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# Oscillations and Waves

IB 12

## Example of an Oscillating System

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A mass oscillates on a horizontal spring without friction as shown below. At each position, analyze its displacement, velocity and acceleration. Force from the Spring: Fs = -kx restoring force tends to restore system to equilibrium position opposite in direction of displacement

Wave: a transfer of energy without a transfer of matter Examples of oscillations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. mass on spring (eg. bungee jumping) pendulum (eg. swing) object bobbing in water (eg. buoy, boat) vibrating cantilever (eg. diving board) earthquake bouncing ball musical instruments (eg. strings, percussion, brass, woodwinds, vocal chords) heartbeat

Mean Position (Equilibrium Position) position of object at rest Displacement (x, meters) distance in a particular direction of a particle from its mean position Amplitude (A or x0, meters) maximum displacement from the mean position Period (T, seconds) time taken for one complete oscillation Frequency (f, Hertz) number of oscillations that take place per unit time Phase Difference difference in phase between the particles of two oscillating systems Relationship between period and frequency:

f =

1 T

f = cycles/sec T = sec/cycle

Angular Frequency - product of 2 times 1. A pendulum completes 10 swings in 8.0 seconds. frequency a) Calculate its period.
T = 0.8 s

1. When is the velocity of the mass at its maximum value? When the displacement = 0 at equilibrium position

Formula: = 2f = 2/T
b) Calculate its frequency.

## 2. When is the acceleration of the mass at its maximum value?

f = 1.25 Hz = 1.3 Hz

When the displacement and force = max Symbol: Units: rad/sec s-1
c) Calculate its angular frequency.

at extreme positions

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## Velocity and Acceleration for Simple Harmonic Motion

a) Displacement Function

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A mass on a spring is allowed to oscillate up and down about its mean position without friction. Two traces of the displacement (x) of the mass versus time (t) are shown. Initial condition: starts at mean position

Function: x = x0 sin t

b) Velocity Function

## Initial condition: starts at amplitude position

Function: x = x0 cos t

Analyzing the Displacement Function 1. Analyze the displacement function shown at right. a) What is the amplitude? x0 = 0.080 m a) What is the period? T = 4.0 s 2. What is the displacement of the mass when: a) t = 1.0 s? x = (.080 m)sin (/2)t x = (.080 m)sin (/2)(1) = .080 m b) t = 2.0 s? x = (.080 m)sin (/2)t x = (.080 m)sin (/2)(2) = 0 c) t = 2.5 s? e) Write the displacement function. x = (.080 m)sin (/2)t x = (.080 m)sin (/2)t x = (.080 m)sin (/2)(2.5) = .080 sin (3.926) = -0.057 m (RADIAN MODE!!!) 3 Defining Equation for SHM:

c) Acceleration Function

## Negative Sign: 1. acceleration is in opposite direction of displacement

a = 2 ( x0 sin t ) a = 2 x a x

2.

## directed back towards mean position

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) motion that takes place when the acceleration of an object is proportional to its displacement from its equilibrium position and is always directed toward its equilibrium position

IB 12 1. The graph shown at right shows the displacement of an object in SHM. Use the graph to find the: a) period of oscillation

## Example of SHM Mass on a Horizontal Spring

A mass m oscillates horizontally on a spring without friction, as shown. Is this SHM?

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Fnet = ma Fs = ma kx = ma k a= x m a x
Yes this is SHM since a -x. Alternate Velocity Function

b) amplitude of oscillation

c) displacement function

d) maximum velocity Angular frequency, period, and frequency for a mass on a spring
a= k x m 2 a = x k m k = m

T=

m k k m

## e) velocity at 1.3 seconds

2 =

T = 2 f = 1 1 = T 2

1. A 2.00 kg mass oscillates back and forth 0.500m from its rest position on a horizontal spring whose constant is 40.0 N/m. f) maximum acceleration 2. Use the alternate form of the velocity function to find the velocity of the object at 1.3 s. a) Calculate the angular frequency, period and frequency of this system.

## 2.00 40.0 T = 1.40s -1 T = 2

1 1.40 f = 0.712 Hz f =

## g) acceleration at 1.3 seconds

b) Write the displacement, velocity and acceleration functions for this system.

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## Alternate Forms of the Equations of Motion for SHM

1. Write the equations of motion for the graphs shown below.

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## Example of SHM Simple Pendulum

1. A mass is allowed to swing freely from the end of a light-weight string. Show that the motion of this simple pendulum is approximately simple harmonic motion.

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## Fnet = ma mg sin = ma a = g sin for small angles sin a = g

2. Write the equations of motion for the graphs shown below.

## s a = g L g a = s L a s for small angles sx g a = x L a -x

2. Determine the angular frequency, period and frequency for the pendulum. g L g = L

2 =

T=

L g

f = f = 1 2

3. What is the difference between the motions described by the two sets of equations? #1 - x = 0 at t = 0 #2 x = x0 at t = 0

1 T g L

T = 2

3. A 20.0 g pendulum on an 80.0 cm string is pulled back 5.0 cm and then swings. Determine its:
4. a) Write the equations of motion for the system whose displacement is shown on the graph at right.

a) angular frequency

d) maximum velocity

b) displacement function
e) maximum acceleration

## ii) magnitude of the acceleration is maximum.

c) velocity function

## Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion

IB 12 1. A 2.00 kg mass is oscillating on a spring and its displacement function is shown. a) At what time(s) does the mass have the most kinetic energy?

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A mass oscillates back and forth on a spring. Analyze the energy in the system at each location.

## When the mass is at its mean position . . .

c) At what time(s) does the mass have maximum potential energy? Determine this value.

## d) What is the total energy of the system at 1.5 seconds?

e) Determine the kinetic and potential energy of the system at 1.5 seconds. When the mass is at any position . . .

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## Energy Graphs and SHM Energy-Displacement Functions

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Damping in Oscillations
Damping: a dissipative force acts on a system in the opposite direction to the direction of motion of the oscillating particle

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EP = EK =

1 m 2 x 2 2
Effect of damping: system loses energy and amplitude (energy ampl2)

1 m 2 ( x0 2 x 2 ) 2 1 ET = m 2 x0 2 2

Sketch the displacement function for a system without and with damping.

Energy-Time Functions

## 1 1 2 m 2 x 2 = m 2 ( x0 sin t ) 2 2 1 EP = m 2 x0 2 sin 2 t 2 EP sin 2 t EP = 1 2 1 mv = m(v0 cos t )2 2 2 1 2 EK = mv0 cos 2 t 2 EK cos 2 t EK =

Without Damping

With Damping

Degrees of Damping Light damping (under-damping): small resistive force so only a small percentage of energy is removed each cycle period is not affected can take many cycles for oscillations to die out eg. car shock absorbers

Note that in simple harmonic motion, the energy of a system is proportional to: 1. mass

Heavy damping (over-damping): large resistive force can completely prevent any oscillations from taking place takes a long time for object to return to mean position eg.- oscillations in viscous fluid

2. amplitude squared

Critical damping: intermediate resistive force so time taken for object to return to mean position is minimum minimal or no overshoot eg. electric meters with pointers, automatic door closers
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3. frequency squared

Resonance

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Waves

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Both pulses and traveling waves: transfer energy though there is no net motion of the medium through which the wave passes.

Natural Frequency of Vibration: when a system is displaced from equilibrium and allowed to oscillate freely, it will do so at its natural frequency of vibration Forced Oscillations a system may be forced to oscillate at any given frequency by an outside driving force that is applied to it Resonance a transfer of energy in which a system is subject to an oscillating force that matches the natural frequency of the system resulting in a large amplitude of vibration

## eg. sound waves, water waves, waves on strings, earthquake waves

Electromagnetic Waves: do not require a medium to transfer energy eg. light waves, all EM waves A transverse wave is one in which the direction of the oscillation of the particles of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave (the energy).

## Amplitude vs. frequency graph for forced oscillations

Factors that affect the frequency response and sharpness of curve: 1) frequency of driving force 2) natural frequency of system 3) amplitude of driving force 4) amount of damping

A longitudinal wave is one in which the direction of the oscillation of the particles of the medium is parallel to the direction of travel of the wave (the energy). Example: sound, earthquake P waves
Compression: region where particles of medium are close together Rarefaction: region where particles of medium are far apart

## Examples: light, violin and guitar strings, ropes, earthquake S waves

Note that transverse mechanical waves cannot propagate (travel) through a gas only longitudinal waves can. Displacement (x, meters) distance in a particular direction of a particle from its mean position

1. Sketch the frequency response for a lightly damped system whose natural frequency is 20 Hz that experiences forced oscillations.

Amplitude (A or x0, meters) maximum displacement from the mean position Period (T, seconds) time taken for one complete oscillation - time for one complete wave (cycle) to pass a given point Frequency (f, Hertz) number of oscillations that take place per unit time Wavelength (, meters) shortest distance along the wave between two points that are in phase -the distance a complete wave (cycle) travels in one period. Compare the motion of a single particle to the motion of the wave as a whole (the motion of the energy transfer). Particle Speed: Wave Speed:

v=f
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1.

## Motion of the Wave

2.

Motion of a Particle

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## Reflection and Refraction

Sketch the incident and reflected rays as well as the reflected wavefront.

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T
Law of Reflection
The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection when both angles are measured with respect to the normal line (and the incident ray, reflected ray and normal all lie in the same plane).

## Control variable: in one medium - wave speed

Wave speed depends on the properties of the medium, not how fast the medium vibrates. To change wave speed, you must change the medium or its properties.

## Control variable: across a boundary - frequency

As a wave crosses a boundary between two different media, the frequency of a wave remains constant not the speed or wavelength.

r
Mirror

Light:

Sound:

Refraction: the change in direction of a wave (due to a change in speed) when it crosses a boundary between two different media at an angle

Air to glass:
Wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency Wavelength is proportional to speed Fast to slow = bends toward the normal n1 < n2 v1 > v2 1 > 2

## Waves in Two Dimensions

Wavefront line (or arc) joining neighboring points that have the same phase or displacement Ray line indicating direction of wave motion (direction of energy transfer). Rays are perpendicular to wavefronts. At great distances, the wavefronts are approximately parallel and are known as plane waves.

Glass to air:
Slow to fast = bends away from the normal n1 > n2 v1 < v2 1 < 2

## Intensity - power received per unit area

1. 12 x 10-5 W of sound power pass through each surface as shown. Surface 1 has area 4.0 m2 and surface 2 is twice as far away from the source. Calculate the sound intensity at each location.

Refractive Index (Index of refraction)(n): ratio of sine of angle of incidence to sine of angle of refraction, for a wave incident from air

Snells Law: the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant, for a given frequency

Formula: I = P/A

## Symbol: I Units: W/m2

n= n=
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NOTE: for a wave, its intensity is proportional to the square of its amplitude

sin 1 v1 = sin 2 v2 c v

sin 1 n2 v1 1 = = = sin 2 n1 v2 2

n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
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