Sunteți pe pagina 1din 104


Partial Recovery of Inconvenient Truth

Part I



Many people follow their faith out of traditional upbringing, ignorance, fear, or both. Whereas,
journey to the Horizon of Reality is emancipation from the shackles of religious domination and
exploitation. This journey is not for the faint of heart, nor the automaton, but it is for the bold
seeker of truth that burns within oneself and which cannot be silenced, no matter what price and

In our quest for the truth, we must never be afraid to question for not to question is slavery of the
mind on the altar of ignorance. It is the greatest irony that men and women live and die enslaved
without ever peering beneath the surface of tradition, without looking for the truth. We could have
lived and died as slave to ideas we had cherished much of our life and we had taken time to look
beneath the surface of those beliefs and chose to examine the evidence in search of the truth.

One cooling season of 1947, peer of Bedouin shepherd on daily routine
pasturing along the steep northwestern shore of Dead Sea, curiously
unearthed non-essential looking finds to them. Emerging just
aboveground enough to attract attention, harden earth containers with
several manuscripts written on papyrus and leathers became one of the
most sensational finds of the millennium.
Scrolls antiquities rendered about first century BC, most likely older than
oldest known Hebrew version of the Old Testament, the Aleppo codex .
The first seven-finds were almost complete manuscript of the "Book of
Isaiah", Society Manual of Discipline, several rules and rituals devoted to

strict religious discipline living in imminent expectation of the end of the
World in which they alone would be seen as the chosen people. Later finds
included copper plague (as shown) detailing temple treasures and several
fragments, which may compose entire medieval library, deliberately
hidden for the future mankind retrievals.
Below the caves, a stump of Roman Fort Khirbet Qumran built about 125 BC most likely the center
of Essene Society or itself the Essene Monastery.
Cave at Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls

High on the slope of the cliff over looking the ruined of Roman Fort, one of the undisputed 20th
century archaeological finds that may lead to the partial discovery of truth. However as mute and
meek witnesses of the past whose historical virtue is being suppressed by ambiguous faiths for
the sensibility and explosive testimonies that shall overturn the ruling of the present dogmas. In
Human Rights Principle, a deliberated non-publication of archaeological finds, as a form of theft to
humanity and in the case of Dead Sea Scrolls shall provoke a major international outcry.
A scenario of layman’s approach in deducing the credibility of traditional
faiths and to broaden our horizon to the reality of an ambiguous dogmas
that stir the world into confusion. Indeed this is blasphemy in some
quarters for science updates and ancient testimonial facts shall be a head
wind to classical beliefs those were founded on hearsay, evolving through
generations and strengthen by religious anathema. Should someone shall
project in bringing forward to the open mind of humanity the basis of

rational creed, breaking through the barrier of religious ambiguities and
realignment of mankind to the reality of coveted truth is fairly inevitable.
The world needs transcendental realism in order to give peace a chance.
On this behalf, reader’s reactions can be reconcile on several Ancient
Historical references e.g. the books of E. Roystin Pike, Edward Ashcroft
which deals with factual ancient history. The translation of the “Dead Sea
Scroll”, Bible as History with Archaeological Finds and other ancient
historical references as well as science literatures on Earth’s origin and its
occupants. On these initiatives, we may pool ideas on how to behave in
our Planet.
The Early Pseudo Religious Cults
The Zoroastrian religion began in Iran with prophet known Zoroaster,
whose origin were not known nor what century he lived. Scholars believe
that Zoroaster lived sometime between the 13th and 6th century BC.
Zoroaster brought monotheism to Iran worshipping one god Ahura Mazda
over the pantheon of Iranian gods.
Orphism is the teachings of an ancient Greek philosophical cult that
exerted great influence on Greek culture, and later on Western mysticism
and occultism. It began in the sixth century BC, and is attributed to the
mythical Orpheus. The chief teachings are of reincarnation, a Greek
version of Karma, a history of the universe which was formed by Cronus
who formed an egg and created the first king of the gods -- whom Zeus
supplanted and fathered Dionysus -- the divine child. Other teachings are
that the body is the prison of the soul, animals were not to be killed or
eaten, the good were to be rewarded while the evil were to be punished in
Nether World, and teachings of self-denial and seriousness in religious
matters. Apollo was the kinder god who demanded purification and
righteousness. Orphism had a great impact on alchemy.
Mithraism is the worship of Mithra. The original source of the cult is
unknown but argued to be of Persian, Indian or Chinese origin. It has been
called an offshoot of Zorastrianism but that is also contested and not
much literary evidence of the cult has survived. According to Persian
legends, Mithra was born of a rock and a virgin mother called the "Mother
of God" and was first attended by shepherds. Mithra was called "the Light
of the World." They believed in a heaven and hell and the dualism of good

and evil, the final days of judgment, the end of the world as we know it and
a general resurrection. Long before Jesus, December 25th was celebrated
as the date of Mithra's birth. Mithra was also associated with the sun, and
his followers marked Sunday as his day of worship, they called it the
Lord's Day. A few of the extra-biblical traditions seem to have found its
way to Christianity through Roman Mithraism.
Among the milder ceremonies of the followers of Mithra were baptism in
holy water and a partaking of a sacred meal of bread and wine. After
passing several ordeals the converts were "reborn" as a new man in
Mithra. Though Mithra had ascended into heaven he had promised to
return and bring life everlasting to his loyal followers.
Mostly all the similarities of Mithra to Christ, there were some scholars
opined that Christianity came from Mithraism. For a time, the two religions
co-existed together and even competed with each other but Christianity
survived. The same time, there could be prophetic questions here in
prefiguring the true Son of God that would come later. There had been
many Messianic types of Christ in the Jewish scriptures (David and
Joseph for example) and God may have been telling Gentiles also, but this
is merely conjecture and there are other religions with the same
similarities. The Wise men from the east who visited Jesus were said to be
The dogma has great similarities to the New Testament upon a closer
examination of Mithraism. They were a secret society and had graded
membership but women were excluded. Mithra is one of many gods and
they had a separate priesthood called "Fathers."
Judaism - the subject of the Hebrew Bible is an account of the Israelites'
(also called Hebrews) relationship with God as reflected in their history
from the beginning of time until the building of the Second Temple (ca. 350
BCE). This relationship is generally portrayed as contentious, as Jews
struggle between their faith in God and their attraction for other gods, and
as some Jews (most notably and directly, Abraham, Jacob -- later known
as Israel—and Moses) struggle with God. Modern scholars also suggested
that Torah consists of a variety of inconsistent texts that were edited
together in a way that calls attention to divergent accounts
Christianity was a by-product of Essene teachings and principles being
propagated by the followers of Jesus of Nazareth. The name of this

organization was just incidental during their fled from persecution and
settled in Antioch when local people keep calling them Christians. Those
all begun when Jewish nationalists tried to subvert the Roman authority
and cracking down of rebels where Jesus was a known leader.
Zoroaster and Zoroastrianism
There is no certainty at all about the period in which Zoroaster lived. Some
say that Zoroaster lived about 6000 BC. Others maintain that he flourished
in the middle of the seventh century B.C.
Zoroaster was the greatest prophet among the ancient Iranians. He took
his birth in order to establish the worship of Ahura Mazda, the Supreme
Lord of the Universe and to fulfil the Divine Mission. His own original
writings, the precious Gathas in the Avestan language, indicate that he
was a God-intoxicated person.
Zoroaster’s father was the venerable Porushaspo and his mother
Dughdhvo. Zoroaster was born in the west of Iran in Takht-e-Suleman in
the district of Azerbaijan. He was a direct descendant in the royal line of
the house of Manushcihar, the ancient King of Iran.
The Prophet of Iran is known to his followers as Zarathustra. (Possessor
of yellow or old camels. ‘Ustra’ means camels.)
When the Prophet of Iran was born, nature rejoiced. The trees, rivers and
flowers expressed their joy and delight. The demons were frightened. As
soon as the child was born, he did not cry like an ordinary mortal. He
made a loud laughter. Many angels and archangels came to adore him.
Zoroaster’s family name was ‘Spitama’, which means ‘White’. Zoroaster
had two elder brothers and two younger brothers.
The birth of Zoroaster was miraculous. The glory of Ahura Mazda
descended from heaven and entered the house of the future mother of the
prophet. When she was pregnant, archangels came to her and worshipped
and praised the unborn child.
Zoroaster married three times and had many children. His first wife had
one son and three daughters. The youngest daughter Pourucista married

Jamaspa, who was the uncle of Zoroaster’s third wife. Zoroaster had two
sons by his second wife.
We know very little of the early life of Zoroaster. Even when he was a boy,
he showed great wisdom. He argued with wise men and censured the
Demons and evil spirits tried to kill him. The Turanian King Durasrobo also
tried to kill the child, but the life of the prophet was miraculously saved by
the all-merciful Lord.
Zoroaster developed dispassion when he reached age of sixteen. The
objects of the world lost all attraction for him. He despised all mundane
pleasures. He rose above all sensual cravings. He showed intense love
and compassion for all living beings
Zoroaster left his home at the age of twenty and wandered from place to
place. He led a life of purity and righteousness. He roamed about in
forests. He lived alone in caves and mountain-tops. He controlled his
tongue and subjugated his other senses. He was very abstemious in his
diet. He spent his time in calm meditation.
Zoroaster experienced Samadhi or communion with Ahura Mazda, the
Supreme Lord of the Universe, on the top of Mount Sabatam. He had
prophetic divine visions. He conversed directly with Ahura Mazda and
received the wisdom of the Lord. He received seven revelations from
Ahura Mazda. At the age of thirty, he came out as the Prophet of God. After
receiving the divine light of revelation, he became the renowned
messenger of Ahura Mazda.
Several archangels helped Zoroaster in the spiritual path. Archangels are
divine messengers of the highest order. They are the attendants of Ahura
Mazda. They correspond to the Siva-Ganas—the attendants of Lord Siva;
—and to Jaya, Vijaya, Nanda, Sunanda, etc.—the attendants of Lord
Vishnu. They are the guardian-deities or the Lokapalas of the world.
Zoroaster had direct conversation with these archangels.
Vohumanah is the archangel of good thought. He is also the presiding
Lord of domestic animals. He appeared before Zoroaster and helped him
to cast off the physical sheath and directed his soul to the supreme abode
of Ahura Mazda. Ahura Mazda Himself gave instructions to the Prophet

and imparted divine wisdom to him. Zoroaster obeyed the commands of
Ahura Mazda.
When Zoroaster was coming down from the celestial abode of Ahura
Mazda, he was terribly attacked by the evil force Ahriman, the Satan of
Zoroastrianism. Ahriman wanted to kill Zoroaster, but Zoroaster’s spiritual
powers saved him. The Prophet became the master of all demons after
conquering Ahriman. He began to preach again.
Zoroaster experienced a second vision. The same archangel asked the
prophet to take great care of the animals and to protect them.
Then Zoroaster conversed in his third vision with Asha Vahishta, the
archangel of righteousness who is the presiding Lord of sacred fires. The
archangel commanded Zoroaster to protect the sacred fire and all fires.
Zoroaster conversed with Khehathra Vairya, the archangel of good royalty
who is the presiding Lord of metals. The archangel commanded the
Prophet to take care of the metals. Then Zoroaster conversed with Spenta
Armaith, the archangel of modesty, who is the presiding Lord of earth.
Then he conversed with Hauravatat, the archangel of health who is the
presiding Lord of the waters. Lastly, he conversed with Ameretat, the
archangel of immortality who presides over plants.
Zoroaster had a perfect knowledge of the celestial hierarchy of gods
through these visions. Zend Avesta, which is the Bible and the Gita of the
Parsis, contains the wisdom which the Prophet received from Ahura
Mazda, the Supreme Lord.
The divine experiences of Zoroaster are similar to the experiences of
Satyakama Jabala of the Chhandogya Upanishad. The Wind-God, the God
of Fire, the Sun-God, and Varuna or the presiding Deity of the Waters
imparted divine wisdom to Satyakama. Archangel Vahishta is the Fire-God
or Agni of the Hindus. Archangel Hauravatat is Varuna of the Hindus.
Zoroaster disliked the Kavis and the Karpans, who were the chiefs of the
demon-worshippers. The Karpans were devoted to rites and ceremonies.
They were addicted to the use of Homa, the intoxicating drink, in their
religious ceremonies. The Prophet tried to convert all the demon-
worshippers, the evil men and women and their chiefs, viz., the Kavis and
the Karpans. The Kavis and the Karpans were the priests. Naturally, all

orthodox priests are opponents of broad reforms. Zoroaster failed in his
Zoroaster traveled from place to place. He went to India and China, but no
one received his message in the beginning. He first converted his own
cousin Maidhyoi-madnha. This disciple remained faithful to Zoroaster till
the end of his life.
The Kavis and the Karpans, the learned priests of the courts, poisoned the
ears of Vishtasp, the Sovereign of Iran. They intrigued against the Prophet
and accused him before the king of being a sorcerer. They persuaded the
king to put him in prison to die of starvation. Zoroaster remained in the
prison for sometime and was saved by the Lord.
The favorite black horse of the king fell ill. Its four legs were drawn up into
its belly. Zoroaster sent word to the king that he would cure the horse. He
imposed four conditions, which the king readily accepted. Vishtasp had to
accept the new faith. He had to consent that his son Isfendiar would
defend the new faith. Zoroaster was to be allowed to convert Queen
Hutaosa. The king had to reveal the names of all those who had plotted
against Zoroaster and punish them. When each leg of the horse came out,
each of the four conditions was granted by the king.
The king, in turn, demanded that four conditions of his should be accepted
by Zoroaster. First, the king wanted to know his final destiny and his place
in heaven; second, he wanted that his body might become invulnerable;
third, he desired that he might have universal knowledge; and lastly, the
king wished that his soul might not leave his body until the resurrection.
Three archangels appeared before the king and the queen and dazzled
their eyes. The king and the queen trembled at their sight. They heard the
voice from the light which said that they had come at the command of the
Lord to show the king and the queen the glory of the religion of Zoroaster.
King Vishtasp was convinced. He was also convinced of the supernatural
powers of the Prophet. He fell at the feet of Zoroaster, accepted his creed
and worshipped him as the Prophet of Iran. He experienced a glimpse of
heaven. The archangel Ashavahishta gave the king nectar to drink. The
queen and other chieftains, and also the brother of the king, and
Frashaoshtra, the father-in-law of Zoroaster, became devoted followers of
Zoroastrianism. The new faith spread far and wide with the help of the

royal patron. The masses also accepted the new faith. Zoroastrianism
became the religion of the Iranian Kingdom.
The success of the new religion became the cause for two bitter religious
wars between Iran and Turan. Zarir, the brother of King Vishtasp and the
king himself defeated the enemies. Zarir played a wonderful part. He was a
formidable hero in the war. His gallantry was beyond description. But he
was treacherously slain by a poisoned spear hurled from behind by
Vidrasfsh. Aryasp, the Turanian king, promised to give his daughter in
marriage to Vidrasfsh for doing this horrible, ignominious act.
Bastwar, the young son of Zarir, a mighty hero, who might be called a
Maharatha, who was equal in strength to Bhishma, killed Vidrasfsh and
defeated Aryasp.
King Aryasp again invaded Iran eighteen years after his defeat. He
destroyed the temples, killed the priests and burnt the Zend Avesta. In the
second war, the hero was Ispendiar, the son of King Vishtasp. He defeated
Aryasp, drove him out of Iran and killed him.
The Prophet of Iran was praying before the altar in the temple of Nush-
Adar with a rosary in his hand. A Turanian, Bratrok-resh by name, killed
the prophet with his sword.
Zoroaster threw his rosary at Bratrok-resh. A fire proceeded from the
rosary. It fell on Bratrok-resh and destroyed him. Zoroaster died at the age
of seventy-seven. Thus the glorious Prophet of Iran, the great messenger
of Ahura Mazda and the founder of Zoroastrianism or the religion of
Mazda-worship passed away.
Zoroaster did many miracles. He carried out the behests of the angels. He
protected the fires and the cattle. He healed the sick and restored the sight
of a blind man. He had a great reputation as a scholar and physician. He
established many fire-temples. He spread the new faith all over the
country. He suppressed the worship of demons, witchcraft and sorcery. He
drove pestilence and removed national calamities and disasters. He cured
diseases, counteracted the noxious creatures and brought abundant rain
on earth.
Zoroaster was pious, noble and compassionate. His message was the
noble message of high moral life which paves the way for the attainment
of immortality and eternal bliss and the doctrine of the God of

Righteousness or Ahura Mazda. "Love the righteous. Have compassion for
the distressed." These constitute Zoroaster’s main ethical teachings.
Mithra and Mithraism
An old-Iranian god of light, contracts and friendship. He also maintains the
cosmic order. Sometimes mentioned as the son of Ahura Mazda, he
assists him in his struggle against the forces of evil, represented by Angra
Mainyu. Mithra was born from a rock (or a cave). He fought with the sun
and managed to capture the divine bull and slayed it before he ascended
to heaven. From the blood of the bull came forth all the plants and animals
beneficial to humanity.
With the emerging of Zoroastrianism, he was reduced to the status of
Yazata. In the Avesta he was portrayed as having ten thousand ears and
eyes, and he rides in a chariot pulled by white horses. In the 4 century
BCE his popularity rose and again he held a high position in the Persian
pantheon. Eventually his cult spread beyond Iran and Asia Minor and
gradually became a mystery cult. The ascetic religion of Mithraism (to
which only men were allowed) became increasingly popular among the
Roman soldiers around 100 CE and at that time Mithra was known in Rome
as 'Deus sol invictus' ("the unconquered sun"). Even the Roman emperor
Commodus was initiated into Mithra's cult. When Constantine the Great
was converted
to Christianity in 312 CE, Mithraism started to decline and after a
temporary revival under Julius the Apostate (331-363) the cult disappeared
for good.
Mithra was worshipped in Mithraea, artificially constructed caves that
represented his birth-cave. The ceiling looked like the starry sky and at the
sides benches where placed for the ritual meals. In the center of the
Mithraea was a niche which held a relief of the god, dressed in Phrygian
clothing (short tunic and cloak, long trousers and a hat with a curled tip),
who kills a bull. The Mithraea were spread all over the Roman empire and
some 50 of these caves still exist in Rome today.

Mithraism is the ancient Roman mystery cult of the god Mithras. Roman
worship of Mithras began sometime during the early Roman empire,
perhaps during the late first century of the Common Era (hereafter CE),
and flourished from the second through the fourth centuries CE. While it is
fairly certain that Romans encountered worship of the deity Mithras as
part of Zoroastrianism in the eastern provinces of the empire, particularly
in Asia Minor (now modern Turkey), the exact origins of cult practices in
the Roman cult of Mithras remain controversial. The evidence for this cult
is mostly archaeological, consisting of the remains of mithraic temples,
dedicatory inscriptions, and iconographic representations of the god and
other aspects of the cult in stone sculpture, sculpted stone relief, wall
painting, and mosaic. There is very little literary evidence pertaining to the
The Deity: Mitra, Mithra, Mithras
Mithras is the Roman name for the Indo-Iranian god Mitra, or Mithra, as he
was called by the Persians. Mitra is part of the Hindu pantheon, and Mithra
is one of several yazatas (minor deities) under Ahura-Mazda in the
Zoroastrian pantheon. Mithra is the god of the airy light between heaven
and earth, but he is also associated with the light of the sun, and with
contracts and mediation. Neither in Hinduism nor in Zoroastrianism did
Mitra/Mithra have his own cult. Mitra is mentioned in the Hindu Vedas,
while Mithra is is the subject of Yashts (hymns) in the Zoroastrian Avesta,
a text compiled during the Sassanian period (224-640 CE) to preserve a
much older oral tradition.
Eastern Origins of the Roman Cult
The precise relationship between the Roman cult of Mithras as it
developed during the empire and the Mitra and Mithra of the Hindu and
Zoroastrian pantheons, respectively, is unclear. The theory that Roman
Mithraism had its roots in Zoroastrianism was first put forward by Franz
Cumont, a Belgian scholar, in his two-volume publication Textes et
monuments figurés relatifs aux mystères de Mithra in 1896 and 1899.
Cumont compiled a catalogue of every known mithraic temple, monument,

inscription, and literary passage relating to Mithras and claimed on the
basis of his study of this body of evidence that Roman Mithras was,
ultimately, Zoroastrian Mithra.
Cumont argued by extension that if Roman Mithras had Iranian roots, the
cult of Mithraism must have originated in the eastern provinces of the
Roman empire and spread westward with legionaries in the Roman army,
merchants from eastern provinces (often lumped under the broad
misnomer "Syrians"), freedmen in the imperial bureaucracy, and slaves.
Cumont himself recognized possible flaws in his theory. The most obvious
is that there is little evidence for a Zoroastrian cult of Mithra (Cumont
1956), and certainly none that suggests that Zoroastrian worship of Mithra
used the liturgy or the well-devoloped iconography found in the Roman
cult of Mithras.
Moreover, few monuments from the Roman cult have been recovered from
the very provinces which are thought to have inspired worship of Mithras
(namely the provinces of Asia Minor). Finally, Cumont was aware that the
earliest datable evidence for the cult of Mithras came from the military
garrison at Carnuntum in the province of Upper Pannonia on the Danube
River (modern Hungary). Indeed, the largest quantity of evidence for
mithraic worship comes from the western half of the empire, particularly
from the provinces of the Danube River frontier and from Rome and her
port city, Ostia, in Italy.
To explain this phenomenon, Cumont proposed that soldiers stationed in
western provinces and transferred to eastern provinces for short periods
of time learned of the deity Mithra and began to worship and dedicate
monuments to a god they called Mithras when they returned to their
customary garrison. It is true that soldiers from the Roman legion XV
Apollinaris stationed at Carnuntum in the first century CE were called to
the East in 63 CE to help fight in a campaign against the Parthians and
further to help quell the Jewish revolt in Jerusalem from 66-70 CE.
Members of the legion made mithraic dedications back in Carnuntum after
their return from these campaigns, possibly as early as 71 or 72 CE. Once
these Roman soldiers and the camp-followers of the legions, who included
merchants, slaves, and freedmen, started to worship Mithras, argued
Cumont, their further movements around the empire served to spread the
cult to other areas.

Cumont's scholarship was so influential that it founded mithraic studies
as an area of inquiry in its own right. Cumont's student, Maarten J.
Vermaseren, was a scholar equally as prolific as his mentor. Among
Vermaseren's greatest contributions was an up-dated English language
catalogue of mithraic monuments (Vermaseren 1956, 1960).
Structure and Liturgy of the Roman Mystery Cult of Mithras
The Roman cult of Mithras is known as a "mystery" cult, which is to say
that its members kept the liturgy and activities of the cult secret, and more
importantly, that they had to participate in an initiation ceremony to
become members of the cult. As a result, there is no surviving central text
of Mithraism analogous to the Christian Bible, and there is no intelligible
text which describes the liturgy. Whether such texts ever existed is
unknown, but doubtful. Worship took place in a temple, called a
mithraeum, which was made to resemble a natural cave.
Sometimes temples were built specifically for the purpose, but often they
were single rooms in larger buildings which usually had another purpose
(for example, a bath house, or a private home). There are about one
hundred mithraea preserved in the empire. Mithraea were longer than they
were wide, usually around 10-12m long and 4-6m wide, and were entered
from one of the short sides. Roman dining couches, called klinai or podia,
lined the long sides of the mithraeum, leaving a narrow aisle in between.
At the end of this aisle, opposite the entrance, was the cult image showing
Mithras sacrificing a bull. To enhance the resemblance to a natural cave
the ceiling of the mithraeum was vaulted and often had crushed pottery
adhering to it to imitate natural rock. Sometimes the ceilings were pierced
with holes to let shafts of light in. The cave was intended to recall an event
in Mithras' life and also to symbolize the dome of heaven, or the cosmos.
We surmise from the structure of mithraea and from paintings which are
preserved in certain mithraea that mithraists gathered for a common meal,
initiation of members, and other ceremonies. The details of the liturgy are
uncertain, but it is worth noting that most mithraea have room for only
thirty to forty members, and only a few are so large that a bull could
actually be sacrificed inside.

The structure of the cult was hierarchical. Members went through a series
of seven grades, each of which had a special symbol and a tutelary planet.
From lowest to highest these grades were Corax (raven, under Mercury),
Nymphus (a made-up word meaning male bride, under Venus), Miles (the
soldier, under Mars), Leo (the lion, under Jupiter), Perses (the Persian,
under Luna, the moon), Heliodromus (the Sun's courier, under Sol, the
sun), and finally Pater (father, under Saturn). Those who reached the
highest grade, Pater, could become the head of a congregation. Because
mithraea were so small, new congregations were probably founded on a
regular basis when one or more members reached the highest grade.
Two aspects of mithraic initiation offer important insight into the cult.
First, it was possible for a mithraic initiate to be a member of more than
one cult, and second, women were not permitted to become members.
These facts are critical to understanding the cult of Mithraism in relation to
other Roman cults, to official Roman state religion, and to the cult of
Mithraic Iconography
Mithraic monuments have a rich and relatively coherent iconography,
chronologically and geographically speaking. In each mithraic temple
there was a central scene showing Mithras sacrificing a bull (often called a
tauroctony). Mithras is clad in a tunic, trousers, cloak, and a pointed cap
usually called a Phrygian cap. He faces the viewer while half-straddling the
back of a bull, yanks the bull's head back by its nostrils with his left hand,
and plunges a dagger into the bull's throat with his right.
Various figures surround this dramatic event. Under the bull a dog laps at
the blood dripping from the wound and a scorpion attacks the bull's
testicles. Often the bull's tail ends in wheat ears and a raven is perched on
the bull's back. On the viewer's left stands a diminutive male figure named
Cautes, wearing the same garb as Mithras and holding an upraised and
burning torch. Above him, in the upper left corner, is the sun god, Sol, in
his chariot. On the viewer's left there is another diminutive male figure,
Cautopates, who is also clad as Mithras is and holds a torch that points
downwards and is sometimes, but not always, burning. Above Cautopates
in the upper right corner is the moon, Luna. This group of figures is almost
always present, but there are variations, of which the most common is an

added line of the signs of the zodiac over the top of the bull-sacrificing
For a long time the meaning of the bull-sacrificing scene and its
associated figures was unclear, but a long series of studies beginning with
one by K. B. Stark in 1869 and culminating in studies by Roger Beck (1984
and 1988), David Ulansey and Noel Swerdlow (1991) has revealed a
comprehensible astrological symbolism. Each figure and element in the
scene correlates to specific constellations, to the seven planets
recognized by the ancient Romans, and to the position of these in relation
to the celestial equator and the ecliptic, particularly at the time of the
equinoxes and the solstices.
The bull-sacrificing scene is usually carved in stone relief or painted on
stone and placed in mithraea in a visible location. In addition to this
central scene there can be numerous smaller scenes which seem to
represent episodes from Mithras' life. The most common scenes show
Mithras being born from a rock, Mithras dragging the bull to a cave, plants
springing from the blood and semen of the sacrificed bull, Mithras and the
sun god, Sol, banqueting on the flesh of the bull while sitting on its skin,
Sol investing Mithras with the power of the sun, and Mithras and Sol
shaking hands over a burning altar, among others. These scenes are the
basis for knowledge of mithraic cosmology. There is no supporting textual
Mithraism Geographically, Socially, and Chronologically Popularity
The archaeological evidence for Mithraism, consisting mostly of
monuments, inscribed dedications, and the remains of mithraea, indicates
that the cult was most popular among the legions stationed in frontier
areas. The Danube and Rhine river frontier has the highest concentration
of evidence, but a significant quantity of evidence amply demonstrates
that Mithraism was also popular among the troops stationed in the
province of Numidia in North Africa and along Hadrian's wall in England.
The inscriptions on dedications found in all these areas support Cumont's
assertion that Mithraism was most popular among legionaries (of all
ranks), and the members of the more marginal social groups who were not
Roman citizens: freedmen, slaves, and merchants from various provinces.

The area where the concentration of evidence for Mithraism is the most
dense is the capital, Rome, and her port city, Ostia. There are eight extant
mithraea in Rome of as many as seven hundred (Coarelli 1979) and
eighteen in Ostia. In addition to the actual mithraea, there are
approximately three hundred other mithraic monuments from Rome and
about one hundred from Ostia. This body of evidence reveals that
Mithraism in Rome and Ostia originally appealed to the same social strata
as it did in the frontier regions. The evidence also indicates that at least
some inhabitants knew about Mithraism as early as the late first century
CE, but that the cult did not enjoy a wide membership in either location
until the middle of the second century CE.
As the cult in Rome became more popular, it seems to have "trickled up"
the social ladder, with the result that Mithraism could count several
senators from prominent aristocratic families among its adherents by the
fourth century CE. Some of these men were initiates in several cults
imported from the eastern empire (including those of Magna Mater and
Attis, Isis, Serapis, Jupiter Dolichenus, Hecate, and Liber Pater, among
others), and most had held priesthood in official Roman cults. The
devotion of these men to Mithraism reflects a fourth-century "resurgence
of paganism," when many of these imported cults and even official Roman
state religion experienced a surge in popularity although, and perhaps
because, their very existence was increasingly threatened by the rapid
spread of Christianity after the conversion of the emperor Constantine in
313 CE.
Mithraism had a wide following from the middle of the second century to
the late fourth century CE, but the common belief that Mithraism was the
prime competitor of Christianity, promulgated by Ernst Renan (Renan 1882
579), is blatantly false. Mithraism was at a serious disadvantage right from
the start because it allowed only male initiates. What is more, Mithraism
was, as mentioned above, only one of several cults imported from the
eastern empire that enjoyed a large membership in Rome and elsewhere.
The major competitor to Christianity was thus not Mithraism but the
combined group of imported cults and official Roman cults subsumed
under the rubric "paganism."
Finally, part of Renan's claim rested on an equally common, but almost
equally mistaken, belief that Mithraism was officially accepted because it
had Roman emperors among its adherents (Nero, Commodus, Septimius
Severus, Caracalla, and the Tetrarchs are most commonly cited). Close

examination of the evidence for the participation of emperors reveals that
some comes from literary sources of dubious quality and that the rest is
rather circumstantial. The cult of Magna Mater, the first imported cult to
arrive in Rome (204) was the only one ever officially recognized as a
Roman cult. The others, including Mithraism, were never officially
accepted, and some, particularly the Egyptian cult of Isis, were
periodically outlawed and their adherents persecuted.
Mithra and Christ
Most of the research into Mithraism, a religion with many parallels to
Christianity, comes from two writers, Cumont and Ulansey with a variety of
other writers input. Some similarities between Mithraism and Christianity
• Virgin birth
• Twelve followers
• Killing and resurrection
• Miracles and healing
• Birth date on December 25
• Sunday as lord’s day
• Morality
• Mankind's savior
• Known as the Light of the world
• Symbolic taking of bread and wine for body of god
• And etc.
Have you ever wondered why December 25th was chosen to celebrate the
birth of Christ? If the accounts in the Bible are correct, the time of Jesus
birth would have been closer to mid-summer, for this is when shepherds
would have been "tending their flocks in the field" and the new lambs were
born. Strange enough there is an ancient pagan religion, Mithraism, which
dates back over 2,800 years that also celebrated the birth of their "savior"
on that date.
Many elements in the story of Jesus' life and birth are either coincidental
or borrowings from earlier and contemporary pagan religions. The most
obviously similar of these is Mithraism. Roman Mithraism was a mystery
religion with sacrifice and initiation. Like other mystery cults, there's little

recorded literary evidence. What we know comes mainly from Christian
detractors and archaeological evidence from Mithraic temples,
inscriptions, and artistic representations of the god and other aspects of
the cult. In an EAWC (Exploring Ancient World Cultures) essay entitled
Mithraism, Alison Griffith explains Cumont's theory of a Zoroastrian origin
for the Roman Mithraist religion.
While this theory is disputed, there was a Mitra in the Hindu pantheon and
a minor deity named Mithra among the Persians as well. Cumont came to
believe the religion spread westward from Eastern Roman provinces.
However, as Griffith explains, there is little evidence of a Zoroastrian
Mithra cult and most evidence for Mithraic worship comes from the
western portion of the empire from which Cumont correctly deduced that
"Mithraism was most popular among legionaries (of all ranks), and the
members of the more marginal social groups who were not Roman
citizens: freedmen, slaves, and merchants from various provinces...." No
women were allowed.
The Dawning of the Age of Aries
The main problem with basing Mithraism on a Zoroastrian cult is that there
is no evidence that the Zoroastrians' Mithra practiced bull killing, the
central aspect of Roman Mithraic iconography. An image of Mithras killing
the bull holds pride of place in each mithraeum (cave-like temple for the
worship of Mithras). Ulansey believes the images of Mithras slaying the
bull are actually astronomical star maps.

In support of this he points out that all the figures represented in the
iconography have a place in the constellations (Taurus, Canis Minor,
Hydra, Corvus, and Scorpio). He says that the other iconography and even
the initiation ceremonies are consistently astronomical. Mithras' place as
bull-slayer has cosmological significance because, if Ulansey is right,
Mithraists attribute to their god the ability to shift the equinox from the
constellation of Taurus to Aries: His killing of the bull symbolizes his
supreme power: namely, the power to move the entire universe, which he
had demonstrated by shifting the cosmic sphere in such a way that the
spring equinox had moved out of Taurus the Bull.
MITHRAISM – a Historical Introduction

For over three hundred years the rulers of the Roman Empire worshipped
the god Mithras. Known throughout Europe and Asia by the names Mithra,
Mitra, Meitros, Mihr, Mehr, and Meher, the veneration of this god began
around 2800 years ago in Persia, where it was soon moved west and
became imbedded with Babylonian doctrines. There is mention of Mithra
or Mitra (et al) before 2800, but only as a minor diety and without much
information. It appears to be after 2800 when Mithra is transformed and
starts to play a major role among the gods.
The faith spread east through India to China, and reached west throughout
the entire length of the Roman frontier; from Scotland to the Sahara
Desert, and from Spain to the Black Sea. Sites of Mithraic worship have
been found in Britain, Italy, Romania, Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey,
Persia, Armenia, Syria, Israel, and North Africa.
In Rome, more than a hundred inscriptions dedicated to Mithra have been
found, in addition to 75 sculpture fragments, and a series of Mithraic
temples situated in all parts of the city. One of the largest Mithraic temples
built in Italy now lies under the present site of the Church of St. Clemente,
near the Colosseum in Rome. The widespread popularity and appeal of
Mithraism as the final and most refined form of pre-Christian paganism
was discussed by the Greek historian Herodotus, the Greek biographer
Plutarch, the neoplatonic philosopher Porphyry, Origen, and St. Jerome
the church Father.
Mithraism was quite often noted by many historians for its many
astonishing similarities to Christianity. The faithful referred to Mithra as
"the Light of the World", symbol of truth, justice, and loyalty. He was
mediator between heaven and earth and was a member of a Holy Trinity.
According to Persian mythology, Mithras was born of a virgin given the
title 'Mother of God'. The god remained celibate throughout his life, and
valued self-control, renunciation and resistance to sensuality among his
worshippers. Mithras represented a system of ethics in which brotherhood
was encouraged in order to unify against the forces of evil.
The worshippers of Mithras held strong beliefs in a celestial heaven and
an infernal hell. They believed that the benevolent powers of the god
would sympathize with their suffering and grant them the final justice of
immortality and eternal salvation in the world to come. They looked

forward to a final day of Judgment in which the dead would resurrect, and
to a final conflict that would destroy the existing order of all things to
bring about the triumph of light over darkness.
Purification through a ritualistic baptism was required of the faithful, who
also took part in a ceremony in which they drank wine and ate bread to
symbolize the body and blood of the god. Sundays were held sacred, and
the birth of the god was celebrated annually on December the 25th. After
the earthly mission of this god had been accomplished, he took part in a
Last Supper with his companions before ascending to heaven, to forever
protect the faithful from above.
However, it would be a vast oversimplification to suggest that Mithraism
was the single forerunner of early Christianity. Aside from Christ and
Mithras, there were plenty of other deities (such as Osiris, Tammuz,
Adonis, Balder, Attis, and Dionysus) said to have died and resurrected.
Many classical heroic figures, such as Hercules, Perseus, and Theseus,
were said to have been born through the union of a virgin mother and
divine father. Virtually every pagan religious practice and festivity that
couldn't be suppressed or driven underground was eventually
incorporated into the rites of Christianity as it spread across Europe and
throughout the world.
The Persian Origins of Mithraism
In order to fully understand the religion of Mithraism it is necessary to look
to its foundation in Persia, where originally a multitude of gods were
worshipped. Amongst them were Ahura-Mazda, god of the skies, and
Ahriman, god of darkness. In the sixth and seventh century B.C.E., a vast
reformation of the Persian pantheon was undertaken by Zarathustra
(known in Greek as Zoroaster), a prophet from the kingdom of Bactria. The
stature of Ahura-Mazda was elevated to that of supreme god of goodness,
whereas the god Ahriman became the ultimate embodiment of evil.
In the same way that Ahkenaton, Heliogabalus, and Mohammed later
initiated henotheistic cults from the worship of their respective deities,
Zarathustra created a henotheistic dualism with the gods Ahura-Mazda
and Ahriman. As a result of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews (597
B.C.E.) and their later emancipation by King Cyrus the Great of Persia (538
B.C.E.), Zoroastrian dualism was to influence the Jewish belief in the

existence of HaShatan, the Adversary of the god YHVH, and later permit
the evolution of the Christian Satan-Jehovah dichotomy.
Persian religious dualism became the foundation of an ethical system that
has lasted until this day. The reformation of Zarathustra retained the
hundreds of Persian deities, assembling them into a complex hierarchical
system of 'Immortals' and 'Adored Ones' under the rule of either Ahura-
Mazda or Ahriman. Within this vast pantheon, Mithras gained the title of
'Judger of Souls'. He became the divine representative of Ahura-Mazda on
earth, and was directed to protect the righteous from the demonic forces
of Ahriman. Mithras was called omniscient, omnipotent, infallible,
eternally, watchful, and never-resting. In the Avesta, the holy book of the
religion of Zarathustra, Ahura-Mazda was said to have created Mithras in
order to guarantee the authority of contracts and the keeping of promises.
The name Mithras was, in fact, the Persian word for 'contract'. The divine
duty of Mithras was to ensure general prosperity through good contractual
relations between men. It was believed that misfortune would befall the
entire land if a contract was ever broken.
Ahura-Mazda was said to have created Mithras to be as great and worthy
as himself. He would fight the spirits of evil to protect the creations of
Ahura-Mazda and cause even Ahriman to tremble. Mithras was seen as the
protector of just souls from demons seeking to drag them down to Hell,
and the guide of these souls to Paradise. As Lord of the Sky, he took the
role of psychopomp, conducting the souls of the righteous dead to
According to Persian traditions, the god Mithras was actually incarnated
into the human form of the Savior expected by Zarathustra. Mithras was
born of Anahita, an immaculate virgin mother once worshipped as a
fertility goddess before the hierarchical reformation. Anahita was said to
have conceived the Saviour from the seed of Zarathustra preserved in the
waters of Lake Hamun in the Persian province of Sistan. Mithra's
ascension to heaven was said to have occurred in 208 B.C.E., 64 years
after his birth. Parthian coins and documents bear a double date with this
64 year interval.
Mithras was 'The Great King' highly revered by the nobility and monarchs,
who looked upon him as their special protector. A great number of the
nobility took theophorous (god-bearing) names compounded with Mithras.
The title of the god Mithras was used in the dynasties of Pontus, Parthia,

Cappadocia, Armenia and Commagene by emperors with the name
Mithradates. Mithradates VI, king of Pontus (northern Turkey) in 120-63
B.C.E. became famous for being the first monarch to practice
immunization by taking poisons in gradually increased doses.
The terms mithridatism and mithridate (a pharmacological elixir) were
named after him. The Parthian princes of Armenia were all priests of
Mithras, and an entire district of this land was dedicated to the Virgin
Mother Anahita. Many Mithraeums, or Mithraic temples, were built in
Armenia, which remained one of the last strong holds of Mithraism. The
largest near-eastern Mithraeum was built in western Persia at Kangavar,
dedicated to 'Anahita, the Immaculate Virgin Mother of the Lord Mithras'.
Other Mithraic temples were built in Khuzestan and in Central Iran near
present-day Mahallat, where at the temple of Khorheh a few tall columns
still stand. Excavations in Nisa, later renamed Mithradatkirt, have
uncovered Mithraic mausoleums and shrines. Mithraic sanctuaries and
mausoleums were built in the city of Hatra in upper Mesopotamia. West of
Hatra at Dura Europos, Mithraeums were found with figures of Mithras on
horseback. Persian Mithraism was more a collection of traditions and rites
than a body of doctrines. However, once the Babylonians took the Mithraic
rituals and mythology from the Persians, they thoroughly refined its
The Babylonian clergy assimilated Ahura-Mazda to the god Baal, Anahita
to the goddess Ishtar, and Mithras to Shamash, their god of justice, victory
and protection (and the sun god from whom King Hammurabi received his
code of laws in the 18th century B.C.E.) As a result of the solar and
astronomical associations of the Babylonians, Mithras later was referred
to by Roman worshippers as 'Sol invictus', or the invincible sun. The sun
itself was considered to be "the eye of Mithras". The Persian crown, from
which all present day crowns are derived, was designed to represent the
golden sun-disc sacred to Mithras. As a deity connected with the sun and
its life-giving powers, Mithras was known as 'The Lord of the Wide
Pastures' who was believed to cause the plants to spring forth from the
During the time of Cyrus and Darius the Great, the rulers of Persia
received the first fruits of the fall harvest at the festival of Mehragan. At
this time they wore their most brilliant clothing and drank wine. In the
Persian calendar, the seventh month and the sixteenth day of each month

were also dedicated to Mithras. The Babylonians also incorporated their
belief in destiny into the Mithraic worship of Zurvan, the Persian god of
infinite time and father of the gods Ahura-Mazda and Ahriman.
They superimposed astrology, the use of the zodiac, and the deification of
the four seasons onto the Persian rites of Mithraism. "Astrology, of which
these postulates were the dogmas, certainly owes some share of its
success to the Mithraic propaganda, and Mithraism is therefore partly
responsible for the triumph in the West of this pseudo-science with its
long train of errors and terrors." (Franz Cumont, French Mithraic
researcher Les Mystères de Mithra, p.125 )
The Persians called Mithras 'The Mediator' since he was believed to stand
between the light of Ahura-Mazda and the darkness of Ahriman. He was
said to have 1000 eyes, expressing the conviction that no man could
conceal his wrongdoing from the god. Mithras was known as the God of
Truth, and Lord of Heavenly Light, and said to have stated "I am a star
which goes with thee and shines out of the depths". Mithras was
associated with Verethraghna, the Persian god of victory. He would fight
against the forces of evil, and destroy the wicked. It was believed that
offering sacrifices to Mithras would provide strength and glory in life and
in battle.
In the Avesta, Yasht 10, it reads that Mithras "spies out his enemies; armed
in his fullest panoply he swoops down upon them, scatters and slaughters
them. He desolates and lays waste the homes of the wicked, he annihilates
the tribes and the nations that are hostile to him. He assures victory unto
them that fit instruction in the Good, that honour him and offer him the
sacrificial libations." Mithras was worshipped as guardian of arms, and
patron of soldiers and armies. The handshake was developed by those
who worshipped him as a token of friendship and as a gesture to show
that you were unarmed. When Mithras later became the Roman god of
contracts, the handshake gesture was imported throughout the
Mediterranean and Europe by Roman soldiers.
In Armenian tradition, Mithras was believed to shut himself up in a cave
from which he emerged once a year, born anew. The Persians introduced
initiates to the mysteries in natural caves, according to Porphyry, the third
century neoplatonic philosopher. These cave temples were created in the
image of the World Cave that Mithras had created, according to the

Persian creation myth. As 'God of Truth and Integrity', Mithras was invoked
in solemn oaths to pledge the fulfillment of contracts and punish liars.
He was believed to maintain peace, wisdom, honour, prosperity, and cause
harmony to reign among all his worshippers. According to the Avesta,
Mithras could decide when different periods of world history were
completed. He would judge mortal souls at death and brandish his mace
over hell three times each day so that demons would not inflict greater
punishment on sinners than they deserved. Sacrificial offerings of cattle
and birds were made to Mithras, along with libations of Haoma, a
hallucinogenic drink used by Zoroastrian and Hindu priests, equated with
the infamous hallucinogen 'Soma' described in the Vedic scriptures.
Before daring to approach the altar to make an offering to Mithras, Persian
worshippers were obliged to purge themselves by repeating purification
rituals and flagellating themselves. These customs were continued in the
initiation ceremonies of the Roman neophytes.

The Expansion of Faith

With the rapid expansion of the Persian Empire, the worship of Mithras
spread eastward through northern India into the western provinces of
China. In Chinese mythology, Mithras came to be known as 'The Friend'.
To this day, Mithras is represented as a military General in Chinese
statues, and is considered to be the friend of man in this life and his
protector against evil in the next.
In India, Mithras was recognized as 'God of Heavenly Light' and an ally of
Indra, King of Heaven. Mithras was often prayed to and invoked along with
Varuna, the Hindu god of moral law and true speech. Jointly known as
'Mitra-Varuna', it was believed that together they would uphold order in the
world while travelling in a shining chariot and living in a golden mansion
with a thousand pillars and a thousands doors. Mithras was also praised
in the Vedic hymns. Just as in the Zoroastrian Avesta, the Hindu scriptures
recognized Mithras as 'God of Light', 'Protector of Truth', and 'Enemy of
The worship of Mithras also extended westward through what is now
Turkey to the borders of the Aegean Sea. A bilingual dedication to Mithras,
written in Greek and Aramaic, was found engraved upon a rock in a wild
pass near Farasha in the Turkish province of Cappadocia.

Mithras was also the only Iranian god whose name was known in ancient
Greece. A grotto located near the Greek town of Tetapezus was dedicated
to Mithras, before it was transformed into a church. However, Mithraism
never made many converts in Greece or in the Hellenized countries. That
country never extended the hand of hospitality to the god of its ancient
According to the Greek historian Plutarch (46-125 C.E.) Mithras was first
introduced into Italy by pirates from Cilicia (Southeast Turkey) who
initiated the Romans into the secrets of the religion. These pirates
performed strange sacrifices on Mount Olympus and practiced Mithraic
rituals, which according to Plutarch "exist to the present day and were
first taught by them". However, there were many foreign cults in Italy at
that time, and these early Mithraists did not attract much attention.
It is one of the great of ironies of history that Romans ended up
worshipping the god of their chief political enemy, the Persians. The
Roman historian Quintus Rufus recorded in his book History of Alexander
that before going into battle against the 'anti-Mithraean country' of Rome,
the Persian soldiers would pray to Mithras for victory. However, after the
two enemy civilizations had been in contact for more than a thousand
years, the worship of Mithras finally spread from the Persians through the
Phrygians of Turkey to the Romans.
The Romans viewed Persia as a land of wisdom and mystery, and Persian
religious teachings appealed to those Romans who found the established
state religion uninspiring - just as during the Cold War era of the 1960's
many American university students rejected western religious values and
sought enlightenment in the established spirituality of Communist East-
Asian "enemy countries".
In the beginning, there was no word but growls and signs guided the
instinct of hunter-gatherers on peaceful coexistence in the wilderness and
moving apart their whereabouts as resentment occurred. Words came into
the flesh as time progressed conversely proportional with time and space.
Hunter-gatherers became men and women who settled and needs of
leadership prevailed. Morality was born and human traditions were

necessary to govern. In the later circa, handed down wellbeing were
written in cuneiform tablets and later in codices.
Ancient historical records also pointed out that those cuneiform tablets
and codices were adapted by shepherd-scribes from the Doctrine of the
Kingdoms of Ebla and Mari somewhere around 2,900 years BC, where they
were free to move around and does some trades with the inhabitants. Most
likely the prevailing civilized society that period that had established
system of crude governance. Adaptations through hearsay and evolving
through generations, until the period that they had learned to established
their system of writing and marking on tablets. Those desert nomads
known to be the tribes of the Patriarch, established covenant that bound
them together on unity wherever they maybe.
A partial flash back on ancient history shall give us idea on how religion
evolved from crude cults to civilize dogmas on our generations. The most
prevailing oldest origin was “The Legend of Enuma Elish” where Marduk
created the world and the creation of mankind. This legend crept to the
different ancient cults in the Kingdom of Mari, which is presently located
at Tell Hariri, along Euphrates River and about 120 kilometers southeast of
Deir Ezzor, a province of Syria. (Just like what happened to the legend of
Sta. Claus … fortunately occurred on a more civilized time and people
were adamant to believe but still children does) Most likely, Abraham had
absorbed the doctrine during his adolescence in the Kingdom of Haran
and Ur, on what is now in the vicinities of Mosul, Iraq.
Unlike the legend of Adam and Eve, the legend of Enuma Elish about
creation had been recited to the temples of Ur and Haran for more than
4,000 years way back before Abraham. A great likelihood is in the essence
of Genesis, with more civil in narration. Both legends justified incest
In the later circa, Greek Mythology also evolved into different cults such
as Orphism, a dominant religious-cult with a great influenced from the
gods of Mount Olympus. The blending of those mystery-cults were
practiced by Roman soldiers in form of Roman Mithraism and where
Christianity derived and evolved.
In year 325 AD, Constantine the Great called the Council of Nicaea. He
ordered the first fifty copies of codices to be undertaken by Bishop
Eusebius from the works of a theologian named Origen before circa 231

AD, from the compilations of available records of the known Political
Sanhedrin written by Josephus and convened by Romans in 57 B.C.E.
(Taken from the Greek word for council (synedrion), the term was
apparently applied to various bodies but became especially the
designation for the supreme Jewish legislative and judicial court) Indeed
the main theme was an excerpt from the surviving records of the Great
Political Sanhedrin as the old Roman Constitution for Palestine during the
reigned of Hasmonean dynasty and it should be understand that some
thoughts and events were reconciliation of Origen and the rational
knowledge of Eusebius suitable for that respective period.
Copies were distributed as far as Great Britain. During the reign of Henry
VIII, he ordered the English translation and was printed by Tyndale and
Miles Covedale. The monarch then ordered the book to be set up on
churches and be read. When James I was enthroned, he authorized the
revision and clarification for Bishop Bible those appeared in 1568. During
the renaissance age, Queen Victoria came into the throne and the general
belief of World creation was 08th day of October 4004 BC, but later was
disputed for it was a Sunday. Some scholars that era suggested an
adjustment and proposed to be 27 years earlier. Those calculated guesses
are irreconcilable on our time.
Reckoning the contents of the Old Testament, after the great exodus
Moses revived that covenant into stone tablets as “Jehovah’s Law”. Again
there was ambiguity on the word Jehovah as adapted in our time. In
cordices, some appeared to be “J” and some “E” as Elohim and
interpreted by Greeks as JHVH. It must be understand that JHVH also
appeared in Mithraism religious-cult as one of the gods. Hebrews
transcribed it later to Yahweh and further erroneously translated by
Elizabethan English into Jehovah. So Jehovah Law was established by the
Renaissance Age which means Covenant to the Hebrews and later called
Several Councils of Ambiguity
Arius (250 - 336 CE) proposed that Jesus and God were very separate and
different entities: Jesus was closer to God than any other human being,
but he was born a man, had no prior existence and was not a god. On the
other hand, God has been in existence forever. Arius felt that any attempt
to recognize the deity of Christ would blur the lines between Christianity

and the Pagan religions. If Christianity recognized two separate gods, the
Father and Jesus, it would become a polytheistic religion.
Athanasius (296 - 373 CE) argued that Jesus must be divine, because
otherwise, he could not be the Savior. The atonement would not have been
Both Arius and Athanasius had large, evenly matched followings among
the bishops. Emotions ran high. The council, under intense pressure from
Emperor Constantine, resolved its deadlock by a close vote in favor of
Athanasius. The dissenting bishops were offered two options: to sign the
settlement at Nicea or be exiled. The bishops produced the Nicene Creed,
which declared that Jesus Christ was "of one substance with the Father."
This did not immediately settle the question of the divinity of Christ; many
bishops and churches refused to believe in the council's decision for
"The bishops granted to the bishop of Alexandria [in Egypt] papal
authority over the eastern half of the empire, and to the bishop of Rome
they granted papal authority over the western portion of the empire.”
330 CE: Emperor Constantine decided to build a "New Rome" on the site
of the Greek city of Byzantium (now at Istanbul, Turkey). It was called
Constantinople. It became the center of the largely Christian empire. 5 By
this time, the church had evolved from a small, scattering of
congregations to a geographically widespread church under the authority
of many bishops.
341 CE: Many now believe that Christianity became the dominant religion
of the Empire through the evangelical efforts of the early church during
the fourth century CE. The evidence seems to show that this is not true;
"The Greek-Roman world was not...converted to a new religion, but
compelled to embrace it." The Church authority had became concentrated
in the five bishops or patriarchs located in Alexandria, Antioch,
Constantinople, Jerusalem and Rome. Although they were officially given
equal status, the Bishop of Rome was considered by many to be the first
among equals.
381 CE: At the Council of Constantinople, the earlier council's decision on
the deity of Jesus was confirmed and Arianism was formally declared a

heresy. They also voted that Holy Spirit was the third Person of the Trinity.
Almost all of the churches abandoned Arianism after this council.
Near the end of the century, the Roman Emperor “Theodosius decreed
that the doctrine of the Trinity was to be the official state religion and that
all his subjects should adhere to it." Siricius who reigned from 384 to 399
CE, became the first bishop of Rome to be called Pope (father)
431 CE: The Council of Ephasus was called to debate the precise nature of
Jesus. Again, there were two main competing belief systems.
From the city of Alexandria, scholars developed the Alexandrian School of
Thought which:
Promoted the allegorical interpretation of the Bible – that it contained
hidden meanings.
• Emphasized the divinity of Jesus
• Recognized that Jesus had both human and divine nature
Within the city of Antioch, Nestorius and other scholars developed the
Antiochene School which:
• Rejected an allegorical interpretation of the Bible
• Emphasized the humanity of Jesus
• Saw the two nature of Jesus as being loosely connected
The Council excommunicated Nestorian and declared his beliefs
(Nestorianism) to be heresy. The Virgin Mary's status was elevated from
the mother of Jesus to "theotokos", the mother of God.
440 CE: Pope Leo I became the Bishop -- a post that he held for 21 years.
He maintained that the pope was highest ranking of the Christian bishops.
451 CE: Emperor Marcian called the Council of Chalcedon to resolve still
another debate about Jesus. The traditional belief that Jesus had both a
divine and human nature was being challenged by Monophysitism, an
outgrowth of the Alexandrian school. Their followers believed that Christ
had only a single divine nature. The council rejected that belief. In their
Chalcedonian Definition, they affirmed that Christ had two natures, human
and divine. These were without confusion, without change, without

division, without separation." This formulation has survived as the
traditional belief to the present day among almost all branches of
Christendom. The East Syrian (Nestorian) church and the Oriental
Orthodox Christian church disagreed with the council's decision, and split
off from the rest of Christianity in the first major schism from Pauline
A minor, little known, statement of the Council was Canon #15: "No
woman under 40 years of age is to be ordained a deacon, and then only
after close scrutiny." 1 This is believed to be the last time in church history
that the ordination of women was mentioned as a routine practice, until
modern times.
During the 5th century CE, various Germanic tribes invaded Rome and
destroyed much of the Roman Empire. Meanwhile, the church centered in
Rome successfully converted the invaders to Christianity. Authority within
the church was coalescing around the Bishop of Rome in the west and the
Patriarch of Constantinople in the east. Divisions between the two power
centers in the Christian church gradually intensified.
Gnostic Christianity’s membership went into a steep decline nearing the
sixth century and by 553 CE: Emperor Justinian called The Second
Council of Constantinople. He invited equal numbers of bishops from each
of the five patriarchal sees. The Bishop of Rome, Pope Vigilius saw that
many more bishops from the east than from the west would be present. He
refused to attend.
The council concentrated on the writings of three Christian leaders:
Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret and Ibas. All three were condemned
by the council as heretics: "We observed that the pupils of Nestorius were
trying to bring their heresy into the church of God by means of the
heretical Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia and his books as also by the
writings of the heretical Theodoret and the disgraceful letter which is
alleged to have been sent by Ibas to Mari the Persian. Our observations
prompted us to correct what was happening. We assembled in this
imperial city, summoned here by the will of God and the command of the
most religious emperor.
Gnostic Christianity ceased being a significant force by the 6th century.
The only group to have continuously survived into modern times is the
Mandaean sect of Iraq and Iran. This group currently numbers fewer than

15,000. Gnostic Christianity has been revitalized in the West and is now
growing rapidly.
The eastern and western branches of Christianity continued their process
of separation. This was caused by a variety of factors:
The Slavs invasions in the Balkans.
The religious language in the west was Latin, while the eastern church
used Greek. Bilingual theologians became increasingly rare.
“While the intellectual thought of Eastern Christianity was driven by Greek
teachers, Western Christianity came to be dominated by the teachings of
Augustine of Hippo." (354 – 386 CE)
"Although the two regions belonged to the same church, they became
increasingly remote from each other." A formal split did not occur until
1054 CE when the Roman Catholic church and Eastern Orthodox churches
formally separated. Although discussions are currently underway to bring
the two churches into some form of unity, little progress is being made.
Going back to the Council of Nicene, the birthday of Jesus was fixed on
the 25th day of December in order to preserved the feast day of Sol
Invictus and Mithra as favored to the deity of Constantine the Great. Prior
to the fixing of Jesus birthday, every 25th day of December the feast of Sol
Invictus, known to be the goddess of the Rising Sun, were celebrated with
great jubilation. Small green branches of trees decorated with little lights
were paraded. This most likely the origin of our Christmas trees. However
if we shall based Jesus birth in accordance to the description of the Bible,
it should be about mid-summer. What a great cult and religious
compromise that cater the likeness of Christianity and Mithraism on
particular items;
Religious Evolution
During the period of the Twelve Tribes of the Patriarch, this Covenant was
the only essence that bound them together against their common enemies
for they were all desert nomads (Bedouins) spread-out through the fertile

crescent. They had established their kingdom too, just later to be
conquered and subjected to deportation to Babylon.
During their generations of exile, the only consolations and identities
were to clung on Covenant that bound them together. As one can observe
Jews around the World today. Lots of lost, unrecorded events and
executions until the time of Henry VIII of England and onward.
One sensational event was the imprisonment of Galileo Galilei. His only
motive was to save his church from error that the Earth revolve around the
Sun and not the Sun revolve around the Earth as dogma dictated on those
circa. He was condemned for blasphemy. The ancient church of Santa
Maria Sopra Minerva had been the stage of his punishment for it stood
beside the Dominican convent used by Jesuit Priests who was the Masters
of scientific teaching in Rome were Galileo’s judges. Again, one of the
greatest religious ambiguity that did not escape from the judgment of
history although great amount of initiatives were invested to sealed the
event from public knowledge.
Another great religious momentous was the Council of Trent on 08th day
of April 1546. The Declaration of the Bible to be the "WORD OF GOD". It
was the great consensus called on that particular time needed to reinforce
religious faith being on the verge of collapse. However the side effects,
was the propagation of different religious sects. The intangible resources
and capitalism; the Word of God.
However time evolve. These dogmas can not sustain the suppression of
truth and shall fade away on natural weariness of time and neither the
fitted religious anathema can hold humanity from seeking the coveted
realism, that God came down to Earth and into the human flesh and die,
just because someone had eaten the forbidden fruit. Now is the high time
for humanity to depart from religious ambiguity and search transcendent
Leaping forward to our present time, some eminent evangelists in 1909
were irate of religious rhetoric and published series of pamphlets entitled;
“On Fundamentals” insisted upon to return to the basis of the Protestant
faith that doctrine shall derived solely from the Bible. And this was the
birth of “Fundamentalism” which most likely echoed to some Muslim
Fundamentalists, based on Mohammed opening phrase when he
depended his Quran to the Meccans.

Going back to the years when this greatly contested areas was occupied
by the Roman Empire, Essene Society and Qumran Monastery already
existed. It was founded as School of Thoughts including Pythagoras
Mathematics, Natural Science and Astronomy. The mission of which was
to reconcile the World existence through the investigation of phenomena.
Here, 365 days calendar was calibrated and applied hence after.
The time when Jesus was already member of the celibate at the age of 17
years old, Essence Society became a Nationalist in character where both
Pharisees and Sadducees were members. There was a disparity in the age
of Jesus. During His age of 12 in the temple, the actual must be about 16
for His birthday was about 5 BC. Religious and political issues were
undertaken which greatly influenced the formation of the New Testament.
Now, if they had partially amended the Covenant for the suitability of that
time, why not further amend for the essence of our generation.
It appears in the “Dead Sea Scroll” translation that some events were not
accorded to or scrapped from the translations of the New Testament. Most
likely for some sensitivities that shall harm the current dogma.
One crucial event was the crucifixion of the three Nationalists, namely
Simon Magus, Judas Escariot and Jesus, where the chronology were not
fully discussed. It appeared that only Judas died in the tomb through
suffocation after taken down from the cross. The near-death of Jesus and
the later involvement in the mission. It also appears in the translation that
Jesus did not experienced death in that particular moment but was revived
by Simon Magus inside the tomb and was later taken to heaven and stayed
there until the age of 36. Luke 24:50&51; Mathew 28:11-15 and Mark 16:42-
46; Experienced those time were someone took three days to die on the
cross. Heaven is the holiest place on Essene Hierarchy inside the ascetic
monastery of Qumran.
Jesus later was a shadow figure in the mission using the pseudonym “X”
and Maranatha, for it was already reported in Rome that the three
nationalists were executed and those relieved the political pressure. It also
appears in the translation that Jesus was physically present during the
Council of Ephesus in 70 AD and His last appearance was recorded in the
Book of Revelation using the title “ The Lamb”. In the translation also
appears that Jesus traveled with Paul to Rome.

The only hint of today’s theology is when Jesus declared to Peter; “ On
this Rock, You will build my Church,” for Rome that time was so
formidable and powerful empire, as comparison to a rock. No more was
stated about Jesus but in 73 AD during the wedding of His son Jesus
Justus in Rome, was accompanied by a coronation showing that his
Father had died.
Paul the Formator
During the time of Athanasius and Augustine, they had several sects of
Christianity Arians, Donatists, Manichaeans, some gnostics and a
remnant of the original followers of Jesus and James (the Ebionites who
were soon to be extinct.) The first Christianity to deify Jesus was Arianism
actually invented by Shaul/Saul/Paul, but Named Arian after Bishop Arius
nearly 200 years later. A Pagan cult later was founded on Jesus. It was
modified by Tertullian who designed the Trinity. It qualified as Pagan
through the full deification of Jesus by Athanasius and Augustine.
Athanasian Trinitarianism was the one out of several Christian cults that
Constantine made official.
However, Constantine's Trinitarianism was already mostly Eastern Pagan
(largely Persian with some Greek and Egyptian components). They didn't
need to convert most of the eastern pagans because the new Christianity
was essentially Pagan with a rather generic pagan virgin born god-man
who died and resurrected. Pagans just changed his name from Aten,
Horus, or Mithra to Jesus Christ and carried on business as usual.
Still there were many Pagans of western origin and Egyptians who were
slaughtered by the Imperial Troops of Theodosius I and Justinian. Non-
Christian Pagan temples were either destroyed or converted into
Churches. The true numbers of pagans killed is shrouded in history
because it was suppressed. Records were mostly destroyed. But pockets
of religious antiquity apparently survived for some centuries in rural
areas. The word Pagan is from Paganus (meaning rural, rustic, or
peasant.) They survived the persecutions in remote farm villages in
western forested areas of the British Isles, France, Germany, Poland, and
the Balkans.
Things would have turned out differently if they had murdered every
Pagan in the empire. No one knows how it would have turned out if James

and the Apostles of the original faith of Jesus had not driven Paul out of
Israel. But they did drive Paul out of Jerusalem. Israel stayed with the
Judaic faith. Paul later constructed a Pagan Religion with parts from
Judaism, Mithraism, the Cult of Sol Invictus, and Greek Philosophy that
could be acceptable to the Pagans of the Empire.
European Influence
In Ireland, the people were easily converted by Patrick (Padraig) because
he presented it in a Druidic way. Even Druids and Bards made up a large
number of the first ordained Christian priests in the Celtic lands. The
festivals of the Celtic faith were kept and well preserved in detail, but
given Christian names. Shrines and sacred healing springs once
dedicated to older goddesses were assigned to the Virgin Mary.
Ceremonies to Lugh the sun god were now to Jesus. The Pagan trinity of
Dagda or Aed Álainn (father), Lugh (son), and Danu or Brigit (Earth
mother) by a little slight of hand was transformed into the Christian Trinity.
The shamrock was already the symbol of the Celtic Pagan Trinity so it
became the symbol of the new Christian Trinity. Irish Pagans already had a
cross. It was a very intricately decorated cross with a central circle and
interweaving matrix pattern with nature symbols. It had been in Ireland for
at least 600 years before Christ.
But it did not have the image of a corpse on it. Initially the corpse bearing
Christian Crucifix was ridiculed by resistant Druid Pagans as the “Dead
God.” So for centuries the Celtic Christian cross remained the old Pagan
Celtic cross with no body of Christ attached. Because Ireland lay beyond
the reach of the Pope, she could get away with displaying the very
beautiful old cross and maintain a married clergy, until after the Norman
and English conquests.
Christianity's Pagan Inheritance:
• Baptism (Mithraism)
• Eucharistic Meal of symbolic eating of God (Mithraism)
• Saving Grace (Mithraism)
• Mitre of Mithraic bishops adopted by Christian Bishops

• Christmas – December 25 birthday of Jesus, Mithra, Lieu, Ligh, Hesus,
Aten and Sol Invictus
• “Sun” Day Sabbath – canceling the Judaic 7th day Sabbath
• Spring Equinox – from Ostern Nordic festival
Celtic Mythology and Celtic Religion
We do know that the Celtic religion was nature based (trees, water, etc.),
what Neo-Pagans now call "earth spirituality". It is thought that there were
three classes of "clergy", druid, bard and ovate, with differing functions,
though it's difficult to pinpoint these differences. Some feel it was a
question of degree and level of training. Seership was a highly developed
and a very important function. Druids not only led spiritually, but
functioned as arbiters and judges. There is some evidence to suggest that
the druid hierarchy spanned Celtic Europe with some archdruids (àrd-
draoidh) having ultimate jurisdiction over large areas.
These manuscripts were Irish and Welsh, with the Irish being earlier. Since
this site deals with Scotland, it the Irish tradition we will discuss, as that is
the mythology that went to Dal Riada along with fledging Christianity and
that informs Highland folklore and customs to this day (as well as many of
our own).
The Celtic calendar was lunar based, with thirteen months. Extra days as
needed were added at New Year’s as a "time between times." Their year
was divided into eight segments, each with a corresponding festival. The
four fire festivals take place on the last evening of a month and the
following day because the Celts, like the Jews, count a day from sunset to
sunset. That's why we celebrate All Hallows Eve, Midsummer's Eve and so
These four “Fire Festivals” are tied to the agricultural cycle as
SAMHAIN is celebrated on October 31-November 1 (our Halloween). It is
the end of the harvest, the beginning of winter and once marked the Celtic
New Year. At Samhain, the barrier between our world and the Otherworld
thins, allowing contacts between the spirits (faeries) and humans. Normal
rules of human conduct do not apply and one may "run wild". Great
bonfires are lit and participants join hands and circle the fire, or young

men take blazing torches and circle (sun wise) their homes and lands to
protect them from evil spirits. This was also a festival of the dead and the
church was easily able to transform these holidays into All Saint's Day
(November 01) and All Soul’s Day (November 02)
IMBOLC is celebrated February 1-2 (later transformed into CANDLEMAS
by the church, and popular now as Groundhog Day). IMBOLC marked the
beginning of spring, the beginning of new life (in Britain the beginning of
lambing season). Dedicated to the ancient mother goddess in her maiden
aspect, it was later transformed into a feast day for the Irish saint of the
same name (and attributes) St. Brigid.
BEALTAINE (BEALLTAINN in Scots Gaelic, meaning May Day), celebrated
April 30-May 1. This is the third festival of the agricultural year. The myth
surrounding this festival is common to many ancient pagan religions. The
god, BEL (or CERNUNOS, the horned god of Ireland) dies but is reborn as
the goddess' son. He then impregnates her ensuring the never-ending
cycle of rebirth. This is very basic FERTILITY worship. May Day traditions
includes young people picking flowers in the woods (and spending the
night there), and the dance around the May Pole, weaving red (for the god)
and white (for the goddess) streamers round and round. A great bonfire
celebrates the return of the sun. In Ireland, the first bonfire was lit on Tara
by the High King followed by all the others. On May Day itself, the
Highland tradition has the entire community leading the cattle to summer
pasturage, not to return until Samhain.
LUGHNASADH (Lammas in England) is the final celebration of the
agricultural year. It is the feast of the god Lugh and the first fruits of the
harvest (generally wheat or corn). LUGHNASADH is celebrated August 31-
September 1. In Scotland, the first stalks of corn are called "John
Barleycorn", of course, and were used to make the first beer of the fall
season. Now, John Barleycorn refers to that greatest of Scots drinks
(many distilleries are closed for August, reopening for the fall whisky-
making season on September 1). This festival, as celebrated in England,
gives me the willies, reminding me of that great horror novel by Thomas
Tryon, Harvest Home. At Lammas, the Corn King dies (to be reborn at
spring), ensuring plenty for the winter.
The other four holidays of the Celtic year are the Solar festivals of LIGHT.
They celebrate the spring and fall equinoxes and the winter and summer

solstices. Each name contains the word "Alban" meaning "Light of". The
name for ancient Scotland was Alba.
ALBAN ARTHUAN (Light of Arthur),or ALBAN GEAMHRADH (in Scotland)
like WINTER SOLSTICE celebrations all over the world, celebrates the
return of the sun following the shortest day in the year. It's no wonder the
church adopted these holidays as the birthdate of the Son. From ancient
Celtic and Norse mythology we enjoy such holiday traditions as holly and
mistletoe (sacred to the druids), the Yule log, Santa Claus in his aspects of
Father Christmas or the Holly King. Supposedly, King Arthur was born on
the winter solstice in Breatainn (and he, too, will come again). In Ireland
and Scotland it is Lugh, the Sun God, and son of the High God Aed Álainn.
Lugh is also born of a Human Virgin, much like the later story of Jesus.
[And like Jesus he is to return to save the Celts.]
Ireland celebrates Christmas much more enthusiastically than Scotland.
Under the Old Christian Kirk at its strictest, Christmas was viewed as an
idolatrous celebration and not observed. Today, the more secularized
Scots put most of their merry-making efforts into Hogmanay, the New
Year's celebration.
The spring (vernal) equinox is celebrated as ALBAN EILEAN* (Light of the
Earth). The equinoxes were considered a time of balance, not only
between dark and light, but between worlds as well and, therefore, a time
of high magical potential. More mundanely, this festival signified the time
for spring planting and fertility rituals.
ALBAN TRAIGH* (Light of the Shore) is celebrated as Midsummer's Day
with games, picnics, and all manner of light-hearted fun. The antics of "A
Midsummer Night's Dream" by Shakespeare well captures the spirit of this
festival, including the interaction between our people and those of the
faerie world.
Finally, ALBAN UISGE* (Light of the Water) is observed at the autumn
equinox and, like the spring equinox, is a very sacred time when the line
between worlds is thin and magical possibilities abound.
Much more seems to be known about the four fire festivals (which are still
celebrated in many traditional ways) than the four solar festivals. Were the
solar festivals mainly druidic sacred times in which lay participation was
minimal (it would seem that some of the neo-druids have taken this view

and make rather more of these dates than the Irish and Scots do)? Or
could the solar celebrations pre-date druidism, belonging to the
Stonehenge builders, the Tara People, and falling slowly into disuse? This
seems a possibility since the Celtic calendar is lunar based, rather than
solar. [Genetic markers show that the Scottish Highlanders and the Irish of
West Ireland and Ulster are the major descendents of the Tara People, the
Henge builders.]
In any case, we find in Celtic mythology a strong foundation in ancient
goddess (mother earth) known by different names (Sila na nGig, Danu, or
Brigit.) Celtic Religion is/was a fertility religion (common throughout the
ancient world.)
It merged with the peculiar emphasis on the OTHERWORLD and its
accessibility to mankind found in the druid religion. More than any other
people, perhaps, the Celts live with one foot in this world and one in the
other. The druid belief was that we are composed of mind, body and spirit
with spirit acting as the bonding agent between body and mind, rather
than an elevated or qualitatively different state of being. Similar beliefs in
Christianity suggest the possibility that they were Druidic beliefs
incorporated in the composite religion of Christianity.
Thereby, we are enabled to travel between worlds, if we know how, or if we
are born with the gift. Combined with the druidic belief in reincarnation,
there is little fear of the Otherworld and the faerie world is simply an
alternate reality, rather than a higher plane.
There are lots of books here to choose from organized roughly from top to
bottom in the areas of ancient Celtic mythology and religion, the Irish
myths (I did not include the Welsh myths, as it was the Irish sagas that
traveled to Scotland), and, finally, druidism.
The subject of the old religions only take issue with the comment that
Christianity was invented suddenly and thus differs from those religions
that evolved with human cultures. The mechanics of Christianity in fact
evolved over about 8000 years or more. It was only the name which came
about more or less suddenly in the reign of Emperor Constantine. The
particular patchwork religion that Constantine sanctioned was composed
of many parts of older religions. The Syncretism of those Pagan Religions
with a rather distorted version of Judaism into one organized state cult
was rather sudden.

But all of the components of the composite religion known as Christianity
had indeed evolved over many millennia.
Christianity is not very unique. Many religions have been constructed from
bits and pieces of older religions. Christianity is only unique because it
was invented in historical times when its gestation/embryology could be
Paul was the catalyst if not inventor of early Christianity. He is a good
candidate because he was a Jew. But he was no ordinary Jew. He was a
"Hellenized Jew" fluent in Greek, and Aramaic. He was raised in a city
called Tarsus not in Palestine. It was in Cilicia, an Indo-European region of
Asia Minor, where people were mixed Luvian, Achaean Greek, Armenian,
with remnants of Hittites, Cappadocian, and Macedonians. Those people
all adhered to variations of the Old Indo-European Religion of 8000 BC
which gave rise to Old Iranian, Zoroastrian, Old Aryan to Hinduism,
Tocharian, Thracian-Cimmerian, Greek, Hittite, Roman, Illyrian, Celtic, and
Germanic etc. These were polytheistic and evolved into the "Eastern
Mystery Cults” in the Eastern Roman Empire.
The major ones in Cilicia/Tarsus were Mithraic (most men and most
soldiers), Cybele (women only), Sol Invictus, Neo-Platonic, Stoicism, and
the Imperial Roman Cult. There was a Jewish minority but under heavy
Indo-European influence. Paul was likely more familiar with Mithraism than
Judaism. But he was familiar with the Jesus Cult in Palestine, a sect of
Judaism based on a Yeshua who may have lived and died during the reign
of King Alexander Jannaeus before the Romans arrived on the Jerusalem
scene. Yeshua taught moral principles with compassion and love deviant
from the harshness of Old Judaism.
Legend here in Ireland has it that when Padraig (Patrick) converted
Ireland, he won the support of Druid by appointing them as Christian
priests on the same day that they would agree to convert. Celtic
Christianity for the early centuries was believed to incorporate Druid
Aed Álainn or Dagda became God the Father. Lugh the Son of Aed Álainn
by impregnation of a human virgin, was a god-man long before Jesus,
became Jesus. The Mother Goddesses Brigit, Sila na nGig, or Danu were
represented at sacred springs. The Goddesses were merged into the

Virgin Mary who also inherited most of the springs. Brigid held on to a few
by being transformed from a Goddess into a Christian Saint. Bel the
Antlered God of Ireland (Cernunnos of Britain and Gaul) the bringer of
spring rebirth and protector of nature was degraded to the Christian Evil
God, Satan. (BTW, Satan is in every way a god, the counterpart of the
Zoroastrian Aingra Maingu or Ahriman God of Darkness. Satan/Aingra
Maingu) opposes the Good God of Light Ahura Mazda (Ormuzd) or Dagda,
Jupiter, and Zeus (all of whom are Father of the Gods, or Eochaidh
Ollathair in Irish.)
So while Celtic Christianity was just Druidism under a new set of names, it
became Catholicism only after the Norman Conquest placed the Celtic
Church under the Roman Pope's authority, in the 12th Century. It was then
that Roman Catholic priestly celibacy was imposed on the Irish.
Christianity continues to Evolve. In the Americas, it incorporated Native
Mayan, Aztec, and Inca rituals and even the gods. Native American animist
festivals are still celebrated today with the local parish priest taking part.
Jesus as the Hypothetical God
Jesus was crucified in the middle of the day or afternoon. He was taken
down before sunset. It means his time on the cross may have been
anywhere from one to five hours. Victims of crucifixion often lingered an
agonizing death on the cross for up to three days. Death in a couple of
hours is fishy.
So he was supposedly placed in a tomb/cave much like Mithra had been
placed. If sundown was 7 pm, and he was in the tomb, at that time, then he
spent 5 hours on Friday, 24 hours on Saturday, and 7 hours on Sunday
when he walked out. That is 36 hours. Three days, or Three nights is
misleading. The number three was picked because it is a magic number
and applied to Jonah, Mithra, Apollonius, and most of the other virgin born
god-man resurrecting redeemers.
If the couple hours on the cross produced hypoxia, and brain ischaemia,
with acidosis so severe as to kill Jesus then we have a different scenario.
He may have dropped his blood pressure so low or suffered cardiac arrest
to lose consciousness. In this case his brain was getting no oxygen and
no blood flow. He not only had anoxia. He had lack of blood perfusion with

O2 and glucose. There was no venous blood removing CO2 and other
toxins of metabolism. The build-up of neurotransmitter amines and
glutamate plus the destruction of calcium channels in the neurons led to
Calcium influx, potassium out flux, water permeation and cell swelling and
After a couple hours in this severe state the neuronal nuclei would break
up. Mitochondria would burst and cease cellular metabolism. Swelling
cells would rupture. In a few more hours his brain, axons, astrocytes, and
oligodendrocytes would necrose. His capillary network would fragment
with clots in the stasis of blood flow.
Then the brain would turn into a semi-liquid mush. All fibre circuits would
be erased. All memories, language functions, learned motor skills
(walking), cognitive processing, emotional circuits, vision, hearing, and
autonomic regulation. That rather multi-modal autonomic network would
control temperature regulation, sweating, cardiac rate regulation, blood
pressure control systems, sexual accessory sequence programmes, and
the conscious on-off ARAS switch. All of this would have already been
In such a body, the necrotic brain can produce no electrical saltatory
transmission. No synapses would be left anyway. This is "Brain Death"
which are compelled to determine to my great sadness in patients about
once per week. Once true Brain Death is determined by:
1. Loss of pupillary reflexes;
2. Loss of reflexive eye movements (Doll’s eyes and caloric responses);
3. Loss of corneal responses;
4. Absence of any spontaneous breathing trigger with measured
hypoxial hypercabia;
5. Loss of patterned motor responses (flaccid paralysis);
6. Flat lined EEG done twice 24 hours apart, or non-flow on
7. In the 24-hour period, blood tests showing zero sedative drug levels;
8. Then that is the final form of death, irreversible Brain Death/necrosis.
None have ever recovered if all 8 criteria are met, in multiple different
studies. Since there are no shortages of people dying, the numbers in
studies summated are 5 digits. Unfortunately the gospel writers never
mentioned the following;

1. No one noted a carotid, radial or femoral pulse of Jesus;
2. No one noted pupillary reactions, (size, symmetry, light and
3. No one noted his ocular motor reflexes (Doll’s eye, Cold water
4. No one checked his patterned motor responses that may persist in
some reversible comas;
5. No one recorded total flaccid paralysis, decerebrate or decorticate
rigidity, myoclonus;
6. No one noted listening to his heart according to the gospels;
7. No one noted listening to his lungs with an ear or stethoscope;
8. No one oted presence or absence of corneal reflexes;
9. No one noted muscle tone.
Naturally no EEG was done. So we don’t know if he was flat-lined. All of
the above minus the EEG are very specific easy tests for brain death.
Roman soldiers may have known those reactions, especially their medics.
So we can’t say with certainty if he died…on the cross or later of senile
dementia or other cause. Until very recent times and in many substandard
medical care facilities, determinations of death or brain death prove to be
incorrect when the patient awakens screaming in the Morgue. Did Jesus
actually die based on the written narrative? We may never know. And if did
not die, the rest of the story would be different. There would not have been
a resurrection. It would have be recovery from reversible coma not death.
And we would be celebrating Mithra’s birth on December 25, as Mithramas.
So if Jesus really died, and was dead 36 or 39 hours, his brain was a
featureless mush. No blood flow meant no oxygen, no removal of
glutamate, no prevention of open Calcium ion channels, and no
maintenance of membrane stability of neurones. Then apoptosis (cell
death) occurred. There was nothing with which to activate the cortex for
consciousness, no perception, no awareness, no vision, no hearing, no
tactile sensation, no motor neuronal firing along axons to activate
muscles, no circuits to think, or circuits to talk. There would be no
neurons, no axons, and no synapses to transmit data.
To truly resurrect as the person Jesus, his entire brain would have to be
remade from scratch with intact neurons, axons, myelin sheathes,
synapses, ample concentrations of neurotransmitters at pre-synaptic

nerve endings, and normal transmitter receptors on healthy dendrites of
neurons. The new brain would have to be an exact copy of his original
brain down to each synapse in the right place. And the trillions of circuits
(and million billion synapses) of the individual person would have to be
exactly re-duplicated in the pre-death patterns. His entire life memories
would have to be reinstalled into the circuitry of his brain, the most
complex computer in history.
That has never been known to occur. One must postulate very special
magic, and magic has yet to be proven to exist. The burden of proof that
Jesus died and resurrected is on the person making that extraordinary
implausible claim. What is the proof that he died? Nobody did even a
superficial cursory neurological exam. And how can they explain the
rewiring of the most complex computer ever known aside from magic.
So a truly dead Jesus resurrecting would not be possible outside of the
realm of fantastic magic and fantasy thinking. Believers would say nothing
is impossible with the excuse...miracles (i.e. magic). But that is
unprovable. Magic is a cop out when one cannot explain the impossible. It
is trying to explain the impossible with the unknown.
So either Jesus died end of story; or he awoke from transient shock-
trauma coma (not a true resurrection from the dead.) But we can't have
both. And we will never know.
Option 1. Jesus died in on the cross, brain liquidified, and there could have
been no resurrection.
Option 2. Jesus didn't die on the cross, but recovered lying in the tomb and
awoke from transient coma, to some day die of some other natural cause
such as Old age in India (one story)
Option 3. Jesus didn't exist in real life. He was a fictional hero of the
Joseph Campbell variety. His life was founded on the virgin birth, god-
man, redeemers who died and resurrected in 16 older Pagan cults. Paul,
and other Church Fathers superimposed the personality of Melchizcedek
to satisfied the supposed coming of the redeemer or simply infused with
Mithraism, consciously or unconsciously absorbed Mithra's biography for
the fictional Jesus.

Even Jesus had not substantiated the true description of God
(where, what, how & when was the true origin) - in the sense
that future generation shall no longer argue its ambiguous
description. He left us open and circular phrases as the battle
cry of religion. And unfortunately, was the free for all
interpretation of later generations. Some entities had more
influenced and authority (anathema) over the others and had
the sole accessed in literature and later the formation of the
most ambiguous faith back-up by literary heresy integrated in
some lines of the bible. Truly ... it was the later generation
intervention that strengthened the ambiguous belief. If Jesus
of Nazareth was truly God as Christian had conceived ... World
had no chaos today.
The point is, God has the qualities that Man doesn't have . . .
qualities that Man himself knows he cannot have . .
.omnipotence, omniscience et al.
Man dies. But he fears death and wants to live longer, he then
created God in order for him to look up to something after
death. God now is immortal.
Man cannot do everything. He feels inadequate he cannot
fulfill bigger tasks, he then created God so that he can let God
do the 'impossible' things for him. God now is omnipotent.
Man (so far) cannot understand everything. He thinks he
cannot explain everything around him, he then created God so
that he can get short-cut answers to his inquiries. God now is
Man is alone. He distrusts his fellow for they've done awful
things to him, he then made God his companion and he won't
be needing anyone anymore. He also wants God to watch over
him wherever he is. God now is selfless and omnipresent.
God is Man's model. It has become so powerful that he fears
his creation already. So in order for him to get everybody else

to appreciate his creation, God had 'perfect human qualities' --
sincere, loving, faithful et al. No one should want to praise a
frightening God right? Now it has become Man's perfect
model to emulate.
God is the manifestation of Man's need for perfection. He
created God to compensate his flaws.
Mohammed on his prime was a noted merchant in Mecca and it was not
his motive to propagate another version of religion nor to establish a
system of governance but his desert experiences in caravan trading urged
him to formulate sort of moral ascendancy to guide Nomads on the Basic
Principle of Righteousness. Fear should motivate those desert menace to
minimized if not eliminated harassment to the caravan trades. Indeed the
motivation was socioeconomic sustainability of their community.
Something has to be done until he adopted the Essene Principle of
Righteousness and Pacifism. In year 610 AD declared that he was the new
prophet given a God message through Archangel Gabriel.
When Meccans challenged Mohammed to perform miracle as proof of his
divine mission, his defense; He appealed boldly that the book taking
shape on his supervision to be so wonderful works expressing profound
and majestic of religious truth. Surely, had not written by a mere man as
himself for he was unlettered but a miracle that had came down from
heaven. Like Jesus, Mohammed practiced the utterance of guarded words
and Quran most likely is a slight slip from Qumran and in
acknowledgement of his Essene tutor and further more Kaba (stone of
Makkah) came from the Hebrew root word of Kaballah, meaning to receive
or to accept the doctrine. Allah is the suffix of Kaballah thus combine
meaning is the “Acceptance of Doctrine”. Or Alaha as god in Hebrew. This
simply shows that thoughts of Old Testament (the Torah) have no distant
During his initial preaching in 622 AD, was chased by Meccan tribes and
took refuge in Medina where he lived with Jewish community. Mustering
strength in 630 AD, conquered Mecca where he established his domain.
Also around those period that he motivated Jihad to boost the moral of his
people in depending his good cause.

After His death in 632 AD, his friend Abu Bekr succeeded him and
organized the records properly and were transcribed. At about 650 AD, a
fresh version was prepared and regarded as the canonical virtue. Three
copies were made integrating guidelines for traditional governance and
sent each to Damascus, Basrah and Kupa. The original was preserved in
the Mosque at Medina where Mohammed was buried. Again some disparity
of adapting calendar for Mohammed had obtained the old copy of the
Essene Scroll prior to the calibration of a factual calendar – an ego that
failed to rationalize. There is no reason to doubt that indeed Quran posses
excellent and wonderful verses.
Most likely, the promoters of the present suicide bombers (or in plain
language the assassins) are rigorist who take advantage to hide
themselves on religion and to inject anathema to move people and exploit
the primitiveness of knowledge for the satisfaction of their designed
This strategy is a reckoning of the 12th century when Muslim was divided
into Orthodox Sunnites, who were the followers of Prophet Mohammed
and the Unorthodox Shiites who only accepted the earthly rule of the
Prophet descendants.
Some Shiites further branched to Ismailites where Hassan Ben Sabban
after so many oddities traveling around promoting Ismailism reach
Daylam, part of Persia southern highland adjacent to the Caspian Sea.
Atop the two thousand meters rock in Elburr Mountain, he found the castle
of Alamut, which were the refuges of the independent Shiites.
Here he installed himself the Chief or the Sheik, choosing Sheik Al Jebal,
literally translated as the old man of the mountains (similar to present day
Osama) that instilled respect amongst his men and terrorized his
opponents. After him came the three Dai-Al Kirbal or the summoner and
then the Dai’s as missionaries who went out to conduct recruitment, the
Fidas or the devoted ones were the predecessor of Fadayeen and later the
Al Queda terrorists on Middle East during the closing of 20th and
beginning of 21st century. Below them were the Lasiks or the masses that
were used for menial works (and now sources of suicide bomber recruits)
but knew nothing of the upper echelons.
It was undoubtedly a genius organization as shown in the manner on how
Hassan took over the castle and from this vantage location, he sent out

his missionaries to surrounding villages to convert inhabitants into
Ismailism while housing his recruits around the castle. Exotic chambers
and gardens were created at Alamut where neophytes were catered and
thought about paradise. Dancing girls and musical instruments
entertained the new comers and hashish were served to provide great
Novitiates have ultimate sensual pleasure, which now controlled their
wellbeing and then brought to the sheik with assurance of eternal pleasure
in paradise and would repay implicit and blind obedience. The drugged
youths underwent brainstorming sessions after sessions and with great
emphasized of the word … KILL! … KILL! … KILL! After their minds were
under controlled, graduated with a golden dagger. So the hashish or
hashasin eaters gave their name as Assassins, which later our dictionaries
adapted the word.
Hassan exploited the blind obedience of those assassins to the outmost
satisfaction of his greed. On his reign, whoever ran against his teaching of
Ismailism was assassinated. And now on our modern times, bombs
instead of golden daggers are use but the same paradise and religious
anathema and motivations are being employed in obtaining blind
obedience to the “Unlucky Recruits”.
Now, to rationalize the true motive of the above, can they qualify to be
called Muslim? Muslim is a teaching of Islam and Islam is peace. This is
the true motive of Prophet Mohammed (Peace be upon Him) when
preaching righteousness amongst the nomadic tribes. Or are we dealing
with “Designed Greed”.
It appears now that some quarters inclined on the Fundamentalism of
Ismailite and hence Ismailism had departed from the principle of Shiite
dogma where Shiite had also deviated from the original Sunnite that was
the Orthodox Muslim where Islam is the sole teaching. The general feeling
therefore, that true sense of Fundamentalist does not belong anymore to
Islam but just keep on using Muslim as their cover and protection to
pursue their designed greed. They have to use genius and all drastic
means to endeavor their “WILL” to the world inhabitants as had Hassan
Ben Sabban, the self-proclaimed sheik has done to took-over the Castle of
Alamut for the foundation of Ismailite Doctrine with the used of his

Malcolm X a.k.a. El Hajj Malik El Shabazz quoted before his death on
February 21, 1965 and it quote: “ I did many things as Muslim that I
am sorry now. I was a zombie then - like all rigorist Muslims – I
was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march.
Well, I guess a man is entitled to make a fool of himself if he’s ready
to pay the price. It cost me twelve years in limbo and a death
The next day while standing at the rostrum of Audubon Ballroom on
speaking engagement, was assassinated at 1:30 post meridian in Harlem,
New York.
Commentary to All Gods
Where is the graveyard of dead gods? What lingering mourner waters their
There was a time when Jupiter was the king of the gods, and any man who
doubted his puissance was “ipso facto” a barbarian and an ignoramus.
But where in all the world is there a man who worships Jupiter today?
And who was Huitzilopochtli? In one year - and it is no more than five
hundred years ago - 50,000 youths and maidens were slain in sacrifice to
him. Today, if he is remembered at all, it is only by some vagrant savage in
the depths of the Mexican forest.
Huitzilopochtli, like many other gods, had no human father; his mother
was a virtuous widow; he was born of an apparently innocent flirtation that
she carried out with the sun. When he frowned, his father, the sun, stood
still. When he roared with rage, earthquakes engulfed whole cities. When
he thirsted he was watered with 10,000 gallons of human blood. But today
Huitzilopochtli is as magnificently forgotten as the dear departed Allen G.
Once the peer of Allah, Buddha and Wotan, he is now the peer of
Richmond Hobson, Alton B. Parker, Adelina Patti, General Weyler and Tom
Speaking of Huitzilopochtli recalls his brother Tezcatlipoca was almost as
powerful; he consumed 25,000 virgins a year. Lead me to his tomb and I

would weep, and hang a “couronne des perles”. But who knows where it
is? Or where the grave of Quitzalcoatl is? Or Xiehtecuthli? Or Centeotl,
that sweet one? Or Tlazolteotl, the goddess of love? Or Mictlan? Or Xipe?
Or all the host of Tzitzimitles? Where are their bones?
Where is the willow on which they hung their harps? In what forlorn and
unheard-of hell do they await their resurrection morn? Who enjoys their
residuary estates? Or that of Dis, whom Caesar found to be the chief god
of the Celts? Of that of Tarves, the bull? Or that of Moccos, the pig? Or
that of Epona, the mare? Or that of Mullo, the celestial jackass? There was
a time when the Irish revered all those gods, but today even the drunkest
Irishman laughs at them.
But they have company in oblivion: the hell of dead gods is as crowded as
the Presbyterian Hell for babies.
Damona is there, Esus and Drunemeton, Silvana and Dervones, Adsalluta
and Deva, Belisima, and Uxellimus, Borvo, Mogons and Grannos, All
mighty gods in their days, worshipped by millions, full of demands and
impositions, able to bind and loose - all gods of the first class. Men
labored for generations to build vast temples to them – temples with
stones as large as cars and mini-bus.
The business of interpreting their whims occupied thousands of priests,
bishops, archbishops To doubt them was to die, usually at the stake.
Armies took to the field to defend them against infidels; villages were
burned, women and children butchered, cattle were driven off. Yet in the
end, they all withered and died. And today there is none so poor to do
them reverence.
What was became of Sutekh, once the high god of the whole Nile Valley?
What has become of Resheph, Baal, Anath, Astarte, Ashtoreth, Hadad,
Nebo, Dagon, Melek, Yau, Ahijah, Amon-Re, Isis, Osiris, Ptah and Molech
and other gods?
All were gods of the highest eminence. Many of them are mentioned with
fear and trembling in the Old Testament. They ranked, five or six thousand
years ago, with Yahweh Himself; the worst of them stood far higher than
Thor, yet they all gone down to the chute and with them all the following;

Arianrod, Nuada, Argetlam, Morrigu, Tagd, Govannon, Goibniu, Gunfled,
Dagda, Odin, Ogma, Ogryvan, Marzin, Dea Dia, Mara, Iuno, Lucina, Diana
of Ephesus with the luminous face, Saturn, Robigus, Furrina, Pluto,
Cronos, Vesta, Engurra, Zer-panitu, Belus, Merodach, Ubilulu, Elum, U-
dimmer-an-kia with his mighty guard, U-sab-sib, U-Mersi, Marduk, Nin,
Persephone, Tammuz, Istar, Venus, Lagas, Beltis, Nirig, Nusku, En-Mersi,
Aa, Assur, Sin, Beltu, Apsu, Kushi-banda, Elali, Nin-azu, Mami, Qarradu,
Zaraqu, Ueras and Zagaga.
Ask the rectors to lend you any good book on comparative religion; you
will find them all listed. They were gods of the highest dignity - gods of
civilized peoples - worshipped and believed in by millions.
All were omnipotent, omniscient and immortal. And all were dead and
unknown today.
In Sear ch of R eality
The word religion - derived from the Greek root word; relig – meaning to
tie. Religion is a traditional belief that evolved from multiple generations
of cults and was handed down to our generation in a civilize approach. It
was established by the general consensus to move primitive people, a
moral whose driving force is social feeling, a dogma fitted with anathema
without considering logical intelligence. In a general layman’s point of
view; is a cockerel that thinks he has to crow at dawn so that the sun will
shine again. Religion is versed in the game of mystic and fantasy, to cater
the fears of human. It established the common belief of life after death,
however there has never been a shred of evidence that such exist. The
only reason why it continue to flourish because it keep humanity aware
and happy in dying.
The general belief of the great rational majority is that; something must be
done to clip religion into the “Proper Sphere of Creed” in order to
overthrow the uncertainty of ages and to acquire transcendental reality --
based on true and universal accepted doctrine.
Rigorous assumptions and hearsay of the past are no longer binding to
our current generations.

It is a cool irony about the world today, that United Nations had the
Committee of Decolonization (C24) for just a very few parcels on Earth and
can not propose to create a Committee to decolonize the world from
religious ambiguity and fear.
It should be one of the main duty of the United Nations to initiate and
create a Committee for Religious Enlightenment and Unified Faith, that
better understanding between Peoples is absolutely necessary for the
future and science could help to bring this about.
It is the moral obligation of United Nations to initiate and move on. Two
decades has been allocated to the Committee of Decolonization. Try to
visualize the positive effect on two decades of Transcendental Reality
Development and Enlightenment if the Member-Nations shall give the
sincerity to propagate peaceful coexistence and religious understanding.
Surely, most hard liners and old rigorist conservatives shall past away
with their classical dogma and learned-rational generation with open
minds shall manage to workout the feasible and viable consensus
accordingly to the naked truth.
We shall know a little more, but the real nature of things can be proven by
science. If not our time, most likely the next generation or the future
mankind. Now on the age of tumultuous social change, we all need the
unbiased truth. Why succumb and cuddle uncertainties? Just because for
the self-interest of the few? Why not share the reality to mankind and live
in peace? Or most likely, frightened by the consequences that may occur if
sudden truth prevail. Then why not propose a viable consensus on how to
bring about the real truth. Although damages may occur along the way, but
let the interim-process and broadness minimize the effect. We have to
remember that “Truth will set us Free”
Part II
We must understand that our Earth is just a dot in the Universe with no
special role but to abide with the evolution of time and space.

Updated discoveries revealed that Mother Earth evolve on about every
35,000 to 42,000 year-cycle. Most likely traverse on asteroid belt or
nutation of earth axis tilting from 22 to 24.50 degrees back and forth in
every 42,000 year-cycle caused the melting and freezing of polar cap.
Nutation - is the swinging of Earth’s axis. Near the height of the last ice
age, North Pole did not point toward Polaris or the North Star as it is today
but instead, it pointed to Vega, the brightest Star in the Constellation Lyra.
This most likely constitute the pulling of water to froze on polar caps and
then melting it out again in another 42,000 years on slow process.
Evidence of which was the landmass on the Antarctic uncovered by ice
during the melting cycle and had acquired civilization that period.
Stone-Age graveyard reveals life in a “green Sahara”
Scientists in Niger have found the Sahara Desert’s largest known Stone-
Age graveyard, which offers an unparalleled record of life when the region
was green.

work on a
gravesite esti
mated as
10,000 years
old in Gobero,
Niger. (Image
courtesy Nat'l
Geographic So

University of Chicago professor and National Geographic Explorer-in-

Residence Paul Sereno, whose team first happened on the site during
a dinosaur-hunting expedition, unearthed the cemetery, according to the
Dating back 10,000 years and called Gobero after the Tuareg name for the
area, the site was brimming with skeletons of humans and animals
including large fish and crocodiles, researchers said. Gobero is hidden
away within Niger’s forbidding Ténéré Desert, known to local Tuareg no-

mads as a “desert within a desert.” The Ténéré is the setting of other dra-
matic scientific findings including the 500-toothed, plant-eating dinosaur
Nigersaurus and the enormous extinct crocodilia Sarcosuchus, also
known as Super Croc. The discovery of the lakeside graveyard—said to
represent two successive human populations divided by more than
1,000 years—is reported in the September issue of National Geographic
magazine and the Aug. 14 issue of the research journal PLoS One.
As they explored the site, researchers said, they tiptoed among dozens of
fossilized human skeletons laid bare on the surface of an ancient dune
field by the hot Saharan wind. Jawbones still clenched nearly full sets of
teeth; a tiny hand reached up through the sand, its finger bones intact.
On the surface lay harpoon points, potsherds, beads and stone tools.
The site was pristine, apparently never visited.
Two seasons of excavation supported by the society eventually revealed
some 200 graves clearly belonging to two successive lakeside populat-
ions, scientists said. The older group, determined to be Kiffian, were
hunters of wild game who left evidence that they also speared huge perch
with harpoons when they colonized the green Sahara during its wettest
period between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago. Their tall stature, sometimes
reaching well over 6 feet, was not immediately apparent from their tightly
bound burial positions.
The more recent population was the Tenerian, a more lightly built people
who appeared to have had a diverse economy of hunting, fishing and cat-
tle herding, according to the research team. They lived during the latter
part of the green Sahara, about 7,000 to 4,500 years ago. Their one-of-a-
kind burials often included jewelry or ritual poses—a girl wearing an
upper-arm bracelet carved from a hippo tusk, for example, and a stunning
triple burial containing a woman and two children in a poignant embrace.
“At first glance, it’s hard to imagine two more biologically distinct groups
of people burying their dead in the same place,” said team member
Chris Stojanowski, a bioarchaeologist from Arizona State University.

“The biggest mystery is how they seemed to have done this without dis-
turbing a single grave.
Although the Sahara has long been the world’s largest desert, a faint wob-
ble in Earth’s orbit and other factors occurring some 12,000 years ago
caused Africa’s seasonal monsoons to shift slightly north, bringing new
rains to the Sahara. From Egypt in the east to Mauritania in the west, lakes
with lush margins dotted the formerly parched landscape, drawing ani-
mals, fish and eventually people. Separating these two populations was an
arid interval perhaps as long as a millennium that began about 8,000
years ago, when the lake disappeared and the site was abandoned.
Dating the sun-bleached bones of fossil humans in the Sahara has was
very hard, researchers said. Using a new technique, the team reported it
had obtained nearly 80 so-called radiocarbon dates from Gobero bones
and teeth. Radiocarbon dating is a method of estimating the age of biolog-
ical material based on changes in its content of radioactive carbon.
Archaeologist Elena Garcea of the University of Cassino in Italy helped
identify the site’s poorly known cultures so well-preserved at the site.
Garcea, an expert in ancient pottery who has spent nearly three decades
digging at Stone Age sites in northern Africa, traveled with Sereno in 2005
to the site. She recalls standing there amazed, gazing at far more human
skeletons than she had seen in all her digs combined.
She quickly homed in on two distinct types of pottery, one that bore a
pointillistic pattern linked with the Tenerian and another that had wavy
lines and zigzags. “These are Kiffian,” a puzzled Garcea told Sereno.
“What is so amazing is that the people who made these two types of pots
lived in the same place more than a thousand years apart”.
Over the next three weeks Sereno, Garcea and their team of five ex-
cavators made a detailed map of the site. They exhumed eight burials and
collected scores of artifacts from both cultures. In a dry lake bed nearby,

they found dozens of Kiffian fish hooks and harpoons carved from animal
bone as well as skeletal remains of massive Nile perch, crocodile and
A year later, a second round of excavation turned up more riddles,
researchers said. An adult Tenerian male was buried with his skull resting
on part of a clay vessel; another adult male was interred seated on the
shell of a mud turtle.
One burial, however, brought 2006 activity at the site to a standstill: Lying
on her side, the skeleton of a petite Tenerian woman emerged from the
sand, facing the skeletons of two young children; their slender arms
reached toward her and their hands were clasped in an everlasting
embrace. Samples taken from under the skeletons contained pollen clus-
ters—taken as evidence the people had been laid out on a bed of flowers.
The team employed a range of new techniques to preserve this remarkable
burial exactly as it had been for more than 5,000 years.
Bioarchaeologist Stojanowski analyzed dozens of individuals’ bones and
teeth for clues to the two populations. “This individual, for example, had
huge leg muscles,” he said of ridges on the thigh bone of a Kiffian male,
“which suggests he was eating a lot of protein and had an active, strenu-
ous lifestyle. The Kiffian appear to have been fairly healthy—it would be
difficult to grow a body that tall and muscular without sufficient nutri-
tion.” In contrast, the femur ridge of a Tenerian male was barely percepti-
ble. “This man’s life was less rigorous, perhaps taking smaller fish and
game with more advanced hunting technologies,” Stojanowski said.
Analysis of measurements on Kiffian skulls links them to skulls found
across northern Africa, some as old as 16,000 years, Stojanowski said.
The Tenerian, however, are not closely linked to these ancient populations.
The team is continuing to analyze Gobero bones for more clues to the
people’s health and diet. A large-scale return expedition is planned to the
site to further explore the two populations that coped with extreme climate

Meek Witness
A solitary chunk of granite, small enough to heft in one hand, is key
evidence that Australia and parts of Antarctica were once attached to
North America, a new study suggests.
The Earth's continents are thought to have collided to become super
continents and broken apart again several times in Earth's 4.5 billion year
history. The most recent super continent was Pangaea, which began to
break apart about 200 million years ago; the landmasses that comprised
Pangaea eventually wandered into the current configuration of continents.

Several super continents predating Pangaea have been proposed by
geologists, including one dubbed Rodinia that exist about 1.1 billion years
For several decades, researchers have theorized that part of the ancient
super continent Rodinia broke away from what is now the southwestern
United States around 800 million to 600 million years ago, eventually
drifting southward to become eastern Antarctica and Australia. The idea is
known as the southwestern United States to East Antarctica (SWEAT)
But there was little physical evidence that could tie the southernmost
continent to the long-disappeared Rodinia. Until scientists stumbled upon
this rock that is Granite rock belt.
John Goodge of the University of Minnesota-Duluth and his team were
searching in Antarctica's Trans-Antarctic Mountains for rocks carried
along by ice rivers that could provide clues to the composition of the
underlying crust of Antarctica, which in most places is buried under 2
miles of ice.

One rock, found atop the so-called Nimrod Glacier, was later determined to
be a very specific form of granite with what Goodge describes as having
"a particular type of coarse-grained texture”.
Chemical tests run on the rock later revealed that it has a chemistry "very
similar to a unique belt of igneous rocks in North America" that stretch
California through New Mexico to Kansas, Illinois and eventually New
Brunswick and Newfoundland in Canada, Goodge said.
This belt of rock was a part of what is called Laurentia, thought by some
geologists to be the core of Rodinia.
The belt stops suddenly at its western margin, leading geologists to
suspect that some piece of crust had rifted away from what is now the
West Coast of
the United States.
"It just ends right where that ancient rift margin is," Goodge said. "And
these rocks are basically not found in any part of the world.”
That a small chunk of this rock should turn up on a glacier high in the
mountains of Antarctica is strong evidence in support of the SWEAT
model, the researchers said.
Biological Change
At the time that this rift occurred, a massive change in Earth's biota, the
Cambrian explosion was also happening.
"During the Cambrian explosion about 520 million years ago we started
seeing this huge expansion in the diversity of life forms.
Piecing together Rodinia helps provide a geological context in which this
diversification occurred. The shifting configuration of landmasses,
collisions between them, as well as erosion and the influx of chemicals
into the seas may have provided the nutrients for that expanding diversity
of life forms.

Diamonds may have been life’s best friend, researchers said.

Billions of years ago, the surface of these gems may have provided the
right conditions to foster the chemical reactions believed to have given
rise to life on Earth, according to three scientists in Germany.

Courtesy American Chemical


Their study published in August 2008 of Crystal Growth & Design, a re-
search journal of the American Chemical Society.
Many scientists have theorized that life’s chemical precursors gradually
evolved from a so-called “primordial soup” of simpler molecules. But just
how these simpler molecules, called amino acids, would have assembled
into complex larger structures remains one of science’s great mysteries.
The authors of the new study—Andrei Sommer of the University of Ulm,
Germany, and colleagues—studied diamonds, crystallized forms of carbon
older than the earliest life.
In a series of laboratory experiments, the scientists found that after treat-
ment with hydrogen, natural diamond forms crystalline layers of water on
its surface. These layers may have been essential for the development of
life, and involved in electrical conductivity, the group argued. In other
words, they explained, when primitive molecules landed on the surface of
these “hydrogenated” diamonds in the early atmosphere, the resulting
chemical reaction could have generated more complex organic molecules
that eventually gave rise to life.

What really puzzled physicists and scientists the previous generations
were on how we came into existence. The creation and the universe. “Big
Bang Theory” now gained admittance. A positive initiative of updating
some lines of the Bible. Derivations of mathematical frameworks lead to
the updates of Ancient Relativity, where everything derived from energy
corresponding to space and time. This too jibe to the Theory of Evolution
through nature selection. A very long natural processes. However
experienced taught us that indulging short and complicated laboratory
processes was terribly dangerous.
Now, since the Grand Old Big Bang did occurred, the neophyte Earth had
to do some housekeeping. Plankton is basic creation from sub-atomic
caused by energy reaction of Earth’s ocean, derived from the simplest cell
as to the process of fauna to the womb. In basic origin without predator,
what shall be the outcome? Since plankton had no category neither fauna
nor flora, some had been awash to the shores and were fertilized through
nature selections. Others may develop unlimited appetite devouring tiny
members of the colony to sustain their growth through the nature
selection and the rest are history.
Life’s Ingredients Most Likely Sprinkled on Earth
Some crucial ingredients for life on Earth may have formed in interstellar
space, rather than on the planet's surface.
A new computer model indicates clouds of adenine molecules, a basic
component of DNA, can form and survive the harsh conditions of space,
and possibly sprinkle onto planets as the stars they orbit travel through a
There may be only a few molecules of adenine per square foot of space,
but over millions of years, enough could have accumulated to help make
way for life, according to a molecular chemist team at the University of
Spacey Chemistry
Adenine is one of four "letters" of DNA's alphabet used to store an
organism's genetic code. The idea that large, two-ringed organic

molecules like adenine formed in space may seem outrageous, but current
evidence leaves the possibility wide open.
One can find large molecules in meteorites, including adenine. We know
that adenine can be made elsewhere in the solar system, so why should
one consider it impossible to make the building blocks somewhere in
interstellar dust.
Using computer simulations of the cold vacuum of space, The team found
that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas can build adenine. Like pieces in a set of
tinker toys, hydrogen cyanide serves as adenine's building blocks; the
small molecules bond together into chains and, with a little wiggling,
eventually assemble into rings.
Although adenine's first ring needs a tiny energy boost from starlight to
form, ring of the molecule self-assembles without any outside help.
When a reaction occurs, usually it needs to be heated. It is remarkable to
find a reaction that does not requires activation of energy. If one does this
reaction in space, this is a huge advantage because it takes a long time for
a molecule to be hit by a piece of light.
Seasoned for Life
Adenine's ringed shape helps it absorb and release any excess energy
without breaking apart, making it stable enough to form concentrated
clouds that planets can drift through.
While getting adenine safely onto a rocky planet's surface is a less
developed idea, many chemists have barely toyed with the notion that
life's basic ingredients formed off of the planet's surface.
We are at a very early stage of anybody even thinking about these things.
The discussion of life's origin has been highly focused on the idea of a
warm pool of liquid on the planet's surface, but recent discoveries of
planets around distant stars is changing that focus.
Chemistry in space is not the chemistry most of us are trained for. We
should take a much bigger approach: Where are all the chemicals in the .

We already knew that hydrogen cyanide is abundant in interstellar clouds,
and it has been suggested that comets can bring some of those materials
onto planets. The team idea is to detect adenine in the deep space clouds.
The likelihood of detection is very small, but it is still possible. Should the
background noise could be eliminated, sensitive equipment can detect
adenine dust clouds.
Molecules in the Outer Space
Lately, there are eight organic molecules with 6 to 8 atoms discovered in
intergalactic space whereby one particular molecule found in Sagittarius
B2(N), identified as acetamide, contains a type of chemical bond important
for linking together amino acids, the molecular building blocks of
proteins. Chances that several interpolations of those molecules
interacted, forming some life-supporting elements showered our newly
created planet. Indeed it took several period of incubation on this very
Earth to attained micro-lives thus further evolved to us, where every
generic composite are symmetrically the same from the origin. Say,
Earth’s water ratio is the same ratio of water on our bodies. Elements
abound this planet, are also found on our components and most likely of
the same ratio too. Majority of oil deposits are between the two polar, as
majority of our fats are located at the body’s midsection… etc.
Origin of Life forms
The stellar baby boom period of the Milky Way sparked a flowering and
crashing of life here on Earth, a new study suggests.
Some 2.4 billion years ago when the Milky Way started upping its star
production, cosmic rays-high-speed atomic particles-started pouring onto
our planet, causing instability within the living. Populations of bacteria and
algae repeatedly soared and crashed in the oceans.
The researchers counted the amount of carbon-13 within sedimentary
rocks, the most common rocks exposed on the Earth's surface. When
algae and bacteria were growing in the oceans, they took in carbon-12, so
the ocean had an abundance of carbon-13.

Many sea creatures use carbon-13 to make their shells. If there is a lot of
carbon-13 stored in rocks, it means life, the origin of which is still
unknown, was booming. Therefore, variations in carbon-13 are a good
indicator of the productivity of life on Earth.
The researchers found that the biggest fluctuation in productivity
coincided with star formation, which had an affect on Earth’s climate and
therefore on the productivity of life on our planet.
When a star explodes far away in the Milky Way, cosmic rays penetrate
through the Earth’s atmosphere and produce ions and free electrons. The
released electrons act as catalysts and accelerate the formation of small
clusters of sulfuric acid and water molecules, the building blocks of
clouds. Therefore, cosmic rays increase cloud cover on Earth, reflecting
sunlight and keeping the planet relatively cool.
Although cold and icy times are generally considered unfriendly to life, the
data reveals that biological productivity kept oscillating between very high
and very low. The reason, the researchers suggest, is that stronger winds
during icy epochs stirred the oceans and improved the supply of nutrients
in the surface waters.
The odds are 10,000-to-1 against this unexpected link between cosmic
rays and the variable state of the biosphere being just a coincidence, and
it offers a new perspective on the connection between the evolution of the
Milky Way and the entire history of life over the last 4 billion years,”
Chances are … different species of life forms are abundant floating in the
universe on suspended state of whatever/wherever origin. Meteors falling
in our planet possessed imprints of bacteria of unknown origin. Lately,
extract of universe’s genetic structure are similar to those life forms on
earth. The overwhelming probability for these suspended genes to react
on suitable environment with compatible catalyst to spring up to life, to
mutate and evolve on any given planet. There should be a free hand of
evolution once host planet shall tolerate these life forms to survive.
Somewhere on Earth, close to 4 billion years ago, a set of molecular
reactions flipped a switch and became life. Scientists try to imagine this
animating event by simplifying the processes that characterize living

New research suggests the simplification needs to go further. All currently
known organisms rely on DNA to replicate and proteins to run cellular
machinery, but these large molecules—intricate weaves of thousands of
atoms—are not likely to have been around for the first organisms to use.
Life could have started up from the small molecules that nature provided."
Research pointing that the first life forms were self-contained chemistry
experiments that grew, reproduced and even evolved without needing the
complicated molecules that define biology as we now know it.
The Typical Origin of Space Bodies
For almost thirty years, scientists have known that complex carbon
compounds called tholins exist on comets and in the atmospheres of the
outer planets. Theoretically, tholins might interact with water in a process
called hydrolysis to produce complex molecules similar to those found on
the early Earth.
On the Earth, complex organic molecules are believed to have been an
early step in the emergence of life; such compounds are called prebiotic.
Titan, the sixth and largest moon of the planet Saturn, is thought to be
made largely of ice. Some of that ice may melt during meteor impacts or in
underground processes, producing "ice volcanoes" that emit a "lava"
containing ammonia mixed with water. Could tholins formed in Titan's
atmosphere react with liquid water temporarily exposed by meteor
impacts or ice volcanoes to produce potentially prebiotic complex organic
molecules — before the water freezes? Until this year, no one knew.
Now, laboratory research by Catherine Neish, a graduate student working
on her doctorate in planetary science at the University of Arizona, shows
in the journal Astrobiology that, over a period of days, compounds similar
to tholins can be hydrolyzed (which means to react with water) at near-
freezing temperatures.
Liquid water exposed on Titan is believed to persist for hundreds to
thousands of years — plenty of time for such reactions to take place.
Tantalizingly, it has been suggested that a similar process may have
happened on the early Earth.

In her lab, Neish created organic compounds similar to tholins by
subjecting a mixture of 5 percent methane and 95 percent nitrogen to
electrical discharge at a low temperature (-108 degrees F or -78 degrees
C). She dissolved samples of the resulting material in water, and then, at a
range of temperatures from freezing up to 104 degrees F (40 degrees C),
measured the rate at which the mixture hydrolyzed.
Neish found that up to 10 percent of the organic compounds she began
with reacted with oxygen from the water to form complex organic
While Neish's work was judged worthy of publication in a scientific
journal, she has some critics. James P. Ferris, a research professor at
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute University, who has studied the chemistry
of Titan's atmosphere for many years, calls her work "flawed" because she
used an electric discharge to generate tholins, while those in Titan's
atmosphere are probably generated by ultraviolet (UV) light and charged-
particle radiation.
Ferris has conducted experiments on a mixture of gases similar to Titan's
atmosphere using UV light and says, "The structures of the compounds
made by [electric] discharge differ from those formed by UV photolysis so
the hydrolysis time could be very different. Some of the photochemical
products [when UV light is used] are hydrocarbons that do not react with
Neish responds that electric, or plasma, discharge "was meant to mimic
charged particle interactions (which Ferris admits is a process at work on
Titan)." She agrees that "UV light radiation produces tholins that look
more like Titan's haze," but she points out that "some, if not most, of the
products we make also don't react with water."
She acknowledges that her work is not an ideal representation of
chemistry in Titan's atmosphere: "Tholins formed at low pressure seem to
'look' more like Titan's haze than those formed at higher pressures. You
can make tholins at low pressures using UV light; you cannot make
tholins at low pressure using plasma discharge. And to make the amount
of tholins we needed for the experiment, we needed to use the discharge
technique. UV photolysis only produces small amounts."

Ferris, who was not aware of Neish's work until we contacted him, agrees
that analyzing the results of hydrolysis on samples produced by UV light
would be "more difficult because of the small samples formed."
Another issue is that Neish performed hydrolysis of her tholins in pure
water, while any water present on Titan is probably mixed with ammonia.
She told us that she recently completed another set of hydrolysis
experiments using mixtures of ammonia and water, and expects to publish
those results shortly.
While Neish's work is not a perfect representation of chemistry on
Saturn's largest moon, it nonetheless suggests that similar processes
could produce organic compounds in significant quantities during periods
when liquid water is available.
On Titan, this suggests that prebiotic molecules might exist in meltwater
from impact craters and ice volcanoes. And similar processes might have
occurred on the early Earth, before our atmosphere contained significant
quantities of free oxygen.
Primordial Soup
A very strong hypothesis for origin-of-life is that complex biological
compounds assembled by chance out of an organic broth on the early
Earth's surface. This pre-biotic synthesis culminated in one of these bio-
molecules being able to make copies of itself.
The first support for this idea of life arising out of the primordial soup
came from the famous 1953 experiment by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey,
in which they made amino acids—the building blocks of proteins—by
applying sparks to a test tube of hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water.
If amino acids could come together out of raw ingredients, then bigger,
more complex molecules could presumably form given enough time.
Biologists have devised various scenarios in which this assemblage takes
place in tidal pools, near underwater volcano vents on the surface of clay
sediments, or even in outer space.

But were the first complex molecules proteins or DNA or something else?
Biologists face a chicken-and-egg problem in that proteins are needed to
replicate DNA, but DNA is necessary to instruct the building of proteins.
Many researchers, therefore, think that RNA—a cousin of DNA—may have
been the first complex molecule on which life was based. RNA carries
genetic information like DNA, but it can also direct chemical reactions as
proteins do.
Metabolism First
Now it is not unthinkable that this so-called "RNA world" is still too
complex to be the origin of life. Information-carrying molecules like RNA
are sequences of molecular "bits." The primordial soup would be full of
things that would terminate these sequences before they grew long
enough to be useful.
Instead of complex molecules, life started with small molecules interacting
through a closed cycle of reactions. These reactions would produce
compounds that would feed back into the cycle, creating an ever-growing
reaction network.
A Brief Glance on the Life Forms Chain
Way back around 3.5 billion years, occurrence of microspheriods,
filamentous, microfossils and stromatolites provide strong support for
existence of life much earlier that it was ever though possible. Before the
end of Precambrian era, when oxygen level in the atmosphere was less
than 10 percent, organisms from primordial soup – predecessors of
protein and DNA – energy triggered by chemical reaction that formed
primitive proto-organisms developed method of obtaining energy by
combining oxygen with nutrients in a process called respiration. At first
there was no demarcation between flora and fauna similarly to our present
plankton that shared some characteristics of both, utilizing the
photosynthesis and respiration. As more mobile complex form called
metazoans evolved and totally relied on respiration, this animal form a
predatory-prey relationship. In other phase, algae that live at the inter-tidal
zone later developed into primitive form of lichen and moss. Then followed
by tiny fernlike plants, which is the predecessor of trees.

At about 700 million years ago, marine animals developed internal
skeleton, one of the most significant achievements in life’s long climb to
evolutionary ladder. Vertebrates on the other hand, have internal skeleton
that is light, strong and flexible with more attachments for the muscles.
The first animal did not put their appearance until the plants were well
established some 350 million years ago. Those were primitive amphibians.
Fish with lobe fins modified into walking limbs and lung adapted for
breathing air. What enticed those creatures to come ashore was
abundance of food swept up on beaches during high tides and fierce
competition of scare food on the ocean.
Present Fact
WASHINGTON An extraordinary fish that existed 375 million years ago had unique feature
in its head that helped pave the way for vertebrate animals to live on land. scientists said
Scientists for the first time described features in the underside of the skull
of Tiktaalik roseae, the so-called "walking fish" discovered in the Canadian
Arctic in 2004. It is considered an important transitional animal in the
evolution of fish into amphibians, the first land-dwelling vertebrates.
The findings showed that the migration from water to land was more
complicated than merely having a fish's fins transform into legs, the
scientists wrote in the journal Nature.
The head showed changes from more primitive fish that helped adapt to
the new feeding and breathing conditions presented by a terrestrial
environment, the scientists said. Like some other fish of its time, it had
gills and lungs.
"It's not to say that Tiktaalik itself is a terrestrial animal. It spent most of
its time in water, for sure," Jason Downs of the Academy of Natural
Sciences in Philadelphia, one of the researchers, said in a telephone
"So what it's really demonstrating is that many of these changes that are
occurring and things that we once associated with terrestrial life are
turning out, in fact, to be adaptations for life in shallow water settings that
Tiktaalik might had found himself in," Downs added.
It likely inhabited the mudflats of freshwater flood plains of a subtropical
environment. It was a large aquatic predator, measuring up to 9 feet long,

with sharp teeth and a flattened head like a crocodile and unlike primitive
It may have been able to exit the water for short jaunts on land.
"Fish in the water, insects on land -- it could feed on all of those if you
look at the skull," said Neil Shubin of the University of Chicago, another
of the researchers.
Tiktaalik is seen as a forerunner of all land vertebrates including
amphibians, reptiles, mammals and eventually people.
The scientists described key features in its head and braincase and the
decline in size of a bone called the hyomandibula. In fish, this bone links
the braincase, roof of the mouth and gill structures and coordinates their
motions during underwater feeding and respiration.
As land animals evolved, the hyomandibula eventually became the
stapes, one of the tiny bones in the middle ear.
Tiktaalik has features of some of the more primitive fish it lived with as
well as features of the first four-legged amphibians that lived on land. Its
fins had discernible wrists and elbows in an evolutionary step toward
legs that could be used to walk around on dry land.
The underside of the skull remained encased in rock at the time
Tiktaalik's discovery was announced. Using a needle to remove rock
grain by grain under a microscope, scientists have painstakingly studied
the inside of the creature's skull.
During Mesozoic era, from 240 to 65 million years ago, life seen many
remarkable advancement. Those species that made through the great
extinction at the end of Paleozoic era where similar to populations found
today. This was also the era that breaking up of Super Continent of
Pangaea begun. Continents started to drift on their present positions. This
must be the end of Cretaceous period (65 million years ago) when
Dinosaurs became extinct and the formation of two permanent polar ice
Our present ice epoch took place within the Quaternary period which
consist of Pleistocene era (age of recent life) and the Holocene era
(concurrent with the age of modern man) the last 10,000 years after the
last ice age. Pleistocene era is synonymous to the most recent ice ages.

What is outstanding about this particular ice epoch is that our ancestors
appeared on the scene somewhere in Africa where temperature were
warmer to support their existence just about when ice ages began some 2
million years. And of course, this is beyond the comprehension of those
Desert Nomads who tried to record events on codices where Bible, Quran
and other religious procrastination evolved.
The researchers looked at so-called Hox genes -- which play an important
role in limb development -- in paddlefish pectoral fins. They inserted
molecular markers to track where these genes are active in the fin, and
found the activity pattern resembled what these genes do in limbs of land
dwellers. The findings run counter to the theory that the appearance of
limbs was a novel evolutionary occurrence requiring great genetic
changes to enable the first limbed creatures to adapt to their new
environments of streams and swamps.
The first forests sprouted up roughly 385 million years ago, with towering
trees resembling modern-day palms, helping give rise to new freshwater
ecosystems. Shubin and other scientists last year announced the
discovery of the remains of a creature called Tiktaalik dating back to 375
million years ago and seen as a missing evolutionary link between fish
and the first land vertebrates.
It had fish-like characteristics, but it boasted a skull, neck, ribs and parts
of limbs resembling the first amphibians such as Acanthostega that arose
5 to 10 million years later. "So it seems like you had the genetic tool kit
(for limbs) for a long period of time," Shubin said. "And then, when the
new ecosystems appear at around the time of Tiktaalik and slightly before,
that's when forms started to use that to make true fingers and toes and
stuff like that."
Organic System on In-depth Analysis for Natural Adaptation
Many who believe in mutation process do not postulate that these events
could not have occurred without the existence of God. It simply shows
that there is no conflict between God as Energy and Prime Mover with
Evolution, and contend that mutation is an essence for natural process of

adaptation. Mutation possessed an efficient time-generated process such
as evolution rather than the comparatively awkward method of creating
every item and being on earth separately and continuing this process
forever. When spiritual or mystical mix with mutation theory had the
visceral sense of metaphysics giving way to religion afar from scientific
approach. Coalition is highly contrary and science could be threatening.
An organ, in medical terms is define as any differentiated part devoted to a
specific function. There are many organs in the human body which need
to be studied in-depth to determine whether they evolved gradually over a
very long period of time, or were created spontaneously in their finished
form as some of the clergies belief. They defy the mechanics of mutation
in its specifics, yet insisted that they do not defy evolution itself.
Clergies on the extremist faction among the religious scholars who defy
evolution at all levels and believe in spontaneity instead. Spontaneity
means that each living thing were created separately in its finished form
with all the organs it contains. This is certainly the religious concept of
creation that we had been taught throughout generations. One thing
however is certain about the organic systems, that even at their most
rudimentary stage, they displayed things simultaneously.
• The mutation of an outer component which in itself entitled to be called
• The mutation of a transmission system like nerve cords which carry the
information gathered by the outer organ;
• The mutation of an internal highly complicated recognition system that
constitutes specific part of the brain. It adapted to receive information
and break it into components and to visualize the central message
correctly. The brain center then had to transmit all information to the
great number of centers in the brain that take care of recording and
passing to similar nerve centers in other parts of the body;
• The purposefulness and adaptation in the making of every organ that
makes a component of this extremely complex organic system are but
evident requirement for the survival of the species.
The general contention that eyes, ears and other vital parts are
erroneously described a single organ which can perform a meaningful
function of themselves. As single organ, they do not mean anything. They
only begin to mean something when they are viewed as integral parts of
the whole system to which they belong. Again, when minutely examined

within their own confines, they reveal that they themselves are sub-
systems comprising many smaller organs within them. Thus in their
totality acquire relative role of sub-systems. Even at the rudimentary
stages such organs are split into components which perfectly accord with
the above description. The mechanism of sight for instance, found among
animals which existed hundreds of millions of years before humans came
into being, show the same complexity of mutation to adapt the respective
surroundings and improved through the trip of time.
Eyes which serve the same purpose of connecting the outer world with the
inner universe of the living. The structural details could not have been
possible without predetermined requirement of environs to survive and
be adapted to the existing surroundings and through the conception of
time. It should be remembered that each component comprises sub-
components which themselves are highly complex and need a lot of
explanation with regard to their internal composition and the nature of
material and time they are made of.
The two most vital organs which separate the living and the dead are the
ears along with the auditory system and the eyes as part of the optic
system. The visible external part of the ear is called the auricle with
various shapes, however the purpose of which is to enlarge the
catchment’s area of sound waves which are directed towards the outer
opening. This serve as the entry point of the external auditory canal
extending into a tube lined with skin which secretes some soft wax and is
connected with the tympanic membrane (tympanum or the eardrum)
ending the external ear. Air pressure on both sides are regulated by
eustachian tube that connects the middle ear cavity and the throat
This mechanism is highly essential because it permits the eardrum to
vibrate freely in all directions. The middle ear is a slit-like cavity located
between the external auditory canal and the internal ear. It contains air and
three ossicles, ore small bones, which are connected so that they amplify
and transmit sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear.
The three bones in the chain are called the malleus, the incus and the
stapes or the hammer, the anvil and the stirrup. The first of these connects
with the tympanic membrane and the second is joined to the first and the
third ossicle. The third stapes or stirrup connects with the membrane of
the oval window which in turn vibrates and transmits the vibration of the
fluid in the internal ear.

The internal ear is a series of sacs and ducts which together perform the
function of hearing and balance. This is the most complicated part of the
whole ear comprising three separate spaces hollowed out inside the
temporal bone. These spaces make up the bony labyrinth, comprising the
vestibule, the cochlea and the semicircular canals, all filled with fluid
called perilymph. The membrane are lined with nerve endings extremely
sensitive to the movement of fluid. In the fluid of the bony semicircular
canals are the membranous cochlea situated in the perilymph of the bony
cochlea and also filled with endolymph. The sound waves cause the
tympanic membrane to vibrate as they strike it.
These vibrations are enormously amplified by the ossicles and transmitted
by them to the perilymph. The perilymph conducts them through the
membrane to the endolymph. The waves of the endolymph are transmitted
to tiny hair-like receptors which are stimulated and conduct nerve
impulses through the nerve fibers to the brain center (cerebrum).
The function of balance is performed by the three loop-shape tubes of the
semicircular canals which lie at right angles to one another in three
different planes. The signals are constantly transmitted to the cerebrum
through nerves and are interpreted there. By this interpretation we learn
which way we are positioned and in which direction our position is
changing. A slightest change in direction are being recorded and a
corresponding awareness is created in the brain.
Brain Motor Reactor
A neuron is just a discharging battery. It generates a signal by
depolarizing its membrane. Membranes such as those that surround cells
do not readily let charged particles across them. Membranes do however
contain two important types of proteins, ion channels and transporters.
Transporters use stored energy in order to actively transport particular
ions across membranes in particular directions, against the concentration
gradient. This enables there to be much more K+ on one side of a
membrane than the other. This creates both a chemical (more potassium
on one side) and electrical (more positive charges on one side) gradient
across the membrane. This is a voltage gradient of –70mV.

The electro-chemical gradient is the basis of nerve cell signaling, because
it is basically potential energy. When the ions shift across the membrane,
the depolarization to less than -67 mV generates a signal. The signal
passes down the axon (cable) not like true electricity but by shifts of K+
and Na+ in successive segments of the axon, then shifts back sort of like
leap-frog. The signal causes calcium channels to open in the nerve
terminal. Ca++ flows in, the membrane changes to release packets
(quanta) of neurochemical transmitter. This crosses a microscopic gap
called the synaptic cleft to a receptor on the dendrite of the next neuron in
the sequence. And that neuron depolarizes to repeat the cycle. Millions to
billions of these form connections like computer circuits.
The point is that on the unit level, metal ions pass through holes in a
membrane and change the electrical charge from inside to outside
gradient -70 mV to < -67 mV. When they are connected to millions and
billions of other micro generators in circuits and circuits connect to
circuits we can hold hands. Or we can derive the numerical value of Pi to
thousands of decimal units, or derive the equation E = MC² of Special
Relativity or compose a symphony.
Is it not that in itself wondrous? Potassium ions and Sodium ions
squeezing through the membrane.

Divine Energy In Universe

Going back to divinity, Divine Energy In Universe (DEIU) can feasibly
attracted and acquires by oneself by alignment of atomic cells through
natural magnetism (aura in mystical term) and be concentrated on mind to
create plausible energy that can help individual in executing needs.
However, the attainment of this erg, one shall ultimately focus to create
mind equilibrium to facilitate the integration of DEIU without interference
(Exodus 34:14) in order to manifest of what shall be to attain.
Surely, on our lifetime, without pacifism and righteousness, one could be
lost in the Mainstream of the Divine Energy and the great likelihood to be
scrap on the next cycle of humanity. It must be understood that Divine
Energy In Universe has the Core and the only way to be on the Wavelength
is complete alignment all the way along this Field without distracting one’s

attention in drifting too far that the chances of coming nearer again shall
be minimal. This stand on the truism of dogmatic teaching, however not
fully digested and called the Mainstream of Divine Energy In Universe
“God; Allah; etc.” or any other divinities.
Mind is the essence in man that controls the body and does react on any
given space and time. Since mind is stored in the brain, there it is the body
Now, if man has reactor, why can one not process minerals posses by the
physical body in a higher level. All necessary minerals to produce energy
are within us. It is just a matter of breaking up our atomic slime in
proportion with the space and time. How to process it? One must create
required vibration to trigger the splitting of atomic slime in the brain. In
layman’s view, fasting shall create equilibrium to balance our atomic slime
in proportion to space and time, and shall ignite chain reactions to satisfy
the entire process.
The presence of space and time; reactor in the brain; one can create
vibration that shall split atomic slime passive in the brain and what needed
most is the integration of the square of speed of light to manifest DEIU.
The only known and available essence to fathom the square of the speed
of light is the velocity of mind to think. Think and reach out to the goal
being aspired. Meditate, concentrate and believe on the required space
and time, then shall achieve a miraculous Energy to help attain that goal.
Equating God and Energy
God by faith is believed to be perfect omnipotent, omniscient, and ruler of
universe, single supreme agency and prime mover. It is a psychological
being to everyone, where to seek refuge in time of crisis and something to
cling-on, a shelter of emotion when everything are down the limbo and
desperation. God exist within the inner self of everyone and always within
reach in time of needs to sustain emotional pain and depression and at
this particular mode, God will surely prop-up and boost well being to
overcome oddities and will cause to tackle everything with full strength
and inspiration.

Energy is a potent property of universal matters with vital force, capable of
creating reaction upon triggering and pulsate to any desire medium on a
given time and space.
Should one is a smart physicist and mathematician, mathematical
framework can be derive for the above from the basic Relativity Formula, a
principle that Essene tried to achieve on those era. If physicists,
mathematicians and scientists can assemble theoretical frameworks of
universe, why laymen can not afford to confine facts for the consumption
of truth. We were derived equally on this physical world with all the graces
of Universe and it is up to ourselves to train our energy and psychological
will on whatever goal in life we wish to be. By sharing and not fighting for
such Divine Energy In Universe should Real Peace be attained and as
truth prevail. Just a matter of opening our faculties in harmony with the
Universal Field Energy and development our psychological well being in
order to obtain that power in relation to the Principle of Nature’s Relativity.
Manifestation of Energy
Through unitary confinement of atomic fusion as complementary to
bombardment of atomic nuclei;
* Unitary Confinement of Atomic Fusion is a process of training atomic
magnetism into precise location and direction with corresponding uniform
cycle of nutation (swinging back and forth of two opposing poles) on the
local poles. (north-south) Multiple bi-polar maybe designed with
corresponding typical local magnetic polar cells to certain magnitude. The
common material nowadays are combination of copper, aluminum and
silicon steel with corresponding insulation that can withstand heat during
the process of atomic bombardment created during vibration or rotation.
* As this process start to create momentum reaching to the desired cycle
nutation (commonly at 50 to 60 cycle) shall actuate, triggering chain
reaction to the splitting of atoms. However due to the absence of
appropriate substances and catalyst to break the nuclei, instead trigger
the chain-reaction of uniform movement of atoms to almost the speed of
light to the medium of designed magnitude, then shall be proportional to
the amount of trained-atoms confined within the mainstream core, as
. -

Say: A total cross-sectional area of certain medium within the perimeter
core can produce 0.25 milligram of trained-atoms neglecting the transfer
losses can produce energy of:
E = 0.25(3x108) = 750 joules
Bombardment of Atomic Nuclei
In the case of human reaction, it needs a 50-kilogram individual to trained
and enriched about 0.025 milligram of atomic slime in the brain reactor
and to actuate vibration in bombardment of atoms to trigger chain-
reaction. This shall produce about 75 joules worth of force enough to
levitate, move things and events in related distance, energy magnitude to
briefly join the mainstream of DEIU core, to over rule self-consciousness
and to cater outside entity. Lots of activities can be obtained in relation to
According to the lifeform’s chain, our ancestor’s initial appearance was
somewhere in the vastness of Africa as climate being suitable for their
existence that period. Following the flock’s migration during the melting of
polar ice, some migrants were trapped by the ocean to the place of no
return. However some were left behind roaming around the African plains
developed maturity of instinct in line to their genetic calling.
The pioneering missionaries observed the first self-manifestation in
African and misinterpreted as mystic and magic although practiced by the
indigenous people as life affirming religion. They deliberately possessed
their selves into trance and with the rhythm of drums and songs shall
boost their hysteric moods and start shaking and shaking violently until
possessed by the spirit. (that must be the manifested energy) Then spoke
softly working slowly to a high pitch emotion. Then community starts
talking, asking their ancestors for good things. This shall be the attraction
of the mainstream of DEIU to oneself and as mystic that can not be
explain. Through the pollution of imported religions to Africa, the practice
was boldly discouraged as taken to be black cult. However during the
Renaissance Age were pick-up and practice in India going down to Japan
in a serene mood.
Indeed true and excellent those wonderful verses rendered the necessities
during that period, but had it stood with the evolution of time to withstand

the scrutiny of nature? Had they not aged to collide and caused fanaticism
on our present and rational generation? The needs to look back and
compare the recent civilization, in order to see the perspective and room
for deletions. Is it unrealistic to bring the world together on the premise of
the United Nations and to discuss workable agreement on rational unified
truth and belief suitable to our time? If viable so, then “Cards of the Table”
and altogether we shall establish the “Benchmark for Peace”.
Advocacy on Transcendent Reality
A paradigm that reconciles science, philosophy and religion to bring them
into alignment, to be consistent, and to be complementary. Science and
scientific methodology allow us to discover facts and uncover truth about
reality. Philosophy allows us to build reliable, predictive models that give
us control over our environment. Religion allows us to choose those
actions and alternatives that promote the greatest social good.
Transcendent Reality provides for the continual measurement of the
efficacy of our philosophical models, correction of error, for evolution, for
the progressive growth of knowledge, wisdom, and realization. And, It
allows also for uncertainty, random chance, and chaos.
To the seekers of truth and knowledge, Transcendent Reality offers a
pragmatic path to discovery that is reviewable and disciplined,
philosophical constructions that are useful and verifiable, and,
measurable algorithms of the greater social good.
To the less abstractly inclined, Transcendent Reality is presented as a set
of rules to live by that enhance one’s survival, continuance-in-kind, and
prosperity – individually, and of the greater social unit.
To the believer it is a revelation, to the blind it is an eye, to the deaf it is an
ear. In the darkness it is a light to show the path.
Transcendent Reality is much more – not only is it is a path to survival,
continuance-in-kind, and prosperity, but it is also a way to measure
progress towards those goals. It is the answer to the meaning of life,
death, and destiny.
Morality as the Universal Law

Morality is a set of customs to society that regulate relationship and
prescribe modes of behavior to enhance group survival. A rule of moral
conduct. This is the essence that advance the herd of fauna into human.
Human society started a nomadic lives and later evolved into tribes of
hunter-gatherers where instinct of morality needed to govern a crude
civilization. Physical strength dominated the struggled for dominancy and
the needs of mechanism to perpetuate leadership was the main concerned
of the dominant male.
On one thunder storm season, lightning struck that started fire intrigued
dominant male of power that can not be explained on thus period. Based
of lightning incident, herd instinct has conceived a projected power to
provide basis in the implementation of morality. Should laws of morality be
observe and followed, a giver was required in order to be authenticated for
universal adherence and acceptance. God was created by mankind
through their image on those stages based on myth, dreams and visions
as Projected Giver of Morality Laws. Rules in formed of cult-dogma were
designed fitted with anathema and rigorous physical implementation of
the dominant leaders. Those were the survival of the fittest … and only
individuals adhered to the rules of God were fitted to live and to joined the
new human society.
Rules… evolved into beliefs those were the basis of traditional faith that
provide sustainable potent authority for the God-given Morality Laws.
Beliefs that were reasonable and rational on those particular period based
on knowledge they possessed, whether or not true or probable does not
matter, for it was written. Some quarters attempted to joined and designed
dogmas but separated by their individual interests. Dogmatic competitions
started to provoke on new human society and superstition was born to
give way on blurred and rejected dogmas.
Competition for foods on hunter-gathers era evolved into dogmatic
struggled and dominations. Kingdoms were established through
exploitation of dominance, using gods and goddesses to provide
projected powers. Those were the scuffled of god and goddesses to
dominate humanity… until the time of Abraham where mankind attempted
to unified god. And latter generations tried to incorporate all cult-dogmas
and bind mankind into religion, but same anathema was attached to it.

Part III


Our Primate Origin
To understand human evolution one must understand where humans fit in
relation to other forms of life. Modern humans belong to the group of
mammals known as Primates. This is the scientific category describing
such diverse creatures as lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, the monkeys of the
New World and Old World, and also the apes. As primates we all share
many characteristics, such as overlapping fields of vision caused by
forward looking eyes (this allows for greater 3D vision), fine ability to
grasp and handle objects in our hands, and enlarged brains relative to
body size. The evolution of the Primates started in the early part of the
Eocene epoch (about 55 million years ago).
Chimpanzees and humans are more closely related to each other than
either is to gorillas. However, it must be stressed that humans did not
evolve from living chimpanzees. Rather, our species and chimpanzees are
both the descendants of a common ancestor that was distinct from other
African apes. This common ancestor is thought to have existed in the
Pliocene between 5 and 8 million years ago, based on the estimated rates
of genetic change. Both of our species have since undergone 5 to 8
million years of evolution after this split of the two lineages. Using the
fossil record, scientists attempt to reconstruct the evolution from this
common ancestor through the series of early human species to today's
modern human species.

So when did humans originate? The answer to that question really

depends on what traits are meant by the term "human." Our

understanding of the fossil record shows that distinctively human traits
appeared neither recently nor all at once. Rather, they evolved piecemeal
over a period of roughly 5 million years. By 4 million years ago, humans
were habitually bipedal (walking on two legs) yet had brains roughly a
third of the size of a modern human's (about the size of a modern ape's
brain). By 2.5 million years ago the manufacture of stone tools was
common. Large increases in brain size occurred even later. Complex
behaviors such as adaptation to a wide range of environments and
cultural diversification emerged only within the last 100,000 years.

Human Transformation

Human transformation is the lengthy process of change by which people
originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the
physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike
ancestors and evolved over a period of at least 5 million years.
One of the earliest defining human traits is bipedalism -- the ability to walk
on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human
characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make
and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently.
Many advanced traits -- including complex symbolic _expression, art, and
elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged mainly during the past 100,000
Humans are primates. Physical and genetic similarities show that the
modern human species, Homo sapiens, has a very close relationship to
another group of primate species, the apes. Humans and the great apes
(large apes) of Africa -- chimpanzees (including bonobos, or so-called
“pygmy chimpanzees”) and gorillas -- share a common ancestor that lived
between 5 and 8 million years ago. Humans first evolved in Africa, and
much of human evolution occurred on that continent. The fossils of early
humans who lived between 2 and 5 million years ago come entirely from
Most scientists currently recognize some 10 to 15 different species of
early humans. Scientists do not all agree, however, about how these
species are related or which ones simply died out. Many early human
species -- certainly the majority of them -- left no living descendants.

Scientists also debate over how to identify and classify particular species
of early humans, and about what factors influenced the evolution and
extinction of each species.
Early humans first migrated out of Africa into Asia probably between 1.6
million and 2 million years ago. They entered Europe somewhat later,
generally within the past million years. Species of modern humans
populated many parts of the world much later. For instance, people first
came to Australia probably within the past 60,000 years and to the
Americas within the past 30,000 years or so. The beginnings of agriculture
and the rise of the first civilizations occurred within the past 10,000 years.
Paleoanthropology is the scientific study of human evolution and a
subfield of anthropology, the study of human culture, society, and biology.
The field involves an understanding of the similarities and differences
between humans and other species in their genes, body form, physiology,
and behavior. Paleoanthropologists search for the roots of human
physical traits and behavior. They seek to discover how evolution has
shaped the potentials, tendencies, and limitations of all people. For many
people, paleoanthropology is an exciting scientific field because it
investigates the origin, over millions of years, of the universal and
defining traits of our species. However, some people find the concept of
human evolution troubling because it can seem not to fit with religious
and other traditional beliefs about how people, other living things, and the
world came to be. Nevertheless, many people have come to reconcile their
beliefs with the scientific evidence.
Early human fossils and archeological remains offer the most important
clues about this ancient past. Thus remains include bones, tools and any
other evidence (such as footprints or butchery marks on animal bones)
left by earlier people. Usually, the remains were buried and preserved
naturally. They are then found either on the surface (exposed by rain,
rivers, and wind erosion) or by digging in the ground. By studying
fossilized bones, scientists learn about the physical appearance of earlier
humans and how it changed. Bone size, shape, and markings left by
muscles tell us how those predecessors moved around, held tools, and
how the size of their brains changed over a long time. Archeological
evidence refers to the things earlier people made and the places where

scientists find them. By studying this type of evidence, archeologists can
understand how early humans made and used tools and lived their
The Process of Transformation
The process of transformation involves a series of natural changes that
cause species (populations of different organisms) to arise, adapt to the
environment, and become extinct. All species or organisms have
originated through the process of biological evolution. In animals that
reproduce sexually, including humans, the term species refers to a group
whose adult members regularly interbreed, resulting in fertile offspring --
that is, offspring themselves capable of reproducing. Scientists classify
each species with a unique, two-part scientific name. In this system,
modern humans are classified as Homo sapiens.
Evolution occurs when there is change in the genes (the chemical
molecule, DNA) inherited from the parents and especially in the
proportions of different genes in a population. The information contained
in genes can change by a process known as mutation. The way particular
genes are expressed – that is, how they influence the body or behavior of
an organism -- can also change. Genes affect how the body and behavior
of an organism develop during its life, and this is why genetically inherited
characteristics can influence the likelihood of an organism’s survival and
reproduction. Evolution does not change any single individual. Instead, it
changes the inherited means of growth and development that typify a
population (a group of individuals of the same species living in a
particular habitat). Parents pass adaptive genetic changes to their
offspring, and ultimately these changes become common throughout a
population. As a result, the offspring inherit those genetic characteristics
that enhance their chances of survival and ability to give birth, which may
work well until the environment changes. Over time, genetic change can
alter a species' overall way of life, such as what it eats, how it grows, and
where it can live. Human evolution took place as new genetic variations in
early ancestor populations favored new abilities to adapt to environmental
change and so altered the human way of life.

In everyday understanding, the "ascent of man" is a steady upward
progression: Some 7 million years ago our slope-browed, knuckle-
dragging ancestors break with the future chimpanzees and learn by turns
to walk upright, grow bigger brains, shape bones and stones into tools --
then cap the whole process by developing language. No wonder so many
modern-day Homo sapiens, skeptical that the randomness of natural
selection could produce such a tidy plot line, insist there must be a
creator (or at least a creative intelligence) behind the story.
Of course not even Darwin argued for such a simplistic view of evolution,
and scientists still differ over important aspects of the interaction of
organisms and environment that favors some "improvements" over
others. There are gaps in our understanding, and some of the widest can
be found in anthropology, the human-centered discipline that was the
biggest discovery in at least a half-century.
Homo floresiensis, is a new human ancestor whose remains were found
on a remote island near Java – known to be Flores Man. They appear to
have been about 3 feet tall, with grapefruit-sized brains, and to have
hunted skillfully and cooperatively with stone tools. Their discoverer
believes they made these tools, and also employed language; other
anthropologists are unpersuaded on the first point, skeptical on the latter.
But it's the undisputed aspects of this discovery that are the most riveting.
Flores Man survived into relatively modern times -- at least up to 13,000
years ago, and therefore much later than the Neanderthals of Europe,
whose disappearance about 33,000 years ago had been considered the
end of our archaic ancestors.
Indeed, the skeletal remains found on Flores Island dovetail neatly with
the lore of modern-day residents, the Ngadha, who say the little people
were around until the arrival of Dutch trading ships in the 1500s. They
were hairy and gentle, the Ngadha say; they lived in the caves and
accepted bowls of food we put out for them.
According to Michael Morwood, the University of New England
anthropologist who led the excavation, Flores Man's closest probable
relative among pre-humans lived about 1.7 million years ago in the
formerly Soviet republic of Georgia. The journey to Java could have been
accomplished over land, before the breakup of land masses, but how to
explain the final leg to Flores, an island for 2.6 million years? Morwood

theorizes a water crossing, probably by raft, of perhaps as little as 12
And then the interaction of organism and environment gets really
interesting. The isolation of Flores invokes the "island rule" -- in the
absence of large predators, whose threats make bigness a virtue,
creatures larger than rabbits become smaller as an adaptation to food
scarcity. Conversely, creatures smaller than rabbits get bigger, especially
if they're predators. Thus Flores was home not only to downsizing pre-
humans but also to early elephants that shrank to water-buffalo size, and
to little lizards that swelled into three-foot-long Komodo dragons.
Morwood's team couldn't resist applying the nickname "Hobbit" to the
hominid remains, but the story of Flores Man -- even in today's sketchy
outline -- is compelling in a way that Tolkien's trilogy can't match. It arises
not as the product of imagination, but as a long series of accidents --
collisions between our ancestors and environmental strictures that,
contrary to previous supposition, favored shorter stature and a smaller
(but perhaps better-organized) brain.
The persistence of Flores Man into such relatively recent times is equally
remarkable, and has fueled some speculation than others among our
evolutionary cousins might still be living in the unexplored reaches of the
planet. That possibility remains remote -- but, it must be said, a bit less
remote after Morwood's discovery. Humankind's family tree has suddenly
become significantly bushier, as understanding of our origins continues to
Sequence of Transformation
Human beings belong to the mammalian group known as Primates -- the
scientific category that contains over 230 species of lemurs, lorises,
tarsiers, monkeys of the Old and New World, and apes. Modern humans,
early humans, and other primate species all share many similarities and
have some important differences. Knowledge of these similarities and
differences helps scientists to understand the roots of many human traits
and the significance of each development in human evolution.
All primates, including humans, share at least part of a set of common
characteristics that distinguish them from other mammals. Many of these

characteristics evolved as adaptations for life in the trees, an environment
in which the earliest primates evolved. These characteristics include more
reliance on sight than smell; overlapping fields of vision, allowing
stereoscopic (three-dimensional) sight; limbs and hands adapted for
clinging on, leaping from and swinging in the trees; the ability to grasp
and manipulate small objects (using fingers with nails instead of claws);
large brains in relation to body size; and complex social lives.
The scientific classification of primates reflects evolutionary relationships
among individual species and groups of species. Strepsirhine (meaning
"wet nosed") primates -- of which the living representatives include
lemurs, lorises, and other groups of species -- are all commonly known as
prosimians. Strepsirhines are the most primitive of living primates. They
share all of the basic characteristics of primates, although their brains are
neither particularly large nor complex and they have a more elaborate and
sensitive olfactory system (involved in the sense of smell) then do other
The earliest monkeys and apes evolved from ancestral haplorhine
(meaning "dry nosed") primates, of which the most primitive living
representative is the tarsier. Tarsiers were previously grouped with
prosimians, but many scientists now recognize that tarsiers, monkeys,
and apes share some distinctive traits, and group the three together.
Monkeys, apes, and humans -who share many traits not found in other
primates -- together make up the suborder Anthropoidea. Anthropoid
primates are divided into New World (South America, Central America, and
the Caribbean Islands) and Old World (Africa and Eurasia) groups. The
platyrrhine (broad-nosed) monkeys represent the first, and the second is
the catarrhine (downward-nosed) monkeys and apes. Humans belong to
this second group.
Apes and humans together make up the superfamily Hominoidea, a
grouping that emphasizes the close relationship among these species.
Scientists do not all agree about the appropriate classification of the
families within this superfamily. Living hominoids are grouped into either
two or three families: Hylobatidae, Hominidae, and sometimes Pongidae.
Hylobatidae consists of the small or so-called lesser apes of Southeast
Asia, commonly known as gibbons and siamangs. The Hominidae
(hominids) include humans and, according to some scientists, the great
apes. For those who include only humans among the Hominidae, all of the

great apes, including the orangutans of Southeast Asia, belong to the
family Pongidae.

Traditionally, the term "hominid" has referred to species of humans that

evolved after the split between early humans and other ape lineages. But
genetic evidence, which shows chimps and humans to be more closely
related genetically (and evolutionarily) to each other than to any other ape,
supports placing all of the great apes and humans together in the family of
Hominidae. According to this reasoning, the evolutionary branch of Asian
apes leading to orangutans, which separated from the other hominid
branches by about 13 million years ago, belongs to the subfamily of
Ponginae. The African apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans) are then
classified in the subfamily called Homininae (or hominines). And finally,
the line of early and modern humans belongs to the tribe (classificatory
level above genus) Hominini, or hominins.
This classification would be true to the genetic evidence. But it tends to be
confusing when learning about the subject, as many similar names
(hominoid, hominid, hominine, and hominin) would apply to the different
aspects of ape and human evolution. In this article the term "early human"
refers to all species of the human family tree since the divergence from a
common ancestor with the African apes. Popular writing often still uses
the word "hominid" to mean the same thing.
Humans as Primates
About 98 percent of the genes in people and chimpanzees are identical,
making chimps the closest living biological relatives of humans. This does
not mean that humans evolved from chimpanzees, but it does indicate that
both species evolved from a common ape ancestor. Orangutans, the great
apes of Southeast Asia, differ genetically from humans to a greater extent,
indicating a more distant evolutionary relationship.
Modern humans have a number of physical characteristics indicative of an
ape ancestry. For instance, people have shoulders with a wide range of
movement and fingers capable of strong grasping. In apes, these
characteristics are highly developed as adaptations for brachiation
(swinging from branch to branch in trees). Although humans do not
brachiate, the general anatomy of that earlier adaptation still remains.

Both people and apes also have larger brains and greater cognitive
abilities than do most other mammals.
Human social life, too, shares similarities with that of African apes and
other primates -- such as baboons and rhesus monkeys -- that live in large
and complex social groups. Group behavior among chimpanzees, in
particular, strongly resembles that of humans. For instance, chimps form
long-lasting attachments with each other; participate in social bonding
activities, such as grooming, feeding, and hunting; and form strategic
coalitions with each other in order to increase their status and power.
Early humans also probably had this kind of elaborate social life.
However, modern humans fundamentally differ from apes in many
significant ways. For example, as intelligent as apes are, people's brains
are much larger and more complex, and people have a unique intellectual
capacity and elaborate forms of culture and communication. In addition,
only people habitually walk upright, can precisely manipulate very small
objects, and have a throat structure that makes speech possible.
The Fossil Primates
The origin of the mammalian group primates is traced back to
Plesiadapiformes, the last common ancestors of strepsirhines and other
mammals. Plesiadapiformes evolved at least 65 million years ago. They
were creatures similar to the modern tree shrews. The earliest primates
evolved by about 55 million years ago. The first strepsirhine primates,
fossil species similar to lemurs and tarsiers, evolved during the Eocene
epoch (about 56 to 34 million years ago). The oldest lineages of catarrhine
primates, from which monkeys and apes evolved, are known between 50
and 33 million years ago. A primate known as Propliopithecus (one lineage
sometimes called Aegyptopithecus), from the Fayum fossil sites of Egypt,
is an archaic-looking catarrhine, and is thought to be what the common
ancestor of all later Old World monkeys and apes looked like. So
Propliopithecus may be considered an ancestor, or closely related to a
direct ancestor, of humans.
Hominoids, or members of the super-family Hominoidea, evolved during
the Miocene epoch (24 million to 5 million years ago). Large ape species
had originated in Africa by 23 or 22 million years ago. Among the oldest
known hominoids is a group of apes known by its genus name, Proconsul.

Species of Proconsul had features that suggest a close link to the
common ancestor of apes and humans. The ape species Proconsul
heseloni lived in dense forests of eastern Africa about 20 million years
ago. It was agile in the trees, with a flexible backbone and narrow chest of
a monkey, yet capable of wide movement of the hip and thumb as in apes.
Early in their evolution, the large apes underwent several radiations,
periods when species originated and became more diverse. After
Proconsul had thrived for several million years, a group of apes from
Africa and Arabia known as the afropithecines evolved around 18 million
years ago and diversified into several species. By 15 million years ago,
apes had migrated to Asia and Europe over a land bridge formed between
the Africa-Arabian and Eurasian continents, which had previously been
separated. Around this time, two other groups of apes had evolved –
namely, the kenyapithecines of Africa and western Asia (first known about
15 million years ago) and the dryopithecines of Europe (first known about
12 million years ago). It is not yet clear, however, which of these groups of
ape species may have given rise to the common ancestor of African apes
and humans.
Early Australopiths
The australopiths can be divided into an early group of species
(sometimes known as gracile australopiths), which arose prior to 3 million
years ago; and a later group, known as robust australopiths, which
evolved after 3 million years ago. The earlier australopiths -- of which
several species evolved between 4.4 million and 3 million years ago --
generally had smaller teeth and jaws. The later robusts had larger faces
with large jaws and cheek teeth.
A 5-million-year-old jaw fragment with one molar tooth, found in Kenya,
and another jaw with two molars, about 4.5 million years old, may be the
oldest australopith fossils. But scientists have not yet agreed on the
matter since these fossils are so fragmented and do not tell us about the
canine teeth or bipedal walking. Several of the early australopiths are
given the genus name Australopithecus. Yet some of the oldest finds of
australopith bones, dated about 4.4 million years old, have been given a
different name because of their very ancient combination of apelike and
humanlike traits. These fossils, first discovered in Ethiopia in 1994, are
called Ardipithecus ramidus.

By at least 4.4 million years ago in Africa, an apelike species had evolved
that had two important traits, which distinguished it from other apes: (1)
small canine (eye) teeth (next to the incisors, or front teeth) and (2)
bipedalism--that is the ability to walk on two legs. Scientists commonly
refer to these earliest human species as australopithecines, or
australopiths for short. The earliest australopith species known today
belongs to the genus Ardipithecus. Other species belong to the genus
Australopithecus and, by some classifications, Paranthropus. The name
australopithecine translates literally as "southern ape," in reference to
South Africa, where the first known australopith fossils were found.
Countries in which scientists have found australopith fossils include
Ethiopia, Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa, and Chad. Thus, australopiths
ranged widely over the African continent. The Great Rift Valley of eastern
Africa, in particular has become famous for its australopith finds because
past movements in Earth's crust in this region were favorable to
environments in which bones are easily preserved and, later, to exposure
of ancient deposits of fossilized bones.
There are many ideas about why the early australopiths split off from the
apes, initiating the course of human evolution. Virtually all hypotheses
invoke environmental change as an important factor, specifically in
influencing the evolution of bipedalism. Some well-established ideas
about why humans first evolved include (1) the savanna hypothesis, (2)
the woodland-mosaic hypothesis, and (3) the variability hypothesis.
The savanna hypothesis argues that the Miocene forests of Africa became
sparse and broken up between 5 and 8 million years ago due to a cooler
and drier global climate. This drying trend led to the separation of an ape
population in eastern Africa from other populations of apes in the more
heavily forested areas of western Africa. The eastern population had to
adapt to drier, open savanna environments, which favored the evolution of
terrestrial living. Terrestrial apes might have formed large social groups in
order to improve their ability to find and collect food and to fend off
predators. The challenges of savanna life might also have promoted the
rise of tool use, for purposes such as scavenging meat from the kills of
predators. These important evolutionary changes would have depended
on increased mental abilities and, therefore, may have correlated with the
development of larger brains in early humans.

Critics of the savanna hypothesis argue against it on several grounds, but
particularly for two reasons. First, an early australopith jaw similar to
australopiths afarensis has been found in Chad in west-central Africa,
2500 kilometers west of the African rift valley. This find suggests that
australopiths ranged widely over the African continent and that East Africa
may not have been fully separated from environments further west.
Second, there is growing evidence that open savannas were not
prominent in Africa until sometime after 2 million years ago.
Criticism of the savanna hypothesis has spawned alternative ideas about
early human evolution. The woodland-mosaic hypothesis proposes that
the early australopiths evolved in a mosaic of woodland and grassland
that offered opportunities for feeding both on the ground and in the trees.
Ground feeding then favored regular bipedal activity and, eventually, the
evolution of anatomical features of the hip, leg, and foot that assisted this
form of locomotion.
The variability hypothesis suggests that early australopiths experienced
many changes in environment and ended up living in a range of habitats,
including forests, open-canopy woodlands, and savannas. In response,
their populations became adapted to a variety of surroundings. Evidence
from early australopith sites, in fact, shows this range of habitats. So the
unique appearance of their skeletons may have allowed them the
versatility of living in habitats with many or few trees.
Australopith Characteristics
Most of the distinctly human physical qualities in australopiths related to
their bipedal stance. Before australopiths, no mammal had ever evolved
an anatomy for habitual upright walking. African apes move around their
environments in a variety of ways. They use their arms to climb and to
swing through the trees (known as brachiation). They knuckle-walk when
on the ground, leaning on the middle parts of their fingers. And sometimes
they move on two legs, as when chimpanzees feed on low branches or
when gorillas show threat displays. The australopith body was devoted
especially to bipedal walking. Australopiths also had small canine teeth,
as compared with long canines found in almost all other catarrhine

Other characteristics of australopiths reflected their ape ancestry.
Although their canine teeth were not large, their faces stuck out far in front
of the braincase. Their brains were about the same size as apes' today,
about 390 to 550 cubic cm (24 to 34 cubic in) but were enlarged relative to
body size. Their body weight, which can be estimated from their bones,
ranged from about 27 to 49 kg (60 to 108 lb.) and they stood about 1.1 to
1.5 m (3.5 to 5 ft) tall. Their weight and height compare closely to those of
chimpanzees (chimp height measured standing). Some australopith
species had a large degree of sexual dimorphism -- males were much
larger than females -- a trait also found in gorillas, orangutans, and some
other primates.
Australopiths also had curved powerful fingers and long thumbs with a
wide range of movement. Apes, in comparison, have longer, very strong,
even more curved fingers – which are advantageous for hanging and
swinging from branches -- but their very short thumbs limit their ability to
manipulate small objects. While the fingers were longer than in modern
humans, the australopith finger bones were not so long and curved as to
suggest arm swinging. It is not yet clear whether these changes in the
hand of early australopiths enabled them to use tools in a better way than
earlier apes or even modern chimpanzees today.
From Ape to Human
Fossils from several different early australopith species that lived between
4 million and 2 million years ago show a variety of adaptations that mark
the transition from ape to human. The very early period of this transition,
prior to 4 million years ago, remains poorly documented in the fossil
record, but those fossils that do exist show the most primitive
combinations of ape and human features.
Fossils reveal much about the physical build and activities of early
australopiths, but little is known about surface physical features, such as
the color and texture of skin and hair, or about certain behaviors, such as
methods of obtaining food or patterns of social interaction. For these
reasons, scientists study the living great apes -- particularly the African
apes -- to better understand how early australopiths might have looked
and behaved. The study of living apes, therefore, sheds light on how the
transition from ape to human might have occurred.

For example, australopiths probably resembled the great apes in
characteristics such as the shape of the face and the amount of hair on
the body. Australopiths also had brains and body sizes in the same range
exhibited by the great apes, leading scientists to believe that the
australopiths had similar mental capabilities and possibly even social
The anatomy of australopiths shows a number of adaptations for
bipedalism. Adaptations in the lower body included the following: The
australopith ilium, or pelvic bone, which rises above the hip joint, was
much shorter and broader than it is in apes. This new shape enabled the
hip muscles to steady the body during each bipedal step. The australopith
pelvis overall had evolved a more bowl-shaped appearance, which helped
support the internal organs during upright stance. The upper legs angled
inward from the hip joints, which positioned the knees to better support
the body during upright walking. The legs of apes, on the other hand, are
positioned almost straight down from the hip, so that when an ape walks
upright for a short distance, its body sways from side to side. The
australopith foot was also reshaped, including shorter and less flexible
toes than an ape's, which provided a more rigid lever for pushing off the
ground during each step.
Other adaptations occurred above the pelvis. The australopiths’ spine had
an S-shaped curve, which shortened the overall length of the torso and
gave rigidity and balance when standing. By contrast, apes have a
relatively straight spine. The australopith skull also had an important
adaptation related to bipedalism. The opening at the bottom of the skull,
known as the foramen magnum, where the spinal cord attaches to the
brain, was more forward than it is in apes. This position set the head in
balance over the upright spine.
Australopiths clearly walked upright on the ground, but
paleoanthropologists debate about whether the earliest humans also
spent a lot of time in the trees. Certain physical features indicate that they
spent at least some of their time in the trees. Such features include their
curved and elongated fingers and elongated arms.

Explaining Bipedalism
Many different explanations have been offered to account for the evolution
of upright walking. Some of the ideas include: (1) freeing the hands, which
was advantageous for carrying food or tools; (2) improved vision,
especially to see over tall grass; (3) reducing the body's exposure to hot
sun, which allowed better cooling during the day in an open landscape; (4)
hunting or weapon use, which was easier with upright posture; and (5)
feeding from bushes and low branches, which was easier when standing
and moving upright between closely spaced bushes.
Although none of these hypotheses has overwhelming support, recent
study of chimpanzees favors the last one. Chimps move on two legs most
often when feeding on the ground from bushes and low branches. Chimps
today are not, however, very good at walking in this way over long
distances. As the distances between trees or groves of trees became
wider during drier periods bipedal behavior in pre-human populations may
have become more frequent. Accordingly, a more effective bipedal gait
was favored not as an adaptation to savanna living but rather as a way of
crossing less favored areas of open terrain. An ability to climb trees
continued to be important. This idea may currently be the best explanation
for the unique adaptation of the early australopiths: a combination of long,
powerful arms, slightly elongated legs, and lower limbs reshaped for
upright walking over long distances on the ground.
Small Canine Teeth
Compared with apes, humans have very small canine teeth. Apes,
particularly males, have thick, projecting, sharp canines that they use for
displays of aggression and as weapons to defend themselves. By 4 million
years ago, australopiths had developed the human characteristic of
having smaller, flatter canines. Canine reduction might have related to an
increase in social cooperation among humans and an accompanying
decrease in the need for males to make aggressive displays.
Australopithecus Anamensis

In 1965 a research team form Harvard University discovered a single arm
bone of an early human at the site of Kanapoi in northern Kenya. The
researchers estimated this bone to be 4 million years old, but could not
identify the species to which it belonged. It was not until 1994 that a
research team, led by paleoanthropologist Meave Leakey, found numerous
teeth and fragments of bone at the site that could be linked to the
previously discovered fossil. Leakey and her colleagues determined that
the fossils were those of a very primitive species of australopith, which
was given the name Australopithecus anamensis. Researchers have since
found other Australopith anamensis fossils at nearby sites, dating
between about 4.2 million and 3.9 million years old. The skull of this
species appears apelike, while its enlarged tibia or lower leg bone,
indicates that it supported its full body weight on one leg at a time, as in
regular bipedal walking.
Australopithecus Afarensis
Australopithecus anamensis was quite similar to another, much better-
known species, australopith afarensis, a gracile australopith that thrived in
eastern Africa between about 3.9 million and 3 million years ago. The most
celebrated fossil of this species, known as Lucy, is a partial skeleton of a
female discovered by paleoanthropologist Donald Johanson in 1974 at
Hadar, Ethiopia. Lucy lived 3.2 million years ago. Several hundred fossils
of this species have been described from Hadar, including a collection
representing at least 13 individuals of both sexes and various ages, all
from a single site that is dated 3.2 million years old.
Researchers working in northern Tanzania have also found fossilized
bones of australopith afarensis at Laetoli, a 3.6 million year old site best
known for spectacular trails of bipedal human footprints (and the prints of
other animals) preserved in a hardened volcanic ash. These footprints
were discovered in 1978 by a research team led by paleoanthropologist
Mary Leakey. They provide irrefutable evidence that australopiths regularly
walked bipedally.
The controversy about how the australopiths moved has mainly focused
on Lucy's species australopith afarensis. While Lucy certainly walked
upright, she stood only 3.5 feet tall and had longer, more powerful arms
than most later human species, which suggests that she was also adept at
climbing trees. And while the Laetoli footprints were made by bipedal

humans, some scientists have argued that the imprints of the heel, arch,
and toes are not exactly like those made by modern human feet. In
addition, other fossils from Hadar and Laetoli come from individuals much
larger than Lucy, up to 5 feet tall. This has caused controversy over
whether the entire set of fossils represents one or two species, although
most scientists accept the single-species idea since large and small
adults, probably male and female, occurred together at the same site at
Another controversy arises from the claim that australopith. afarensis was
the common ancestor of both later australopiths and the modern human
genus, Homo. While this idea remains a strong possibility, the similarity
between australopithecus afarensis and another australopith species --
one from southern Africa, named Australopithecus africanus -- makes it
difficult to decide which of the two species gave rise to the genus Homo.
Australopithecus Africanus
Australopithecus africanus thrived in what is now the Transvaal region of
South Africa between about 3.5 million and 2.5 million years ago. The
anatomist Raymond Dart described this species -- the first known
australopith -- on the basis of a fossil discovered in 1924 at Taung, South
Africa. For two decades after this discovery, almost no one in the scientific
community believed Dart's claim that the skull came from an ancestral
human. In the late 1930s and 1940s, teams led by paleontologist Robert
Broom unearthed many more australopith skulls and other bones from the
Transvaal sites of Sterkfontein and Swartkrans.
Australopithecus africanus generally had a more globular braincase and
less primitive-looking face and teeth than did Australopithecus afarensis.
Thus some scientists consider the southern species of early australopith
to be a likely ancestor of the genus Homo. According to other scientists,
however, Australopithecus africanus had facial features that mark it on the
path to the robust australopiths found later in the same region. Some
recent finds from the Transvaal site of Sterkfontein indeed have begun to
blur the distinction between the early australopiths and the later robust
species. In 1998 a research team led by South African paleoanthropologist
Ronald Clarke unearthed an almost complete early australopith skeleton at
Sterkfontein. Although it may prove to be a new species, this important

find may resolve some of the questions about where Australopithecus
africanus fits in the story of human evolution.
The Later Australopiths
By 2.7 million years ago, the robust australopiths had evolved. The robust
australopiths represent an intriguing group of early humans because they
survived for a long time and were quite common compared to other early
human species. They had adaptations that differed from the larger-brained
populations of Homo who lived at the same time, but then mysteriously
became extinct by one million years ago.
Although the word "robust" originally referred to the larger body once
believed to exist in these australopiths, they are now known to have been
roughly the same size as australopith afarensis and australopith africanus.
Instead, "robust" accurately describes the very massive molar teeth, face,
and skull muscle markings that characterized these species. The robust
australopiths had megadont cheek teeth -- broad, thick-enameled molars
and premolars -- which formed a flattened and worn surface. Their incisor
teeth, by contrast, were small. An expanded, flattened, and more vertical
face accompanied this emphasis on the back teeth. The combination of
broad molars and large face was effective in absorbing the stresses of
strong chewing. Along the top of the head was a sagittal crest, a raised
area of bone along the skull's midline from front to back, where thick
muscles that moved the jaw up and down were attached.
The bars of bone along each side of the skull (the zygomatic arches) were
positioned far to the side, which allowed huge openings for the chewing
muscles near where they attached to the lower jaw. Altogether, these traits
indicate very powerful and prolonged chewing of food. A similar
expansion in the chewing structures can be seen in other groups of plant-
eating animals. Microscopic wear on the teeth of paranthropus robustus
and paranthropus boisei appear to support the idea of a vegetarian diet. It
is thought that the robust australopiths had a diet consisting of tough,
fibrous plant food, such as seed pods and underground tubers. However,
chemical studies of fossil bones suggest that the southern species may
also have eaten animals.
Because they share the features of heavy chewing, the robust
australopiths appear to represent a distinct evolutionary group of early

humans. Many paleoanthropologists have linked the robust species
together with a unique genus name, Paranthropus (the name originally
given to the southern robust species). This classification implies that the
first robust species, paranthropus aethiopicus, became separated from
the other australopiths and then evolved into paranthropus boisei and
paranthropus robustus (the other two robust species). Other researchers
have kept the robust species within the genus Australopithecus, stating
that the eastern forms (A. aethiopicus and A. boisei) evolved their massive
teeth from the early australopiths of the region (perhaps A. afarensis),
whereas the southern species (robustus) evolved independently from A.
africanus. If this type of parallel evolution occurred, the robust species
would form two separate side branches of the human family tree. Due to
alternative views such as this, the robust species are often known by more
than one name (such as Australopithecus boisei and Paranthropus boisei).
Paranthropus Aethiopicus
The earliest known robust species, Paranthropus aethiopicus, had evolved
in eastern Africa by 2.7 million years ago. In 1985 at West Turkana, Kenya,
paleoanthropologist Alan Walker discovered the fossil skull that defined
this species. It became known as the "black skull" because of the color it
had absorbed from minerals in the ground. The skull, dated 2.5 million
years old, had a tall sagittal crest toward the back of its cranium and a
face that projected far outward from the forehead. Paranthropus
aethiopicus shares some primitive features with Australopithecus
afarensis -- that is, features that originated in the earlier East African
australopith. This may indicate that paranthropus aethiopicus evolved
from Australopithecus afarensis.
Paranthropus Boisei
Paranthropus boisei, the other well-known East African robust
australopith, lived over a large geographic range between about 2.3 million
and 1.2 million years ago. In 1959 Mary Leakey discovered the first fossil
of this species -- a nearly complete skull at the site of Olduvai Gorge in
Tanzania. Paleoanthropologist Louis Leakey, husband of Mary, named the
new species Zinjanthropus boisei (Zinjanthropus translates as "East
African man"). This skull, which is dated to 1.8 million years ago, has the
most specialized features of all the robust species. It has a massive, wide,

and dished-in face that was capable of withstanding extreme chewing
forces, and its molars are four times the size of those in modern humans.
Since the discovery of Zinjanthropus, now recognized as an australopith,
scientists have found great numbers of paranthropus boisei fossils in
Tanzania, Kenya, and Ethiopia.
Paranthropus Robustus
The southern robust species, which has the descriptive name
Paranthropus robustus, lived between about 1.8 million and 1.3 million
years ago in the Transvaal, the same region that was home to australopith
africanus. In 1938 Robert Broom, who had found many australopith
africanus fossils, bought a fossil jaw and molar that looked distinctly
different from those in australopith africanus. After finding the site of
Kromdraai, from which the fossil had come, Broom collected many more
bones and teeth that together convinced him to name a new species,
which he called Paranthropus robustus (Paranthropus meaning "beside
The Fate of the Later Australopiths
The youngest fossils of robust australopiths are about 1.2 million years
old, which suggests that they became extinct by around then. At about
that time world climate began to fluctuate in a different pattern, and that
may have reduced the food supply on which the robust species depended.
Interaction with other early humans, such as Homo erectus, has been
suggested as another reason for their extinction, although no compelling
evidence exists of direct contact between these species. Competition with
several other species of plant-eating monkeys and pigs, which thrived in
Africa in the time, may have been an even more important factor. Still, the
reasons why the robust australopiths became extinct, after such a
successful time, are unknown.
Fossil Find Improves Knowledge of Human Origins

New found fossils from Ethiopia are giving scientists a clearer glimpse
into the murky origins of a hominid species that was an important link in
the evolution of ape to man. The 4-million-year-old fossils belong to
Australopithecus anamensis, the earliest known member of
Australopithecus, the genus right before our own, Homo.
The new bones which include a femur, several teeth and the largest jaw
fragment ever recovered from any hominid - were discovered last
December 2005 in the Middle Awash valley of Ethiopia, a region well-
known for its rich deposit of hominid fossils. The fossils were found
sandwiched between sediment layers containing the fossils of an earlier
species, Ardipithecus ramidus, and the geologically younger
Australopithecus afarensis.
This is the first time these three species have been found together in one
geographic location and in such a tight chronological order, scientists say.
Filling in the Gaps
The Middle Awash valley of Ethiopia has the longest and most continuous
record of human evolution of any place on Earth. Scientists have found
the fossils of nearly 250 hominid specimens embedded within more than a
mile of stacked sediments representing time periods that stretch back 6
million years.
The fossils of Ar. ramidus, Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis follow on the
heels of one another in Middle Awash’s sediment layers - appearing at
roughly 4.4 million, 4.2 million and 3.6 million years ago, respectively -
allowing scientists to accurately pinpoint the time when Australopithecus
first appeared.
“The origins of Australopithecus have always been tricky, but now we
have enough fossil evidence to indicate that the first occurrence of
Australopithecus occurred 4.2 million years ago. Since their remains
don’t overlap, scientists think the three species are directly related,
evolving one from the other, rather than being cousins that shared a
common ancestor.“ This discovery fills the gap between Ardipithicus and
Australopithecus,” said study team member Tim White, an anthropologist
at the University of California, Berkeley.

“Here is one place on Earth where you have 12 separate sediment layers,
one stacked on top of another, whose fossils have filled in many of the
gaps in human evolution over the years. “Many of the links are no longer
Ape to Man
The story of human evolution can be divided into three distinct phases,
beginning with our split from the common ancestor we shared with
chimpanzees 8 million to 6 million years ago. Each phase lasted for
millions of years and was dominated by a separate genus; each genus
was composed of numerous species.
* The oldest genus is Ardipithecus, of which Ar. ramidus was the last
* Australopithecus came next. This genus began with Au.anamensis and
includes Au. Afarensis of “Lucy “ fame.
* Lastly is Homo, the genus containing Homo erectus, Neanderthal, The
Hobbit and us – Homo sapiens.

Human-Neanderthal Link
A skull found in a cave in Romania includes features of both modern
humans and Neanderthals, possibly suggesting that the two may have
interbred thousands of years ago.

Neanderthals were replaced by early modern humans. Researchers have

long debated whether the two groups mixed together, though most doubt
it. The last evidence for Neanderthals dates from at least 24,000 years ago.

The skull bearing both older and modern characteristics is discussed in a

paper by Erik Trinkaus of Washington University in St. Louis. The report

appeared in January 2007 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences.

The skull was found in Pestera cu Oase — the Cave with Bones — in
southwestern Romania, along with other human remains. Radiocarbon
dating indicates it is at least 35,000 years old and may be more than 40,000
years old.

The researchers said the skull had the same proportions as a modern
human head and lacked the large brow ridge commonly associated with
Neanderthals. However, there were also features that are unusual in
modern humans, such as frontal flattening, a fairly large bone behind the
ear and exceptionally large upper molars, which are seen among
Neanderthals and other early hominids.

"Such differences raise important questions about the evolutionary

history of modern humans," said co-author Joao Zilhao of the University
of Bristol, England.

It could reflect a case in which ancient traits reappear in a modern human,

or it could indicate a mixture of populations, Zilhao said. Or it simply may
be that science hasn't been able to study enough early modern people to
understand their diversity.

Dr. Richard Potts of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History

noted that the skull represents the earliest modern human ever found in

It's a big deal in that sense, he said, but the combination of characteristics
don't necessarily indicate interbreeding between populations.

Overall there is no strong evidence for mixing of Neanderthal and modern

human populations and "this doesn't add any," said Potts, who wasn't part
of the research team.

None of the features cited as unusual in modern humans is exclusively
Neanderthal, Potts said. Rather, they could be features passed down from
earlier populations in Africa.

The field work that uncovered the skull was conducted in 2004 and 2005.

Meanwhile, a research team led by Svante Paabo of the Max Planck

Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, is trying to
map the Neanderthal genome in hopes of better understanding any
possible relationship to modern people.

The research was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, the
Wenner-Green Foundation, Washington University, the Leakey Foundation,
the Portuguese Institute of Archaeology, the Royal Belgian Institute of
Natural Science, the Romanian National Council for Academic Research
and the Foundation Fyssen.

It shall take human intellect to travel progressively and spend time
dissecting history on an unexplainable urging of instinct into dissertation
of truth based on most reasonable and reliable references through the
compiled historical records. This endeavor may not be grossly mistaken
as anti-religious initiatives but instead taken as a plain language in the
partial recovery of truth. It must be understood however, that every
mankind has their own identity and defined role without prejudice to good
works and sacrifices rendered by those who were ahead us and be known
exactly what they wished to be and not beyond.
The writer just wish to share the great elation – a feeling of jubilation and
encouragement that took a day to simmer down when polishing this
manuscript happened to read the Episcopal Introduction of the Bible
published by Claretian Publications (1988), particularly “Big Bang and not
Creation” the origin of our planet on pages 07 to 09. It came to a
perception that this group of humans conducts their studies in searching
for the factual truth, the way ancient Essene Society had undertaken. The
recovery of truth. Somehow feel naïve for lack of endeavor and initiative to

breakthrough from the realm of religious ambiguities where their entity
happened to be a pillion and most likely, unwilling to rock the boat.
Indeed true, if one is heir of a very huge old traditional house has no
ability to restructure it alone. The need of community efforts and
assistance to rebuild and rig all sides to prevent the collapse. All members
of the community should be vigilant enough to see all unsound and
unsuitable components be replace giving an outmost emphasize to the
restoration of a new and stable foundation. But how soon shall it take to
initiate the move? The needs of world communities, through the effort of
United Nations participation can be invited for the major restoration and
refurbishment works in order that all members of the world can benefit the

abode. Just
think about it.
Author’s Note
Should religion and science part ways in asserting the essence of reality,
one of them is coherent with the truth. The principle parallel to certainty is
the tenet consistent with the recent discoveries. This is just an endeavor
of an element of mankind, but rationality and recovery of whole truth rest
upon the pursuit of humanity.
Pax Vobiscum