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A document prepared for or by a government agency which is published and distributed for public information such as 1. circulating letters 2. memorandum 3. contract etc

Materials prepared by post graduates students after doing research work or experimental investigation on something. The research then written in specific format and handed over to the supervising lecturers / professors for grading. Quality of the thesis is given greater emphasis and students are awarded with Masters PHD when successful. Every thesis is summarized as dissertation abstract. This is meant for distributions and references

Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language (the "source text") and the production, in another language, of an equivalent text (the "target text," or "translation") that communicates the same message. Translation must take into account a number of constraints, including context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, their idioms and the like.

A conference paper is a working paper written by a seminar paper presenter. It is an important primary source of information which is produced by an expert or specialist in one field. Conference paper needs to follow certain guidelines and procedures

A set of exclusive right granted by a state to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention An official document conferring the exclusive right or privilege to the proceeds of an invention. Temporary monopoly given by government to inventors to use, sell the invention for several years Purpose of patents is to prevent copyright infringement on individual creativity and discoveries by other organizations


An established measure of quantity and quality, a precise statement of criteria necessary to ensure that a product, material or procedure is fit for the purpose for which it intended. Prepared by committees of members from industry, consumer organizations, trade unions and government representatives. Constantly reviewed and updated

Also known as scientific report is a document that describes the progress or results of technical or scientific research, or the state of a technical or scientific research problem. Often prepared for sponsors of research projects. Become a major source of scientific and technical information. They are prepared for internal or wider distribution by many organizations, most of which lack the extensive editing and printing facilities of commercial publishers.

A term audio visual may refer to works a sound and visual component, the production or use of such works, or the equipment involved in presenting works. Movies and television shows are examples of audiovisual presentation

Also called as non-conventional literature comprises scientific and technical reports, patent documents, conference papers, internal reports, government documents, newsletters, fact sheets and theses, which are not readily available through commercial channels.