*
is

5.

In expressions like 2IC'^GLV R"2J


(

tne
J|$J'5*

explained as equivalent to ^(3*

'

of the place where.'

So the phrase
as
'

towards

ST^'R^^S'S^^nac'OJ' should where the man has gone, to the place where

be understood
the

man has
8

gone,'

58
14.
SJZTJ^J'CJ^

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


Here verb,
infinitive,

connected with Gen:

dundub
turn,

in instrumental

(agentive) or genitival relation

to

move towards,

to tend to.

IpprSTJP'^T, >0
applied
to

46
/

Lit
\

'
-

to

fall

aside,',

but here, as

the
fall,

mind

y^C'

simply to be deflected, to go

astray, to

sin (mentally), to deviate

from the right path

(religion, the right), to lapse (from virtue), etc.

j^gC'S^^prST

29

'
-

To wish the

ruin

>

the undoing,
'

destruction, of, to be bent on the perdition of, to wish evil to

bodhimanda, according to the


Diets, historically

and geographically Gaya. where the Buddha attained nirvana. Here, however, it means rather the state implied by the locality, illumination, the essence of purificaIn tion, final sainthood' literally the quintessence of bodhi.' Christian language Golgotha (or the Cross) is similarly used in
' '

a metaphorical sense.

In living Tibetan f^C'^B^


'

understood as 'wisdom' but as saintliness, purity.' There is, it seems, a confusion in the group of Tibetan [and Chinese !] renderings of bodhimanda (bodhi-essence) and bodhimanclala (bodhi-round), and their synonyms, a confusion which may already have its origin in India itself. The treatment of these words in the Diets, is not satisfactor. J. and
not
S.

Ch. D. give

s.v.

^C'S^'STC'T

^
of

word as synonymous
S.

with
entry

ST-^-CT:^?' Vajrasana,
:

but under SJuT'Hf


spirit

Ch. D. has the


i.e.

^C*^^*5TC"CJ*
This
is

the

the

Bodhisattva,

Buddhahood.'
it

the sens? meant in our passage, though


reall

mav

be doubted whether fl'

stands here for


it

as S. Ch. D. interprets
for bodhi.

instead of only

The Mahavyutpatti
and

(A.S.B., p. 44) has

Bodhimanda

Cs. translates, "the essence of sanctity

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS

59

or holiness (name of the holy place at Gaya).' I yet believe that here a confusion of manda and mandala must be

thought

of.

J.

has

s.v.

C"Hj" (P- 19S6 )

'

snyin-po-byan

ciib-

(or byan-cub-snyin-po)-la mcis-pa, to become Buddha Thgy.' Rockhill. Life of the Buddha, p. 35 mentions the form byang;

tchub-kyi-snying-po as the equivalent for bodhimanda. and though Foucaux in the alphabetical index to his translation of
the Lalita Vistara gives only the form without
T\'

yet in his
is

text, in th.3 places I verified (p. 239, five times), there

the m* as

with Rockhill.
In mentioning the word

^g'cnr*' a

special

reference

must be made
has
'

to the element

^KdT commonly

translated as

J. is very detailed about it. He bolster, cushion, spat, rug, etc. a bolster, or seat composed of several quilts or cushions. put one upon the other (five for common people, nine for
:

people of quality).' Desg. simply 'stuffed cushion.' S. Ch. D. more general a low seat, a divan, cushion, a bolster.' As to J.'s definition my authorities declare that this may be so perhaps on the Ladakh side,' but is certainly not so in Tibet and in the Darjeeling district. They do not know about the details of five and nine cushions. They take the meaning far wider than bolster. or cushion. They say that anything used
'

'

to support anything or to seat


it

anybody may be

called

be a sheet of cloth, a carpet, a blanket, a cushion, a anything used for lying or sitting down on. The word has a meaning exactly opposite to the English cover and can consequently be used in as many varied senses

may

bolster, a seat in general,


'
'

as the latter.

Etymologically
' '
'

if

the root of ^K<3*

as

seems

probable, means
like
'

of
is

'

to support the word would mean something ' bearer,' basis,' bed,' floor,' upholder.' might think underwear though in English that particular word is used
' '

We

'

with quite another association of ideas. In typography there a word underlay which corresponds exactly to the meanThe word bedplate ', used in engineering, comes ing of *3V\3\
'

'

'

it. It will be easily seen how an applied meaning cushion, bolster,' if given as the general sense of the word, would in many cases be totally inadequate. The line of associations to which cushion belongs, and the line of associations to which seat, support, underlay belong, intersect at only one-

also near to

as

'

'

'

'

'

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


point and for the rest have nothing in

common.

A
it
/

table-cloth
f-S'cn^S"
is

may

be called

^^vX"
;

because the food rests on


'

used in this sense

lit.

something
In a ritual

like
it
is

food-sheet, that

on

which the food

rests

').

prescribed that the

ins*' for the offerings should be a spotless piece of white cotton


or other cloth, called fc^^'cnC**
' '

offering sheet,'
;

that on
'
;

which the offerings

rest

'

Bell has $Tcnc<5' for carpet


.

small

cushion, placed on chair ra'cnc^*

large cushion on ground

This

is

a most interesting example illustrating

the fact that it is strictly necessary first to find out the rootidea of a Tibetan word before translating it by words representing the incidental applications of that root-idea. Whoever has handled Chinese dictionaries knows how specially necessary this is in studying Indo-Chinese languages. The Sanskrit equivalent, asana, is derived from the root as, to sit or lie, but the Tib. root seems different.

Further notes on

^'vS*

Cf.

J.

5Tcn^<3k"

(pr.

magdan),
Cs.,

ground, basis, foundation, p. 409a.

Bell,

apron nr'CHCS;"

Grammar,
seat).

p.

170,

1.

10,

translates

^^vX"

as couch (stuffed
'
:

Lewin, Manual,

p. 123, first

word

last line
Cs.'s

mat, seat

',

in the

same sentence taken over from


for
J.'s

Grammar.

Two

synonyms
V

^'Cnc-?:*

quoted above, are

^rC'^^'

and

T"

Bell also has 'mat.'


50.

Seems simply an amplified form

for

Difficult to be translated exactly, Sk. maitrlkaruna, be treated as a compound, loving-kindness, love and kindOn the question of karuna. especially, the ness, or pity. jearned have descanted profusely.
'love.'

may

a(S*
}

k*
(

q*

r
j

>2.

Sk.

^l^.

unsurpassed, unex-

celled, unrivalled,

Not

supreme, incomparable, most high, highest. entered in J. but illustrated by an example s.v. 3" specially

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


Altogether absent in Desg.
S. Ch.

61

D.

g'&k'J-SJ^'flr

'to those-

who

are supreme, or to the followers of the Anuttara school. r


!

curious entry
*

See

S.

Ch. D. also

s.v.

J'cT

3.

Here perhaps better 'teacher' than 'priest' or

The word may be here equally well taken in the superior.' singular as in the plural, but the latter is perhaps more likely.
'

S"ST|3"CJ"

47.

'

Straight, upright, righteous mind.'


I

J.'s

entry

is

little

vague.

think he takes in his exampleSZTj^J*


is

Sjen^'enS'^r
form.

as an indication that en 5*^1'


is

also a honorific also


'

That, however,

not the case.


Ch. D.,

Compare

the

quotation from Cs. in

S.

T3'^J^"cni3k^'C]'

to be im-

I partial and straightforward, to be on the side of honesty.' don't find this example in Schmidt. Desg. straight, upright, (eleve,) just, honest.' According to the above the word is an adj and the translation of the passage becomes whether you
' '

persevere in a straight (righteous) mind.'

The verb

cn<3[^"]*"

has then to be taken as


'

'

to hold, adhere to, persevere in (an

opinion etc.)
also be sbst.
'

If

however, we should find that cns*^" can


'

righteousness

',

straightness,' (not in

any
'

Diet.),

then
reside

^TMj^sJ'^i*
'

would have the other meaning

of

to dwell,
'

and the phrase would have


to)

to be rendered

whether
D.

the

mind (continues

dwell(s) in righteousness.'
'

S. Ch.

renders ncn^j'cng'jq*

as

honest mind,' but the sense honest

is
'

versus dishonest seems not quite applicable in our passage. J vague here. My informants gave the above definition as their own but felt afterwards vague straight, upright
'

about this example which, though they had framed


could
'

it,

they

not

vouch

for

^"^' T|^'^^'

cn<3;^*SJ* c

Tj3;^* a?sI'^|cn'

keeps straight or not.' The framer honestly confessed that whilst we were discussing the word he had been influenced by S. Ch. D Diet, in coining the sentence a
see whether the
;

man

-62

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


it

confession so instructive for idiom-verifiers that I think while to record it here.


Finally, Desg. supports S. Ch.'s second
for
'

worth
'

meaning witness
S.

zj|3*CT

He, however, does not gives


for witness

Ch.'s

form

J?J"
(

The ordinary word


It
is

is,

of course,

I]"

characteristic of S. Oh. D. that he copies J.'s ex'

tract from Sch. under ZTI3*CCJ'

witness, mediator,' but then

immediately adds his own individual interpretation which not only is likely to be correct, but which also nullifies and contradicts the previous entry which he copied immediately above. He himself says, an honest and truthful witness.' It often occurs that S. Ch. D. brings modifications, extensions and even corrections to J.'s statements, but at the same time he copies J. far too slavishly and so contradicts himself in the pages of
'

his

own

dictionary.

Whether meanings
etc.,

like

'

reliable, straightCT|3*^J'

forward, correct, proper,'


is as

have to be attached to

yet uncertain.
8.

In Sk. Sumatiklrti.
;

According to
'

the Sk. dictionaries the primary sense of


lence.'

sumati
'

is

'

benevo-

In present-day Tibetan
CV
"N
I

3"J3C' is rather good-natured,


^*
'

kindhearted,' as against

*\6(*i$5k"fl'
's
I

benevolent.'

So the Tib-

etan

name has

to be rendered as Good-nature-fame, or

Famous

good-nature, the personal

name
-

of
(

Tson k'a pa.

S^'V
<0

$T

?ji*T 22

Not )

fallen

under the power

itof)...,.

an(^ c

lphon.

This word seems here hardly


'

song, singing tune,' but rather melody, melodiousThis tallies to a certain extent with ness, sweetness,' etc. Csoma's translation of the title of list LXI (p. 86) of the Mahavyutpatti, Names of the 60 sorts (or divisions) of melody or melodious voices (or vocal sound).' I take it that this list refers to what is mentioned here in our text. How these 60 branches of melody are exactly to be understood I have not been able to ascertain. The opinions of P'un Ts'ogs on .the point are as follows. The Buddha's voice had such a
to
'

mean

'

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


)

63

qualities, sixty in number, that they made variety of (magic ? him understood by all beings, whatever their own languages. The Buddha was in this way simultaneously understood by

men, devas, nagas,

etc.

In proffering this explanation P'un

Ts'ogs takes &J<X*qsn" to

mean

rather

'

kind

'

than

'

branch.'

As an

alternative he suggests that


ev
'

^qC$J"

is

an adjective

synonymous with ^C*q

'

high

(as applied to voice or rather


? ]

tone) [or perhaps long, lengthened


*

and that then

^qC^T
I

would mean a

'

variety' of tones or modulations.

myself am inclined to think that if the Mahavyutpatti list is not referred to, we have here to do with some scholastic scheme of rhetorics, though if so understood the exact value of
"

is

clear

and certainly not

sufficiently defined in the

Diets.
(Cf.

s.

ch.

D.

s.v.

aq-

(P.

ioo2a),

aq
^C'

'

a deep voice, a musical tone.'

See also

see

'

see
see
-qj^aj'

aqcn*
"
'

6.

Here

'

'

solitude, Avilderness

and so= ^*ra5* =

monastery.'
'

Not

associated with
Cf. S.

any

of the

mean-

ings connected with


s.v.

pasturing.'

Ch. D.

C^gqrcq|3j"

Qgq|- B The famous Galdan monastery was erected on a


See
S.

site

called aHqri'cf S'^*

Ch. D.,

The Monasteries

of Tibet,

J.A.S.B., Vol.

I,

N.S. (1905), p. 108.

64

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

see

see

see

^' ^9
^A
swift(ly).'
'

52.

J.

tt^'T

adj.,

and
Desg.
'

"^3

SJ^' ^ N5 ^O
I

adv.,

'quick(ly),
"

In Mil. adj.

g^-Hf
X0

g^' ^0

and

g^'q*
s^

(^

subst.

promptness/ and $J^*q*


NB
S.

swift.'
'

As adv. jj^'q^;
>o

or Z' or 3^1*
>9

Ch. D.

5J^>"^* verb,
NB

to hurry by, to pass

on
[

swiftly,'

(example S^'SJ^'q* 9 'time quickly runs away.' ^7


x3
*^9

= tempus

fugit]),

and adv. quickly.


in S. Ch.
Cv

Further adv. cW^X"


xa
<o

Some

interesting
etc.

compounds

D.

JI^'SJ' 'a dancing

^
s*

woman,'
sible,' J.

Note the expression ^"5^^* 'as speedily as pos-

According to
is

my informants
It

S.

Ch. D.'s example ^^T^I^"^"


N9 S*
f

not good Tibetan.


*
'

should either be

sr^]*5^'J"

or
'

15*

lit.

time

is

quick,' or with another

meaning

also

the

time
^

is

near'

(i.e.

at hand, coming quickly), or again sr^'^a^'

^__ q*^*'the quick

N*

time.'

Time quickly runs away, they


:

saj

should be expressed thus


Cf. also
'

ST^'^j^'q^'Q^rTTZTm^cn"
-3

N3

^3

Desg.

SJ^^T
N

see

g^' ^^
Here
'
:

^'

after only, as a result of only, in con-

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


sequence of only, mere, simple.'
:

05
also the

But g$T has

mean-

ings simply on (hearing), on the slightest (reproach, etc.) with a more prominent stress on the time element, instantaneousness
,

as soon as

see

see

see
'

see

>5.

q^" s=qg-q'

vb.

'

to love,' sbst.
'

'

love, kindness,

affection,' etc.

Desg. has also a


informants.
held,

qg"

acidity.'
'

which

is

also

known
Dalai
for

to

my
'

His q-F'^Q*
of

bodyguard

of

the

Lama
X?

is

by one

my

informants, to be a mistake

"5C' (pronounce

tsl-dung), the

monk -employees

of the

Tibetan government (and


staff,

in a narrower sense: the clerical the clerks and secretaries amongst them) as contrasted with the lay-employees of noble birth (not officials in general as with S. Ch. D. 656a, but only those belonging to the nobility)

who

are called

*o

jvC'C^pX*

*
.

The word g"

in the

compound

is

said to be derived from the designation of the Potala palacn

where many
is

of the

government

offices are located,

and which

called

af'q'^'QJ*

the Potala peak, but most commonly, by


'

the people, briefly


as a genera] class of

the peak.

This explanation of tsl-dung


is

lama government-employees
'

wider than
Mysteries,'
in S. Ch.

that given in Waddell's table in his


p. 165.

Lhassa and

its
'

See also
(1013&),

"C'

'

chief clerk or secretary

D.

s.v.

"(3*

the latter being the special

name

of the

former's hat.
-

see

66

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


Equals

g^q-,24.
;

qgafq^'s-qzealous

(or

to apply oneself,

exert oneself, put one's best energy into


'to be
diligent.'

something'

= 5-1C;"^^'B=v'q'

Also

ekQJ*

28.

Here 'conduct, behaviour' pure and simple.


c^'

without allusion to the


monastic
rules.'

<3&f2J*rQ3^^J"

religious law. discipline,

see

53.

Here technically the (thirty-two) characteristic


'

signs or marks of a Great Man,' the patti (Ed. A. S. B.), LXII1, p. 92. Bouddhique Sanscrit -Chinois,' no 3.
3.

mahapurusha.

Mahavyut'

See de la Vallee Poussin,

'

Harlez, Vocabulaire Schiefner. Triglotte/ no. Bouddhisme,' pp. 241 et seq.


'

De

The

transition of

meaning

of the

word

3^^<5" in
'

modern

Tibetan in such expressions as 3^<-^^'3<5*3*5^'


'

a holy lama,' or
'

"^' D.) should

woman

of

good appearance and virtues


interpretation

(S.

Ch.

not be overlooked in the


its

of

our

passage for

psychological value
see

See also JN|"

53.
elliptic

This

is

a compound
'

substantive of an

nature,

and means

the [well

known 32 primary]

characteristics [and the 80] beauties [of


7

See also
SJcEyS" is
'

and

r 30.

here hon. of

5J*

'name,' and
'

the compound, literally name grasping,' means ambition, thirst for fame, glory,' etc. (D. eerzucht, roemzucht), perhaps even vainglory, pride, conceit, egotism,' i.e. the hugging of one's own name and fame.
'

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


7.

67
to address a prayer

-S'^J",

To invoke by name,

to

by name.

Applied to both spiritual and


'

human

beings.

{SOJ'| (^5J<3fe'q*:^*q"
direct, appeal to the

to address the king, speak to the king.

king/ but always by calling him by his

name.

'

king help

me

'

is

not a proper example of S^SI*

but

'

0, thou, King George, help

me

'
!

would be one.

spiritual beings their names may be expressed in a paraphrase, metaphor or symbol, but they must be expressed in some way. The prayers to superhuman beings ma}7 be twofold, either an address containing requests, etc.. or a mere litany of names without any further subject matter attached The one is a recitation of names, the other a direct to them. address by name the one a litany proper, the other an invocation or prayer.

To

19-

The form

S^'O^P^'q^sI*

was paraphrased

to

me

as q;^q'cn"3^clJ' q'cn"3^clJ'

= ^5^'5^'^C" 5^'5^'^C"=

simple future, 'not

going to seek' (D. niet zullende zoeken).

--

see
^

(CT)
^* see
'

(^-ST

Jee

see

see

3q*
'

10 55.
;

aq'=3q*q*
'

J.

vb., adj., subst.

and adv.
Desg.

to be deep, deep, deeply,

depth

adj.

3q'q* and

]'

68
3^J'J* and

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


$J" adj. only.

S.

Ch.

I).

3q*J*

vb.

'

to

make
5^*

deep,

to deepen,' also adj.

and

sbst.

further in

J*

and

only adj.

Note the additional meaning 'dense'


in S. Ch.

(also 3^J$J" 'thickness')

D., not in the


;

two

others.

My
'

teachers deny that

3q*ZJ* can be a verb

to deepen,' or
'

to

make

deep.'

3q"
etc.).

must
See

also be understood as also

'

profound
also

(wisdom, teaching,
Sl'l'
etc.

S*T3q',

^JpSI*.
see
etc.

^Slpl'lf f
see

'g'
'

see
55.

='jsjq^'q- or
S.

'

"H

wide, large.'

Desg. also
J.
'

'

ample, abundant.'
C.,
'

Ch. D. only

}C^'q*

Note

mig

van'*,

W.

liberal,

generous, bounteous,' but Desg.


envious, covetous, greedy.'
'

U^C54*q"
D.

wide -eyes

In

S.

Ch.

a handsome woman, UsJC^'q^'IjEir =f^lM^t, large- eyes,


of a Goddess.'
Of. also in the

name
'

same

diet.

As

beautiful-eyes, a very handsome woman, a nymph's name.' to J.'s mig-yan, one of my teachers holds with him as

against Desg., the other does not


see

know

the expression

see
(

^3^^'
\

q|W$|

8,
it

15,

16,

18.

'

Father (and) sons,'


'

or,

as

Csoma already has

in his

Grammar,

p. 28,

teacher and

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


pupils.'

69

With the addition Ej^Sq*

'

three,'

and also as here

without this addition, a very well known appellation of Tson k'a pa and his two pupils (his spiritual sons). It is likely that to the Tibetan mind the expression means something like 'spiritual family (of three),' namely of one father and two sons.
See introductory remarks. Free renderings like spiritual trio or teacher triad and the like are apt enough for practical pur'
'

'

'

poses.
"

Of an expression
'

like the following

where have you two, father and son, come from


'

'

(But the sentence has also the second meaning where do you live ? where is your home ? '). In the light of the above, has the note on p. 98 of the J.A.S.B., Vol. II, N.S., no. 4, 1906, in Satis Chandra Vidyabhusana's article on the Gyantse rock inscription to be rectified ? My informants do not think that the expression is used among the Sakyapas in the sense given in that note.
'

'

r see
-

see

'

see

*l
^

^C'OTS'

(*!')
'

C^fej'^T

26>

This expression must here

not be understood as to follow one's


is

own

teaching.'
is
:

^C"J^<S*
they who

here not one

compound word.

The meaning

themselves follow the teaching, as against the c n35j"^^^\"^I*


oifoXJ'
the
others

who

(also)

follow the

teaching.

See

*s

see
-

Q^q|-

and

see

Qq- and

see

70

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

^T*pgfpwripr
^C-gsee

see

qorsr

^51
see

5*I'^'
?'
see

y
o-

"^^^C*
see

^-*
'

see

'Sr see
"

31.

'

The

high, elevated road/

has a re-

ligious connotation, the proper road that leads to heaven after death, the 'narrow' road of Christianity. See below.

"J* 48.

The

straight road (metaphorically), the


Of. S. Ch.

road of righteousness, of straightness of mind.


s.v.

D.

JK*QJ$|"

p. 649a.

The meaning

of this expression

and that

of ^l^'i^JSJ^"^*

^ne 31

(see above), are quite different.

The

other

is

the highroad (towards heaven), the road of a high

standard of moral conduct.


:

Q$q-;^,!*

9-

Steps on the path/

'

degrees of advance,'

steps towards perfection,' is the short title of many mystical writings and especially of one by Tson k'a pa, to which the words may allude here without specially designating it. In this place the meaning does not seem to be a specific work but
'

merely

(religious)
'

instructions,

teaching

in

general.'

The

are here, according to

my

oral information,

to be taken as the

two halves or divisions


divided into

of the
jnf]^J*

Kandjur
sutra and

which

is

commonly

and 5J^*

tantra (or mantra, or dharanl).


tantra section
is

In this division the


all

AC*
N5

or

called

5^34*

whilst

the rest, properly sub-

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


divided in six divisions,
is

71
of

taken together as

|"^*

which the

real Sjk'ST or sutra-division (the


jur) is only one.

5th in sequence in the Kand'

Concerning Tson k'a pa's study of the


'

Sutras

andTantras

'

see S. Ch. D.,

Contributions, etc. on Tibet,' VI, in


I,

J.A.S.B., 1882, Vol. LI, Part

no. 1, p. 53.

J.,s.v.
etc..

qwsj',
the same

quotes a qsj<3k"^|*Enft5T
as

'

with Urgyan Padma,


v.

mdoi and snags kyi lam,


expression.
42.
J.

mdo

extr.'

This

is

seemingly the

same as our

CW33T
may

has

= *sj5f^'3**
all

'

beings, creatures,' but


;.

not the idea rather be

embodied creatures

with the

etymological sense still potent in connection with the Buddhist reincarnation theory
?

S.

Ch. D. gives a f^TS&'ZTI-S^J'

= an~*p^"
certain

=
'

'

town,
'

citj

,'

which seems rather to point to the meaning

man

for t^^'-S^'

My

informants don't

feel quite

whether to include the

five other classes of beings

(including

animals) amongst the ftJ^'xS'V


interpret the

Du ^ are somewhat inclined to

word as
see

'

man,' in general.

j*

JTJ"

NJ

^'^-JI*

title, 1.

The author

writes his

poem

in a

place to the west of a snow-capped mountain, to the east of

which the Galdan monastery


\'

is

situated.

See notes on
or

c^qcn*

and

^^'^'RS'S'*

Which mountain

moun-

tain chain

that

is meant must be left undecided, even if granting modern cartography could show it if identified. Local tradition, however, would most likely be able to point out a

particular mountain.

'

see

72
see

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

'

38.

This expression cannot yet be ex-

plained with certainty. It may be taken here to mean, literally. to send out (distribute, give, put forward) justice, right,' but the exact idiomatic value of the phr ise remains to be determined. It is not in the Diets., and unknown to my informants. We may take the possible values of the expression as three,
'

viz.:
'

i.

qi^qi^'qg^q^^'^'g^'CI^^^*^"^^
This seems the same
'to hold contro-

to dispute, argue, contend with words.'

expression as S. Ch. D.'s


versy,' p. 1248.

p'Z^ncn2^*ag*|*
'

(Perhaps also

to challenge, to be challenged

to dispute.')
in dispute, to

2.

srOJ&'asjgq'q' 'to be defeated in argument.


in dispute.'

be silenced

3. = 'To make observations to, to remonstrate with, to use plain speech to, to speak straight to, to rebuke, to reproach, * to to tell one the truth.' (Cf the entry in J.'s *k'a kye 6e abuse, to menace (p. 976.)') This seems the sense required here and would be a logical development of the primary meanto spread out the justice (right) of the ing of the expression case before someone,' i.e. to submit the truth about it.'
'
:

'

S.

Ch. D. has s.v.

ra*qmqi$J' = n'^C'

'

using rough lanDiets, lack

guage, controversy, discussion, dispute.'


this word.

The other

is the result of an exhaustive discussion of the with my teachers. Lexicographically (with a view expression to the entrv quoted from S. Oh. D.) the first explanation seems the best, but with reference to the context, the last one deserves preference, and this is the one chosen for the rendering. It should be noted that in modern Tibetan there seems to

The above

be taking place a shifting of the meaning of sn.nqi^'


of as
' '

Instead

it seems to be understood by some modern the arguing about right or justice as in a court of law, and hence simply as 'dispute, argument, pleading.'

right, justice
'

Tibetans as

'

Example

'
:

This

is

not the place to argue your rights,


*J^V
C
)

|Z3^'

or
(

""*"

Ht/ to hit out

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


for the right,' the verb
'

73

meaning

'

to

do

(zSJ'

for verb*

loquendi) arguing

ZTVACn^"

q*nC'a<?" 38.

'

Literally
J.

speak-listen,' has
in the

two meanings.

The
(s.v.

first,

quoted in

from Schmidt
fut.

form of

Q^^s'CJ* pf.
'

and
'

q Nqff*\

is

endorsed by

my

infor-

to listen to an explanation (also, to a sermon, discourse. to answer upon hearing,' i.e. to answer is, (in invective, hotly, in remonstrance or dispute) upon hearing (reproaches or unpleasant words).' If a mother chides her son for some fault, he may. instead of taking the rebuke in humility, try to argue or to be impudent in return. The

mants,
etc.)

The second

mother then may say


"
'

Don't argue, dispute, bandy words with


to,

(don't be

impudent
'

but

(3 ZT'OJ^J"

"no words with me!") your mother. listen on the contrary, instead of this rather,
'

to me.'

The expression may be rendered as


yap
back.'
*

'

to flare

up

in

answer
to snap,

(to a reproach), to retort angrily (after

admonition).

41.

'Friend' and, as

J.

has

it,

abbr.

for

=
'

virtue-friend.
'

Here interpreted by my informants as true, genuine priests or monks, monks who come up to the mark, worthy of the name,' but not technically as spiritual adviser' as J. has it.
Desg.
it

s.v.

q^ictevj*

quotes only a form with SteS* and


title.'

gives

the meaning

'

doctor, a lamaistic

Under ^]^3T

how-

ever, he has

q^^'cn^:*
S. Ch.

ad scientiam adjuvans. monastic


D. adds
<

dignity, teacher.'

pious or holy friend, spiri-

tual friend or adviser.'

Compare

also J. for the semi-homo-

nm
|'

see

10

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


*rr see

a&ISJ&]V3C' and

JZ*

54.

Here

'

'

speech

in general,

not

'

a speech,' a

slight extension of J.'s meanings, unless his use of the definite article in the speech' is a lapsus. The diets, differ slightly and need co-ordination in details. About the meaning there can be no doubt as the word is here used in the series (hon.)
'

for

speech and mind, the so-called


see 5jcn^*5j'
ZTJ^JC*^'
?

'

three doors.'

10.

Here

is

the sense of

'

to preach, to explain,

to give an 'exposition of, to expatiate on, to exhibit, to lecture


on.'

see
'

12.

Inconceivable, unthinkable, unimagin-

able, not to

be grasped by or in thought, beyond comprehen-

sion; realisation.

^SW^'S^'q^^ST-Bc
softens the
'
'

4.

The

repetition
'

of the verb

meaning into
'

quietly thinking
',

or from

to think,' into

to muse, to ponder
see

etc.

F.

ADDITIONAL NOTES.
'

In
to, for

1.

10 the

Q^*

might also be understood as

with a view

the purpose of, explaining, expounding.' The translation should in that case rather run With a view to expounding the profound (Buddhist) doctrine, they preached, ex:

plained, most fully, minutely, in full detail, Yoga and the other teachings (or the various kinds of Yoga) of the two stages of

the road
to
;

QJ"

has then the force of


is
'

with regard, reference

as far as ...

concerned.
'
:

ought to be more emphatically rendered until the very moment that, i.e. I shall not cease a moment before. Or else till I reach the very heart of saintship. See
1.

In

17 the

till

s.v.

May all those is more correct than Maj^ all unlike in the three preceding verses wliich are adyou ', dressed to his pupils, the author now utters a universal prayer addressed to mankind in general. Note to p 2. Waddell, Lamaist Graces before Meat, J.R.A.S., 1894, p. 265, says that the libation is sprinkled with the tips of the fore and middle fingers. This is denied by my informants who maintain their statement as given on p. 2,
In
1.

49

'

'

'

of

for,

above.

To

p. 4.

After the Introduction was in print I have seen

a copy of the

CCHQ '^(T'^'^^'J^'

'

The Galdan Century

of

Gods,' and had it copied for me. It is a small prayer-book to Tson k'a pa, who manifests in a hundred different forms, and

contains 18 four-lined stanzas of 9 syllables each, with the single exception of the stanza quoted in the Introduction. which contains five lines. This little book is the one mentioned in the Hor chos byuri and text p. 246). (Huth's translation, p. 387 see note 5 Huth gives as Sk. equivalent for the title Tushitadevac,atika. Galdan (Tushita) is here the heaven of that name, not the famous monastery. The stanza we are dis ussing is also menit
,
:

tioned in the same passage.

Its

name

is

^^n^I'^^'SJ"

(The

unfathomable love

verse).

able theological importance.

This Dmigs brtse ma is of considerI possess a commentary on it

76

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


Lama.
Mytho.sketch

written by jrq3C*qf^GJ'q3C"OT"JeS* ' the seventh Dalai ^t


I

^^

Grunwedel,

in the list of Dalai

Lamas on

p.
'

206 of his
Tibet, a.
.

'

logie,' etc., writes SQJ"ffl<X*

and Rockhill,

in

derived from Chinese sources,' J.R.A.S., Vol.


series, 1891, p. 287,

XXITI, new

Since, I have also found that this same stanza, with a modification, occurs on the title page of Sarat Chandra Das'

edition of the

sq^rq^^'(Zr.Q"

(Bibl. Ind.).

The stanza
of

as

there given consists of six lines,


line to

by the addition

an

initial

i.e.

the Thunderbolt-bearer, Vajradhara.

In another

little

work, the
'

The illuminator

of body,

speech

and mind concerning the order of inviting, lustrating, making obeisance to and worshipping (Tson k'a pa),' the stanza occurs
once more, again in a different form.
There,
p.

96, the

prayer

is

as in our Introduction,
etc.)

but

lacks the third line

fJ55*5q*
instead
of

and ends with


in

r
second
line, this

so

QsrqQqq$|'

the

text writes

I am informed that the prayer occurs also in many other books with modifications, and that when it is used in connec-

tion with ra^J'q*


>o
j'

or

lustration

'

rites the closing

words after
'

are changed into

3jl

JZ3$J"ZTI^(ir

we baptise

thee.'

To
a

p.

17.

S.

Ch.

D,

p.

490

b, s.v.

cnftVq-q* mentions

medicinal root, used against the plague, called

(without zhabs-kyu), but transcribed Icags kyu.

To

p. 23.

Huth,

Hor chos byun,

trs

p. 117,

renders

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


'

77

as daka. also on p. 118 (see note 4).

On

p.

231 (see

note

1)

he suggests that

Jj'srr

should be understood as

dakini

= 5jraQ^Q^yT$j'
all

not. as Sk. daka.

The dge-rgan under-

stands

Though according
5jraa*(^2TT
is

these three passages as referring to (female) dakinls. to Griinwedel ( Mythologie,' p. 153) in Sk. a male daka exists (a Tantra deity), in Tibet the mythology
'

always feminine, and a male species or individual

does not exist according to my informants. This statement needs testing of course. Griinwedel (loc. cit.) thinks that these female dakinls are original Tibetan spirits or goddesses. The

female

U^'^^'^jraR/Q^"
final
]*

's

are mentioned indifferently with or

without the

Macdonell in his Sk. Diet, only mentions


In the ritual book

the feminine form of the word.

" The six cut


description

off

of
:

pieces" (i.e. chapters, divisions, into which the the torma offering is divided) we find the
;;

apostrophe
fairy,

m'3^"3T^'C\r^^'m'^ra^*Q^ $r = not-human) mother," so supernatural


(

"

0, wisdom

defining the

sex.

In Tibetan the form JjroQ/Q 3]' must accordingly not be


its

understood as a masculine form of 5qraQ"(^qTI* but as


breviated form only.

ab-

This without prejudice to the question

whether in special Tantrik texts a male god Daka, sqraQ'Qcn*


does occur.
S.
'

Ch. D. has for ,jraQV2cyr an entry giving the meanings

god, bird, arrow.'

cal

Here the word has a poetical or metaphorisky-goer,' but no meaning based on its etymology,
'

mythological

value.

He adds under &|pQ^crr}*


But the form
is

'

a class.

mainly of female
masculine.

spirits.'

in 3^'

cannot be

In Tibet there

a class of people called c5^'*' ?


translated as oracles.

both male and female, whose

name may be

78

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

shamans or mediums.
<5^riiZ"
's

They

are

deemed

to be obsessed

by

who speak through them

whilst they themselves

are in a state of trance or obsession.


in

Their

name

is

Lhassa and other' greater towns, and amongst the more educated but the country-people and the lower orders have a special name for these mediums if they are women and call
;

them

-a'fl^'SJ* or Jjra'Qrn'^J*
is

In Sikkhim the word In Sikkhim the designa-

3^raQ *Qcn*5^"

general in this sense.

tion for a male

medium

of this sort

is

CO '"

and not

as in Tibet.

Whilst investigating the question of Khandomas from the standpoint of colloquial Tibetan I stumbled unexpectedly on the following interesting piece of information, throwing a vivid sidelight on some current beliefs and practices of modern Tibet. The abbot of the Saskya monastery is held to be the reAs the latter was the great incarnation of Padmasambhava. binder,' that is subduer, of all spirits, witches, goblins and other creatures of that ilk, the Saskya abbot has in some way become the official head and master of all Tibetan witches. Belief in witches is rife all over Tibet, and any woman is liable The process is very simple. If a great to be declared one. Lama receives obeisance from the multitude he presents the
'

devotees in return with a protection-knot '/2y*J^jr*

'

a narrow
'

'

vji

Ordinary laj'men receive a white strip, tapas or those who have their hair cut short (probably because they look like tapas) get a yellow or red strip, but if a woman approaches whom the Lama by his magic knowledge recognizes as a witch, she From that moment she is irrevocably receives a black strip. a witch and no protestation can help her out of the situation. In the Saskya monastery an annual feast or ceremony is celebrated in which all witches must appear personalty, and the magic then displayed is so tremendously powerful that all women who are secretly endowed with the powers of witchcraft without the people knowing it, are irresistibly compelled to attend the meeting. They simply cannot help it, and so stories are told of witches working in the fields, milking cows, or otherwise engaged, being drawn away from their work and appearing in the assembly with their milk-pail, or spindle, or
1

He ties a strip of cloth which he puts round their necks. in it muttering some mantram over it, hence the name.

knot

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

79

whatever utensil the}* were using at the time at any work. when they were forced to quit it and to come to Saskya. In the meeting they are then officially proclaimed witches and forced to pledge allegiance and obedience to the Saskya monastery and its head. Then the profitable and practical side of the transaction becomes manifest, for henceforth they have to pay an annual, heavy witch-tax, and in cases known to Karma himself
,

who came

across

them when

living in Tibet, this tax

amounted
year.

to one

"cfo* (s^e Bell, p. 104) or about Rs. 120 a

On the other hand they are now protected by the authority of the monastery as long as they pay the tax. though they have to pledge themselves not to use their powers for
evil.

Then they

receive the official title of

^'^'^raa'Qcn*

though they are known to the people as Q^Q'&J* witch.


this latter

But

word

is

a term of abuse or contempt.


is

The meaning
entries in the

of the

two terms, however,


Q^Q'SsJ' and
CJ'

the same.

The

diets, s.v.

(and other spellings) need proper

These witches are supposed testing in the light of the above. not to live up to a great age but to die young, because the monastery calls them out of life to become protecting spirits of When a bamo dies, her the monastery in the invisible spheres. daughter, if she has any, inherits the office or quality of the mother. These bamos, during life, follow the ordinary occupations of women buying, selling, working or marrying, and their bamo-hood seems to be no drawback, in itself, to their matrimonial prospects. I heard of the case of a bamo who was But the tax, far in excess of the wife of a very wealthy man. any levied on ordinary people, must be regularly paid. If the bamo does not pay her tax, the monastery calls her soul and
:

she dies.
is

In

frhe

gompa

for every accredited

Q^Q'JJ" there
have not been

^^*

or stuffed effigy, puppet, of

which

able to get a full description. Probably a stuffed doll or body, with a mask and garment, perhaps only a stick to hold the

Each such up, like in a puppet-show. becomes the dwelling-place of the soul of a dead bamo when she dies, and in order to see to it that after death she may not do harm whilst roaming about, the puppet is bound in chains. Horrible to say, however, sometimes these chains are found broken by the guardians, and this is a sure sign that the imprisoned soul has escaped from the puppet
puppet

mask and garment

80

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

its dwelling place-and that it may have started on As soon as it is found that such a pilgrimage of evil works. an imprisoned witch-soul has escaped, solemn notice is at once sent out to all Tibet to the effect that a bamo-soul has broken loose from Saskya, and the various local Lamas all through the country warn their flocks that a bamo is at large and enjoin them to be careful not to fall a victim to the wandering witch. So, for instance, they are told not to go about alone after dark, not to entertain strangers, and the like, for the bamo may assume any disguise, and any man may fall a prey to the snares of a beautiful strange woman, as any woman might be

which was

allured
in

by an unknown man. The late Lama Sherabgyamtsho Ghoom, whose name is so well known to all students of Tibetan, used very often to make solemn announcements of this nature and warn the Ghoom people that a bamo had

escaped from Saskya A most fitting ending to this story is perhaps to be made " bv quoting the old Buddhist formula Thus I have heard,"

but there

is

no doubt that the word

Jffia

acrr$|' acquires an

new meaning through this curious tale. There is a belief prevalent in Tibet that in every woman a touch of bamo-hood is latent (some philosophers, also outside Tibet, seem to think the same ), but in the night of the 29th day of the twelfth Tibetan month, this seed of evil will maniThe male Tibetans, however, seem not to take fest most fully. any precautions or perform any ritas to counteract the sinister influence of this date. Evidently it is a male Tibetan who first set up this theory, and it might be the same fellow who is the author of the following proverb which bears on our subject and on the words we are dealing with. It runs
interesting
! :

Amongst a hundred women (at most) one khando Amongst a hundred men (at most) one sorcerer That is khando being here used in the good sense of Amongst many women there is scarcely one extremely fairy good, but amongst many men there is scarcely one extremely
! !

bad. In fact, in Tibet, all women are suspected of having just a little seed of evil (of the witch) in them. Arid so the term of reproach is not as in Europe Old Adam but rather Old Eve.' As far as the above story is concerned, it should not be forgotten that it is only a popular version of an interesting
'

'

'

phase of religious practice., but Tibetan casuistry and theology are as a rule so subtle and well-systematised that a more

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


theoretical exposition of the doctrines

81

might throw considerably more,


the subject.

if

and practices alluded to not other and new, light on


1.

To
etc., is

p. 25.

The quotation,
little tract,
'

s.v.

l'

16

from a

a prayer to Padmasambhava, entitled

J'

the quick mind-fulfiller.'


ft"
(

Top.
ridiculous

25. Cf. Lewin, pp. 133-134, no. 97-10, qi(ac-cnc'


;

),

X3

zhed-ked, laughter, ridicule.


26.

To

p.

"E^'q*

Bell, voc., to

blush

Lewin,

p.

77 (64-

5), ridiculous.

See his example.


S.

To p.

30.

Ch.

I).,
'

Diet.,

has Tr^TT (hidden on

p. 34,

out of

alphabetical order) as a Tibetan of mixed breed, i.e. born of a Chinese father and a Tibetan mother.' Waddell, Lhasa and its Mysteries, p. 214, the same explanation. A special enquiry One of my into this point, however, yielded a different result. informants was a Tibetan woman from Lhasa who had herself married a Chinaman there, and so ought to know. The halfbreeds referred to by S. Ch. D. and Waddell are called bai'

zhin,' spelling uncertain, given as qfl|'CJ(S<3:'

and

qQ

*(3<3J"

said to

be a Chinese word.

same word was

However, another explanation of that given, as a man not in the pay of, not taking wages from, another. Not necessarily rich or of high position,

but independent. Perhaps something like crofter. This latter explanation is, however, contradicted by Karma who has relations amongst the baizhins in Tibet. In a Tibetan mixed marriage such as we are here considering the custom
is

to call the elder son TI*

T[*

after the Chinese

manner, instead of using the Tibetan word.

This

is

^J'ET in

Tsang and
sometimes
cho-cho, as

g-'E;'

in Lhasa.
V
*Sy
'

The

latter

is

pronounced, and

written,
if

{5* -5*

and even sometimes pronounced

written {S^TtS*
elder brother.'

But

in the

above case TT TV

means
is

'

really

girl,

born in such a marriage,

similarly called $J*5|"

Chinese, instead of {)'<'

Tibetan

11

82

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


Whether
5^*5^' is

These terms do not mean half-blood.

used

for the eldest daughter alone or for all the daughters of the marriage I could not ascertain. It is said that every Chinaman, however humble, becomes

at once a personage of importance

when

in Tibet,

and demands

to be addressed at least as CCJ&'CI* Mister, Sir (as every Euro-

pean becomes automatically a Sahib


insulted
if

in India),
T["

and
^TV

feels quite

addressed by the more familiar

as a liberty

taken with his dignity. A Chinaman from Tibet, however, denied this. I remember once travelling in the Sunda country with my Javanese writer who met several people on the road whom he knew and whom he saluted as little brother or I was puzzled at his belonging to so big a elder brother.' family, but found the solution of the riddle when I understood that this fraternity was not one of consanguinity at all. So elder sister amongst Tibetans means only Madam, Lad}r or a polite word of address to any woman of more than low status in life. In German Miitterchen for any old woman of simple
' ' '

'

'

status.

To

pp. 35-37.

The expression mS'^qSC'l^'qqiarq^' ^ 6


>J
'

'

(3f occurring

in the little prayer-book

CjaC'^jV

can h ar(^y

a field ( = heaven, world) which Kuntuzangpo has adorned' (beautified, decorated, embellished), in the sense in which one may decorate a house or room, with beautiful picthe It must surely be understood as tures, furniture, etc. heaven blazing with the glory of Kuntuzangpo's presence in In other words, he it,' a heaven resplendent with his glory. adorns it by his mere being there, but not as the result of some activity expressed by a transitive verb. The world is adorned, but has not been decorated or beauti6ed. I wonder if the agen-

mean

'

'

tive case
like
for
c
:

|$|*

may

be understood as in English expressions


'

happy through him,' joy,' and the like.

blazing with diamonds,'

'

laughing
i

To
S.

p. 40.
s.v.

See the

unusual explanation of

K$2SJ*C]"

Ch. D.,
said.'

OT

III,

where he translates x$$JX]Q^ as

'it

may

be

The dge

rgan, however, paraphrases the expression

here as

Qjq-q--

or

OWSfCVT,

or

W*T?f

which gives

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.


'
'

83

so it has been said,' so is the another meaning, namely In this sense the teaching,' that is what has been taught.'
it
:

'

previous words are a direct quotation and the 52;4*JQ.' cannot

be translated as

'

it

may be

said that.'

To
(e5*IC*

p. 40.

In the note to

^qp^^ for

wow-attachment and indifference only in connection

with a negative.

To

p.

44.

Q'Q'

See

Graham Sandberg.

Tibet and the

Tibetans, p. 268, who renders this word, as a technical term denoting the first of the four stages of meditation, according to Milaraspa, as contemplation or concentration.' The second word, denoting a mental action unconnected with visual exAs in English view has perience; does not seem appropriate.
'

'

'

'

'

both a physical and a mental meaning, so in Tibetan ^'CJ*


as
'

a verb, has mental connotations.

J.

has the word as sbst.


is

mystical contemplation.'

The

Sk. equivalent, 2"7jf

like-

wise both physical and mental in meaning. Whereas J. and a look,' S. Ch. D. have a sbst. fy*^" the act of looking,' and
' '

Desg. has

it

as

'

'

sight

(visus, vue,

"

etc."

).

To
^]*

p. 58.
p.

See Jaschke's note on

manda and mandala,

s.v.

116.

His remark

may have

a bearing on the ques-

daka and dakinl, discussed above. See next note. pp. 59 and 60. My informants, though ignorant about the detail of five and nine cushions, do know of a custom requiring the man of higher social position, greater age, more The prestige, to be seated on a higher seat as a sign of respect.
tion of

To

difference of height, however, is in the seat itself, not effected by the placing of a number of cushions on seats of equal

height.

To
cloth,

^n^sS" still

the two following words

j*'OTsr,g:*

saddle

and

pq'qir:^'

second sheet, upper sheet, covering sheet

over the (qqoj-qir*-

The oaj'OTMT

is

usually thick and

rough but the ra'cnc*' thin and of

finer texture, like in

Euro-

84

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

pean beds the bed sheet over the mattress.


is for

The

softness

and the ra'cnc**

for cleanliness, like the loose

covers of armchairs and sofas in Western countries.

To
stitutes

p.

62.

the

Huth, Hor chos byun, trs. 117, note 4, reconname Bio bzan grags pai dpal into Sk. Matibha-

In Tibetan mantrams, however, where Tson k'a given in its Sk. form, Sumati is used and not Matibhadra. See also p. 5 of the Introduction, supra.
draklrtigrl.

pa's

name

is

To

p. 64.

The word r^qi^j-^rhave been discussed

(p.

and additional note


Desg. alone has the

to p. 4) should

there.

meaning

of the

word as in pur text

unthinkable, unimaginable.

According to oral information, synonymous with


1.

^^W^'R^T

12, see p. 74, supra.

The elaborate

entries in J.

and

S.

Ch. D. under this word

and under ^$J rn$J"CJ"$I'Srr need

investigation.

The word C$qq|^'|' has


'

also a special meaning, not in

the dictionaries, in connection with

any action
(

done

'

in

thought,' C5qq2^*q*nsr*q' (as in English

am

with you in

in thought,' hand-blessing to you all pointed and angry pilgrim answered:

thought'). But Tibetans can not only be present in thought but they can give presents in thought,' and do all sorts of things in thought,' when there is no physical possibility of doing so in the flesh. So the good story is told of a lazy Lama " And now I who, to get rid of the crowd, said give my "
'
' :
'

whereupon a disap-

you
1

my Jbutter-offerings, " in thought.'


To
p. 65.
r
J'

which

"Well, then I give have brought with me, also

The

dictionaries spelt

]*^'O|*

but the dge-rgan


spell-

says that
'

QJ* also occurs.

Desg. has an alternative

-V~

^
but this seems a misprint for
5*

^~
j:2*pj*
is

ing

C|*2*(SJ*

In Tibetan

books

have only seen

but the dge rgan


3*
\

sure that the two

spellings, 3*

and

5* (but

not

occur as well.

a,

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

85

To the text. When the larger part of this booklet was in print I acquired an additional copy of the text, which proved to be different from the two editions used by me. It is of the same size and style as edition A, but printed from other blocks.

We

call it

C.

The copy

worn-out blocks.

is a poor one, badly printed from collation brought no news of importance.


!

The reading
tion.
Its

C^'^sJ'

16,

however,

is

confirmed by this ediQ.


(

only

new reading

is

Q<-&C"^^" for

5C"^ a\"

in

1.

46.

This reading does not seem so satisfactory as the one we have followed. The full result of the collation is given below. Indistinct readings are marked with a note of interrogation.
Cs*

Cv

C.

1.

13.

Q^<3J*qd* ?

for

1.

18.

1.24.
i.

29.

r^-spr
1.

30.

1.41.
1.

44.

1.

46.

1.50.

1.51

Colophon.
i
i

S3

desunt.

The

variants of

11.

30, 41,

50 and 51 are evidently due to


is

deterioration of the blocks.

There

no

in this edition.

86

MINOR TIBETAN TEXTS.

ERRATA.
p. 7
p. 8
:

first

variant, bottom, read

'

1.

20 of text, insert asterisk after


:

^5"

p.

second variant, bottom, read


13: teacher (or: teachers). 14 his (or: their),
:

RROJ"

p. 14,1.
p. 14,
p. 25,
1.

11:
1.

for render read: repay.


:

p. 27,

20

for
:

render read

p. 27, ets.
1.

27, 28

repay. eliminate the commas outside the brack:

p. 36, p. 65, p.

1. 1.

for
:

Smuck

read

Schmuck.
:

24

for

Lhassa read
!Q>

Lhasa,
in$J' 13 lustrate.

76, 1.24: for PKTCJ'


1.

read:
:

p. 76.

25

for baptise read

16583

PLEASE

DO NOT REMOVE
FROM
THIS

CARDS OR

SLIPS

POCKET

UNIVERSITY

OF TORONTO

LIBRARY

Manen, Johan van Minor Tibetan texts